WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater soil foods

  1. Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Alex; Panaullah, Golam M; Meharg, Andy A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of As in groundwater commonly found in Bangladesh and other parts of Asia not only pose a risk via drinking water consumption but also a risk in agricultural sustainability and food safety. This review attempts to provide an overview of current knowledge and gaps related to the assessment and management of these risks, including the behaviour of As in the soil-plant system, uptake, phytotoxicity, As speciation in foods, dietary habits, and human health risks. Special emphasis has been given to the situation in Bangladesh, where groundwater via shallow tube wells is the most important source of irrigation water in the dry season. Within the soil-plant system, there is a distinct difference in behaviour of As under flooded conditions, where arsenite (AsIII) predominates, and under nonflooded conditions, where arsenate (AsV) predominates. The former is regarded as most toxic to humans and plants. Limited data indicate that As-contaminated irrigation water can result in a slow buildup of As in the topsoil. In some cases the buildup is reflected by the As levels in crops, in others not. It is not yet possible to predict As uptake and toxicity in plants based on soil parameters. It is unknown under what conditions and in what time frame As is building up in the soil. Representative phytotoxicity data necessary to evaluate current and future soil concentrations are not yet available. Although there are no indications that crop production is currently inhibited by As, long-term risks are clearly present. Therefore, with concurrent assessments of the risks, management options to further prevent As accumulation in the topsoil should already have been explored. With regard to human health, data on As speciation in foods in combination with food consumption data are needed to assess dietary exposure, and these data should include spatial and seasonal variability. It is important to control confounding factors in assessing the risks. In a country where malnutrition

  2. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  3. Groundwater Depletion Embedded in International Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent hydrological modeling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  4. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  5. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... is evaluated. At gas work sites, where cyanide is mainly present as iron cyanide complexes, the risk for effects on humans from exposure to cyanide compounds seems to be of minor relevance....

  6. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  7. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, D.F.R.; Hrabovszky, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  8. Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Methanol is used by oil and gas operators to inhibit hydrate formation in the recovery of heavy oils, in natural gas production and transport, as well as in various other production applications. Emissions from methanol primary occur from miscellaneous solvent usage, methanol production, end-product manufacturing, and storage and handling losses. This document provided soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol releases into the environment. The guidelines were consistent with the Alberta Environment tier 1 soil and groundwater framework. The chemical and physical properties of methanol were reviewed. The environmental fate and behavior of methanol releases was discussed, and the behaviour and effects of methanol in terrestrial and aquatic biota were evaluated. The toxicity of methanol and its effects in humans and mammalian species were reviewed. Soil quality and ground water quality guidelines were presented. Surface water and soil guideline calculation methods were provided, and ecological exposure and ground water pathways were discussed. Management limits for methanol concentrations were also provided. 162 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  10. Soil Erosion Threatens Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burgess

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since humans worldwide obtain more than 99.7% of their food (calories from the land and less than 0.3% from the oceans and aquatic ecosystems, preserving cropland and maintaining soil fertility should be of the highest importance to human welfare. Soil erosion is one of the most serious threats facing world food production. Each year about 10 million ha of cropland are lost due to soil erosion, thus reducing the cropland available for world food production. The loss of cropland is a serious problem because the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization report that two-thirds of the world population is malnourished. Overall, soil is being lost from agricultural areas 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of soil formation imperiling humanity’s food security.

  11. Electrochemical remediation technologies for soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, F. [Electrochemical Processes I.I. c. Valley Forge, PA (United States)]|[P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany); Doering, N. [P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Direct Current Technologies (DCTs) a direct current electricity is passed between at least two subsurface electrodes in order to effect the remediation of the groundwater and/or the soil. DCTs in line with the U.S.-terminology comprise of the ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs), and GeoKinetics. The primary distinction between ECRTs and ElectroKinetics are the power input, and the mode of operation, which are electrochemical reactions vs. mass transport. ECRTs combine phenomena of colloid (surface) electrochemistry with the phenomena of Induced Polarization (IP). This report focuses on ECRTs, comprising of the ElectroChemical GeoOxidation (ECGO) for the mineralization of organic pollutants to finally carbon dioxide and water, and Induced Complexation (IC), related to the electrochemical conversion of metals enhancing the mobilization and precipitation of heavy metals on both electrodes. Both technologies are based on reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions at the scale of the individual soil particles. (orig.)

  12. Soil and groundwater remediation using dual-phase extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.W.; Gan, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A gasoline underground storage tank (UST) was formerly used to fuel vehicles for a hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. Elevated concentrations of gasoline range organics (GRO) were observed in soils and groundwater at the site during the tank removal and a subsequent site investigation. Based on the extent of soil and groundwater contamination, a dual-phase extraction technology was selected as the most cost effective alternative to remediate the site. The dual-phase extraction system includes one extraction well functioning both as a soil vapor extraction (SVE) and groundwater recovery well. After six months of operation, samples collected from the groundwater monitoring wells indicated that the groundwater has been cleaned up to levels below the Wisconsin preventative action limits. The dual-phase extraction system effectively remediated the site in a short period of time, saving both operation and maintenance costs and overall project cost

  13. Use of Additives in Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews application of additives used in bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and fuels for groundwater and soil remediation. Soluble carbon substrates are applicable to most site conditions except aquifers with very high or very low groundwater flow. Slow-release ...

  14. In-Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Historical, uncontrolled disposal practices have made perchlorate a significant threat to drinking water supplies in the United States. In-situ bioremediation (ISB) technologies are cost effective and provide an environmental friendly solution for treating contaminated groundwater and soil. In situ bioremediation was considered as an option for treatment of perchlorate in groundwater and soil in Lockheed Martin Corporation's Beaumont Site 2 (Beaumont, CA). Based on the perchlorate distribu...

  15. Advanced oxidation for groundwater remediation and for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.

    2001-01-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) used in this paper is based on EB irradiation of water in the presence and absence of ozone. The paper describes two distinct sets of experiments, one dealing with groundwater contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) and some genotoxic compounds, and the other dealing with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The combination of ozone and EB irradiation has shown to be able to mineralize trace amounts of PCE contained in groundwater in a single stage process without formation of any by-product to be disposed of. Moreover, experiments performed with real groundwater have demonstrated that the combined ozone/EB irradiation process is also apt for total removal of some genotoxic compounds detected in groundwater contaminated with PCE. The design of an ozone/EB irradiation plant for treating 108 m 3 /h is presented. The issue concerning both the occurrences of genotoxic compounds in oxygen containing groundwater and possible processes for their removal is discussed. In the second part soil contaminated with PAHs has been treated in aqueous suspension using ozone and EB irradiation, respectively. Experiments were performed with low contaminated soil (total PAHs about 332 mg/kg soil). With an ozone consumption of 10 g C) 3 /kg soil a total PAH decomposition of about 21% was recorded. EB irradiation with a reasonable radiation dose of 100 kGy results in about 7% total PAH decomposition at room temperature and about 16%, respectively at 55-60 deg. C. It was recorded that almost no transfer of the PAH takes place from the soil into the water when soil is merely suspended in water. Ozone mainly attacked the high molecular fraction (i.e. consisting of 5 or 6 aromatic rings) of the PAHs investigated while EB irradiation of the aqueous soil suspension mostly decomposed the lower fraction (i.e. consisting up to 4 aromatic rings). (author)

  16. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, A. C.; Dai, Q.; Ekizoglu, M.; Mackie, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms

  17. The Decline of Soil Infiltration Capacity Due To High Elevation Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Isri Ronald Mangangka

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration capacity of soil mainly depends on two factors; the particle size and the moisture content of the soil. Groundwater increases the soil moisture, not only below the water table but also within the capillary zone, above the water table. Field experiment in a high groundwater area was conducted to understand the relationship among the groundwater, soil moisture and infiltration capacity. Using a single ring infiltrometer, the effect of groundwater in the infiltration rate was observ...

  18. Headcut erosive regimes influenced by groundwater on disturbed agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, D L

    2011-02-01

    A series of simulated rainfall experiments, testing several soils and slope gradients in a 10 m x 0.8m laboratory flume, displayed close correlations between initial development of a water table at a 10 cm depth and highly erosive headcut formation. On some soils and gradients, highly erosive headcuts formed consistently and predictably within minutes or seconds of initial water table rise. However, headcuts alone were not good indicators of increased erosion. In most experiments some headcuts formed early, often when surface hydraulic parameter values reached established rill initiation thresholds, but resulted in little or no erosion increase. Later, at initial water table rise, other headcuts formed coincident with major erosion increase, often with surface hydraulic values then less than rill initiation thresholds. On the four soils tested, highly erosive headcuts never formed without groundwater development, except on steep 9 ° slopes. Common visual indicators such as headcut morphology and headcut advance rates were not effective means of determining either erosion or the existence of groundwater. Only local monitoring of subsurface moisture conditions with micro-standpipes and TDR aided in determining headcut processes and erosive regimes. Groundwater-influenced headcut formation was likely caused by increased soil pore-water pressures and decreased soil shear strengths in surface rainflow, not by sapping or seepage from the soil matrix. Highly erosive headcuts can thus form under common agricultural conditions where reductions in permeability, such as plow pans, exist near the surface--without the need for saturated soils. Headcut erosive regimes were also significantly influenced by soil type and slope gradient, with the greatest effects of groundwater on moderate slopes and fairly permeable soils. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Occurrence of perchlorate in groundwater, paired farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil from Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yulu; Zhong, Bifeng; Qu, Bing; Feng, Shujin; Ding, Sanglan; Su, Shijun; Li, Zhi; Gan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-24

    A total of 28 groundwater, paired farmland soil, lettuce, and its rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Chengdu, China to detect perchlorate levels and to evaluate the relationships of perchlorate concentrations among these matrices. The perchlorate concentrations in the groundwater, farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil samples ranged from below detection limit to 60.2 μg L -1 , from below detection limit to 249 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw), from 2.07 to 1010 μg kg -1 wet weight, and from below detection limit to 314 μg kg -1 dw, respectively. Significant correlation was found in the perchlorate levels among the farmland soil, lettuce, and rhizosphere soil, suggesting that they have common pollution sources, or perchlorate might transfer from farmland soil-rhizosphere soil-plant. However, there is no significant correlation between groundwater and the other three matrices, indicating that infiltration from perchlorate contaminated farmland soil was not the predominant source for groundwater pollution in Chengdu. The perchlorate concentrations in the farmland soil and lettuce samples were significantly higher than those in the rhizosphere soil, primarily due to uptake of perchlorate through the rhizosphere micro-environment by lettuce, or accelerated degradation by rhizospheric microorganisms, which contributed more needs further investigation.

  20. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it

  1. Record of Decision Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact of groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank far soil and groundwater at INTEC.

  2. The impact of groundwater level on soil seed bank survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Oomes, MJM; Bakker, JP

    Seed longevity of plant species is an important topic in restoration management, and little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on seed survival and longevity under natural conditions. Therefore, the effect of groundwater level on the survival of seeds in the soil seed bank of a

  3. Feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clause, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose was appl......This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose...... was applied to the two Timbre sites : Hunedoara (Romania) and Szprotawa (Poland). Phytoremediation is the technique to clean up (remediate) contaminated sites using plants, typically trees. The principles of the data were deta iled, with focus on obstacles (phytotoxicity) and factors stimulating success...

  4. Feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    During the past two to three decades numerous studies reporting highly efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by plants have been published. The promises of phytoremediation has been great but till now the technology has not been widely applied and recognized, commercially...... and in a regulatory context, on par with other conventional soil and groundwater remediation technologies. This thesis elucidates the field of phytoremediation and addresses the lack of recognition of the technology. It aims to assesses the overall feasibility of phytoremediation and identify obstacles within...... the field. Further, it provides examples and suggestions of how to overcome these obstacles. The first part of the thesis scrutinizes the literature for data and experiences regarding application of phytoremediation and uncovers potential barriers and where the existing knowledge is insufficient. Further...

  5. In situ air sparging for bioremediation of groundwater and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.; Lei, J.; Chapdelaine, M.C.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities at a former petroleum products depot resulted in the hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater over a 30,000-m 2 area. Site remediation activities consisted of three phases: site-specific characterization and treatability study, pilot-scale testing, and full-scale bioremediation. During Phase 1, a series of site/soil/waste characterizations was undertaken to ascertain the degree of site contamination and to determine soil physical/chemical and microbiological characteristics. Treatability studies were carried out to simulate an air sparging process in laboratory-scale columns. Results indicated 42% mineral oil and grease removal and 94% benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) removal over an 8-week period. The removal rate was higher in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone. Phase 2 involved pilot-scale testing over a 550-m 2 area. The radius of influence of the air sparge points was evaluated through measurements of dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater and of groundwater mounding. A full-scale air sparging system (Phase 3) was installed on site and has been operational since early 1994. Physical/chemical and microbiological parameters, and contaminants were analyzed to evaluate the system performance

  6. Isotope geochemistry of sulfur in forest soils and in new groundwater below forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, B.

    1993-04-01

    The isotope geochemistry of sulphur in aerobic forest soils and new groundwater below forest soils was investigated for the purpose of investigating the transport and transformation behaviour of sulfate in the water-unsaturated zone. The effects of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes on the development of seepage water sulfate isotopes between depositions and groundwater were investigated by means of laboratory experiments, profile studies, lysimeter experiments, and field studies in order to determine the sulphur conversion processes. Dissolved sulphur from precipitates, seepage water, creek water and groundwater, as well as sulphur extracted from soil samples, were precipitated in the form of BaSO 4 or AgS 2 , decomposed thermally into SO 2 or CO 2 , and the 34 S/ 32 S and 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratios were determined by mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  7. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  8. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  9. Regional analysis of groundwater phosphate concentrations under acidic sandy soils: Edaphic factors and water table strongly mediate the soil P-groundwater P relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilde, Lisa; De Neve, Stefaan; Sleutel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Historic long-term P application to sandy soils in NW-Europe has resulted in abundant sorption, saturation and eventually leaching of P from soil to the groundwater. Although many studies recognize the control of site-specific factors like soil texture and phosphate saturation degree (PSD), the regional-scaled relevance of effects exerted by single factors controlling P leaching is unclear. Very large observational datasets of soil and groundwater P content are furthermore required to reveal indirect controls of soil traits through mediating soil variables. We explored co-variation of phreatic groundwater orthophosphate (o-P) concentration and soil factors in sandy soils in Flanders, Belgium. Correlation analyses were complemented with an exploratory model derived using 'path analysis'. Data of oxalate-extractable Al, Fe, P and pH KCl , phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and PSD in three depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm), topsoil SOC, % clay and groundwater depth (fluctuation) were interpolated to predict soil properties on exact locations of a very extensive net of groundwater monitoring wells. The mean PSD was only poorly correlated to groundwater o-P concentration, indicating the overriding control of other factors in the transport of P to the groundwater. A significant (P soil pH and groundwater table depth than by PSD indicates the likely oversimplification of the latter index to measure the long-term potential risk of P leaching. Accounting for controls on leaching not included in PSD via an alternative index, however, seems problematic as in Flanders for example groundwater o-P turned out to be higher in finer textured soils or soils with higher pedogenic Fe content, probably because of their lower pedogenic Al content and higher soil pH. Path analysis of extensive soil and groundwater datasets seems a viable way to identify prime local determinants of soil P leaching and could be further on used for 'ground-truthing' more complex P-migration simulation

  10. Soil and groundwater cleanup: benefits and limits of emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliman, Florentina Anca; Robu, Brindusa Mihaela; Smaranda, Camelia; Pavel, Vasile Lucian; Gavrilescu, Maria [Technical University of Iasi, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania)

    2011-04-15

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of study and research, so that the field of remediation has grown and evolved, continually developing and adopting new technologies in attempts to improve the decontamination. The cleanup of environmental pollution involves a variety of techniques, ranging from simple biological processes to advanced engineering technologies. Cleanup activities may also address a wide range of contaminants. This article is a short analysis of the technologies for cleaning up groundwater and soil, highlighting knowledge and information gaps. Challenges and strategies for cleaning up different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are described. Included are technologies that treat ground water contaminants in place in the subsurface and soil technologies that treat the soil either in place or on site in a treatment unit. Emerging technologies such as those based on oxidation-reduction, bioremediation, and nanotechnologies are covered. It is evident that for a good efficiency of remediation, techniques or even whole new technologies may be incorporated into an existing technology as a treatment train, improving its performance or overcome limitations. Several economic and decision-making elements are developed in the final part, based on the analysis carried out throughout the article. The work highlights the fact that excellence in research and technology progress could be attained by the development of technologies to deal more effectively and economically with certain toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and persistent organic pollutants, associated with optimization of technologies under field remediation conditions and requirements, improving capacity and yields, and reducing costs. Moreover, increasing knowledge of the scope and problem of equipment development could improve the benefits. (orig.)

  11. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  12. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  13. Groundwater chemistry of Al under Dutch sandy soils: Effects of land use and depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, E.P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Griffioen, J.; Grift, B. van der; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium has received great attention in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in the context of the acid rain problem mostly in forest soils. In this research the effect of land use and depth of the groundwater on Al, pH and DOC concentration in groundwater under Dutch sandy soils has been

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Soil and Groundwater Chemistry Subject to Process Waste Land Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Nonhazardous aqueous process waste streams from food and beverage industry operations are often discharged via managed land application in a manner designed to minimize impacts to underlying groundwater. Process waste streams are typically characterized by elevated concentrations of solutes such as ammonium, organic nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic acids. Land application involves the mixing of process waste streams with irrigation water which is subsequently applied to crops. The combination of evapotranspiration and crop salt uptake reduces the downward mass fluxes of percolation water and salts. By carefully managing application schedules in the context of annual climatological cycles, growing seasons, and process requirements, potential adverse environmental impacts to groundwater can be mitigated. However, climate change poses challenges to future process waste land application efforts because the key factors that determine loading rates - temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of applied water, and various crop factors - are all likely to deviate from current averages. To assess the potential impact of future climate change on the practice of land application, coupled process modeling entailing transient unsaturated fluid flow, evapotranspiration, crop salt uptake, and multispecies reactive chemical transport was used to predict changes in salt loading if current practices are maintained in a warmer, drier setting. As a first step, a coupled process model (Hydrus-1D, combined with PHREEQC) was calibrated to existing data sets which summarize land application loading rates, soil water chemistry, and crop salt uptake for land disposal of process wastes from a food industry facility in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Model results quantify, for example, the impacts of evapotranspiration on both fluid flow and soil water chemistry at shallow depths, with secondary effects including carbonate mineral

  15. Simulation of large-scale soil water systems using groundwater data and satellite based soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Complex concepts for the physically correct depiction of dominant processes in the hydrosphere are increasingly at the forefront of hydrological modelling. Many scientific issues in hydrological modelling demand for additional system variables besides a simulation of runoff only, such as groundwater recharge or soil moisture conditions. Models that include soil water simulations are either very simplified or require a high number of parameters. Against this backdrop there is a heightened demand of observations to be used to calibrate the model. A reasonable integration of groundwater data or remote sensing data in calibration procedures as well as the identifiability of physically plausible sets of parameters is subject to research in the field of hydrology. Since this data is often combined with conceptual models, the given interfaces are not suitable for such demands. Furthermore, the application of automated optimisation procedures is generally associated with conceptual models, whose (fast) computing times allow many iterations of the optimisation in an acceptable time frame. One of the main aims of this study is to reduce the discrepancy between scientific and practical applications in the field of hydrological modelling. Therefore, the soil model DYVESOM (DYnamic VEgetation SOil Model) was developed as one of the primary components of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. DYVESOMs structure provides the required interfaces for the calibrations made at runoff, satellite based soil moisture and groundwater level. The model considers spatial and temporal differentiated feedback of the development of the vegetation on the soil system. In addition, small scale heterogeneities of soil properties (subgrid-variability) are parameterized by variation of van Genuchten parameters depending on distribution functions. Different sets of parameters are operated simultaneously while interacting with each other. The developed soil model is innovative regarding concept

  16. Scientific Opportunity to Reduce Risk in Groundwater and Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Looney, Brian B.; Zachara, John M.; Liang, Liyuan; Lesmes, D.; Chamberlain, G. M.; Skubal, Karen L.; Adams, V.; Denham, Miles E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-08-25

    In this report, we start by examining previous efforts at linking science and DOE EM research with cleanup activities. Many of these efforts were initiated by creating science and technology roadmaps. A recurring feature of successfully implementing these roadmaps into EM applied research efforts and successful cleanup is the focus on integration. Such integration takes many forms, ranging from combining information generated by various scientific disciplines, to providing technical expertise to facilitate successful application of novel technology, to bringing the resources and creativity of many to address the common goal of moving EM cleanup forward. Successful projects identify and focus research efforts on addressing the problems and challenges that are causing “failure” in actual cleanup activities. In this way, basic and applied science resources are used strategically to address the particular unknowns that are barriers to cleanup. The brief descriptions of the Office of Science basic (Environmental Remediation Science Program [ERSP]) and EM’s applied (Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program) research programs in subsurface science provide context to the five “crosscutting” themes that have been developed in this strategic planning effort. To address these challenges and opportunities, a tiered systematic approach is proposed that leverages basic science investments with new applied research investments from the DOE Office of Engineering and Technology within the framework of the identified basic science and applied research crosscutting themes. These themes are evident in the initial portfolio of initiatives in the EM groundwater and soil cleanup multi-year program plan. As stated in a companion document for tank waste processing (Bredt et al. 2008), in addition to achieving its mission, DOE EM is experiencing a fundamental shift in philosophy from driving to closure to enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation.

  17. Denitrification as an adaptive trait in soil and groundwater bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergwall, C

    1997-09-01

    The focus of this thesis is on selection and adaptation processes in bacteria with emphasis on denitrifying bacteria in groundwater. Other nitrogen transformation processes such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (nitrate ammonification) and nitrification of forest soil bacteria are briefly discussed. Microcosms with sterile sediment and groundwater were inoculated with single denitrifying strains isolated from three groundwater aquifers, two of which are agricultural aquifers (in situ NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N was 24.1 and 35.2 mg1{sup -1}) and the third which is a pristine lake water infiltration aquifer (in situ NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N was 6.3 mg1{sup -1}). The average denitrification activity for strains from the nitrate contaminated sites were twice as high as the activity of the strains from the pristine site. Denitrification were carbon limited and glucose amendment increased the denitrification activity about a 2-fold for all strains. The strain specific differences in denitrification rates increased to a 2.5-fold after carbon addition indicating that the differences in reduction rates cannot be explained by different carbon utilisation rates but rather reflect innate differences in the reductases of the strains. A preliminary identification of the molecular target for adaptation was performed with artificial electron donors and electron acceptors for all enzymatic steps in the denitrification pathway. Nitrous oxide reductase activity was significantly higher in denitrifiers from the nitrate contaminated sites. This suggests that nos genes may be the molecular target, possibly by mutation or gene duplication for adaptation to high nitrate concentrations. Two anaerobic denitrifiers from each of the contaminated sites were capable of aerobic denitrification indicating that high nitrate concentrations may select for strains that denitrifies in the presence of both oxygen and nitrate. Microcosm experiments with fertilized coniferous forest soil showed that the

  18. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  19. Evidence for groundwater contamination by heavy metals through soil passage under acidifying conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkens, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported here is aimed at improving the knowledge of the mobility of the heavy metals cadmium and zinc in vulnerable soil types. We use the term vulnerable with reference to vulnerability of groundwater for contamination by soil leaching. At diffuse soil immissions of heavy metals,

  20. Evidence for groundwater contamination by heavy metals through soil passage under acidifying conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkens, B.J,

    1995-01-01

    The research reported here is aimed at improving the knowledge of the mobility of the heavy metals cadmium and zinc in vulnerable soil types. We use the term vulnerable with reference to vulnerability of groundwater for contamination by soil leaching. At diffuse soil immissions of heavy

  1. The use of soil moisture - remote sensing products for large-scale groundwater modeling and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of using spaceborne remote sensing for large-scale groundwater modeling are explored. We focus on a soil moisture product called European Remote Sensing Soil Water Index (ERS SWI, Wagner et al., 1999) - representing the upper profile soil moisture. As a test-bed, we

  2. Modelling Technique for the Assessment of the Sub-Soil Drain for Groundwater Seepage Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Baharuddin Mohamad Faizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater simulation technique was carried out for examining the performance of sub-soil drain at problematic site area. Subsoil drain was proposed as one of solution for groundwater seepage occurred at the slope face by reducing groundwater table at Taman Botani Park Kuala Lumpur. The simulation technique used Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW software. In transient conditions, the results of simulation showed that heads increases surpass 1 to 2 m from the elevation level of the slope area that caused groundwater seepage on slope face. This study attempt to decrease the heads increase surpass by using different sub-soil drain size in simulation technique. The sub-soil drain capable to decline the heads ranges of 1 to 2 m.

  3. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  4. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  5. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOIL AND GROUNDWATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS, PLANS AND INITIATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, B; V. ADAMS, V; G. M. CHAMBERLAIN, G; T. L. STEWART, T

    2007-12-12

    This paper presents the process used by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program to collect and prioritize DOE soil and groundwater site science and technology needs, develop and document strategic plans within the EM Engineering and Technology Roadmap, and establish specific program and project initiatives for inclusion in the EM Multi-Year Program Plan. The paper also presents brief summaries of the goals and objectives for the established soil and groundwater initiatives.

  6. Proceedings of the 2010 PTAC soil and groundwater forum and poster session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This conference focused on emerging environmental issues and advances in soil and groundwater remediation research. It provided a forum to discuss current research and environmental regulations pertaining to the remediation and reclamation of oil and gas production sites as well as soils along pipeline routes. Methods for accurately identifying the source of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and wetlands were also presented. Recent advances in technological solutions for soil and groundwater remediation were reviewed along with methods for addressing salts, petroleum hydrocarbons, and process chemicals. The conference featured 18 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-02-08

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities.

  8. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  9. Texas market profile: soil and groundwater decontamination sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The soil and groundwater decontamination market in Texas generated $7 billion in earnings in 1997 and should reach almost $9 billion in 2002. While Texas has introduced voluntary clean-up programs, decontamination is required at more than 200,000 sites. Pollution has arisen from such industrial sectors as chemicals, crude oil and natural gas. In Texas, government agency decontamination activities provide major business opportunities. As in the base of the environmental sector as a whole, economic factors are gradually taking over from regulation as the prime demand drivers. Cost and risk are major concerns for clients. Because the incentive to reduce costs and the trend toward contracting out and privatization are becoming stronger, companies with specialized technologies have opportunities in this market. The government is the main client for environmental restoration services, but the private sector is accounting for an increased share of the market. Aspects of market access discussed include: implications of NAFTA and 'Buy America', ATA carnets, the Environmental Technology Verification Program, centralized database, federal government contracting announcements, partnerships, and payment conditions

  10. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  11. Groundwater influence on soil moisture memory and land-atmosphere interactions over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the memory introduced in soil moisture fields by groundwater long timescales of variation in the semi-arid regions of the Iberian Peninsula with the LEAFHYDRO soil-vegetation-hydrology model, which includes a dynamic water table fully coupled to soil moisture and river flow via 2-way fluxes. We select a 10-year period (1989-1998) with transitions from wet to dry to again wet long lasting conditions and we carry out simulations at 2.5 km spatial resolution forced by ERA-Interim and a high-resolution precipitation analysis over Spain and Portugal. The model produces a realistic water table that we validate with hundreds of water table depth observation time series (ranging from 4 to 10 years) over the Iberian Peninsula. Modeled river flow is also compared to observations. Over shallow water table regions, results highlight the groundwater buffering effect on soil moisture fields over dry spells and long-term droughts, as well as the slow recovery of pre-drought soil wetness once climatic conditions turn wetter. Groundwater sustains river flow during dry summer periods. The longer lasting wet conditions in the soil when groundwater is considered increase summer evapotranspiration, that is mostly water-limited. Our results suggest that groundwater interaction with soil moisture should be considered for climate seasonal forecasting and climate studies in general over water-limited regions where shallow water tables are significantly present and connected to land surface hydrology.

  12. APPLICATION STRATEGIES AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY PAHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotreatability studies conducted in our laboratory used soils from two former wood-treatment facilities to evaluate the use of in situ bioventing and biosparging applications for their potential ability to remediate soil and groundwater containing creosote. The combination of ph...

  13. Dissipation of the herbicide oxyfluorfen in subtropical soils and its potential to contaminate groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Sheu, Wey-Shin; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2003-02-01

    The dissipation and mobility of the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-p-tolyl 3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in field soil of Taiwan were investigated in the laboratory with six tea garden soils. The dissipation coefficients of oxyfluorfen in soils of different moisture content (30%, 60%, and 90% of soil field capacity) and soil temperature (10 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) were studied. Results indicate that the half-life of oxyfluorfen ranged from 72 to 160 days for six tea garden soils. It was found that if the temperature is high, the dissipation rate is rapid, and there is almost no dissipation at 10 degrees C. Possible contamination of groundwater by the herbicide oxyfluorfen was assessed using the behavior assessment model and the groundwater pollution-potential (GWP) model. The results obtained after evaluating the residue and travel time using the GWP model illustrated that oxyfluorfen is not very mobile in soil and may not contaminate groundwater under normal conditions. But in the case of soil of extremely low organic carbon content and coarse texture, oxyfluorfen has the potential to contaminate groundwater less than 3m deep.

  14. Lead pollution of soil and groundwater in clay-pigeon shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the exemplary investigation of soil and groundwater pollution with lead on clay-pigeon shooting ranges, three facilities were sampled. The analyses for depth distribution in the main area of the ammunition deposition showed that the dissolved lead amounts are as a rule smaller than the limiting value of the Sewage Sludge Regulation (100 mg/kg). In two groundwater samples, no lead could be found. Considerable amounts of small lead balls are found on the soil surface, but only a very small part appears to be washed out and adsorbed by the soil matrix. (orig.) [de

  15. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  16. Proceedings (of the) first annual groundwater and soil remediation R, D and D (research, development and demonstration) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A symposium was held to present results of research on the remediation of contamination of groundwater and soils. Papers were presented on groundwater/soil remediation research and demonstration programs, in-situ bioremediation, remediation of groundwater contaminated by gasoline-derived aromatics, solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, bioreactors for cleaning hydrocarbon- and salt-contaminated soils, in-situ volatilization technologies, evaluations of spill cleanup technologies, remediating subsurface contamination around sour gas processing plants, and the influence of gasoline oxygenates on the persistence of aromatics in groundwater. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers from this symposium.

  17. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  18. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbao Xia

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL, soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC and absolute soil solution concentration (CS decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m and shallow water levels (0.6 m respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m.The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  19. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  20. Connecting carbon and nitrogen storage in rural wetland soil to groundwater abstraction for urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Feit, Sharon J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether groundwater abstraction for urban water supply diminishes the storage of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and organic matter in the soil of rural wetlands. Wetland soil organic matter (SOM) benefits air and water quality by sequestering large masses of C and N. Yet, the accumulation of wetland SOM depends on soil inundation, so we hypothesized that groundwater abstraction would diminish stocks of SOM, C, and N in wetland soils. Predictions of this hypothesis were tested in two types of subtropical, depressional-basin wetland: forested swamps and herbaceous-vegetation marshes. In west-central Florida, >650 ML groundwater day(-1) are abstracted for use primarily in the Tampa Bay metropolis. At higher abstraction volumes, water tables were lower and wetlands had shorter hydroperiods (less time inundated). In turn, wetlands with shorter hydroperiods had 50-60% less SOM, C, and N per kg soil. In swamps, SOM loss caused soil bulk density to double, so areal soil C and N storage per m(2) through 30.5 cm depth was diminished by 25-30% in short-hydroperiod swamps. In herbaceous-vegetation marshes, short hydroperiods caused a sharper decline in N than in C. Soil organic matter, C, and N pools were not correlated with soil texture or with wetland draining-reflooding frequency. Many years of shortened hydroperiod were probably required to diminish soil organic matter, C, and N pools by the magnitudes we observed. This diminution might have occurred decades ago, but could be maintained contemporarily by the failure each year of chronically drained soils to retain new organic matter inputs. In sum, our study attributes the contraction of hydroperiod and loss of soil organic matter, C, and N from rural wetlands to groundwater abstraction performed largely for urban water supply, revealing teleconnections between rural ecosystem change and urban resource demand. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. IMPACTS OF ROAD DE-ICING SALTS ON MANGANESE TRANSPORT TO GROUNDWATER IN ROADSIDE SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yingrong

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an important element in soil, it occur natural in minerals and precipitated as Mn-oxides. Several factors could decide the solubility and mobility of Mn in soil water. In this study, the impact of road de-icing salts (NaCl) on manganese mobilization and transport to groundwater in roadside soils has been investigated by leaching tests. Generally, in the salt solution leachates, the water-soluble concentrations of Mn tended to increase with elevated salt concentrations, sugge...

  2. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  3. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  4. 100-FR-3 groundwater/soil gas supplemental limited field investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, a Limited Field Investigation (LFI) was conducted for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit which identified trichloroethylene (TCE) as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) (DOE-RL 1994). In groundwater samples collected for the LFI, TCE was detected in well 199-177-1 at a concentration exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (5 μg/L) and Washington State groundwater criteria (3 μg/L). With the concurrence of the EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), a supplemental LFI was conducted to determine the extent and potential source of TCE groundwater contamination associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. This report summarizes the activities and results of the groundwater/soil gas supplemental LFI for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the lateral distribution of TCE in shallow (3 to 5 ft below the water table) groundwater associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The second objective was to assess soil gas (3 to 5 concentrations in the study area in an attempt to identify potential sources of TCE and develop a correlation between soil gas and groundwater concentrations). Finally, the third objective of the investigation was to refine the site conceptual model

  5. Recovery of soil water, groundwater, and streamwater from acidification at the Swedish integrated monitoring catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Aastrup, Mats; Bringmark, Lage; Hultberg, Hans; Lewin-Pihlblad, Lotta; Lundin, Lars; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Thunholm, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Recovery from anthropogenic acidification in streams and lakes is well documented across the northern hemisphere. In this study, we use 1996-2009 data from the four Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments to evaluate how the declining sulfur deposition has affected sulfate, pH, acid neutralizing capacity, ionic strength, aluminum, and dissolved organic carbon in soil water, groundwater and runoff. Differences in recovery rates between catchments, between recharge and discharge areas and between soil water and groundwater are assessed. At the IM sites, atmospheric deposition is the main human impact. The chemical trends were weakly correlated to the sulfur deposition decline. Other factors, such as marine influence and catchment features, seem to be as important. Except for pH and DOC, soil water and groundwater showed similar trends. Discharge areas acted as buffers, dampening the trends in streamwater. Further monitoring and modeling of these hydraulically active sites should be encouraged.

  6. Understanding soil food web dynamics, how close do we get?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morriën, E.

    2016-01-01

    Soil food webs are traditionally considered to have distinct energy channels through which resources flow belowground. Resources enter the soil food web either from roots or from detrital inputs. Compared to this traditional view we are now much more aware of the flow of carbon, nitrogen and other

  7. Soil treatment and groundwater control for No. 6 fuel oil and PCB contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girioni, M.J.; St. Hilaire, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of a Short-Term Measure ordered by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), soil contaminated by No. 6 fuel oil and low-level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated, treated and recycled on-site as an asphalt base course for a parking lot at an industrial complex in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Approximately 300 cubic yards of contaminated soil were treated with an asphalt emulsion and utilized as a aggregate component for asphalt processed at ambient temperatures during the month of December 1990. In order to determine if the contaminated soils to be recycled would be classified as a hazardous waste (as defined by the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR 30.000), or if the soil to be recycled would pose a significant risk to health, safety or the environment, analytical testing of the contaminated soil was conducted prior, during and after treatment. Analytical testing included Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses of the untreated and treated soil. An alternative solution to the standard groundwater pump-and-treat method was designed and constructed to control and recover the highly viscous floating petroleum product. A series of precast leaching galleys (oil collection chambers) and a precast leach pit (groundwater discharge structure) were constructed to alter the local groundwater table to induce groundwater flow by gravity into the leaching chambers. Passive (i.e., nonpumping) groundwater flow to the leaching chambers was induced by placing of the groundwater discharge structure hydraulically downgradient of the leaching chambers. Collected oil, separated by gravity, will be periodically vacuumed, as necessary, for proper off-site disposal. Excess water discharges to the downgradient leach pit

  8. The Role of Frozen Soil in Groundwater Discharge Predictions for Warming Alpine Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah G.; Ge, Shemin; Voss, Clifford I.; Molotch, Noah P.

    2018-03-01

    Climate warming may alter the quantity and timing of groundwater discharge to streams in high alpine watersheds due to changes in the timing of the duration of seasonal freezing in the subsurface and snowmelt recharge. It is imperative to understand the effects of seasonal freezing and recharge on groundwater discharge to streams in warming alpine watersheds as streamflow originating from these watersheds is a critical water resource for downstream users. This study evaluates how climate warming may alter groundwater discharge due to changes in seasonally frozen ground and snowmelt using a 2-D coupled flow and heat transport model with freeze and thaw capabilities for variably saturated media. The model is applied to a representative snowmelt-dominated watershed in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, USA, with snowmelt time series reconstructed from a 12 year data set of hydrometeorological records and satellite-derived snow covered area. Model analyses indicate that the duration of seasonal freezing in the subsurface controls groundwater discharge to streams, while snowmelt timing controls groundwater discharge to hillslope faces. Climate warming causes changes to subsurface ice content and duration, rerouting groundwater flow paths but not altering the total magnitude of future groundwater discharge outside of the bounds of hydrologic parameter uncertainties. These findings suggest that frozen soil routines play an important role for predicting the future location of groundwater discharge in watersheds underlain by seasonally frozen ground.

  9. The role of frozen soil in groundwater discharge predictions for warming alpine watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah G.; Ge, Shemin; Voss, Clifford I.; Molotch, Noah P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate warming may alter the quantity and timing of groundwater discharge to streams in high alpine watersheds due to changes in the timing of the duration of seasonal freezing in the subsurface and snowmelt recharge. It is imperative to understand the effects of seasonal freezing and recharge on groundwater discharge to streams in warming alpine watersheds as streamflow originating from these watersheds is a critical water resource for downstream users. This study evaluates how climate warming may alter groundwater discharge due to changes in seasonally frozen ground and snowmelt using a 2‐D coupled flow and heat transport model with freeze and thaw capabilities for variably saturated media. The model is applied to a representative snowmelt‐dominated watershed in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, USA, with snowmelt time series reconstructed from a 12 year data set of hydrometeorological records and satellite‐derived snow covered area. Model analyses indicate that the duration of seasonal freezing in the subsurface controls groundwater discharge to streams, while snowmelt timing controls groundwater discharge to hillslope faces. Climate warming causes changes to subsurface ice content and duration, rerouting groundwater flow paths but not altering the total magnitude of future groundwater discharge outside of the bounds of hydrologic parameter uncertainties. These findings suggest that frozen soil routines play an important role for predicting the future location of groundwater discharge in watersheds underlain by seasonally frozen ground.

  10. Methodological advances to study the diversity of soil protists and their functioning in soil food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Soils host the most complex communities of organisms, which are still largely considered as an unknown 'black box'. A key role in soil food webs is held by the highly abundant and diverse group of protists. Traditionally, soil protists are considered as the main consumers of bacteria in soils.

  11. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  12. Assessment of groundwater and soil quality degradation using multivariate and geostatistical analyses, Dakhla Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa A.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; Gemail, Khaled S.; Koike, Katsuaki

    2018-06-01

    Salinization of groundwater and soil resources has long been a serious environmental hazard in arid regions. This study was conducted to investigate and document the factors controlling such salinization and their inter-relationships in the Dakhla Oasis (Egypt). To accomplish this, 60 groundwater samples and 31 soil samples were collected in February 2014. Factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were integrated with geostatistical analyses to characterize the chemical properties of groundwater and soil and their spatial patterns, identify the factors controlling the pattern variability, and clarify the salinization mechanism. Groundwater quality standards revealed emergence of salinization (av. 885.8 mg/L) and extreme occurrences of Fe2+ (av. 17.22 mg/L) and Mn2+ (av. 2.38 mg/L). Soils were highly salt-affected (av. 15.2 dS m-1) and slightly alkaline (av. pH = 7.7). Evaporation and ion-exchange processes governed the evolution of two main water types: Na-Cl (52%) and Ca-Mg-Cl (47%), respectively. Salinization leads the chemical variability of both resources. Distinctive patterns of slight salinization marked the northern part and intense salinization marked the middle and southern parts. Congruence in the resources clusters confirmed common geology, soil types, and urban and agricultural practices. Minimizing the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the resources salinization urges the need for better understanding of the hydrochemical characteristics and prediction of quality changes.

  13. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  14. Paleotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater and in relation to soil temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, M.; Sonntag, C.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe dissolved in groundwater at two sites (Bocholt, Germany, and the Great Hungarian Plain) were taken to prove the reliability of noble gas temperatures as indicators of paleotemperatures. Noble gas temperatures of groundwater of Holocene age were found to reflect the annual mean soil temperature in the recharge are with an accuracy close to the precision of measurement (1σ approx. ±0.5 deg. C). Noble gas temperature data demonstrate the influence of vegetation cover on the soil temperature in the infiltration area. Groundwater formed in forests at the Bocholt site shows noble gas temperatures that are 2.2 deg. C lower than the groundwater formed in fields or meadows. The temperature data obtained from groundwater of the Great Hungarian Plain for the last glaciation are ≥ 8.6 deg. C lower than data from recent groundwater for maximum glaciation (approx. 18,000 years ago) and 4.7 ± 1 deg. C lower for the preceding interstadial (approx. 28,000-35,000 years ago). These data permit independent reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Estimation of groundwater recharge to chalk and sandstone aquifers using simple soil models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, R.; Finch, J.; Harding, R.

    1997-03-01

    On the assumption that the water draining below the root zone is potentially available for groundwater recharge, two current UK methods for estimating annual groundwater recharge have been compared with a new soil model using data from four sites under permanent grass in the UK: two sites representative of the Chalk aquifer at Bridgest Farm (Hampshire) and Fleam Dyke (Cambridgeshire), and two sites on the Triassic sandstone at Bicton College (Devon) and Bacon Hall (Shropshire). A Four Root Layers Model (FRLM), the Penman-Grindley model and the UK Meteorological Office Rainfall and Evaporation Calculation System (MORECS) were used. The new soil model was run with potential evaporation as input both from the MORECS and from the Penman-Monteith equation. The models were run for the Chalk sites both with and without a bypass flow of 15% of rainfall. Bypass was not considered for the sandstone sites. The performance of the models was tested against neutron probes measurements of soil moisture deficits. In addition, the annual groundwater recharge estimated from the models was compared with the published values obtained from the 'zero flux plane' method. Generally, the Penman-Grindley model was more successful in predicting the time for soil to return to its field capacity than in predicting the magnitude of the soil moisture deficit. The annual groundwater recharge was predicted with reasonable accuracy. The MORECS relatively tended to overestimate the soil moisture deficits and to delay the time at which the soil returns to its field capacity. The consequences were underestimates of annual groundwater recharge, owing either to the higher values of potential evaporation calculated from the MORECS or tothe high available water capacity values associated with the soils under consideration. The new soil model (FRLM) predicts the soil moisture deficits successfully and hence is reliable in estimating the annual groundwater recharge. The model is capable of doing this with

  16. Soils and food security | Nortcliff | Nigerian Journal of Technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A threat impacting on food security strongly in Africa is nutrient mining where insufficient nutrients are returned to the soil after crop production. The impacts of global change on food security and the potential impacts of global markets for food and land are also briefly discussed. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ...

  17. Biosphere modelling for a deep radioactive waste repository: treatment of the groundwater-soil pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Grogan, H.A.; Dorp, F. van

    1991-07-01

    The effect of radionuclide transfer from near-surface groundwater to the rooting zone soil, via a deep soil layer, is modelled in this report. The possible extent of upward solute movement is evaluated for a region in northern Switzerland. The concentration of 237 Np and 129 I in the deep and top soil, and hence growing crops, are evaluated assuming a constant unit activity concentration in the groundwater. A number of parameter variations are considered, namely variable soil sorption coefficients, reduced infiltration of rain water and decreased groundwater flow. A release to an alternative smaller recipient region in northern Switzerland is also evaluated. For the parameter ranges considered uncertainty in the solid-liquid distribution coefficient has the largest effect on overall uncertainty. These calculations have been presented within the international Biosphere Model Validation Study (BIOMOVS). A description of the test scenario, and the model calculations submitted, have been included in this report for completeness. To place the groundwater-soil-crop-man pathway in context, its contribution to the total dose to man is evaluated for the 237 Np- 233 U- 229 Th decay chain. The results obtained using the two-layer soil model, described in this report, are compared with the single-layer soil model used during Project Gewaehr 1985. The more realistic two-layer soil model indicated an increase in importance of the drinking water pathway. It should be noted, however, that not all the critical pathways have been treated in this study with the same degree of conservatism. (author) 16 figs., 15 tabs., 31 refs

  18. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  19. Pore Pressure Response to Groundwater Fluctuations in Saturated Double-Layered Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed for one-dimensional consolidation of double-layered saturated soil subjected to groundwater fluctuations. The solutions are derived by an explicit mathematical procedure using Duhamel’s theorem in conjunction with a Fourier series, when groundwater fluctuation is described by a general time-dependent function and assumed to be the pore water pressure variations at the upper boundary. Taking as an example the harmonic groundwater fluctuation, the relevant response of the excess pore water pressure is discussed in detail, and the main influencing factors of the excess pore pressure distribution are analyzed. A dimensionless parameter θ has been introduced because it significantly affects the phase and the amplitude of excess pore pressures. The influences of the coefficients of permeability and compressibility of soil on the excess pore pressure distribution are different and cannot be incorporated into the coefficient of consolidation in double-layered soil. The relative permeability ratio of two clayey soils also plays an important role on the curves of the distributions of the excess pore pressures. The effects of the thickness of the soil layer on the excess pore pressure distribution should be considered together with the dimensionless parameter θ and the permeability and compressibility of the double-layered soil system.

  20. Effect of harsh or mild extraction of soil on pesticide leaching to groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, Jos J.T.I.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of leaching to groundwater is an important aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The first leaching tier usually consists of simulations with leaching scenarios based on pesticide- soil properties derived from laboratory studies. Because the extractability of pesticide residues in such

  1. PHYTOREMEDIATION: USING PLANTS TO CLEAN UP CONTAMINATED SOIL, GROUNDWATER, AND WASTEWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation is an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The cleanup technology is defined as the use of green plants to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy ...

  2. Rapid nutrient leaching to groundwater and surface water in clay soil areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Hamminga, W.; Oostindie, K.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism and magnitude of nitrate leaching from grassland on a heavy clay soil were investigated by measuring nitrogen input, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater and drain discharge for two years. A bromide tracer was applied to study solute transport mechanisms. Nitrate transport in the

  3. Interactions Between Wind Erosion, Vegetation Structure, and Soil Stability in Groundwater Dependent Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, K. R.; Elmore, A. J.; Okin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Desertification is a human induced global phenomenon causing a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem productivity. Semi-arid grasslands are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts (i.e., groundwater pumping and surface water diversion) that decrease vegetation cover and increase bare soil area leading to a greater probability of soil erosion, potentially enhancing feedback processes associated with desertification. To enhance our understanding of interactions between anthropogenic, physical, and biological factors causing desertification, this study used a combination of modeling and field observations to examine the relationship between chronic groundwater pumping and vegetation cover change and its effects on soil erosion and stability. The work was conducted in Owens Valley California, where a long history of groundwater pumping and surface water diversion has lead to documented vegetation changes. The work examined hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical factors across thirteen sites in Owens Valley. We analyzed soil stability, vegetation and gap size, soil organic carbon, and we also installed Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) catchers to calculate mass transport of aeolian sediment across sites. Mass transport calculations were used to validate a new wind erosion model that represents the effect of porous vegetation on surface windshear velocity. Results across two field seasons show that the model can be used to predict mass transport, and areas with increased groundwater pumping show a greater susceptibility to erosion. Sediment collected in BSNE catchers was positively correlated with site gap size. Additionally, areas with larger gap sizes have a greater threshold shear velocity and soil stability, yet mass transport was greater at these sites than at sites with smaller gap sizes. Although modeling is complicated by spatial variation in multiple model parameters (e.g., gap size, threshold shear velocity in gaps), our results support the hypothesis that soils

  4. Assessment of groundwater and soil quality for agricultural purposes in Kopruoren basin, Kutahya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sebnem

    2017-07-01

    This research evaluated the irrigation water and agricultural soil quality in the Kopruoren Basin by using hierarchical cluster analysis. Physico-chemical properties and major ion chemistry of 19 groundwater samples were used to determine the irrigation water quality indices. The results revealed out that the groundwaters are in general suitable for irrigation and have low sodium hazard, although they are very hard in nature due to the dominant presence of Ca+2, Mg+2 and HCO3- ions. Water samples contain arsenic in concentrations below the recommended guidelines for irrigation (59.7 ± 14.7 μg/l), however, arsenic concentrations in 89% of the 9 soil samples exceed the maximum allowable concentrations set for agricultural soils (81 ± 24.3 mg/kg). Nickel element, albeit not present in high concentrations in water samples, is enriched in all of the agricultural soil samples (390 ± 118.2 mg/kg). Hierarchical cluster analysis studies conducted to identify the sources of chemical constituents in water and soil samples elicited that the chemistry of the soils in the study area are highly impacted by the soil parent material and both geogenic and anthropogenic pollution sources are responsible for the metal contents of the soil samples. On the other hand, water chemistry in the area is affected by water-rock interactions, anthropogenic and agricultural pollution.

  5. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  6. Radon occurrence in soil-gas and groundwater around an active landslide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal -249 199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com; Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Negi, M.S.; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal -249 199 (India)

    2008-01-15

    This paper presents the results of investigation of radon levels in the soil-gas and groundwater of Uttarkashi, India within the distance of 5 km in vertical and horizontal directions from the landslide of Varunawat hill. Radon release from the soil and groundwater was found higher than the normal values. Radon concentration in groundwater over and around the landslide was found to vary from 0.51 to 86kBqm{sup -3}. The soil-gas radon concentration was found to vary from 219 to 3kBqm{sup -3} along the slope of landslide. Radon exhalation rate in collected soil samples was found to vary from 2.28x10{sup -5} to 9.01x10{sup -5}Bqkg{sup -1}h{sup -1}. Radon values were not found correlated with major and trace element contents in the upper soil of the area, which indicate that the migration of radon from deeper part of the earth along with landslide contribute to the surface radon concentration. Recorded values show a close association with local geology and Varunawat eruptions.

  7. Radon occurrence in soil-gas and groundwater around an active landslide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Choubey, V.M.; Negi, M.S.; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of radon levels in the soil-gas and groundwater of Uttarkashi, India within the distance of 5 km in vertical and horizontal directions from the landslide of Varunawat hill. Radon release from the soil and groundwater was found higher than the normal values. Radon concentration in groundwater over and around the landslide was found to vary from 0.51 to 86kBqm -3 . The soil-gas radon concentration was found to vary from 219 to 3kBqm -3 along the slope of landslide. Radon exhalation rate in collected soil samples was found to vary from 2.28x10 -5 to 9.01x10 -5 Bqkg -1 h -1 . Radon values were not found correlated with major and trace element contents in the upper soil of the area, which indicate that the migration of radon from deeper part of the earth along with landslide contribute to the surface radon concentration. Recorded values show a close association with local geology and Varunawat eruptions

  8. Evidence of terrestrial discharge of deep groundwater on the Canadian Shield from helium in soil gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Sheppard, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel wastes at a site in the Canadian Shield requires knowledge of the location and size of areas of discharge of deep groundwater from the vicinity of the underground disposal vault. A strong He anomaly has been detected in soil gases in a 10 X 10 m area of wetland on the banks of Boggy Creek, near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The area has He concentrations in near-surface soils as high as 360 nL·L -1 and is assumed to indicate discharge of He-rich groundwater through a permeable subsurface bedrock fracture. Elevated Cl - concentrations in groundwater and its use as a open-quotes deer lickclose quotes support this interpretation. A He flux density of ∼ 2.1 L·m -2 ·a -1 is determined from a depth profile of He concentrations at one location in the site. A total He flux of 270 L·a -1 is determined for the entire site, which corresponds to a deep groundwater discharge of about 26 000 L·a -1 . This estimate is comparable with He fluxes and calculated groundwater discharges for two other lake-bottom locations on the Canadian Shield. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Effect of groundwater on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kassir, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of a parametric study performed to investigate the effect of pore water in saturated soils on the response of nuclear containment structures to seismic motions. The technique employed uses frequency domain algorithm which incorporates impedances for both dry and saturated soils into an SSI model. A frequency domain time history analysis is carried out using the computer code CARES for a typical PWR containment structure. Structural responses presented in terms of floor response spectra indicate that considering the presence of the pore water in soils could benefit the design of massive nuclear containment structures

  10. Abacus to determine soils salinity in presence of saline groundwater in arid zones case of the region of Ouargla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergougui, Myriam Marie El; Benyamina, Hind; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2018-05-01

    In order to remedy the limit of salt intake to the soil surface, it is necessary to study the causes of the soil salinity and find the origin of these salts. The arid areas in the region of Ouargla lie on excessively mineralized groundwater whose level is near the soil surface (0 - 1.5 m). The topography and absence of a reliable drainage system led to the rise of the groundwater beside the arid climatic conditions contributed to the salinization and hydromorphy of the soils. The progress and stabilization of cultures yields in these areas can only occur if the groundwater is maintained (drained) to a depth of 1.6 m. The results of works done to the determination of soil salinity depend mainly on the groundwater's salinity, its depth and the climate.

  11. Methodological advances to study the diversity of soil protists and their functioning in soil food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Soils host the most complex communities of organisms, which are still largely considered as an unknown ‘black box’. A key role in soil food webs is held by the highly abundant and diverse group of protists. Traditionally, soil protists are considered as the main consumers of bacteria in

  12. Assessment of environmental degradation of soil and groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    Comparisons of means with pristine locations in previous studies were ... South, East and West sectors. ... geology of the Benin West Moat-Ekenwan gully area, the soil ... present work and those of Akujieze (2004) and Akujieze and Oteze.

  13. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchens, G.D. [Lynntech, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  14. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact

  15. A Geochemical Reaction Model for Titration of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Parker, J. C.; Gu, B.; Luo, W.; Brooks, S. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Jardine, P. M.; Watson, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates geochemical reactions during titration of contaminated soil and groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. The soils and groundwater exhibits low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, various trace metals such as nickel and cobalt, and radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. The mobility of many of the contaminant species diminishes with increasing pH. However, base additions to increase pH are strongly buffered by various precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior and associated geochemical effects is thus critical to evaluate remediation performance of pH manipulation strategies. This study was undertaken to develop a practical but generally applicable geochemical model to predict aqueous and solid-phase speciation during soil and groundwater titration. To model titration in the presence of aquifer solids, an approach proposed by Spalding and Spalding (2001) was utilized, which treats aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. Previous studies have shown that Fe and Al-oxyhydroxides strongly sorb dissolved Ni, U and Tc species. In this study, since the total Fe concentration is much smaller than that of Al, only ion exchange reactions associated with Al hydroxides are considered. An equilibrium reaction model that includes aqueous complexation, precipitation, ion exchange, and soil buffering reactions was developed and implemented in the code HydroGeoChem 5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration curves for contaminated groundwater alone and for soil- water systems indicated close agreement. This study is expected to facilitate field-scale modeling of geochemical processes under conditions with highly variable pH to develop practical methods to control contaminant mobility at geochemically complex sites.

  16. The use of in-situ dual vacuum extraction for remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dual Extraction provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and groundwater impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Dual Extraction is the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole using entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 square feet. The release produced vadose zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 - 30 feet below ground surface with TPH concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. A layer of free floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 30 feet bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 feet to 3.0 feet. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and groundwater to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hours/day for 196 days with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days, over 17,000 pounds of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings were advanced in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations and indicated that TPH and BTEX concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations. Three confirmatory groundwater samples were obtained from monitoring wells initially exhibiting up to 3 feet of floating product. Confirmatory samples exhibited non-detectable (ND) concentrations of TPH and BTEX. Based upon the positive confirmatory results, site closure was obtained from the RWQCB in May of 1991. In only 28 weeks of operation, the groundwater contamination was reduced from free floating product to non-detectable concentrations of TPH using Dual Vacuum Extraction

  17. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L. H.; Qin, J.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    with varying intervals and subsequently analyzed. The food web analysis includes several trophic levels; bacteria/fungi, protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids, microarthropods and arthropods. The initial results indicate that bacteria and protozoa are stimulated in the uppermost soil layer (0-3 cm) two months...... can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible cascading effects for the soil food web structure. This is tested by applying ash of different concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest. During the course of the project soil samples will be collected...

  18. Agricultural contamination in soil-groundwater-surface water systems in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje

    of fertilizers and pesticides. Unfortunately, the lack of regulation or oversight has led to the overuse of these agrochemicals: current application rates (in kg/ha) are two- to threefold higher than in most developed countries, and this is taking its toll on the environment. Problems include severe surface...... water and groundwater pollution by nitrogen and pesticides, soil degradation, bioaccumulation of toxic compounds, and more. It is crucial for China to do improve the safeguarding of its water resources in order to sustain the livelihoods of its people and ensure safe supply of drinking water. Recently......-groundwater interaction was chosen, and field work was performed between October 2012 and March 2014. Results from the field study showed that fertilizer inputs were excessive, and could be reduced substantially. Contaminated river water was infiltrating – and carrying ammonium pollution – into the shallow groundwater...

  19. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert W.; Frank, James R.; Feng, Xiandong

    1998-01-01

    An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

  20. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  1. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  2. Impact of groundwater levels on evaporation and water-vapor fluxes in highly saline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, J. F.; Hernández, M. F.; Braud, I.; Gironas, J. A.; Suarez, F. I.

    2012-12-01

    In aquifers of arid and hyper-arid zones, such as those occurring in the Chilean Andes high plateau, it is important to determine both the quantity and location of water discharges at the temporal scales of interest to close the basin's water budget and thus, to manage the water resource properly. In zones where shallow aquifers are the main source of water, overexploitation of the water resource changes the dynamics of water, heat and solute transport in the vadose zone. As aquifers are exploited, fluctuations in depth to groundwater are exacerbated. These fluctuations modify both soil structure and evaporation from the ground, which is typically the most important discharge from the water budget and is very difficult to estimate. Therefore, a correct quantification of evaporation from these soils is essential to improve the accuracy of the water balance estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate the evaporation processes and water-vapor fluxes in a soil column filled with a saline soil from the Salar del Huasco basin, Chile. Water content, electrical conductivity and temperature at different depths in the soil profile were monitored to determine the liquid and vapor fluxes within the soil column. The results showed that evaporation is negligible when the groundwater table is deeper than 1 m. For shallower groundwater levels, evaporation increases in an exponential fashion reaching a value of 3 mm/day when the groundwater table is near the surface of the ground. These evaporation rates are on the same order of magnitude than the field measurements, but slightly lower due to the controlled conditions maintained in the laboratory. Isothermal fluid fluxes were predominant over the non-isothermal fluid and water vapor fluxes. The net flux for all the phreatic levels tested in the laboratory showed different behaviors, with ascending or descending flows as a consequence of changes in water content and temperature distribution within the soil. It was

  3. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  4. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  5. The resistivity imaging application in groundwater exploration: resistivity value and soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khardzir Husain

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is rich in water resources. Water development has fueled socio-economic development of the country during the past decades. Dams and thousands of kilometers of pipes and canals divert water from the rivers to sustain domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Lately, the water situation for the country has changed from one of relative abundance to one of relative scarcity. The population growth and the expansion in urbanization, industrialization and irrigated agriculture are imposing rapidly growing demands and pressure on the water resources, besides contributing to the rising water pollution. Surface water resource, the traditional source of water supply in the past, has become inadequate in some areas. The problem becomes more acute in areas where surface water is affected by the increasing pollution from industrial and agricultural waste and where changes in land have adversely affected the quantity and quality of surface water supply. The development of groundwater as a source of water supply or as an alternative source is therefore a timely outlook. Lack in groundwater development will becoming disasters to country. Electrical resistivity had been used in groundwater exploration to get an accuracy result in a short time. This method measures the apparent resistivity of the subsurface, including effects of any or all of the following: soil type, bedrock fractures, contaminants and ground water. Variations in electrical resistivity may indicate changes in composition, layer thickness or contaminant levels. The resistivity values obtained from various groundwater exploration and experimental sites shows that the value differs also in related to the soil type. (Author)

  6. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Soil and groundwater remediation through the program of energy research and development at Environment Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research and development in groundwater and soil remediation within the federal Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) are conducted in the context of activities related to the oil and gas industry. Contamination of groundwater and soil by the oil and gas sector affects the health of ecosystems and the economic viability of impacted lands. This paper presented an outline of remediation research and development activities associated with PERD, as well as an overview of PERD's development of improved generic remediation technologies and approaches for use by industries. In addition, issues concerning the development of key guidelines, methods and protocols for use by regulators were discussed. Science and technology efforts within PERD contribute to the development of national standards and guidelines concerning public safety and environmental needs

  8. Analysis and determination of age of oil spills in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedl, P.; Schindlbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extensive searching for hydrocarbon-based spills in soil and groundwater during the last few years rises the question of whom caused these contaminations. The answer to this very specific question is not easy and often requires the exact determination of age of the contamination. Therefore, the sampling of all imaginable data around the spilled material is necessary. Beginning at the precise check-up of the geological surrounding, including the definition of the condition and construction of the soil as well as the determination of the flow-direction of the groundwater, the chemical analysis should describe the containing substances and/or the products in the best possible way. Summing all these data and taking into consideration of the well-known microbiological pathways of decomposition for one- and/or a group of substances, it should be possible to determine the age of a contamination. (orig.) [de

  9. Overview of soil and groundwater research activities of the American Petroleum Institute (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association for the domestic petroleum industry in the USA, with over 2000 corporate and 5000 individual members. Subsurface research activities are managed by the API soil/groundwater technical task force, a committee made up of over 25 member company engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists, and chemists representing both the research and operations sectors of the petroleum industry. The research areas of the group have been divided into five principle areas: biodegradation processes, fate and transport, remediation, decision making tools for remediation, and detection/analytical methods. A summary of each of the current projects in these subject areas is presented

  10. Shifts in pore connectivity from precipitation versus groundwater rewetting increases soil carbon loss after drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ashly P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Benscoter, Brian W.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Hinkle, Ross; Liu, Chongxuan; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2017-11-06

    Droughts and other extreme precipitation events are predicted to increase in intensity, duration and extent, with uncertain implications for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. Soil wetting from above (precipitation) results in a characteristically different pattern of pore-filling than wetting from below (groundwater), with larger, well-connected pores filling before finer pore spaces, unlike groundwater rise in which capillary forces saturate the finest pores first. Here we demonstrate that pore-scale wetting patterns interact with antecedent soil moisture conditions to alter pore-, core- and field-scale C dynamics. Drought legacy and wetting direction are perhaps more important determinants of short-term C mineralization than current soil moisture content in these soils. Our results highlight that microbial access to C is not solely limited by physical protection, but also by drought or wetting-induced shifts in hydrologic connectivity. We argue that models should treat soil moisture within a three-dimensional framework emphasizing hydrologic conduits for C and resource diffusion.

  11. Update on the National Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, A.

    1992-01-01

    The national Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP), supported jointly by government and the petroleum industry, targets research on innovative ways to clean up groundwater and soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, and conducts technology transfer sessions. Within its broad context as an initiative for research, development and demonstration of innovative cleanup technologies, GASReP now targets basic applied research and/or technology development only. Industry partners and other government programs will be encouraged to extend GASReP research findings to the final stage of technology demonstration. During 1991-92 GASReP shifted its attention from starting new projects to evaluating the program, setting a new direction, and establishing a better way to seek ideas for projects. Unlike previous years, only three projects began during this period. Two technology development projects are iron and manganese pre-treatment for pump and treat clean-up systems, and surface bioreactor to clean soil/waste contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The one technology assessment project dealt with a review of six technologies for in-situ bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) in groundwater. Current program direction, interests, and research needs are summarized, and candidate proposals for project selection in 1992-93 are listed

  12. ERC hazard classification matrices for above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the status of the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) process for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities currently underway for planned for fiscal year (FY) 1997. This classification process is based on current US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) guidance for the classification of facilities and activities containing radionuclide and nonradiological hazardous material inventories. The above ground structures presented in the matrices were drawn from the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project Facility List (DOE 1996), which identifies the facilities in the RL-Environmental Restoration baseline contract in 1997. This document contains the following two appendices: (1) Appendix A, which consists of a matrix identifying PHC documents that have been issued for BHI's above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997, and (2) Appendix B, which consists of a matrix showing anticipated PHCs for above ground structures, and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997. Appendix B also shows the schedule for finalization of PHCs for above ground structures with an anticipated classification of Nuclear

  13. Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangang; Zhou Qixing; Luo Yi

    2010-01-01

    The residue of antibiotics is becoming an intractable environmental problem in many organic vegetable bases. However, their residual levels and distribution are still obscure. This work systematically analyzed the occurrence and migration of typical veterinary antibiotics in organic vegetable bases, northern China. The results showed that there was no obvious geographical difference in antibiotic distribution between soil and manure. A simple migration model can be easy and quick to predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil. Antibiotics were mainly taken up through water transport and passive absorption in vegetables. The distribution of antibiotics in a plant was in the sequence leaf > stem > root, and performed biological accumulation. The residues of antibiotics in all samples in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Overall, this work can lay the foundation for understanding ecological risk of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects on human health by food chain. - The residues of typical veterinary antibiotics from manure were detected and migrated in soil, vegetables and groundwater of organic vegetable bases.

  14. Groundwater Availability Alters Soil-plant Nutrient Cycling in a Stand of Invasive, N-fixing Phreatophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, B. D.; Miyazawa, Y.; Hughes, F.; Ostertag, R.; Kettwich, S. K.; MacKenzie, R.; Dulaiova, H.; Waters, C. A.; Bishop, J.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    N-fixing phreatophytic trees are common in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, and can play significant roles in modifying hydrology and soil-plant nutrient cycling where they are present. In light of reductions in groundwater levels in many arid regions we estimated annual transpiration rates at a stand level, and alterations to C, N and P accretion in soils as a function of groundwater depth in a ca.120 year old stand of Prosopis pallida along an elevation gradient in coastal leeward Hawaii. We measured sapflow and stand level sapwood area to quantify transpiration, and calculated groundwater transpiration rates using P. pallida stem water δ18O values. By measuring soil resistivity, we were able to compare the volume of groundwater transpired by these trees to groundwater depth across the stand. We examined nutrient deposition and accretion in soils in lowland areas of the stand with accessible shallow groundwater, compared to upland areas with no groundwater access, as indicated by stem water δ18O values. Resistivity results suggested that groundwater was at a height close to sea level throughout the stand. Transpiration was around 1900 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the areas of the stand closest to the sea (where groundwater was at around 1-4 m below ground level) and decreased to around a tenth of that volume where groundwater was not accessible. Litterfall rates over the course of the year studied were 17 times greater at lowland sites, but this litterfall contributed ca. 24 times the N, and 35 times the P of upland sites. Thus, groundwater access contributed to the total mass of nitrogen and phosphorus deposited in the form of litter through higher litter quantity and quality. Total N content of soils was 4.7 times greater and inorganic N pools were eight times higher at lowland plots. These results suggest that groundwater depth can have strong effects on soil-plant nutrient cycling, so that reductions in the availability of shallow groundwater are likely to impact

  15. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  16. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States); Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L. [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a

  17. Investigation of the mobilizability of persistent pollutants in the system groundwater/soil/plant of a former fen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Goertz, W.; Leisner-Saaber, J.; Rathje, M.

    1993-01-01

    For a former fen situated at the eastern border of the Lower terraces of the river Rhine in the close neighbourhood of densely populated urban districts a biotope-managementplan suggests the rewetting and restauration of typical landscape forms. High concentrations of heavy metals and low pH-values of the soil imply a potential danger especially for the groundwater. In order to solve this conflict between the aims of protecting rare biotopes and of saving groundwater-resources investigations were carried out considering all environmental compartments concerned: groundwater, surfacewater, soil and plants. The results demonstate that a step-by-step rewetting of the area is possible without a previous exchange of soil. In addition, careful groundwater control has to be carried out. (orig.) [de

  18. The soil food web revisited: Diverse and widespread mycophagous soil protists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan; Koller, R.; Hünninghaus, M.; Dumack, K.; Urich, T.; Bonkowski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil protists are commonly suggested being solely bacterivorous, serving together with bacterivorous nematodes as the main controllers of the bacterial energy channel in soil food webs. In contrast, the fungal energy channel is assumed to be controlled by arthropods and mycophagous nematodes. This

  19. Limiting nitrogen and veterinary pharmaceutical input into groundwater: combining hydrogeophysics and soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Ursula; Stadler, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    The EU Interreg project TOPSOIL investigates opportunities to improve surface and groundwater quality as well as water management strategies under the consideration of climate adaptation challenges. Within the framework of the project, we investigate the transport behavior of percolation water in the unsaturated zone, the migration of nitrogen and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils, and - together with different stakeholders (e.g. farmers, water supply companies) - develop common strategies to minimize the migration of these substances into the groundwater. In our study we focus on distinguishing preferential and diffuse flow using soil scientific and geophysical methods. During the first investigation campaign, we combined soil sampling with radiometry and electrical conductivity overview measurements on the typical sandy soil of the studied area south of Oldenburg, Germany. We used the CMD explorer for the electromagnetic mapping (horizontal and vertical dipoles, intercoil spacing of 1.48/2.82/4.49 m, investigations depths of appr. 0 - 6 m) and the radiometry detector comprised five sodium-iodide crystals each with a volume of 4 litres. The spectral data are evaluated for potassium (1.37 - 1.57 MeV), uranium (Bi-214) (1.66 - 1.86MeV) and thorium (T-208) (2.41 - 2.81MeV) and total counts (0.41-2.81MeV). A total of 292 soil samples were taken from 46 ram coring profiles (depth range: 0 to 3 m) and analyzed for soil chemical parameters and water content. The first evaluation showed a good correlation between conductivity and radiometry measurements. While the uranium and thorium values are generally low, the potassium values possibly reflect higher clay contents as do the higher conductivity values. The geophysical overview measurements were used to select the locations for soil sampling and we specifically targeted presumably clay-rich as well as clay-poor areas for sampling.

  20. Use of LCA as decision support for the selection of remedial strategies for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2009-01-01

    , there is a trade-off between obtaining local beneficial effects from the remediation and generating environmental impacts on the regional and global scale due to the remedial actions. Therefore there is a need for including the impact of soil contaminants that will potentially leach to the groundwater, e......Groundwater is the dominant source of drinking water in Denmark and the general policy is to maintain the groundwater as a clean source of drinking water. The risk of groundwater contamination is therefore often the prime reason for remediating a contaminated site. Chlorinated solvents are among...... the contaminants most frequently found to be threatening the groundwater quality in Denmark and worldwide. Life cycle assessment has recently been applied as part of decision support for contaminated site management and subsurface remediation techniques. Impacts in the groundwater compartment have only gained...

  1. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S; Landner, L [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  2. Impact of Drought on Groundwater and Soil Moisture - A Geospatial Tool for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Reyes, R.

    2016-12-01

    For many decades, recurring droughts in different regions in the US have been negatively impacting ecosystems and economic sectors. Oklahoma and Texas have been suffering from exceptional and extreme droughts in 2011-2014, with almost 95% of the state areas being affected (Drought Monitor, 2015). Accordingly, in 2011 alone, around 1.6 billion were lost in the agricultural sector alone as a result of drought in Oklahoma (Stotts 2011), and 7.6 billion in Texas agriculture (Fannin 2012). While surface water is among the instant indicators of drought conditions, it does not translate directly to groundwater resources that are the main source of irrigation water. Both surface water and groundwater are susceptible to drought, while groundwater depletion is a long-term process and might not show immediately. However, understanding groundwater availability is crucial for designing water management strategies and sustainable water use in the agricultural sector and other economic sectors. This paper presents an interactive geospatially weighted evaluation model and a tool at the same time to analyze groundwater resources that can be used for decision support in water management. The tool combines both groundwater and soil moisture changes in Oklahoma and Texas in 2003-2014, thus representing the most important indicators of agricultural and hydrological drought. The model allows for analyzing temporal and geospatial long-term drought at the county level. It can be expanded to other regions in the US and the world. The model has been validated with the Palmer Drought Index Severity Index to account for other indicators of meteorological drought. It can serve as a basis for an upcoming socio-economic and environmental analysis of drought events in the short and long-term in different geographic regions.

  3. Evaluation of short-term tracer fluctuations in groundwater and soil air in a two year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Florian; Mayer, Simon; Aeschbach, Werner; Weissbach, Therese

    2016-04-01

    The application of gas tracers like noble gases (NGs), SF6 or CFCs in groundwater studies such as paleo temperature determination requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of reactive and inert gases in the soil air with which the infiltrating water equilibrates. Due to microbial gas consumption and production, NG partial pressures in soil air can deviate from atmospheric air, an effect that could bias noble gas temperatures estimates if not taken into account. So far, such an impact on NG contents in groundwater has not been directly demonstrated. We provide the first long-term study of the above mentioned gas tracers and physical parameters in both the saturated and unsaturated soil zone, sampled continuously for more than two years near Mannheim (Germany). NG partial pressures in soil air correlate with soil moisture and the sum value of O2+CO2, with a maximal significant enhancement of 3-6% with respect to atmospheric air during summer time. Observed seasonal fluctuations result in a mass dependent fractionation of NGs in soil air. Concentrations of SF6 and CFCs in soil air are determined by corresponding fluctuations in local atmospheric air, caused by industrial emissions. Arising concentration peaks are damped with increasing soil depth. Shallow groundwater shows short-term NG fluctuations which are smoothed within a few meters below the water table. A correlation between NG contents of soil air and of groundwater is observable during strong recharge events. However, there is no evidence for a permanent influence of seasonal variations of soil air composition on shallow groundwater. Fluctuating NG contents in shallow groundwater are rather determined by variations of soil temperature and water table level. Our data gives evidence for a further temperature driven equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air bubbles within the topmost saturated zone, which permanently occurs even some years after recharge. Local subsurface temperature fluctuations

  4. Biosphere modelling for a deep radioactive waste repository: site-specific consideration of the groundwater-soil pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, H.A.; Baeyens, B.; Mueller, H.; Dorp, F. van

    1991-07-01

    Scenario evaluations indicate that groundwater is the most probable pathway for released radionuclides to reach the biosphere from a deep underground nuclear waste repository. This report considers a small valley in northern Switzerland where the transport of groundwater to surface soil might be possible. The hydrological situation has been examined to allow a system of compartments and fluxes for modelling this pathway with respect to the release of radionuclides from an underground repository to be produced. Assuming present day conditions the best estimate surface soil concentrations are calculated by dividing the soil into two layers (deep soil, surface soil) and assuming an annual upward flux of 10 mm from the groundwater through the two soil layers. A constant unit activity concentration is assumed for the radionuclides in the groundwater. It is concluded that the resultant best estimate values must still be considered to be biased on the conservative side, in view of the fact that the more typical situation is likely to be that no groundwater reaches the surface soil. Upper and lower estimates for the surface soil radionuclide concentrations are based on the parameter perturbation results which were carried out for three key parameters, i.e. precipitation surplus, upward flux and solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K d ). It is noted that attention must be given to the functional relationships which exist between various model parameters. Upper estimates for the surface soil concentration are determined assuming a higher annual upward flux (100 mm) as well as a more conservative K d value compared with the base case. This gives rise to surface soil concentrations more than two orders of magnitude higher than the best estimate values. The lower estimated are more easily assigned assuming that no activity reaches the surface soil via this pathway. (author) 18 figs., 4 tabs., refs

  5. Organizing groundwater regimes and response thresholds by soils: A framework for understanding runoff generation in a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Gannon; Scott W. Bailey; Kevin J. McGuire

    2014-01-01

    A network of shallow groundwater wells in a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, U.S. was used to investigate the hydrologic behavior of five distinct soil morphological units. The soil morphological units were hypothesized to be indicative of distinct water table regimes. Water table fluctuations in the wells were...

  6. Data of heavy metals in soil and groundwater at Kiwi gardens of Amlash in Guilan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Naghipour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on this paper describe the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in the surface soils and groundwater's of Kiwi gardens and its relation to chemical fertilizers in Amlash city, Guilan Province, in Iran. The results of this study showed that the average concentration of heavy metals in groundwater and soils of the studied areas was less than the national standards of Iran for irrigation water, Dutch MPA for soils (except Cu and Ni and Canadian MAC for inorganic fertilizers. Considering that after fertilizing to soils used in gardening, the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater and soil can be increased significantly, so that chemical fertilizers can be considered as an effective factor in increasing the amount of heavy metals in water and soil. The results of this research can be used by who concern about water and soil quality related to fertilizing and also can be used by Rural Water and Wastewater Company and Ministry of Jahad Agriculture of Iran. Keywords: Heavy metals, Chemical fertilizer, Soil & groundwater pollution, Amlash

  7. Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu; Jahiruddin, M.; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md.; Rahman, Zulfikar Md.

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. - By extracting arsenic contaminated groundwater from a well, surface soil surrounding the well and crops planted in the surface soil became contaminated with arsenic

  8. Protecting smallholders' food security by improving soils | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The resilience of farming systems to climate change and variability depends upon healthy soil. ... communities I know already struggle with perennial food deficits and limited .... Protection de la sécurité alimentaire des petits exploitants grâce à ...

  9. Validation of regression models for nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Brus, D.J.; Roelsma, J.

    2010-01-01

    For Dutch sandy regions, linear regression models have been developed that predict nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater on the basis of residual nitrate contents in the soil in autumn. The objective of our study was to validate these regression models for one particular sandy region dominated by dairy farming. No data from this area were used for calibrating the regression models. The model was validated by additional probability sampling. This sample was used to estimate errors in 1) the predicted areal fractions where the EU standard of 50 mg l -1 is exceeded for farms with low N surpluses (ALT) and farms with higher N surpluses (REF); 2) predicted cumulative frequency distributions of nitrate concentration for both groups of farms. Both the errors in the predicted areal fractions as well as the errors in the predicted cumulative frequency distributions indicate that the regression models are invalid for the sandy soils of this study area. - This study indicates that linear regression models that predict nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater using residual soil N contents should be applied with care.

  10. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Qin, Jiayi; Cruz-Paredes, Carla

    the consequences of returning wood ash to biofuel producing coniferous forest. We that the change in pH and increased availability of nutrients after ash application to forest floor can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible effects for the soil food by applying ash of different...... concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest the soil will be collected with varying intervals and subsequently analyzed. The food web included several trophic levels; bacteria/fungi, protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids and microarthropods and arthropods. Results from 2014 indicated that bacteria...... and protozoa were stimulated in the uppermost soil layer (0-3 cm) two months ash application, whereas the enchytraeids seemed to be slightly negatively affected. Generally, nematodes also appeared to be negatively affected, although it differed between feeding groups. On the higher trophic levels, no effect...

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of soil water balance at the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert for groundwater recharge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lizhu; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Hu, Bill X.; Shang, Jie; Wan, Li

    2016-09-01

    Quantification of groundwater recharge from precipitation in the huge sand dunes is an issue in accounting for regional water balance in the Badain Jaran Desert (BJD) where about 100 lakes exist between dunes. In this study, field observations were conducted on a sand dune near a large saline lake in the BJD to investigate soil water movement through a thick vadose zone for groundwater estimation. The hydraulic properties of the soils at the site were determined using in situ experiments and laboratory measurements. A HYDRUS-1D model was built up for simulating the coupling processes of vertical water-vapor movement and heat transport in the desert soil. The model was well calibrated and validated using the site measurements of the soil water and temperature at various depths. Then, the model was applied to simulate the vertical flow across a 3-m-depth soil during a 53-year period under variable climate conditions. The simulated flow rate at the depth is an approximate estimation of groundwater recharge from the precipitation in the desert. It was found that the annual groundwater recharge would be 11-30 mm during 1983-2012, while the annual precipitation varied from 68 to 172 mm in the same period. The recharge rates are significantly higher than those estimated from the previous studies using chemical information. The modeling results highlight the role of the local precipitation as an essential source of groundwater in the BJD.

  12. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.K.

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location

  13. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  14. Recourse to Dry Land Farming as a Possible Way to Arrest the Degradation of Groundwater, Soil and Land in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Green Revolution enabled the small state of Haryna to become the wheat granary of India - though occupying 1.3% of geographical area of India, it accounts for 13% of wheat, and 3% of quality rice production in India. Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development - one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m, and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana has become mostly saline ( TDS > 4000 mg/l). Improper canal irrigation has raised the water table by 3.0 -9.0 m in some areas, causing water logging over 2346 km2 of land. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like mustard, groundnut, etc and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro- climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations hold good to eastern Rajasthan as well.

  15. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  16. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. Anaerobic implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  17. Contamination of soil and food with radionuclides from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of systematic gamma spectroscopic analyses of fission products performed on the territory of SAP Vojvodina after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Samples of soil grass and food were periodically taken at 5 representative locations and the regions of highest activity concentration are identified on the basis of the results obtained. In the controlled chain soil-plants (feeds)-cow's (milk) on three characteristic locations (soil with different physico-chemical and mechanical properties) the activity concentration of fission radionuclides was determined and transfer factors for soil-plants; feed-milk were calculated. At the territory of hunting sites of SAP Vojvodina, artificial radionuclides were determined in meat and bones of fallow-deer, deer, boar and wild hare; and the highest content of radionuclides was found in meat and bones of boar. (author)

  18. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  19. Pathogen Decontamination of Food Crop Soil: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to delineate means of decontaminating soil. This information might be used to mitigate soil-associated risks of foodborne pathogens. The majority of the research in the published literature involves inactivation of plant pathogens in soil, i.e., those pathogens harmful to fruit and vegetable production and ornamental plants. Very little has been published regarding the inactivation of foodborne human pathogens in crop soil. Nevertheless, because decontamination techniques for plant pathogens might also be useful methods for eliminating foodborne pathogens, this review also includes inactivation of plant pathogens, with appropriate discussion and comparisons, in the hopes that these methods may one day be validated against foodborne pathogens. Some of the major soil decontamination methods that have been investigated and are covered include chemical decontamination (chemigation), solarization, steaming, biofumigation, bacterial competitive exclusion, torch flaming, microwave treatment, and amendment with biochar. Other innovative means of inactivating foodborne pathogens in soils may be discovered and explored in the future, provided that these techniques are economically feasible in terms of chemicals, equipment, and labor. Food microbiology and food safety researchers should reach out to soil scientists and plant pathologists to create links where they do not currently exist and strengthen relationships where they do exist to take advantage of multidisciplinary skills. In time, agricultural output and the demand for fresh produce will increase. With advances in the sensitivity of pathogen testing and epidemiological tracebacks, the need to mitigate preharvest bacterial contamination of fresh produce will become paramount. Hence, soil decontamination technologies may become more economically feasible and practical in light of increasing the microbial safety of fresh produce.

  20. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  1. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  2. Characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater surrounding an illegal landfill (S. Giuliano, Venice, Italy) by principal component analysis and kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Information on soil and groundwater contamination was used to develop a site conceptual model and to identify exposure scenarios. - The characterization of a hydrologically complex contaminated site bordering the lagoon of Venice (Italy) was undertaken by investigating soils and groundwaters affected by the chemical contaminants originated by the wastes dumped into an illegal landfill. Statistical tools such as principal components analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to obtain the spatial distribution of chemical contaminants. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO 4 2- and Cl - were used to trace the migration of the contaminants from the top soil to the underlying groundwaters. The chemical and hydrogeological available information was assembled to obtain the schematic of the conceptual model of the contaminated site capable to support the formulation of major exposure scenarios, which are also provided

  3. Laboratory evaluation of the in situ chemical treatment approach to soil and groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorton, E.C.; Trader, D.E.

    1993-10-01

    Results of initial proof of principle laboratory testing activities successfully demonstrated the viability of the in situ chemical treatment approach for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium. Testing activities currently in progress further indicate that soils contaminated with hexavalent chromium and uranium at concentrations of several hundred parts per million can be successfully treated with 100 ppM hydrogen sulfide gas mixtures. Greater than 90% immobilization of hexavalent chromium and 50% immobilization of uranium have been achieved in these tests after a treatment period of one day. Activities associated with further development and implementation of the in situ chemical treatment approach include conducting additional bench scale tests with contaminated geomedia, and undertaking scale-up laboratory tests and a field demonstration. This report discusses the testing and further development of this process

  4. Cadmium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H Seepage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1994-10-01

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. This disposal practice was discontinued in 1988. At that time, the basins were drained and a low permeability cover system was placed over the basins. In the summer of 1993, soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of these samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of cadmium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of cadmium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. Cadmium was detected in 35 of 53 aqueous samples from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB). Porewater concentration were found to vary from 0.48 to 23.5 μg 1 -1 , with a mean concentration of 3.1 ± 4.3 μg 1 -1 . Based on the 43 of 86 soil samples for which cadmium was detected, the concentration in the soil ranged 88.5 to 1090 μg kg -1 . The mean soil concentration was 214 ± 168 μg kg -1 . This concentration is not significantly different from the concentrations observed in two upgradient soil samples collected from the same lithologic unit. The concentrations from these samples were 293 ± 214 and 431 ± 293 μg kg -1

  5. Fracture detection and groundwater flow characterization in poorly exposed ground using helium and radon in soil gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Radon and helium in soil gases have been used to identify locations of groundwater discharge and the presence of fractures outcropping beneath overburden in two areas near the Underground Research Laboratory (URL), Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. In particular, groundwater discharge from a known, inclined fracture zone at the URL was clearly identified by a helium excess in overlying soil gases. A model was developed to describe gas phase flow in bedrock and overburden at this location, from gas injection in an adjacent borehole. Predictions were made of gas transport pathway and breakthrough time at the surface, in preparation for a gas injection test

  6. Acid sulphate soil disturbance and metals in groundwater: Implications for human exposure through home grown produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Horwitz, Pierre; Appleyard, Steve; Barton, Caroline; Wajrak, Magda

    2006-01-01

    A significant emerging environmental problem is the disturbance and oxidation of soils with high levels of iron sulphide minerals resulting in acidification and causing the mobilization of metals into groundwater. This process is occurring in many parts of the world. In Western Australia, impacted groundwater is extracted by residents for domestic use. We sought to establish domestic use patterns of bore water and the concentration of metals. Sixty-seven domestic bore water samples clearly indicated oxidation of sulphidic materials with heavy metal concentrations ranging for aluminium (< DL-37.0 mg/L), arsenic (< DL-6.6 mg/L), iron (< DL-1200 mg/L), cadmium (< DL-0.021 mg/L), lead (< DL-0.040 mg/L), selenium (< DL-0.006 mg/L). A high proportion of residents used bore water on home grown produce. The study suggests that there is potential for human exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of home grown produce. This warrants further investigation in light of increasing acid sulphate soil disturbance in many locations. - Acidified bore water may introduce metals into produce for home consumption

  7. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  8. Soil fertility shapes belowground food webs across a regional climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Kardol, Paul; Didham, Raphael K; Teste, François P; Turner, Benjamin L; Wardle, David A

    2017-10-01

    Changes in soil fertility during pedogenesis affect the quantity and quality of resources entering the belowground subsystem. Climate governs pedogenesis, yet how climate modulates responses of soil food webs to soil ageing remains unexplored because of the paucity of appropriate model systems. We characterised soil food webs along each of four retrogressive soil chronosequences situated across a strong regional climate gradient to show that belowground communities are predominantly shaped by changes in fertility rather than climate. Basal consumers showed hump-shaped responses to soil ageing, which were propagated to higher-order consumers. There was a shift in dominance from bacterial to fungal energy channels with increasing soil age, while the root energy channel was most important in intermediate-aged soils. Our study highlights the overarching importance of soil fertility in regulating soil food webs, and indicates that belowground food webs will respond more strongly to shifts in soil resources than climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Management of soil physical properties of lowland puddled rice soil for sustainable food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    About 3 billion people who rely on rice as their staple food today will have multiplied to some 4.4 billion by the middle of this century. With rice demand growing at an average rate of about 3 percent annually, 70 percent more rice has to be produced in next 30 years compared to present day production levels. More rice has to come from less favorable environments, with less water and nutrients. Agricultural population densities on Asia's rice producing lands are among the highest in the world and continue to increase at a remarkable rate. Rice has widely adapted itself: to the hot Australian and Egyptian deserts, to the cool Himalayan foothills of Nepal. Hill tribes in Southeast Asia plant it on slash-and-burned forest slopes; that's upland rice. However, low lying areas in Asia, which are subject to uncontrolled flooding, are home to more than 100 million poor farmers. Puddling or wet tillage in rice, decreases total soil porosity only slightly, but markedly changes porosity distribution with both storage and residual porosity increasing at the expanse of transmission porosity. Soil texture plays an important role in soil water retention following soil disturbance. Cracking pattern of the soils is studied after six years of different levels of regular addition of residue. Cracking pattern at a soil surface affects the hydrodynamic properties of soil. Cracking extends the soil-air interface into the soil profile and thereby may increase the moisture loss through evaporation

  10. Impact of groundwater capillary rises as lower boundary conditions for soil moisture in a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Pierre; Decharme, Bertrand; Habets, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a key component of the global hydrological cycle. It sustains base flow in humid climate while it receives seepage in arid region. Moreover, groundwater influences soil moisture through water capillary rise into the soil and potentially affects the energy and water budget between the land surface and the atmosphere. Despite its importance, most global climate models do not account for groundwater and their possible interaction with both the surface hydrology and the overlying atmosphere. This study assesses the impact of capillary rise from shallow groundwater on the simulated water budget over France. The groundwater scheme implemented in the Total Runoff Integrated Pathways (TRIP) river routing model in a previous study is coupled with the Interaction between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model. In this coupling, the simulated water table depth acts as the lower boundary condition for the soil moisture diffusivity equation. An original parameterization accounting for the subgrid elevation inside each grid cell is proposed in order to compute this fully-coupled soil lower boundary condition. Simulations are performed at high (1/12°) and low (0.5°) resolutions and evaluated over the 1989-2009 period. Compared to a free-drain experiment, upward capillary fluxes at the bottom of soil increase the mean annual evapotranspiration simulated over the aquifer domain by 3.12 % and 1.54 % at fine and low resolutions respectively. This process logically induces a decrease of the simulated recharge from ISBA to the aquifers and contributes to enhance the soil moisture memory. The simulated water table depths are then lowered, which induces a slight decrease of the simulated mean annual river discharges. However, the fully-coupled simulations compare well with river discharge and water table depth observations which confirms the relevance of the coupling formalism.

  11. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Groundwater and Agriculture Soil of Gambat, Khairpur District, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, T.; Talpur, M.M.A.; Qazi, Y.F.; Naseem, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the ground water as well as agriculture soil quality, nutrient status and physico-chemical characteristics of Gambat, District Khairpur, Pakistan. Assorted parameters like temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Cl-, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/, HCO/sub 3/ /sup -/, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, SAR values as well as the Piper and Stiff diagrams were determined to confer a clear picture of quality parameters in ground water and agriculture soil of the area. The present investigations conclude that the maximum parameters are not at the level of pollution except major metal ions Na/sup +/ and Ca/sup 2+/. The higher concentration of Ca/sup 2+/ and Na/sup +/ could be due to the deposits of the salts of these elements into soil, which may had leached into ground water. The Piper diagram suggest that composition of water is (Na+/sup +/K/sup +/)-(Ca/sup 2+/+Mg/sup 2+/)-HCO/sub 3/ /sup -/ - (Cl/sup -/+SO/sub 4//sup 2-/)-type. The areal distribution of stiff diagram constructed for groundwater samples showed ionic balances, indicating the major ion analyses are of good quality. Therefore, both ground water and soil samples observed are satisfactory for their utilization in various purposes such as domestic, agricultural, industrial, etc. (author)

  12. Glyphosate and AMPA in U.S. streams, groundwater, precipitation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Dietze, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are used in more than 130 countries on more than 100 crops. In the United States (U.S.), agricultural use of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has increased from less than 10,000 metric tons per year (active ingredient) in 1993 to more than 70,000 metric tons per year in 2006. In 2006, glyphosate accounted for about 20 percent of all herbicide use (by weight of active ingredient). Glyphosate formulations such as Roundup® are used in homes and in agriculture. Part of the reason for the popularity of glyphosate is the perception that it is an “environmentally benign” herbicide that has low toxicity and little mobility or persistence in the environment. The U.S. Geological Survey developed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry that can detect small amounts of glyphosate and its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediment. Results from more than 2,000 samples collected from locations distributed across the U.S. indicate that glyphosate is more mobile and occurs more widely in the environment than was previously thought. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected (reporting limits between 0.1 and 0.02 micrograms per liter) in samples collected from surface water, groundwater, rainfall, soil water, and soil, at concentrations from less than 0.1 to more than 100 micrograms per liter. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in rain (86%), ditches and drains (71%), and soil (63%); and less frequently in groundwater (3%) and large rivers (18%). AMPA was detected more frequently in rain (86%), soil (82%), and large rivers (78%); and less frequently in groundwater (8%) and wetlands or vernal pools (37%). Most observed concentrations of glyphosate were well below levels of concern for humans or wildlife, and none exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 700 micrograms per liter. However, the ecosystem effects of chronic low

  13. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  14. Delineation of ground-water contamination using soil-gas analyses near Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources near Jackson, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. The study included determination of the occurrence of contaminants in the shallow aquifer using soil-gas analyses in the unsaturated zone. Between 1980 and 1988, an underground fuel-storage tank leaked about 3,000 gallons of unleaded fuel to the water table about 4 feet below land surface. A survey of soil gas using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector showed concentrations of volatile organic compounds greater than IO, 000 parts per million near the leak These compounds were detected in an area about 240 feet long and 110 feet wide extending west from the point source. The chromatograms provided two distinct 'fingerprints' of volatile organic compounds. The first revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, andxylenes, which are constituents of unleaded fuel, in addition to other volatile compounds, in soil gas in the area near the leak The second did not reveal any detectable benzene, toluene, or xylenes in the soil-gas samples, but showed the presence of other unidentified volatile organic compounds in soil gas north of the storage tank. The distribution of total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone indicated that a second plume about 200 feet long and 90 feet wide was present about 100 feet north of the storage tank The second plume could have been the result of previous activities at this site during the 1950's or earlier. Activities at the site are believed to have included storage of solvents used at the nearby railyard and flushing of tanks containing tar onto a gravel-covered parking area. The delineation of these plumes has shown that soil-gas analyses can be a useful technique for identifying areas of contamination with volatile organic compounds in shallow water-table aquifers and may have broad applications in similar situations where the water table is relatively close to the surface.

  15. Research on the contamination levels of norovirus in food facilities using groundwater in South Korea, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Su; Joo, In Sun; Ju, Si Yeon; Jeong, Min Hee; Song, Yun-Hee; Kwak, Hyo Sun

    2018-09-02

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major pathogenic virus that is responsible for foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis outbreaks. Groundwater is an important source of drinking water and is used in agriculture and food manufacturing processes. This study investigated norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems at 1360 sites in seven metropolitan areas and nine provinces in 2015-2016. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, and turbidity content were assessed to analyze the water quality. In 2015, six sites were positive for the presence of NoV (0.88%) and in 2016, two sites were positive (0.29%); in total, NoV was detected in 8 of the 1360 sample sites (0.59%) investigated. Identified genotypes of NoV in groundwater included GI.5, 9 and GII.4, 6, 13, 17, and 21. GII.17 was the most prevalent genotype in treated groundwater used in the food industry. This dominance of GII.17 was corroborated by NoV infection outbreak cases and the results of a survey of coastal waters in South Korea in 2014-2015. Although a low detection rate was observed in this study, NoV is a pathogen that can spread extensively. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically monitor levels of norovirus which is responsible for food poisoning in groundwater. This is a first report to reveal epidemic genotype shift of norovirus in groundwater treatment system of food facilities in South Korea. Our results may contribute to the enhancement of public health and sanitary conditions by providing molecular epidemiological information on groundwater NoV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arsenic and metallic trace elements cycling in the surface water-groundwater-soil continuum down-gradient from a reclaimed mine area: Isotopic imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Sassine, Lara; Cary, Lise; Bruguier, Olivier; Verdoux, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    One decade after closure of the Salsigne mine (SW France), As contamination persisted in surface water, groundwater and soil near and down-gradient from the reclaimed ore processing site (OPS). We assess the fate of As and other associated chalcophilic MTEs, and their transport in the surface-water/groundwater/soil continuum down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS, using Sr-isotopic fingerprinting. The Sr-isotope ratio was used as a tracer of transfer processes in this hydro-geosystem and was combined to sequential extraction of soil samples to evaluate the impact of contaminated soil on the underlying phreatic groundwater. The contrast in Sr isotope compositions of the different soil fractions reflects several Sr sources in the soil. In the complex hydro-geosystem around the OPS, the transport of As and MTEs is affected by a succession of factors, such as (1) Existence of a reducing zone in the aquifer below the reclaimed OPS, where groundwater shows relatively high As and MTEs contents, (2) Groundwater discharge into the stream near the reclaimed OPS causing an increase in As and MTE concentrations in surface water; (3) Partial co-precipitation of As with Fe-oxyhydroxides, contributing to some attenuation of As contents in surface water; (4) Infiltration of contaminated stream water into the unconfined aquifer down-gradient from the reclaimed OPS; (5) Accumulation of As and MTEs in soil irrigated with contaminated stream- and groundwater; (6) Release of As and MTEs from labile soil fractions to underlying the groundwater.

  17. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  18. Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Liiri, Mira E.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bowker, Matthew A.; Christensen, Søren; Setälä, Heikki; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Soils deliver several ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling, which are of central importance to climate mitigation and sustainable food production. Soil biota play an important role in carbon and nitrogen cycling, and, although the effects of land use on soil food webs are well documented the consequences for their resistance and resilience to climate change are not known. We compared the resistance and resilience to drought--which is predicted to increase under climate change of soil food webs of two common land-use systems: intensively managed wheat with a bacterial-based soil food web and extensively managed grassland with a fungal-based soil food web. We found that the fungal-based food web, and the processes of C and N loss it governs, of grassland soil was more resistant, although not resilient, and better able to adapt to drought than the bacterial-based food web of wheat soil. Structural equation modelling revealed that fungal-based soil food webs and greater microbial evenness mitigated C and N loss. Our findings show that land use strongly affects the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to climate change, and that extensively managed grassland promotes more resistant, and adaptable, fungal-based soil food webs.

  19. Soil fertility and the role of soils for food security in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittonell, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Addressing current and future food security is not just a matter of producing more food globally. Agricultural productivity must increase where food is most needed, and where both rural and urban populations are expected to increase the fastest in the near future. This is the situation in most of sub-Saharan Africa and in several other regions of Latin America, Asia and the Pacific. There are some common denominators to these regions. In the first place, the inability of the majority of farmers to access and/or to afford agricultural inputs. Second, the severity with which climate change impacts on some of these regions. Third, the extent of soil degradation, which is estimated at 25% of the arable land in the world. And finally, the fact that some of these regions are hosting valuable biodiversity and/or delivering ecosystem services of global or regional importance, which often leads to competing claims between the local and international communities. It has been repeatedly shown that the technologies of industrial agriculture as practiced in developed regions are ineffective at sustaining soil productivity in the context of smallholder family agriculture. Restoring soil productivity and ecosystem functions in these contexts requires new ways of managing soil fertility. These include: (i) innovative forms of 'precision' agriculture that consider the diversity, heterogeneity and dynamics of smallholder farming systems; (ii) a systems approach to nutrient acquisition and management; (iii) agroecological strategies for the restoration of degraded soils and the maintenance of soil physical properties; and (iv) to capitalize on the recent and growing understanding on soil trophic networks to increase nutrient and water use efficiency. I will provide examples on advances in these fronts, and discuss the challenges ahead their broad implementation by farmers in developing regions.

  20. Perennial filter strips reduce nitrate levels in soil and shallow groundwater after grassland-to-cropland conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobo Zhou; Matthew J. Helmers; Heidi Asbjornsen; Randy Kolka; Mark D. Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Many croplands planted to perennial grasses under the Conservation Reserve Program are being returned to crop production, and with potential consequences for water quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of grassland-to-cropland conversion on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil and shallow groundwater and to...

  1. Uranium geochemistry in soil and groundwater at the F and H seepage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1994-09-01

    For 33 years, low activity liquid wastes from the chemical separation areas at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site were disposed of in unlined seepage basins. Soil and associated pore water samples of widely varying groundwater chemistries and contaminant concentrations were collected from the region downgradient of these basins using cone penetrometer technology. Analysis of samples using inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry has allowed the investigation of uranium partitioning between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at this site. The distribution of uranium was examined with respect to the solution and soil chemistry (e.g., pH, redox potential, cation and contaminant concentration) and aqueous-phase chemical speciation modeling. The uranium soil source term at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) is much smaller than has been used in previous modeling efforts. This should result in a much shorter remediation time and a greater effectiveness of a pump-and-treat design than previously predicted. Distribution coefficients at the (FHSB) were found to vary between 1.2 to 34,000 1 kg -1 for uranium. Differences in sorption of these elements can be explained primarily by changes in aqueous pH and the associated change in soil surface charge. Sorption models were fit directly to sorption isotherms from field samples. All models underestimated the fraction of uranium bound at low aqueous uranium concentrations. Linear models overestimated bound uranium at locations where the aqueous concentration was greater than 500 ppb. Mechanistic models provided a much better estimate of the bound uranium concentrations, especially at high aqueous concentrations. Since a large fraction of the uranium at the site is associated with the low-pH portion of the plume, consideration should be given to pumping water from the lowest pH portions of the plume in the F-Area

  2. Landscape structure, groundwater dynamics, and soil water content influence soil respiration across riparian-hillslope transitions in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Brian L. McGlynn; Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Daniel L. Welsch; Howard E. Epstein

    2011-01-01

    Variability in soil respiration at various spatial and temporal scales has been the focus of much research over the last decade aimed to improve our understanding and parameterization of physical and environmental controls on this flux. However, few studies have assessed the control of landscape position and groundwater table dynamics on the spatiotemporal variability...

  3. Semianalytical model predicting transfer of volatile pollutants from groundwater to the soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2010-08-15

    Volatilization of toxic organic contaminants from groundwater to the soil surface is often considered an important pathway in risk analysis. Most of the risk models use simplified linear solutions that may overpredict the volatile flux. Although complex numerical models have been developed, their use is restricted to experienced users and for sites where field data are known in great detail. We present here a novel semianalytical model running on a spreadsheet that simulates the volatilization flux and vertical concentration profile in a soil based on the Van Genuchten functions. These widely used functions describe precisely the gas and water saturations and movement in the capillary fringe. The analytical model shows a good accuracy over several orders of magnitude when compared to a numerical model and laboratory data. The effect of barometric pumping is also included in the semianalytical formulation, although the model predicts that barometric pumping is often negligible. A sensitivity study predicts significant fluxes in sandy vadose zones and much smaller fluxes in other soils. Fluxes are linked to the dimensionless Henry's law constant H for H < 0.2 and increase by approximately 20% when temperature increases from 5 to 25 degrees C.

  4. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction

  5. Complementary effects of surface water and groundwater on soil moisture dynamics in a degraded coastal floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryRestoration of degraded floodplain forests requires a robust understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose zone hydrology. Soil moisture is of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival, but is difficult to monitor and often overlooked in wetland restoration studies. This research hypothesizes that the complex effects of surface water and shallow groundwater on the soil moisture dynamics of floodplain wetlands are spatially complementary. To test this hypothesis, 31 long-term (4-year) hydrological time series were collected in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where watershed modifications have led to reduced freshwater flow, altered hydroperiod and salinity, and a degraded ecosystem. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, was applied to model temporal and spatial variation in 12 soil moisture time series as linear combinations of common trends (representing shared, but unexplained, variability) and explanatory variables (selected from 19 additional candidate hydrological time series). The resulting dynamic factor models yielded good predictions of observed soil moisture series (overall coefficient of efficiency = 0.90) by identifying surface water elevation, groundwater elevation, and net recharge (cumulative rainfall-cumulative evapotranspiration) as important explanatory variables. Strong and complementary linear relationships were found between floodplain elevation and surface water effects (slope = 0.72, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001), and between elevation and groundwater effects (slope = -0.71, R2 = 0.71, p = 0.001), while the effect of net recharge was homogenous across the experimental transect (slope = 0.03, R2 = 0.05, p = 0.242). This study provides a quantitative insight into the spatial structure of groundwater and surface water effects on soil moisture that will be useful for refining monitoring plans and developing ecosystem restoration and management scenarios

  6. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  8. Soil and groundwater contamination with heavy metals at two scrap iron and metal recycling facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Holm, P. E.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Field studies were performed at two actual scrap iron and metal recycling facilities in order to evaluate the extent of heavy metal migration into subsoil and groundwater caused by more than 25 years of handling scrap directly on the ground without any measures to prevent leaching. Surface soil...... samples, called `scrap dirt', representing the different activities on the two recycling facilities, all showed very high concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) , chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) and somewhat elevated concentrations of many other metals....... In particular high concentrations were found for Pb at the car-battery salvage locations (13 to 26 g Pb kg±1) and Cu at the cable burning location (22 g Cu kg±1) at one site. The migration of metals below the surface in general (except at the car-battery salvage locations) was very limited even after...

  9. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  10. Soil and groundwater VOCs contamination: How can electrical geophysical measurements help assess post-bioremediation state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessouri, P.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Johnson, C. D.

    2016-12-01

    The former Brandywine MD (Maryland, USA) Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) was designated a hazardous waste Superfund site in 1999. The site was used as a storage area for waste and excess government equipment generated by several U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force installations, leading to soil and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Active bioremediation through anaerobic reductive dehalogenation was used to treat the groundwater and the aquifer unconsolidated materials in 2008, with electrical geophysical measurements employed to track amendment injections. Eight years later, we used spectral induced polarization (SIP) and time domain induced polarization (TDIP) on 2D surface lines and borehole electrical arrays to assess the long term impact of active remediation on physicochemical properties of the subsurface. Within the aquifer, the treated zone is more electrically conductive, and the phase shift describing the polarization effects is higher than in the untreated zone. Bulk conductivity and phase shift are also locally elevated close to the treatment injection well, possibly due to biogeochemical transformations associated with prolonged bacterial activity. Observed SIP variations could be explained by the presence of biofilms coating the pore space and/or by-products of the chemical reactions catalyzed by the bacterial activity (e.g. iron sulfide precipitation). To investigate these possibilities, we conducted complementary well logging measurements (magnetic susceptibility [MS], nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], gamma-ray) using 5 boreholes installed at both treated and untreated locations of the site. We also collected water and soil samples on which we conducted microbiological and chemical analyses, along with geophysical observations (SIP, MS and NMR), in the laboratory. These measurements provide further insights into the physicochemical transformations in the subsurface resulting from the treatment and highlight

  11. Food Offer Inside Agroecosystem Soils as an Ecological Factor for Settling Microhabitats by Soil Saprophagous Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Smrž

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mainly abiotic factors have been considered in examining soil fauna invasion or settlement. The role of soil animals communities was not considered. Our hypothesis, indeed, can be formulated: the structure and feeding habits of the soil animals community is not able to play some role in the soil rating. Localities, however, can be fragmented into microhabitats. We studied cultivated field and adjacent unploughed areas (so-called baulks, using the common Berlese–Tullgren apparatus for community structure studies followed by histological tests of food consumed by community members. We selected a group of oribatid mites, which are frequent and abundant. In the studied localities and their microhabitats, three groups of oribatid mites can be reported. First – ubiquitous species a second – migrants from the less-impacted to more-impacted microhabitats and third – specialists sensitive to severe environmental conditions in more-impacted microhabitat. They consequently live only in the less-severe, less-impacted unploughed soils and never migrate from these microhabitats. Their grazed and digested food is more diversified, and they included more feeding specialists.

  12. Managing Agricultural Soils of Pakistan for Food and Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan; a predominantly arid land region; has a large, growing, urbanizing and increasingly affluent population. Soil and water resources are finite, with per capita arable land area of 0.10 ha by 2050, and prone to degradation by inappropriate management, harsh environments and changing climate. Nonetheless, agriculture productivity increased strongly between 1960 and 2016. Whereas, the population of Pakistan increased by a factor of 4.5 between 1960 and 2018 (from 45 to 201 million, total cereal grain production increased by a factor of 6.5 (from 6.6 to 43.0 million ton. Despite the impressive gains in agricultural production since the Green Revolution era, there is no cause for complacency because even greater challenges lie ahead. Total food production may have to be doubled between 2015 and 2050 because of the growth in population along with rapidly urbanizing and increasingly affluent lifestyle. The national agronomic crop yield (2.8 Mg/ha for wheat, 3.8 Mg/ha for rice, and 4.6 Mg/ha for maize may have to be increased drastically, and that too in a changing and uncertain climate. Important among the challenges are the growing incidence of drought stress and heatwave, and increasing risks of soil degradation and desertification. Further, soil resources must also be managed to advance the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs of the UN; achieve Land Degradation Neutrality proposed by the UNCCD; implement the “4 per Thousand” program of soil carbon sequestration initiated at COP21 in Paris in 2015; and fulfil the aspirations of better lifestyle for the people of Pakistan. The strategy is to restore degraded soils and desertified ecosystems through sustainable intensification. The goal is to produce more from less by reducing losses (i.e., water, nutrients, soil and enhancing eco-efficiency of inputs (i.e., fertilizer, irrigation water, energy. Vertical increase in agronomic yield, by restoring soil health and adopting best management

  13. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  14. Soil food web changes during spontaneous succession at post mining sites: a possible ecosystem engineering effect on food web organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1- 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel.

  15. A framework of connections between soil and people can help improve sustainability of the food system and soil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Bruce C; Hargreaves, Paul R; Watson, Christine A

    2018-04-01

    Globally soil quality and food security continue to decrease indicating that agriculture and the food system need to adapt. Improving connection to the soil by knowledge exchange can help achieve this. We propose a framework of three types of connections that allow the targeting of appropriate messages to different groups of people. Direct connection by, for example, handling soil develops soil awareness for management that can be fostered by farmers joining groups on soil-focused farming such as organic farming or no-till. Indirect connections between soil, food and ecosystem services can inform food choices and environmental awareness in the public and can be promoted by, for example, gardening, education and art. Temporal connection revealed from past usage of soil helps to bring awareness to policy workers of the need for the long-term preservation of soil quality for environmental conservation. The understanding of indirect and temporal connections can be helped by comparing them with the operations of the networks of soil organisms and porosity that sustain soil fertility and soil functions.

  16. A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Lee, Jechan; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Groundwater electrical conductivity and soil radon gas monitoring for earthquake precursory studies in Koyna, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, D.V.; Nagabhushanam, P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → It is the first hydrochemical precursory study in the Koyna region, India. → Discrete conductivity measurements indicated progressive increase for 4 years. → Strong precursory EC change observed 40 h before the M 5.1 earthquake. → Precursory increase of soil Rn gas 20 days earlier than earthquakes M 4.7 and 5.1. → On-line monitoring of these parameters may help in earthquake forecast. - Abstract: Hourly monitoring of electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater along with groundwater levels in the 210 m deep boreholes (specially drilled for pore pressure/earthquake studies) and soil Rn gas at 60 cm below ground level in real time, in the Koyna-Warna region (characterized by basaltic rocks, >1500 m thick, and dotted with several sets of fault systems), western India, provided strong precursory signatures in response to two earthquakes (M 4.7 on 14/11/09, and M 5.1 on 12/12/09) that occurred in the study region. The EC measured in Govare well water showed precursory perturbations about 40 h prior to the M 5.1 earthquake and continued further for about 20 h after the earthquake. In response to the M 4.7 earthquake, there were EC perturbations 8 days after the earthquake. In another well (Koyna) which is located 4 km north of Govare well, no precursory signatures were found for the M 4.7 earthquake, while for M 5.1 earthquake, post-seismic precursors were found 18 days after the earthquake. Increased porosity and reduced pressure head accompanied by mixing of a freshwater component from the top zone due to earthquakes are the suggested mechanisms responsible for the observed anomalies in EC. Another parameter, soil Rn gas showed relatively proportional strength signals corresponding to these two earthquakes. In both the cases, the pre-seismic increase in Rn concentration started about 20 days in advance. The co-seismic drop in Rn levels was less by 30% from its peak value for the M 4.7 earthquake and 50% for the M 5.1 earthquake. The Rn

  18. Uncertainty in 14C model ages of groundwater: The influence of soil gas in terranes dominated by C3 plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Hart, R.; Eggett, D.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest source of fresh water readily available to humanity and aquifers with long residence times are particularly susceptible to overuse. Thus, it is important to have quantitative estimates of the residence time of water in such aquifers. Many models used to calculate 14C ages of groundwater depend on an estimate of the δ13C value of carbon dioxide in soil at the time of recharge, a value that must be estimated. Other work has suggested that for terranes dominated by C3 plants, -23‰ is an appropriate value, and sensitivity calculations show that the apparent age of a groundwater is strongly dependent on the choice of this parameter. This is especially true where the measured values of δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are used to estimate the contribution of “dead” carbon to the DIC load via the dissolution of calcite in the aquifer and soil zones. To better understand the temporal and spatial isotopic and abundance variability of soil carbon dioxide, we established soil gas sampling sites that encompassed a wide variety of settings in terms of season, elevation, climate, and plant community that were sampled monthly throughout regions of the state of Utah where C3 flora dominate. Direct measurements of soil gas suggest a value of -21.8 ± 1.4‰ (1σ) is a good input variable as long as: a) C3 vegetation dominates, and b) extreme aridity does not prevail such that plant densities and soil microbial activities are minimized. If recharge is envisaged to occur during spring and early summer in highly vegetated uplands, a value of -24.0 ± 0.6‰ may be more appropriate as statistical analysis reveals that seasonality and plant density are most clearly correlated to the carbon isotope composition of carbon dioxide in soil gas. Although the two values and ranges cited above values do not diverge strongly from other published estimates, they place fairly narrow limits on the uncertainty of ±500 and ±200 yr., respectively, in

  19. TOWARDS FOOD SAFETY. POTENTIALLY HARMFUL ELEMENTS (PHEs FLUXES FROM SOIL TO FOOD CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L. from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V. The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities, Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices. Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered plants. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources (dust ingestion, water, there seems to be no

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of nitrate-N transport in vadose zone: Roles of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbariyeh, Simin; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Tang, Zhenghong; Li, Yusong

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of groundwater from nitrogen fertilizers in agricultural lands is an important environmental and water quality management issue. It is well recognized that in agriculturally intensive areas, fertilizers and pesticides may leach through the vadose zone and eventually reach groundwater. While numerical models are commonly used to simulate fate and transport of agricultural contaminants, few models have considered a controlled field work to investigate the influence of soil heterogeneity and groundwater flow on nitrate-N distribution in both root zone and deep vadose zone. In this work, a numerical model was developed to simulate nitrate-N transport and transformation beneath a center pivot-irrigated corn field on Nebraska Management System Evaluation area over a three-year period. The model was based on a realistic three-dimensional sediment lithology, as well as carefully controlled irrigation and fertilizer application plans. In parallel, a homogeneous soil domain, containing the major sediment type of the site (i.e. sandy loam), was developed to conduct the same water flow and nitrate-N leaching simulations. Simulated nitrate-N concentrations were compared with the monitored nitrate-N concentrations in 10 multi-level sampling wells over a three-year period. Although soil heterogeneity was mainly observed from top soil to 3 m below the surface, heterogeneity controlled the spatial distribution of nitrate-N concentration. Soil heterogeneity, however, has minimal impact on the total mass of nitrate-N in the domain. In the deeper saturated zone, short-term variations of nitrate-N concentration correlated with the groundwater level fluctuations.

  1. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world.

  2. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  3. Remedial Measures for Counterbalancing the After Effects of Green Revolution on the Georesources of Groundwater, Land and Soil in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S. K.

    2008-05-01

    In Haryana, one of the wheat granaries of India where water resources have depleted to a critical level (1050 m3 /year/person), groundwater alone has 53% share in the irrigation, the remaining 47% comes from canal system of glacier-fed rivers, viz., Yamuna and Satluj originating from Himalayas. The Green Revolution (1971-1990, intensive phase) enabled this small state to become an agro-economic state in northern alluvial plains of India. Though occupying 1.3 % geographical area and containing 2% of the population of India, it produces country's 13% wheat and about 3% quality rice besides other cereals, oil seeds, sugarcane and cotton. However, Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development- one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m in twelve of its nineteen districts and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana is mostly saline (TDS > 4000 mg/l) and irrational canal irrigation has paradoxically raised the water-table by 3-9m in seven districts causing waterlogging over 2346 km2 land of which 251 km2 is fully waterlogged. In the land use pattern 131,000 ha prime cultivable land (about 3% of the total) has been lost to urbanization jeopardizing the FOOD SECURITY. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like groundnut, sunflower, mustard, etc. and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro-climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations also hold good to the adjoining eastern Rajasthan.

  4. Independent technical reviews for groundwater and soil remediation projects at US Department Of Energy sites - 59188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, Dawn S.; Chamberlain, Grover; Morse, John G.; Petersen, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management has supported independent technical reviews of soil and groundwater projects at multiple DOE sites over the last 10 years. These reviews have resulted in significant design improvements to remedial plans that have accelerated cleanup and site closure. Many have also resulted in improved understanding of complex subsurface conditions, promoting better approaches to design and implementation of new technologies. Independent technical reviews add value, because they provide another perspective to problem solving and act as a check for especially challenging problems. By bringing in a team of independent experts with a broad experience base, alternative solutions are recommended for consideration and evaluation. In addition, the independence of the panel is significant, because it is able to address politically sensitive issues. The expert panel members typically bring lessons learned from other sites to help solve the DOE problems. In addition, their recommendations at a particular site can often be applied at other sites, making the review even more valuable. The review process can vary, but some common lessons ensure a successful review: - Use a multi-disciplinary broadly experienced team; - Engage the panel early and throughout the project; - Involve regulators and stakeholders in the workshop, if appropriate. - Provide sufficient background information; - Close the workshop with a debriefing followed by a written report. Many groundwater remediation challenges remain at DOE sites. Independent technical reviews have and will ensure that the best capabilities and experience are applied to reduce risks and uncertainties. Even though the groundwater remediation industry has developed significantly over the last twenty years, advancements are needed to address the complexities of the subsurface at the DOE sites. These advancements have tremendous potential to save millions of dollars and to accelerate the

  5. Phase 1 remediation of jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport using dual phase extraction and bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Bianco, P. Rizzo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contaminated with jet fuel at Terminal One of the JFK International Airport in New York have been remediated using dual phase extraction (DPE) and bioventing. Two areas were remediated using 51 DPE wells and 20 air sparging/air injection wells. The total area remediated by the DPE wells is estimated to be 4.8 acres. Groundwater was extracted to recover nonaqueous phase and aqueous phase jet fuel from the shallow aquifer and treated above ground by the following processes; oil/water separation, iron-oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, air stripping and liquid-phase granular activated carbon (LPGAC) adsorption. The extracted vapors were treated by vapor-phase granular activated carbon (VPGAC) adsorption in one area, and catalytic oxidation and VPGAC adsorption in another area. After 6 months of remediation, approximately 5,490 lbs. of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were removed by soil vapor extraction (SVE), 109,650 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed from the extracted groundwater, and 60,550 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were biologically oxidized by subsurface microorganisms. Of these three mechanisms, the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon removal was the highest for biological oxidation in one area and by groundwater extraction in another area

  6. SLiM : an improved soil moisture balance method to simulate runoff and potential groundwater recharge processes using spatio-temporal weather and catchment characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Barkwith, Andrew; Jackson, Christopher; Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The numerical modelling of runoff and groundwater recharge plays an important role in water resource management. The methodologies developed for these simulations should represent the key physical processes, and be applicable in a wide variety of climates for routine simulations using readily available field information. This paper describes the development of a Soil and Landuse based rainfall-runoff and recharge Model (SLiM) based on Rushton’s method – a single soil layer groundwater recharg...

  7. U-ages in soils and groundwater evidencing wet periods 400-600 kyr ago in southeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    238 U and its radiogenic daughter 234 U have been utilized for dating soil formation and groundwater residence time during the last 1.5 million years, in this case based on the U-dissolution/precipitation occurring during modifications of the oxidation-reduction conditions. In this paper, we report a 400-600 kyr proxy of wet periods from sediments occurring in a soil profile developed over rocks outcropping at the Parana sedimentary basin in Brazil, and from groundwater exploited of Guarani aquifer at the same basin. The approaches indicated successful use of the U-modeled ages for suggesting wet periods exceeding the past 116-210 kyr from previous studies

  8. Soil resource supply influences faunal size?specific distributions in natural food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Christian; Den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-01-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use...

  9. Screening-Level Risk Assessment for Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer Detected in Soil and Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C. R.; Gargas, M. L.; Collins, J. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment. PMID:23030654

  10. Feasibility analysis of using inverse modeling for estimating natural groundwater recharge from a large-scale soil moisture monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiejun; Franz, Trenton E.; Yue, Weifeng; Szilagyi, Jozsef; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; You, Jinsheng; Chen, Xunhong; Shulski, Martha D.; Young, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of groundwater recharge (GR), its accurate estimation still remains one of the most challenging tasks in the field of hydrology. In this study, with the help of inverse modeling, long-term (6 years) soil moisture data at 34 sites from the Automated Weather Data Network (AWDN) were used to estimate the spatial distribution of GR across Nebraska, USA, where significant spatial variability exists in soil properties and precipitation (P). To ensure the generality of this study and its potential broad applications, data from public domains and literature were used to parameterize the standard Hydrus-1D model. Although observed soil moisture differed significantly across the AWDN sites mainly due to the variations in P and soil properties, the simulations were able to capture the dynamics of observed soil moisture under different climatic and soil conditions. The inferred mean annual GR from the calibrated models varied over three orders of magnitude across the study area. To assess the uncertainties of the approach, estimates of GR and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from the calibrated models were compared to the GR and ETa obtained from other techniques in the study area (e.g., remote sensing, tracers, and regional water balance). Comparison clearly demonstrated the feasibility of inverse modeling and large-scale (>104 km2) soil moisture monitoring networks for estimating GR. In addition, the model results were used to further examine the impacts of climate and soil on GR. The data showed that both P and soil properties had significant impacts on GR in the study area with coarser soils generating higher GR; however, different relationships between GR and P emerged at the AWDN sites, defined by local climatic and soil conditions. In general, positive correlations existed between annual GR and P for the sites with coarser-textured soils or under wetter climatic conditions. With the rapidly expanding soil moisture monitoring networks around the

  11. Does plant uptake or low soil mineral-N production limit mineral-N losses to surface waters and groundwater from soils under grass in summer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Ambreen; McClean, Colin J.; Cresser, Malcolm S.

    2013-01-01

    Summer minima and autumn/winter maxima in nitrate concentrations in rivers are reputedly due to high plant uptake of nitrate from soils in summer. A novel alternative hypothesis is tested here for soils under grass. By summer, residual readily mineralizable plant litter from the previous autumn/winter is negligible and fresh litter input low. Consequently little mineral-N is produced in the soil. Water-soluble and KCl-extractable mineral N in fresh soils and soils incubated outdoors for 7 days have been monitored over 12 months for soil transects at two permanent grassland sites near York, UK, using 6 replicates throughout. Vegetation-free soil is shown to produce very limited mineral-N in summer, despite the warm, moist conditions. Litter accumulates in autumn/winter and initially its high C:N ratio favours N accumulation in the soil. It is also shown that mineral-N generated monthly in situ in soil substantially exceeds the monthly mineral-N inputs via wet deposition at the sites. -- Highlights: •Soil mineral-N has been measured over a year at two grassland sites in the UK. •Rates of mineral-N production have also been measured in vegetation-free soils. •In summer, though soils were warm and moist, rate of mineral-N production was low. •The effect is attributed to low litter inputs in summer when grass is growing well. •Low mineral-N production in summer must be limiting N losses to fresh waters. -- Low mineral-N production in soils under grass limits summer N losses to surface- and ground-waters

  12. World Reference Base | FAO SOILS PORTAL | Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Soil classification > World Reference Base FAO SOILS PORTAL Survey Assessment Biodiversity Management Degradation/Restoration Policies/Governance Publications Soil properties Soil classification World Soil Maps and Databases World Reference Base Dominant soils of the world The World Reference Base (WRB

  13. Correlation between geology and radon levels in groundwater, soil and indoor air in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, V.M.; Ramola, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in soil, air and groundwater in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India by using an LR-115 plastic track detector and radon emanometer. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 1 KBq/m 3 to 57 KBq/m 3 in soil, 5 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l in water and 95 Bq/m 3 to 208 Bq/m 3 in air. The recorded values are quite high due to associated uranium mineralization in the area. Radon concentration was also found to depend on the tectonic structure and geology of the area. (orig.)

  14. In-situ remediation of brine impacted soils and groundwater using hydraulic fracturing, desalinization and recharge wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C. [Wiebe Environmental Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Ratiu, I. [GeoGrid Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This conference presentation focused on the in-stu remediation of brine impacted soils and groundwater using hydraulic fracturing, desalinization and recharge wells. A former oil battery was established in the 1940s, decommissioned in the late 1960s with a reclamation certificate issued in 1972. The land owner reported poor vegetative growth in the former battery area. The purpose of the study was to investigate the cause of poor growth and delineate contaminants of concern and to remediate impacted soil and groundwater associated with the former battery site. The investigation involved agrological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigation into the extent of anthropogenic impacts as well as the development of remediation options and plans to deal with issues of concern. The presentation provided the results of the investigation, options identified, and discussed limitation on salt remediation and treatment of saline soils. Other topics included hydraulic fracturing, injection wells that were installed to re-circulate treated groundwater though the salt plume, desalinization processes, and next steps. figs.

  15. Coupling ANIMO and MT3DMS for 3D regional-scale modeling of nutrient transport in soil and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G.; Del Val Alonso, L.; Groenendijk, P.; Griffioen, J.

    2012-12-01

    We developed an on-line coupling between the 1D/quasi-2D nutrient transport model ANIMO and the 3D groundwater transport model code MT3DMS. ANIMO is a detailed, process-oriented model code for the simulation of nitrate leaching to groundwater, N- and P-loads on surface waters and emissions of greenhouse gasses. It is the leading nutrient fate and transport code in the Netherlands where it is used primarily for the evaluation of fertilization related legislation. In addition, the code is applied frequently in international research projects. MT3DMS is probably the most commonly used groundwater solute transport package worldwide. The on-line model coupling ANIMO-MT3DMS combines the state-of-the-art descriptions of the biogeochemical cycles in ANIMO with the advantages of using a 3D approach for the transport through the saturated domain. These advantages include accounting for regional lateral transport, considering groundwater-surface water interactions more explicitly, and the possibility of using MODFLOW to obtain the flow fields. An additional merit of the on-line coupling concept is that it preserves feedbacks between the saturated and unsaturated zone. We tested ANIMO-MT3DMS by simulating nutrient transport for the period 1970-2007 in a Dutch agricultural polder catchment covering an area of 118 km2. The transient groundwater flow field had a temporal resolution of one day and was calculated with MODFLOW-MetaSWAP. The horizontal resolution of the model grid was 100x100m and consisted of 25 layers of varying thickness. To keep computation times manageable, we prepared MT3DMS for parallel computing, which in itself is a relevant development for a large community of groundwater transport modelers. For the parameterization of the soil, we applied a standard classification approach, representing the area by 60 units with unique combinations of soil type, land use and geohydrological setting. For the geochemical parameterization of the deeper subsurface, however, we

  16. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER MS

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site

  17. Nitrogen-isotope ratio studies of soils and groundwater nitrate from alluvial fan aquifers in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Kreitler has previously identified two ranges of nitrogen-isotope values (delta 15 N) for soil nitrate under different land uses in west Texas: nitrate originating from nonfertilized, cultivated fields (delta 14 N range, 2 to +8per thousand with an average of +4.9per thousand), and nitrate from animal wastes (delta 15 N range, +10 to +22per thousand with an average of +14.4per thousand). The delta 15 N of groundwater nitrate from irrigation wells on the Lockhart and Taylor and alluvial fans range from +3.3 to +10.8per thousand with an average of +7.3per thousand. Ground water from domestic wells on the two fans has higher nitrate concentrations and a more positive delta 15 N range (+6.7 to 18.2per thousand with an average of +11.1per thousand) than wells located in the cultivated fields. Nitrate contamination of wells located in cultivated fields results primarily from cultivation with ammonium-type fertilizers, whereas animal wastes are contaminating domestic well waters. (Auth.)

  18. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2007-12-05

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site.

  19. Leaching and soil/groundwater transport of contaminants from coal combustion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelmar, O.; Hansen, E.A.; Larsen, F.; Thomassen, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this project the results of accelerated laboratory leaching tests on coal fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products from the spray dryer absorption process (SDA) were evaluated by comparison to the results of large scale lysimeter leaching tests on the same residues. The mobility of chromium and molybdenum - two of the kev contaminants of coal combustion residue leachates - in various typical soil types was investigated by batch and column methods in the laboratory. Some of the results were confirmed by field observations at an old coal fly ash disposal site and by a lysimeter attenuation test with coal fly ash leachate on a clayed till. A large number of groundwater transport models and geochemical models were reviewed, and two of the models (Gove-Stollenwerk and CHMTRNS) were modified and adjusted and used to simulate column attenuation tests performed in the laboratory. One of the models (Grove-Stollenwerk) was used to illustrate a recommended method of environmental impact assessment, using lysimeter leaching data and laboratory column attenuation data to describe the emission and migration of Mo from a coal fly ash disposal site

  20. Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change is likely to exacerbate plant abiotic stress in the coming decades by increasing water stress and by accelerating soil fertility degradation. To respond to this set of challenges, there is a need to develop agricultural systems with significantly greater productivity and resilience that at the same time use limited natural resources more efficiently. Low phosphorus (N) and nitrogen (P) availabilities are primary limitations to productivity in low input agriculture, and fertilizers are primary resource inputs in intensive agriculture. A critical feature of future agricultural systems will be new crop varieties with improved conversion of soil resources to yields. These new cultivars would have improved productivity in low input systems and decreased input requirements in high input systems. Many scientists are currently turning their attention to roots, the hidden half of the plant, as central to their efforts to produce crops with better yields without causing environmental damage. Several root traits are known to be associated with P and N acquisition efficiency in low N and P soils. These root traits include root hairs, root length, root branching and root density. The identification of root traits for enhanced P and N acquisition is enabling crop breeders to develop new genotypes with better yields in low fertility soils of Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, in order to use a trait as a selection criterion for crop improvement, either direct phenotypic selection or through marker assisted selection, it is necessary to develop protocols to measure accurately the root traits that enhance N and P acquisition in the glasshouse and in the field, which can provide robust and rapid evaluation of many root systems' architectural traits in targeted production environments using different crops. The objective of the Coordinated Research Project on Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils was to develop integrated

  1. Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    Global climate change is likely to exacerbate plant abiotic stress in the coming decades by increasing water stress and by accelerating soil fertility degradation. To respond to this set of challenges, there is a need to develop agricultural systems with significantly greater productivity and resilience that at the same time use limited natural resources more efficiently. Low phosphorus (N) and nitrogen (P) availabilities are primary limitations to productivity in low input agriculture, and fertilizers are primary resource inputs in intensive agriculture. A critical feature of future agricultural systems will be new crop varieties with improved conversion of soil resources to yields. These new cultivars would have improved productivity in low input systems and decreased input requirements in high input systems. Many scientists are currently turning their attention to roots, the hidden half of the plant, as central to their efforts to produce crops with better yields without causing environmental damage. Several root traits are known to be associated with P and N acquisition efficiency in low N and P soils. These root traits include root hairs, root length, root branching and root density. The identification of root traits for enhanced P and N acquisition is enabling crop breeders to develop new genotypes with better yields in low fertility soils of Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, in order to use a trait as a selection criterion for crop improvement, either direct phenotypic selection or through marker assisted selection, it is necessary to develop protocols to measure accurately the root traits that enhance N and P acquisition in the glasshouse and in the field, which can provide robust and rapid evaluation of many root systems' architectural traits in targeted production environments using different crops. The objective of the Coordinated Research Project on Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils was to develop integrated

  2. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  3. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Franciska; Liiri, Mira; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund

    2012-01-01

    the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat...... lower in C and with a bacterial-based food web. Moreover, we assessed the effect of plant presence on the recovery of the soil food web after drought. Drought legacy effects increased plant growth in both systems, and a plant strongly reduced N leaching. Fungi, bacteria, and their predators were more...... resilient after drought in the grassland soil than in the wheat soil. The presence of a plant strongly affected the composition of the soil food web, and alleviated the effects of drought for most trophic groups, regardless of the system. This effect was stronger for the bottom trophic levels, whose...

  4. Food choice of Antarctic soil arthropods clarified by stable isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Ronfort, C.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Convey, P.; Aerts, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Antarctic soil ecosystems are amongst the most simplified on Earth and include only few soil arthropod species, generally believed to be opportunistic omnivorous feeders. Using stable isotopic analyses, we investigated the food choice of two common and widely distributed Antarctic soil arthropod

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations

  6. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer, E-mail: odahan@bgu.ac.il; Ronen, Zeev, E-mail: zeevrone@bgu.ac.il

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  7. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10"5 to 10"7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  8. Soil and geologic controls on recharge and groundwater flow response to climate perturbation: A case study of the Yakima River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Pham, H. V.; Bachmann, M.; Tague, C.; Adam, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Yakima River Basin (YRB) is one of the most important agricultural basins in Washington State with annual revenues in excess of $3.2 billion. This intensively irrigated basin is, however, one of the state's most climatically sensitive water resources system as it heavily relies on winter snowpack and limited reservoir storage. Water shortages and drought are expected to be more frequent with climate change, population growth and increasing agricultural demand. This could result in significant impacts on the groundwater system and subsequently the Yakima River. The goal of this study is to assess how soil and geologic characteristics affect catchment recharge and groundwater flow across three catchments within the YRB using a coupled framework including a physically based hydro-ecological model, the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) and a groundwater model, MODFLOW. Soil and geologic-related parameters were randomly sampled to use within the Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA) framework to explore their roles in governing catchment recharge and groundwater flow to climate perturbation. Preliminarily results show that catchment recharge is most sensitive to variation in soil transmissivity in two catchments. However, in the other catchment, recharge is more influenced by soil field capacity and bypass recharge. Recharge is also more sensitive to geologic related parameters in catchments where a portion of its flow comes from deep groundwater. When including the effect of climate perturbations, the sensitivity of recharge responses to soil and geologic characteristics varies with temperature and precipitation change. On the other hand, horizontal hydraulic conductivity is the dominant factor that controls groundwater flow responses in catchments with low permeability soil; alternatively, specific storage (and, to some extent, vertical anisotropy) are important in catchments with more conductive soil. The modeling

  9. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  10. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than -200mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150mg/L at the inlet to ∼300mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10 5 to 10 7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geothermal energy plants. Technologies and risk of soil and groundwater pollution; Jordvarmeanlaeg. Teknologier og risiko for jord- og grundvandsforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villumsen, B. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    Ground source heat systems utilise the natural heat in the ground to heat houses and domestic hot water. The technology is energy-saving and can therefore contribute to the targets of reducing Denmark's CO{sub 2} emissions. All else being equal, a ground source heat system containing chemicals poses a potential contamination risk to soil and groundwater. Therefore a permit is required when installing a ground source heat system, and the general regulations for implementing the system etc. combined with the municipality's administrative procedures for the area must ensure sufficient protection of the groundwater. This project only deals with the heat exchanging system, which is the part of the ground source heat system which involves risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the project is to procure an overall updated knowledge base about the different types of ground source heat systems and the contamination risk associated with them. The project also reviews how disadvantages can be managed or minimized. (au)

  12. Soybean susceptibility to manufactured nanomaterials with evidence for food quality and soil fertility interruption

    OpenAIRE

    Priester, John H.; Ge, Yuan; Mielke, Randall E.; Horst, Allison M.; Moritz, Shelly Cole; Espinosa, Katherine; Gelb, Jeff; Walker, Sharon L.; Nisbet, Roger M.; An, Youn-Joo; Schimel, Joshua P.; Palmer, Reid G.; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A.; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2012-01-01

    Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full maturity in MNM-contaminated field soil. We have done so for soybean, a major global commodity crop, using farm soil amended with two high-pr...

  13. Inorganic carbon cycle in soil-rock-groundwater system in karst and fissured aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Koceli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic analysis of the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13CCaCO3 in carbonate rocks in central Slovenia, representing karst and fissured aquifers, and share of carbon contributions from carbonate dissolution and degradation of organic matter in aquifers, calculated from the mass balance equation. 59 samples of rocks (mainly dolomites from Upper Permian to Upper Triassic age were analyzed. Samples of carbonate rocks were pulverized and ground to fraction of 45 μm and for determination of δ13CCaCO3 analyzed with mass spectrometer for analyses of stable isotopes of light elements-IRMS. The same method was used for determination of isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC in groundwater for 54 of 59 locations. Values of δ13CCaCO3 are in the range from -2.0 ‰ to +4.1 ‰, with an average δ13CCaCO3 value of +2.2 ‰. These values are typical for marine carbonates with δ13CCaCO3 around 0 ‰, although δ13CCaCO3 values differ between groups depending on the origin and age. Early diagenetic dolomites have relatively higher values of δ13CCaCO3 compared to other analyzed samples. The lowest values of δ13CCaCO3 were observed in Cordevolian and Bača dolomite, probably due to late diagenesis, during which meteoric water with lower isotopic carbon composition circulated in the process of sedimentation. Values of δ13CDIC range from -14.6 ‰ to -8.2 ‰. Higher δ13CDIC values (-8.2 ‰ indicate a low proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and rapid infiltration, while lower values (-14.6 ‰ indicate higher proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and slower infiltration. Calculated contributions of carbon from organic matter / dissolution of carbonates in the karstic and fissured aquifers s how a similar proportion (50 % : 50 %.

  14. Successive use of vacuum-enhanced extraction, in situ chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation and mathematical modeling for the restoration of impacted soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, A.; Lauzon, J.M. [TechnoRem Inc., Laval, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A leak from an active gasoline service station in northern Quebec was discussed. Leaking petroleum from an underground storage tank (UST) in June 2005 resulted in a 4,000 m{sup 2} light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) plume causing both soil and groundwater contamination. This presentation described the site, environmental issues, selected remedial technologies, worked performed and results. TechnoRem conducted laboratory and bench-scale testing to determine the optimal treatment products and conditions for mitigation. The LNAPL was recovered using vacuum-enhanced extraction (VEE). Chemical oxidation (CO) and bioaugmentation (BA) was also used to restore the site. The soil and groundwater targets for various parameters were tabulated for total petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes). It was noted that groundwater was flowing south towards a lake 100 metres downgradient. Schematics of the VEE, CO and BA equipment were presented along with several images of the design, installation, commission and operation of the systems. A total of 128 pumping/injection wells were used to sample soil, groundwater and LNAPL. In November 2006, soil analyses indicated that the total petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX met the applicable criteria. The contaminated groundwater plume is now minor and in regression. Groundwater monitoring and supply of nutrients and oxygen will be performed for the coming years to allow for enhanced natural attenuation to mitigate the residual contaminants. tabs., figs.

  15. Evaluation of Macronet polymeric adsorbents for removal of PAHs from contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Lao, C.; Farran, A.; Cortina, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic and are included in the priority pollutants lists. Despite their widespread distributions, PAHs can be ultimately deposited and persisted in bed sediments in the aquatic system. This is due largely to the fact that most PAHs sorb strongly to sediments because of their high hydrophobicity, and are resistant to bacterial degradation under anoxic environment. When environmental conditions become favourable PAHs will be released to the overlying water as a long-term source and pose potential threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystem via bioaccumulation in food chains. Faced with these problems adsorption processes are one of the alternatives for PAHs retention. The adsorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants from aqueous phases generally increases with decreasing solubility of the compound and increasing organic carbon content of the aquifer solids. Natural materials with high organic carbon content such as coals or bituminous shales cause significant retardation of organic contaminants from groundwater. Such materials with high sorption capacities have been postulated and used for passive removal of hydrophobic contaminants in groundwater such as PAHs. Much more efficient is adsorption onto activated carbon, which is already a well-established technology for ex situ treatment of drinking water, polluted groundwater or waste water. One major advantages lies in the fact that the persistent compounds are removed from the ground water rather then being converted to still potentially dangerous metabolites as those generated by oxidation or reductive steps. One of the biggest disadvantages of the adsorption processes is the need to dispose or regenerate the adsorbent. In the case of activated carbon, it needs thermal desorption of the sorbed pollutants and thermal activation of the adsorbent. One of the possibilities to overcome this

  16. Perennial filter strips reduce nitrate levels in soil and shallow groundwater after grassland-to-cropland conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Many croplands planted to perennial grasses under the Conservation Reserve Program are being returned to crop production, and with potential consequences for water quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of grassland-to-cropland conversion on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil and shallow groundwater and to assess the potential for perennial filter strips (PFS) to mitigate increases in NO3-N levels. The study, conducted at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR) in central Iowa, consisted of a balanced incomplete block design with 12 watersheds and four watershed-scale treatments having different proportions and topographic positions of PFS planted in native prairie grasses: 100% rowcrop, 10% PFS (toeslope position), 10% PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips), and 20 PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips). All treatments were established in fall 2006 on watersheds that were under bromegrass (Bromus L.) cover for at least 10 yr. Nonperennial areas were maintained under a no-till 2-yr corn (Zea mays L.)--soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation since spring 2007. Suction lysimeter and shallow groundwater wells located at upslope and toeslope positions were sampled monthly during the growing season to determine NO3-N concentration from 2005 to 2008. The results indicated significant increases in NO3-N concentration in soil and groundwater following grassland-to-cropland conversion. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone and groundwater under PFS were lower compared with 100% cropland, with the most significant differences occurring at the toeslope position. During the years following conversion, PFS mitigated increases in subsurface nitrate, but long-term monitoring is needed to observe and understand the full response to land-use conversion.

  17. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Ramanathan, A L; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of inorganic forms [arsenite, As(III) and arsenate, As(V) of arsenic (As) present in groundwater, agricultural soils and subsurface sediments located in the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India were determined. Approximately 73% of the groundwater samples (n=19) show As(III) as the dominant species while 27% reveals As(V) was the dominant species. The concentration of As(III) in agricultural soil samples varies from not detectable to 40μg/kg and As(V) was observed as the major species (ranging from 1050 to 6835μg/kg) while the total As concentration varied from 3528 to 14,690μg/kg. Total extracted concentration of As was higher in the subsurface sediments (range 9119-20,056μg/kg in Methrapur and 4788-19,681μg/kg in Harail Chapar) than the agricultural soil, indicating the subsurface sediment as a source of As. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) revealed the presence of hematite and goethite throughout the vertical section below while magnetite was observed only in the upper oxidized layer at Methrapur and Harail Chapar. Alteration of Fe-oxides and presence of fibrous goethite indicating presence of diagenetic sediment. Siderite plays a crucial role as sinks to the As in subsurface sediments. The study also concluded that decomposition of organic matter present in dark and grey sections promote the redox conditions and trigger mobilization of As into groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation of groundwater organics, soil minerals, and activated carbon on the complexation, adsorption, and separation of technetium-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on the interactions of technetium-99 (Tc) with different organic compounds and soil minerals under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The report is divided into four parts and includes (1) effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the complexation and solubility of Tc, (2) complexation between Tc and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solutions, (3) adsorption of Tc on soil samples from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), and (4) adsorption and separation of Tc on activated carbon. Various experimental techniques were applied to characterize and identify Tc complexation with organic compounds and TCE, including liquid-liquid extraction, membrane filtration, size exclusion, and gel chromatography. Results indicate, within the experimental error, Tc (as pertechnetate, TcO 4 ) did not appear to form complexes with groundwater or natural organic matter under both atmospheric and reducing conditions. However, Tc can form complexes with certain organic compounds or specific functional groups such as salicylate. Tc did not appear to form complexes with TCE in aqueous solution.Both liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gave no indication Tc was complexed with TCE. The correlations between Tc and TCE concentrations in monitoring wells at PGDP may be a coincidence because TCE was commonly used as a decontamination reagent. Once TCE and Tc entered the groundwater, they behaved similarly because both TcO 4 - and TCE are poorly adsorbed by soils. An effective remediation technique to remove TcO 4 - from PGDP contaminated groundwater is needed. One possibility is the use of an activated carbon adsorption technique developed in this study

  19. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the groundwater, soil gas, and soil for contaminants at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility (VATF) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic compounds in the groundwater and soil gas, and inorganic compounds in the soil. In addition, organic contaminant assessment included organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Four passive samplers were deployed in groundwater wells at the VATF in Fort Gordon. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level at all four wells. The only other volatile organic compounds detected above their method detection level were undecane and pentadecane, which were detected in two of the four wells sampled. Soil-gas samplers were deployed at 72 locations in a grid pattern across the VATF. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 71 of the 72 samplers (one sampler was destroyed in the field and not analyzed) at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene was detected above the detection level in 31 of the 71 samplers that were analyzed. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, tridecane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. Subsequent to the soil-gas survey, four areas determined to have elevated contaminant mass were selected and sampled for explosives and chemical agents. No detections of explosives or chemical agents above their

  20. PO.RA project. An analysis on gas radon concentrations in soil versus fluctuations in the groundwater table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serentha', C.; Torretta, M.

    2001-01-01

    Man is daily exposed to natural radiation, mainly due to cosmic rays and natural radioactive elements, whose most important radioactive daughters are 222 Rn (radon) and 220 Rn (thoron). Being these ones gaseous, they can spread through the ground, reaching the atmosphere and accumulating in rooms, where their concentrations may be very high. As radon exhalation is strongly connected with the hydrogeological features of the environment, this study tried to find a relationship between fluctuations in the groundwater table and gas radon concentrations in soil, in order to try estimates of indoor radon concentrations [it

  1. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg -1 ) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L -1 , the median 0.50 μg L -1 . 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L -1 . The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for mineral waters

  2. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-12-20

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg{sup -1}) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L{sup -1}, the median 0.50 μg L{sup -1}. 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L{sup -1}. The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for

  3. Economics of soil conservation practices among food crop farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement and maintenance of short/medium term productivity of soils. The study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to invest more in structural and agronomic soil conservation practices along side soil productivity maintenance measure. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  4. Uncovering trophic positions and food resources of soil animals using bulk natural stable isotope composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Anton M; Tiunov, Alexei V; Scheu, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    Despite the major importance of soil biota in nutrient and energy fluxes, interactions in soil food webs are poorly understood. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in uncovering the trophic structure of soil food webs using natural variations in stable isotope ratios. We discuss approaches of application, normalization and interpretation of stable isotope ratios along with methodological pitfalls. Analysis of published data from temperate forest ecosystems is used to outline emerging concepts and perspectives in soil food web research. In contrast to aboveground and aquatic food webs, trophic fractionation at the basal level of detrital food webs is large for carbon and small for nitrogen stable isotopes. Virtually all soil animals are enriched in 13 C as compared to plant litter. This 'detrital shift' likely reflects preferential uptake of 13 C-enriched microbial biomass and underlines the importance of microorganisms, in contrast to dead plant material, as a major food resource for the soil animal community. Soil organic matter is enriched in 15 N and 13 C relative to leaf litter. Decomposers inhabiting mineral soil layers therefore might be enriched in 15 N resulting in overlap in isotope ratios between soil-dwelling detritivores and litter-dwelling predators. By contrast, 13 C content varies little between detritivores in upper litter and in mineral soil, suggesting that they rely on similar basal resources, i.e. little decomposed organic matter. Comparing vertical isotope gradients in animals and in basal resources can be a valuable tool to assess trophic interactions and dynamics of organic matter in soil. As indicated by stable isotope composition, direct feeding on living plant material as well as on mycorrhizal fungi is likely rare among soil invertebrates. Plant carbon is taken up predominantly by saprotrophic microorganisms and channelled to higher trophic levels of the soil food web. However, feeding on photoautotrophic microorganisms and non

  5. Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaminder, J.; Grip, H.; Moerth, C.-M.; Laudon, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Organic compounds is mineralized during later transport in deep groundwater aquifers. → Carbonic acid generated by this process stimulates dissolution of silicate minerals. → Protons derived from pyrite oxidation also affects weathering in deep groundwater. → The identified weathering mechanisms affect base-flow chemistry in boreal streams. - Abstract: What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H 2 CO 3 , produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and δ 18 O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H 2 CO 3 generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of SO 4 2- in the groundwater during lateral transport and a δ 34 S per mille value of +0.26-3.76 per mille in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km 2 ) as evident by δ 18 O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  6. Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaminder, J., E-mail: jonatan.klaminder@emg.umu.se [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)] [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 (Sweden); Grip, H. [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Moerth, C.-M. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Laudon, H. [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Organic compounds is mineralized during later transport in deep groundwater aquifers. {yields} Carbonic acid generated by this process stimulates dissolution of silicate minerals. {yields} Protons derived from pyrite oxidation also affects weathering in deep groundwater. {yields} The identified weathering mechanisms affect base-flow chemistry in boreal streams. - Abstract: What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and {delta}{sup 18}O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the groundwater during lateral transport and a {delta}{sup 34}S per mille value of +0.26-3.76 per mille in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km{sup 2}) as evident by {delta}{sup 18}O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  7. Evaluation of Phytoremediation for Management of Chlorinated Solvents in Soil and Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to aid regulators, site owners, consultants, neighbors, and other stakeholders in understanding the proper application of planted systems to remediate groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents.

  8. Continuous measurement of Radon emanations from soil and groundwaters in southern France (Alpes Maritimes). Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddou, A.; Nault, L.; Campredon, R.; Bernat, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of automated instruments which monitor the emission of radon from rocks and groundwaters are actually being set up in a few localities of the French-Italian Alpe-Maritimes (SE France). The first results are presented [fr

  9. GASReP/DESRT: Proceedings [of the] 2nd annual symposium on groundwater and soil remediation. Comptes rendus [de la] 2e symposium annuel sur la restauration des eaux souterraines et des sois contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A conference was held to discuss ground water and soil remediation with emphasis on the Canadian national Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP) and the Development and Demonstration of Site Remediation Technology (DESRT) program. Papers were presented on the subjects of groundwater and soil remediation research projects, bioremediation, excavation and treatment, pumping and treatment/soil venting, and industry and government initiatives. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers from the conference.

  10. Virus removal during groundwater recharge: effects of infiltration rate on adsorption of poliovirus to soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Beckwith, C A; Thomas, M Z

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of infiltration rate on poliovirus removal during groundwater recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater effluents. Experiments were conducted at a uniquely designed, field-situated test recharge basin facility through which some 62,000 m3 of sewage had been previously applied. Recharge at high infiltration rates (75 to 100 cm/h) resulted in the movement of considerable numbers of seeded poliovirus to the groundwater. Moderately reduced infiltr...

  11. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Compost from Food Waste: Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar Series titled Compost from Food Waste:Understanding Soil Chemistry and Soil Biology on a College/University Campus

  12. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for in situ or ex situ bioremediation of hexavalent chromium contaminated soils and/or groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, Charles E.; Apel, William W.

    1997-10-28

    A method of reducing the concentration of Cr(VI) in a liquid aqueous residue comprises the steps of providing anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria, mixing the liquid aqueous residue with a nutrient medium to form a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria such that Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). The anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria appear to be ubiquitous in soil and can be selected by collecting a soil sample, diluting the soil sample with a sterile diluent to form a diluted sample, mixing the diluted sample with an effective amount of a nutrient medium and an effective amount of Cr(VI) to form a mixture, and incubating the mixture in the substantial absence of oxygen such that growth of Cr(VI) sensitive microorganisms is inhibited and growth of the anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria is stimulated. A method of in situ bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil and/or groundwater is also disclosed.

  14. Heat transfer Effect by soil temperature changes under shallow groundwater in the Mu Us desert, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.; Lu, R.; Donghui, C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil temperature change is principle elements to biological growth, soil freeze or thawing process. A situ field was conducted in the Mu Us desert of Wushen Qi County, Inner Mongolia, to mainly monitor soil temperature, moisture content and groundwater level. The unconfined aquifer constituted by Quaternary fine eolian sand, groundwater level is 125cm. This paper, choosing date from May 1, 2013 to April 30, 2014, soil day temperature is conducted by 3:00, 6:00,till 24:00, vertical spacing including 2cm,5 cm、10 cm、15 cm、20 cm, 75cm,125cm,which its symbol is T10, T15, T20, T75, T125 respectively. Here, surface layer temperature TS calculated by soil temperature of 2-5cm depth. Due to only 5 minutes interval, this state was taken as a state one. (1) soil temperature has mixture change on surface layer and its temperature different is over 35 ℃. (2) Surface layer temperature changes of every month have three stages and its conducted heat, which calculated between TS and T10. Since TS exceeds T10 and heat transfer direction is from surface to underground in May, June and July 2013, even heat transfer amounts reduced by participation in July. However, TS is inferior to T10 and conduced heat direction reverse in August till to February 2014.Continually conduced heat start to next circulation and then it's heat direction from surface to underground due to TS exceeds T10 again in March and April 2014. (3) Temperature changes of phreatic water table every month have also three stages and its conducted heat which calculated between T75 and T125, heat transfer direction from unsaturated zone to saturated zone due to T75 exceeds T125 from May till middle September 2013. However, T75 is inferior to T125 and heat direction reverse from late September 2013 till May 2014, but conduced heat direction starts to change from unsaturated zone to saturated zone again in early April 2014.The result can imply shallow gruondwater has some contribution to surface layer temperature in

  15. Food and soil-borne Penicillia in Arctic environments: Chemical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Penicillia are very common inhabitants of cold environments, including arctic soil, plants, animals, and foods. We have investigated the mycobiota of Greenland inland ice and soil, and found a very unique and pronounced diversity among the Penicillia. Nearly all species were new to science....... The species found in inland ice were both of the soil-borne type, and Penicillia that grow and sporulate well at 25°C. The latter group of Penicillia have been found earlier in refrigerated foods, including P. nordicum, and in glacier ice and melting water from Svalbard (se Sonjak et al., this conference......). This “food-borne group” of arctic fungi also contained some new species, but not as many as in arctic soil. The chemical diversity of the Penicillium species was remarkably high and in most cases even larger than the chemical diversity of Penicillia in the tropics. Several new secondary metabolites were...

  16. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M.O.; Mackay, R.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is developed and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM) for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via macropore flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in the macropore system due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil, and a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  17. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Cuthbert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is presented and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via preferential flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in preferential flow pathways due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil and to a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010 is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  18. Making US Soil Taxonomy more scientifically applicable to environmental and food security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David L.; Wysocki, Doug; Schoeneberger, Phil; Libohova, Zamir

    2017-04-01

    US Department of Agriculture began mapping soils in the 1890s on a county-by-county basis until most of the conterminous United States was mapped by the late 1930s. This first-generation mapping was followed by a second-generation that re-mapped the US beginning in the 1940s. Soil classification during these periods evolved into the current system of Soil Taxonomy which is based on (1) soil features as natural phenomena and on (2) soil properties important for agriculture and other land uses. While this system has enabled communication among soil surveyors, the scientific applicability of Soil Taxonomy to address environmental and food security issues has been under-utilized. In particular, little effort has been exerted to understand how soil taxa interact and function together as larger units—as soil systems. Thus, much soil-geomorphic understanding that could be applied to process-based modeling remains unexploited. The challenge for soil taxonomists in the United States and elsewhere is to expand their expertise and work with modelers to explore how soil taxa are linked to each other, how they influence water, nutrient, and pollutant flow through the landscape, how they interact with ecology, and how they change with human land use.

  19. Impacts of Agriculture on Nitrates in Soil and Groundwater in the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) contamination of surface and groundwater is a health concern for both humans and animals. Excess N in surface water bodies may contribute to eutrophication. Elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations in drinking water have caused infant death from the disease methemoglobinemia. Nitrates...

  20. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the groundwater, soil gas, and soil for contaminants at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility (VATF) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2011. The assessment included the detection of organic compounds in the groundwater and soil gas, and inorganic compounds in the soil. In addition, organic contaminant assessment included organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. This report is a revision of "Assessment of soil-gas, surface-water, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010," Open-File Report 2011-1200, and supersedes that report to include results of additional samples collected in July 2011. Four passive samplers were deployed in groundwater wells at the VATF in Fort Gordon. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene and octane were detected above the method detection level at all four wells. The only other volatile organic compounds detected above their method detection level were undecane and pentadecane, which were detected in two of the four wells. Soil-gas samplers were deployed at 72 locations in a grid pattern across the VATF on June 3, 2010, and then later retrieved on June 9, 2010. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 71 of the 72 samplers (one sampler was destroyed in the field and not analyzed) at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene (BTEX) was detected above the detection level in 31 of the 71 samplers that were analyzed. Other volatile organic compounds

  1. Quantifying phosphorus levels in soils, plants, surface water, and shallow groundwater associated with bahiagrass-based pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Hubbard, Robert K; Coleman, Samuel W

    2010-01-01

    Recent assessments of water quality status have identified eutrophication as one of the major causes of water quality 'impairment' not only in the USA but also around the world. In most cases, eutrophication has accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990 s. Despite substantial measurements using both laboratory and field techniques, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of phosphorus dynamics across landscapes, especially in agricultural landscapes with cow-calf operations. Critical to determining environmental balance and accountability is an understanding of phosphorus excreted by animals, phosphorus removal by plants, acceptable losses of phosphorus within the manure management and crop production systems into soil and waters, and export of phosphorus off-farm. Further research effort on optimizing forage-based cow-calf operations to improve pasture sustainability and protect water quality is therefore warranted. We hypothesized that properly managed cow-calf operations in subtropical agroecosystem would not be major contributors to excess loads of phosphorus in surface and ground water. To verify our hypothesis, we examined the comparative concentrations of total phosphorus among soils, forage, surface water, and groundwater beneath bahiagrass-based pastures with cow-calf operations in central Florida, USA. Soil samples were collected at 0-20; 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm across the landscape (top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope) of 8 ha pasture in the fall and spring of 2004 to 2006. Forage availability and phosphorus uptake of bahiagrass were also measured from the top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope. Bi-weekly (2004-2006) groundwater and surface water samples were taken from wells located at top slope, middle slope, and bottom slope, and from the runoff/seepage area. Concentrations of phosphorus in soils, forage, surface water, and shallow

  2. Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils and Groundwater in Northern Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Charles

    1998-01-01

    ...-landfarming, recirculating leachbeds, and infiltration galleries. Landfarming involves adding water and nutrients to contaminated soil to stimulate microbial activity and contaminant degradation...

  3. Reconstruction of food webs in biological soil crusts using metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Richard; Brodie, Eoin L.; Mayberry-Lewis, Jazmine; Nunes Da Rocha, Ulisses; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Karaoz, Ulas; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Northen, Trent R.

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are communities of organisms inhabiting the upper layer of soil in arid environments. BSCs persist in a dessicated dormant state for extended periods of time and experience pulsed periods of activity facilitated by infrequent rainfall. Microcoleus vaginatus, a non-diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium, is the key primary producer in BSCs in the Colorado Plateau and is an early pioneer in colonizing arid environments. Over decades, BSCs proceed through developmental stages with increasing complexity of constituent microorganisms and macroscopic properties. Metabolic interactions among BSC microorganisms probably play a key role in determining the community dynamics and cycling of carbon and nitrogen. However, these metabolic interactions have not been studied systematically. Towards this goal, exometabolomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry on biological soil crust pore water and spent media of key soil bacterial isolates. Comparison of spent vs. fresh media was used to determine uptake or release of metabolites by specific microbes. To link pore water experiments with isolate studies, metabolite extracts of authentic soil were used as supplements for isolate exometabolomic profiling. Our soil metabolomics methods detected hundreds of metabolites from soils including many novel compounds. Overall, Microcoleus vaginatus was found to release and utilize a broad range of metabolites. Many of these metabolites were also taken up by heterotrophs but there were surprisingly few metabolites uptaken by all isolates. This points to a competition for a small set of central metabolites and specialization of individual heterotrophs towards a diverse pool of available organic nutrients. Overall, these data suggest that understanding the substrate specialization of biological soil crust bacteria can help link community structure to nutrient cycling.

  4. Adsorptive properties of alluvial soil for arsenic(V) and its potential for protection of the shallow groundwater among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Mei, Jinhua; Luo, Yueping; Qiu, Anni; Wang, Huan

    2017-02-01

    The study area is among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, which was under agricultural use and natural conditions about 10 years ago and now is becoming part of the metropolis because of the urban expansion. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms and capabilities of the local alluvial soil layer for protecting the local shallow groundwater from arsenic pollution by field surveys and batch experiments. The field surveys showed that there was an acidic tendency of the groundwater, and phosphate, nitrate, and arsenic in the groundwater significantly increased comparing to their reference values. It indicates that the disturbance of the former agricultural land due to the change of land use may be responsible for these changes. From the experimental results, the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil for As(V) was as low as 0.334 mg/g, and lower As(V) adsorption capacities were obtained at higher As(V) concentration, higher pH, and lower temperature. The presence of H 2 PO 4 - and SiO 3 2- posed negative, while HCO 3 - slight positive, and SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and Cl - negligible influences on the As(V) adsorption. The surface-derived organic matter played a negative role in the adsorption process, and low specific surface area influenced adsorption capacity of the soil. The study reveals that the local soil layer shows poor potential for protection of the local shallow groundwater from As(V) pollution, and the change trends of the groundwater environments due to more intensive anthropogenic activities will further weaken this potential and increase the risk of the groundwater contamination.

  5. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed...... that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants...... and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community....

  6. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  7. Investing in soils as an infrastructure to maintain and enhance food water and carbon services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Soils are a life support system for global society and our planet. In addition to providing the vast majority of our food; soils regulate water quality and quantity reducing the risk of floods, droughts and pollution; and as the largest store of carbon in the earth system they are critical to climate change. By providing these multiple essential services, soils act a natural form of infrastructure that is critical to supporting both rural and urban communities and economies. Can natural infrastructure and natural capital concepts be used to motivate and enable investment and regulation of soils for purposes such as soil carbon sequestration? What scientific knowledge and tools would we need to support soil infrastructure decision making - in policy arenas and elsewhere? This poster will present progress from a new research project supported by the UK research council (EP/N030532/1) that addresses these questions.

  8. Improving groundwater storage and soil moisture estimates by assimilating GRACE, SMOS, and SMAP data into CABLE using ensemble Kalman batch smoother and particle batch smoother frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. C.; Tangdamrongsub, N.; Yeo, I. Y.; Dong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture and groundwater storage are important information for comprehensive understanding of the climate system and accurate assessment of the regional/global water resources. It is possible to derive the water storage from land surface models but the outputs are commonly biased by inaccurate forcing data, inefficacious model physics, and improper model parameter calibration. To mitigate the model uncertainty, the observation (e.g., from remote sensing as well as ground in-situ data) are often integrated into the models via data assimilation (DA). This study aims to improve the estimation of soil moisture and groundwater storage by simultaneously assimilating satellite observations from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) into the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model using the ensemble Kalman batch smoother (EnBS) and particle batch smoother (PBS) frameworks. The uncertainty of GRACE observation is obtained rigorously from the full error variance-covariance matrix of the GRACE data product. This method demonstrates the use of a realistic representative of GRACE uncertainty, which is spatially correlated in nature, leads to a higher accuracy of water storage computation. Additionally, the comparison between EnBS and PBS results is discussed to understand the filter's performance, limitation, and suitability. The joint DA is demonstrated in the Goulburn catchment, South-East Australia, where diverse ground observations (surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and groundwater level) are available for evaluation of our DA results. Preliminary results show that both smoothers provide significant improvement of surface soil moisture and groundwater storage estimates. Importantly, our developed DA scheme disaggregates the catchment-scale GRACE information into finer vertical and spatial scales ( 25 km). We present an

  9. Quantifying effects of soil heteogeneity on groundwater pollution at four sites in USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurens, S.H.; Stagnitti, F.; Rooij, de G.H.; Boll, J.; Ling, Li; LeBlanc, M.; Ierodiaconou, D.; Versace, V.; Salzman, S.

    2005-01-01

    Four sites located in the north-eastern region of the United States of America have been chosen to investigate the impacts of soil heterogeneity in the transport of solutes (bromide and chloride) through the vadose zone (the zone in the soil that lies below the root zone and above the permanent

  10. Rapid nutrient leaching to groundwater and surface water in clay soil areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Hamminga, W.; Oostindie, K.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from agricultural soils has frequently led to concentrations above the EU drinking-water standard. Most data originate from sandy soils. In this experiment the mechanism and magnitude of nitrate leaching from grassland on a heavy claysoil were investigated. In an experimental field,

  11. On the use of the GRACE normal equation of inter-satellite tracking data for estimation of soil moisture and groundwater in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tangdamrongsub

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of soil moisture and groundwater is essential for monitoring the availability of water supply in domestic and agricultural sectors. In order to improve the water storage estimates, previous studies assimilated terrestrial water storage variation (ΔTWS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE into land surface models (LSMs. However, the GRACE-derived ΔTWS was generally computed from the high-level products (e.g. time-variable gravity fields, i.e. level 2, and land grid from the level 3 product. The gridded data products are subjected to several drawbacks such as signal attenuation and/or distortion caused by a posteriori filters and a lack of error covariance information. The post-processing of GRACE data might lead to the undesired alteration of the signal and its statistical property. This study uses the GRACE least-squares normal equation data to exploit the GRACE information rigorously and negate these limitations. Our approach combines GRACE's least-squares normal equation (obtained from ITSG-Grace2016 product with the results from the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE model to improve soil moisture and groundwater estimates. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an importance of using the GRACE raw data. The GRACE-combined (GC approach is developed for optimal least-squares combination and the approach is applied to estimate the soil moisture and groundwater over 10 Australian river basins. The results are validated against the satellite soil moisture observation and the in situ groundwater data. Comparing to CABLE, we demonstrate the GC approach delivers evident improvement of water storage estimates, consistently from all basins, yielding better agreement on seasonal and inter-annual timescales. Significant improvement is found in groundwater storage while marginal improvement is observed in surface soil moisture estimates.

  12. On the use of the GRACE normal equation of inter-satellite tracking data for estimation of soil moisture and groundwater in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Han, Shin-Chan; Decker, Mark; Yeo, In-Young; Kim, Hyungjun

    2018-03-01

    An accurate estimation of soil moisture and groundwater is essential for monitoring the availability of water supply in domestic and agricultural sectors. In order to improve the water storage estimates, previous studies assimilated terrestrial water storage variation (ΔTWS) derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) into land surface models (LSMs). However, the GRACE-derived ΔTWS was generally computed from the high-level products (e.g. time-variable gravity fields, i.e. level 2, and land grid from the level 3 product). The gridded data products are subjected to several drawbacks such as signal attenuation and/or distortion caused by a posteriori filters and a lack of error covariance information. The post-processing of GRACE data might lead to the undesired alteration of the signal and its statistical property. This study uses the GRACE least-squares normal equation data to exploit the GRACE information rigorously and negate these limitations. Our approach combines GRACE's least-squares normal equation (obtained from ITSG-Grace2016 product) with the results from the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to improve soil moisture and groundwater estimates. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an importance of using the GRACE raw data. The GRACE-combined (GC) approach is developed for optimal least-squares combination and the approach is applied to estimate the soil moisture and groundwater over 10 Australian river basins. The results are validated against the satellite soil moisture observation and the in situ groundwater data. Comparing to CABLE, we demonstrate the GC approach delivers evident improvement of water storage estimates, consistently from all basins, yielding better agreement on seasonal and inter-annual timescales. Significant improvement is found in groundwater storage while marginal improvement is observed in surface soil moisture estimates.

  13. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Southern Sacramento Valley soil and sediment has abundant naturally-occurring Cr(III). → Cr(III) resides mainly in chromite but some is associated with clays and Fe oxides. → Cr(VI) is mostly absent in surface soil but ubiquitous in deeper soil and sediment. → Cr(VI) increased linearly with time during lab soil incubations with no additions. → Cation exchange processes resulted in greater Cr(VI) generation rates. - Abstract: Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization's maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L -1 ) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L -1 . To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ∼1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42

  14. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Christopher T., E-mail: cmills@usgs.gov [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Southern Sacramento Valley soil and sediment has abundant naturally-occurring Cr(III). > Cr(III) resides mainly in chromite but some is associated with clays and Fe oxides. > Cr(VI) is mostly absent in surface soil but ubiquitous in deeper soil and sediment. > Cr(VI) increased linearly with time during lab soil incubations with no additions. > Cation exchange processes resulted in greater Cr(VI) generation rates. - Abstract: Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization's maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 {mu}g L{sup -1}) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to {approx}1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged

  15. Temporal variations of radon concentration in the saturated soil of Alpine grassland: The role of groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Frederic; Richon, Patrick; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Radon concentration has been monitored from 1995 to 1999 in the soil of the Sur-Fretes ridge (French Alps), covered with snow from November to April. Measurements were performed at 70 cm depth, with a sampling time of 1 h, at two points: the summit of the ridge, at an altitude of 1792 m, and the bottom of the ridge, at an altitude of 1590 m. On the summit, radon concentration shows a moderate seasonal variation, with a high value from October to April (winter), and a low value from May to September (summer). At the bottom of the ridge, a large and opposite seasonal variation is observed, with a low value in winter and a high value in summer. Fluctuations of the radon concentration seem to be associated with temperature variations, an effect which is largely delusory. Indeed, these variations are actually due to water infiltration. A simplified mixing model is used to show that, at the summit of the ridge, two effects compete in the radon response: a slow infiltration response, rich in radon, with a typical time scale of days, and a fast infiltration of radon-poor rainwater. At the bottom of the ridge, similarly, two groundwater contributions compete: one slow infiltration response, similar to the response seen at the summit, and an additional slower response, with a typical time scale of about a month. This second slower response can be interpreted as the aquifer discharge in response to snow melt. This study shows that, while caution is necessary to properly interpret the various effects, the temporal variations of the radon concentration in soil can be understood reasonably well, and appear to be a sensitive tool to study the subtle interplay of near surface transfer processes of groundwater with different transit times

  16. An Improved GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Assimilation System For Estimating Large-Scale Soil Moisture and Shallow Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, M.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is unique because it provides highly accurate column integrated estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. Major limitations of GRACE-based TWS observations are related to their monthly temporal and coarse spatial resolution (around 330 km at the equator), and to the vertical integration of the water storage components. These challenges can be addressed through data assimilation. To date, it is still not obvious how best to assimilate GRACE-TWS observations into a land surface model, in order to improve hydrological variables, and many details have yet to be worked out. This presentation discusses specific recent features of the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Catchment land surface model to improve soil moisture and shallow groundwater estimates at the continental scale. The major recent advancements introduced by the presented work with respect to earlier systems include: 1) the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data product with scaling factors that are specifically derived for data assimilation purposes only; 2) the assimilation is performed through a 3D assimilation scheme, in which reasonable spatial and temporal error standard deviations and correlations are exploited; 3) the analysis step uses an optimized calculation and application of the analysis increments; 4) a poor-man's adaptive estimation of a spatially variable measurement error. This work shows that even if they are characterized by a coarse spatial and temporal resolution, the observed column integrated GRACE-TWS data have potential for improving our understanding of soil moisture and shallow groundwater variations.

  17. Temporal variations of radon concentration in the saturated soil of Alpine grassland: the role of groundwater flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe

    2009-03-15

    Radon concentration has been monitored from 1995 to 1999 in the soil of the Sur-Frêtes ridge (French Alps), covered with snow from November to April. Measurements were performed at 70 cm depth, with a sampling time of 1 h, at two points: the summit of the ridge, at an altitude of 1792 m, and the bottom of the ridge, at an altitude of 1590 m. On the summit, radon concentration shows a moderate seasonal variation, with a high value from October to April (winter), and a low value from May to September (summer). At the bottom of the ridge, a large and opposite seasonal variation is observed, with a low value in winter and a high value in summer. Fluctuations of the radon concentration seem to be associated with temperature variations, an effect which is largely delusory. Indeed, these variations are actually due to water infiltration. A simplified mixing model is used to show that, at the summit of the ridge, two effects compete in the radon response: a slow infiltration response, rich in radon, with a typical time scale of days, and a fast infiltration of radon-poor rainwater. At the bottom of the ridge, similarly, two groundwater contributions compete: one slow infiltration response, similar to the response seen at the summit, and an additional slower response, with a typical time scale of about a month. This second slower response can be interpreted as the aquifer discharge in response to snow melt. This study shows that, while caution is necessary to properly interpret the various effects, the temporal variations of the radon concentration in soil can be understood reasonably well, and appear to be a sensitive tool to study the subtle interplay of near surface transfer processes of groundwater with different transit times.

  18. Soil Degradation, Land Scarcity and Food Security: Reviewing a Complex Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity. Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven. Then, I define soil degradation and present a review of its typologies and estimates at a global level. I discuss the importance of preserving soil capital, and its relationship to human civilization and food security. Trends concerning the availability of arable agricultural land, different scenarios, and their limitations, are analyzed and discussed. The possible relation between an increase in a country’s GNP, population and future availability of arable land is also analyzed, using the World Bank’s database. I argue that because of the many sources of uncertainty in the data, and the high risks at stake, a precautionary approach should be adopted when drawing scenarios. The paper ends with a discussion on the key role of preserving soil organic matter, and the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. I also argue that both our relation with nature and natural resources and our lifestyle need to be reconsidered.

  19. Evaluation of available data on the geohydrology, soil chemistry, and ground-water chemistry of Gas Works Park and surrounding region, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, M.A.; Turney, G.L.; Ryals, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located at the site of an abandon gasification plant on Lake Union. Wastes deposited during 50 years of plant operations (1906-1956) have extended the shore line 100 ft and left the park soil contaminated with a number of hazardous material. Soil contaminants include polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, cyanide, and metals. PAHs and metals have been detected in Lake Union sediments. Maximum total PAH concentrations exceeded 100 million micrograms/kilogram in some places in the soils of the park at 6-inch depths and in some lake sediments. Other contaminants present are much lower in concentrations. The park is on glacial drift overlain by gasification waste materials and clean fill. Waste materials include sand and gravels, mixed with lampblack, oil, bricks, and other industrial wastes. Groundwater flows through the soils and waste toward Lake Union. Vertical groundwater movement is uncertain, but is assumed to be upward near Lake Union. Concentrations of most soil contaminants are probably low in the groundwater and in Lake Union due to the low solubilities and high sorptive characteristics of these contaminants. However, no water quality data are available to confirm this premise. (USGS)

  20. Salinization of the soil solution decreases the further accumulation of salt in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. growing above shallow saline groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharby, Hesham F; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2018-01-01

    Water use by plants in landscapes with shallow saline groundwater may lead to the accumulation of salt in the root zone. We examined the accumulation of Na + and Cl - around the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. and the impacts of this increasing salinity for stomatal conductance, water use and growth. Plants were grown in columns filled with a sand-clay mixture and connected at the bottom to reservoirs containing 20, 200 or 400 mM NaCl. At 21 d, Na + and Cl - concentrations in the soil solution were affected by the salinity of the groundwater, height above the water table and the root fresh mass density at various soil depths (P soil solution therefore had a feedback effect on further salinization within the root zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The influence of groundwater flow effect on changes of loess soil strength characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bida S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability of slopes - one of the most topical at present. It is proved that the reliability of the slope stability assessment affects the accuracy of the strength characteristics of the soil. One of the most common methods is one-plane shifts method Established that processing of results of soil shift test in logarithmic coordinates can more accurately identify indicators of strength. Discovered that the magnitude of the strength characteristics of soil test results which is obtained on one plane shift depends on the vertical pressure during testing.

  2. The use of vinasse as an amendment to ex-situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the possibility of using vinasse as an amendment in ex-situ bioremediation processes. Groundwater and soil samples were collected at petrol stations. The soil bioremediation was simulated in Bartha biometer flasks, used to measure the microbial CO2 production, during 48 days, where vinasse was added at a concentration of 33 mL.Kg-1of soil. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH by gas chromatography. The groundwater bioremediation was carried out in laboratory experiments simulating aerated (bioreactors and not aerated (BOD flasks conditions. In both the cases, the concentration of vinasse was 5 % (v/v and different physicochemical parameters were evaluated during 20 days. Although an increase in the soil fertility and microbial population were obtained with the vinasse, it demonstrated not to be adequate to enhance the bioremediation efficiency of diesel oil contaminated soils. The addition of the vinasse in the contaminated groundwaters had negative effects on the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons, since vinasse, as a labile carbon source, was preferentially consumed.Este trabalho investigou a possibilidade de se usar a vinhaça como um agente estimulador de processos de biorremediação ex-situ. Amostras de água subterrânea e solo foram coletadas em três postos de combustíveis. A biorremediação do solo foi simulada em frascos de Bartha, usados para medir a produção de CO2, durante 48 dias, onde a vinhaça foi adicionada a uma concentração de 33 mL.Kg-1 de solo. A eficiência de biodegradação também foi medida pela quantificação de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH por cromatografia gasosa. A biorremediação da água subterrânea foi realizada em experimentos laboratoriais simulando condições aeradas (bioreatores e não aeradas (frascos de DBO. Em ambos os casos, a concentração de vinhaça foi de 5 % (v/v e diferentes parâmetros f

  3. Trophic interactions in changing landscapes: responses of soil food webs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedlund, K.; Griffiths, B.; Christensen, S.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Tscharntke, T.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil communities in landscapes that are rapidly changing due to a range of anthropogenic processes can be regarded as highly transient systems where interactions between competing species or trophic levels may be seriously disrupted. In disturbed communities dispersal in space and time has a role in

  4. Model for prognostication of population irradiation dose at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Vinogradskaya, V.D.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of modern pictures of cesium and strontium ion absorption mechanisms a soil taking complex was build the kinetic model of radionuclide migration from soil to plants. Model parameter association with the agricultural chemistry properties of soil, represented by complex estimation of soil properties S e f. The example of model application for prognostication of population internal irradiation dose due to consumption of milk at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations were 4-20 times higher than those in the reference locations. Positive relationships between the generally low leaf concentrations and the soil concentrations were found for Zn only (r {sup 2} = 0.20). Bioaccumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd was observed in the snail tissues. We found positive relationships between the snail and leaf concentrations for all metals (range r {sup 2} = 0.19-0.46). The relationships between soil and snail concentrations were also positive, except for Cu (range r {sup 2} = 0.15-0.33). These results suggest transfer of metals to C. nemoralis snails from U. dioica leaves and from the soil. Metal transfer from polluted leaves to C. nemoralis is more important than transfer from the soil. - Bioaccumulation and positive snail-leaf relationships suggest metal transfer from Urtica dioica leaves to Cepaea nemoralis snails.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations were 4-20 times higher than those in the reference locations. Positive relationships between the generally low leaf concentrations and the soil concentrations were found for Zn only (r 2 = 0.20). Bioaccumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd was observed in the snail tissues. We found positive relationships between the snail and leaf concentrations for all metals (range r 2 = 0.19-0.46). The relationships between soil and snail concentrations were also positive, except for Cu (range r 2 = 0.15-0.33). These results suggest transfer of metals to C. nemoralis snails from U. dioica leaves and from the soil. Metal transfer from polluted leaves to C. nemoralis is more important than transfer from the soil. - Bioaccumulation and positive snail-leaf relationships suggest metal transfer from Urtica dioica leaves to Cepaea nemoralis snails

  7. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Glavatska

    Full Text Available Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of

  8. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatska, Olena; Müller, Karolin; Butenschoen, Olaf; Schmalwasser, Andreas; Kandeler, Ellen; Scheu, Stefan; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Ruess, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter

  9. Assessment of arsenic content in soil, rice grains and groundwater and associated health risks in human population from Ropar wetland, India, and its vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Inderpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, potential health risks posed to human population from Ropar wetland and its vicinity, by consumption of inorganic arsenic (i-As) via arsenic contaminated rice grains and groundwater, were assessed. Total arsenic (t-As) in soil and rice grains were found in the range of 0.06-0.11 mg/kg and 0.03-0.33 mg/kg, respectively, on dry weight basis. Total arsenic in groundwater was in the range of 2.31-15.91 μg/L. i-As was calculated from t-As using relevant conversion factors. Rice plants were found to be arsenic accumulators as bioconcentration factor (BCF) was observed to be >1 in 75% of rice grain samples. Further, correlation analysis revealed that arsenic accumulation in rice grains decreased with increase in the electrical conductivity of soil. One-way ANOVA, cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that both geogenic and anthropogenic sources affected t-As in soil and groundwater. Hazard index and total cancer risk estimated for individuals from the study area were above the USEPA limits of 1.00 and 1.00 × 10 -6 , respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test indicated that groundwater intake posed significantly higher health risk than rice grain consumption (χ 2 (1) = 17.280, p = 0.00003).

  10. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Abate, V.; Battacone, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Esposito, M.; Esposito, V.; Miniero, R.

    2016-01-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20–113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40–616 μg/kg for ∑_6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06–17.2 and 0.12–22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872–89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑_6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. - Highlights: • Top soil improvers were characterized for selected POPs content, in Italy. • Grazing behaviour makes sheep sensitive to top soil contamination. • Environmental quality standards for grazing areas were modelled • The impact on Mediterranean sheep milk safety/security was evaluated. • Low contaminated TSIs support safe intake and compliance of dairy products.

  11. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, G.; Abate, V. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Veterinary Public Health Dept, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Battacone, G. [Università degli Studi di Sassari, Agricultural Science, Viale Italia, 39 07100 Sassari (Italy); De Filippis, S.P. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Esposito, M. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via Salute 2, 08055 Portici, (Neaples) (Italy); Esposito, V. [Agenzia Regionale Per la Protezione dell' Ambiente Regione Puglia, Via Anfiteatro 8, 74100 Taranto (Italy); Miniero, R. [Istituto Superiore di sanità, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20–113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40–616 μg/kg for ∑{sub 6} NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06–17.2 and 0.12–22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872–89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑{sub 6} NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. - Highlights: • Top soil improvers were characterized for selected POPs content, in Italy. • Grazing behaviour makes sheep sensitive to top soil contamination. • Environmental quality standards for grazing areas were modelled • The impact on Mediterranean sheep milk safety/security was evaluated. • Low contaminated TSIs support safe intake and compliance of dairy products.

  12. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface......A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... contamination due to stormwater infiltration, but highlights that well absorbable contaminants readily available in urban stormwater runoff eventually build up in surface soils and sub-surface sediments to environmentally critical concentration levels. Thus, on the one hand stormwater infiltration systems may...

  13. Cone Penetration Test and Soil Boring at the Bayside Groundwater Project Site in San Lorenzo, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Sneed, Michelle; Noce, Thomas E.; Tinsley, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Aquifer-system deformation associated with ground-water-level changes is being investigated cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) at the Bayside Groundwater Project (BGP) near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of this project, EBMUD has proposed an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) program to store and recover as much as 3.78x104 m3/d of water. Water will be stored in a 30-m sequence of coarse-grained sediment (the 'Deep Aquifer') underlying the east bay alluvium and the adjacent ground-water basin. Storing and recovering water could cause subsidence and uplift at the ASR site and adjacent areas because the land surface will deform as aquifers and confining units elastically expand and contract with ASR cycles. The Deep Aquifer is overlain by more than 150 m of clayey fine-grained sediments and underlain by comparable units. These sediments are similar to the clayey sediments found in the nearby Santa Clara Valley, where inelastic compaction resulted in about 4.3 m of subsidence near San Jose from 1910 to 1995 due to overdraft of the aquifer. The Deep Aquifer is an important regional resource, and EBMUD is required to demonstrate that ASR activities will not affect nearby ground-water management, salinity levels, or cause permanent land subsidence. Subsidence in the east bay area could induce coastal flooding and create difficulty conveying winter storm runoff from urbanized areas. The objective of the cooperative investigation is to monitor and analyze aquifer-system compaction and expansion, as well as consequent land subsidence and uplift resulting from natural causes and any anthropogenic causes related to ground-water development and ASR activities at the BGP. Therefore, soil properties related to compressibility (and the potential for deformation associated with ground-water-level changes) are of the most concern. To achieve this objective, 3 boreholes

  14. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  15. Environmental monitoring (water, soil, air, food) and some methodological aspects of radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanel, Vasile; Boldescu, Victoria; Mesina, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research results of radiological samples taken from various media (water, soil, air and some food). The study showed that concentrations of radionuclides Cs 137 and Sr 90 did not exceed the maximum permissible. A high level of radionuclides but within the norm occurred in some imported food. The research describes methodology used in radioactive decontamination in practice of the modern world. (authors)

  16. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-10-04

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (~3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO{sub 4} salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  17. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  18. The Instructional Design of Case Method Combined With Role-Playing in the Soil and Groundwater Training Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Hwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all environmental problems are caused by human. Besides being good at environmental engineering theory and technology, to enhance the ability to solve environmental problems, the environmental practitioners need a closer understanding of the stance of different stakeholders. This study is an instructional design combining both "case method" and "role-playing" into the “Soil and Groundwater Talent Training Courses” in Taipei. The curriculum is based on the hexavalent chromium pollution case in Yunlin County. Each group of students is encouraged to play four roles, inculding leather factory owners, farmers, environmental officials, and soil testing professionals. Each group of students has to propose solution strategies after discussion and consultation. The study adopts a single group posttest design. The qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed through proportion and Pearson correlation. Results were as follows: (1 The solution strategies identified by the students include: “mutual communication”, “consensus-building”, and “the formation of an environmental committee". (2 More than 80% of students were satisfied with the instruction, and they found it helpful in terms of knowledge and skills in doing surveying. A moderate positive correlation exists between students’ participation and learning satisfaction. A reflection concerning this instruction design along with some recommendations are provided.

  19. Laboratory scale stabilization of N-springs groundwater strontium-90 using phosphatic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Petersen, S.W.; Torne, E.G.; Vlcakova, J.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of a laboratory study designed to evaluate the ability of phosphatic materials to sorb strontium-90 from soil and groundwater. This study was initiated to investigate the potential use of phosphatic materials as permeable geochemical barriers for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River create potential human food chain hazards; therefore, it is imperative to immobilize the contamination before it reaches the river. Phosphate materials have been proven by various researchers to be chemical compounds that combine with contaminant metals forming into insoluble metal-phosphate minerals. These minerals are stable and insoluble under normal soil conditions

  20. Evaluation of available data on the geohydrology, soil chemistry, and groundwater chemistry of Gas Works Park and surrounding region, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabol, M.A.; Turney, G.L.; Ryals, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located at the site of an abandon gasification plant on Lake Union. Soil contaminants include polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides volatile organic compounds, cyanide, and metals PAHs and metals have been detected in Lake Union sediments. Maximum total PAH concentrations exceeded 100 million micrograms/kilogram in some places in the soils of the park at 6-inch depths and in some lake sediments. Other contaminants present are much lower in concentrations. The park is on glacial drift overlain by gasification waste materials and clean fill. Waste materials include sand and gravels, mixed with lampblack, oil, bricks, and other industrial wastes. Groundwater flows through the soils and waste toward Lake Union. Vertical groundwater movement is uncertain, but is assumed to be upward near Lake Union. Concentrations of most soil contaminants are probably low in the groundwater and in Lake Union due to the low solubilities and high sorptive, characteristics of these contaminants. However, no water quality data are available to confirm this premise. 14 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Multiscale analysis of the spatial variability of heavy metals and organic matter in soils and groundwater across Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, J. A.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, E.; Grima-Olmedo, J.; Grima-Olmedo, C.

    2018-06-01

    During the last years there has been an increasing interest in assessing health risks caused by exposure to contaminants found in soil, air, and water, like heavy metals or emerging contaminants. This work presents a study on the spatial patterns and interaction effects among relevant heavy metals (Sb, As and Pb) that may occur together in different minerals. Total organic carbon (TOC) have been analyzed too because it is an essential component in the regulatory mechanisms that control the amount of metal in soils. Even more, exposure to these elements is associated with a number of diseases and environmental problems. These metals can have both natural and anthropogenic origins. A key component of any exposure study is a reliable model of the spatial distribution the elements studied. A geostatistical analysis have been performed in order to show that selected metals are auto-correlated and cross-correlated and type and magnitude of such cross-correlation varies depending on the spatial scale under consideration. After identifying general trends, we analyzed the residues left after subtracting the trend from the raw variables. Three scales of variability were identified (compounds or factors) with scales of 5, 35 and 135 km. The first factor (F1) basically identifies anomalies of natural origin but, in some places, of anthropogenics origin as well. The other two are related to geology (F2 and F3) although F3 represents more clearly geochemical background related to large lithological groups. Likewise, mapping of two major structures indicates that significant faults have influence on the distribution of the studied elements. Finally, influence of soil and lithology on groundwater by means of contingency analysis was assessed.

  2. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  3. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-01-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow ( 3 (1,650-yd 3 ) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m 3 ($2,412/yd 3 ). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  4. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  5. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Three-year progress report, November 1, 1980-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes our analysis of trophic dynamics in soil fauna including their impact on the decomposition process, investigation of relationships between soil fauna and microflora, development and testing of models describing these processes, and documentation of rates of movement of nutrients along soil arthropod food chains

  6. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; Hal, van R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Scheu, H.; Setälä, S.; šmilauer, P.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  7. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs beneath individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, M.T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; van Hal, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Milauer, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  8. Unraveling the controls on biogeomorphic succession: the influence of groundwater, soil and geomorphic setting on bio-geomorphic channel evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätz, Nico; Verrecchia, Eric P.; Lane, Stuart N.

    2017-04-01

    Braided rivers are characterized by high rates of morphological change. However, despite the potential for frequent disturbance, vegetated patches may develop within this system and influence long-term channel dynamics and channel patterns through the "engineering effects" of biogeomorphic succession. The stabilizing effect of developing vegetation on morphological change has been widely shown by flume experiments and (historic) aerial pictures analysis. Thus, there is a balance between disturbance and stabilization, mediated through biogeomorphic succession, that may determine the long-term geomorphic and biogeomorphic evolution of the river. Research has addressed how changes in disturbance frequency affect river channel pattern, but much less has been done to understand what influences the rate of biogeomorphic succession and how it affects river morphodynamics. This study explores the complex pattern of ambient conditions in braided river systems driving the rate of biogeomorphic succession. In particular, we focus on the interplay between groundwater access, soil formation, disturbance frequency and geomorphic setting, in defining what drives vegetation succession rates and its long-term implications on channel pattern evolution. We studied these feedbacks in a transitional gravel-bed river system (braided, wandering, meandering) close to Geneva (Switzerland) - the Allondon River. Results show that, at the beginning of the succession, humification plays a negative role on local ambient conditions necessary for sprouting. Successful vegetation establishment is then related positively to humification, but also to higher disturbance rates. The third biogeomorphic phase, with the highest feedbacks on river morphology, appears to be mainly driven by groundwater access, which in turn defines the rates of humification in this gravelly environment. This in turn defines the decadal morphological response of the channel after a reduction in disturbance frequency over

  9. An evaluation of the food chain pathway for transuranium elements dispersed in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Simmonds, J.R.; Kelly, G.N.

    1978-12-01

    Man can be exposed to radiation from transuranium elements dispersed in soils by two main routes; through the inhalation of resuspended particles and by ingestion of food products derived from the contaminated soils. In this report relationships are derived between the concentration in soil of two radionuclides, plutonium-239 and americium-241, and the dose to man. The transfer of the transuranium radionuclides through the food chains to man is evaluated using compartment models which are dynamic in character. The two pathways to man are of the same order of importance, within the uncertainties of the available data, and both must be considered in dose assessments. The technique of sensitivity analysis is used to identify areas where further research and investigations are necessary to improve the reliability of the assessment of radiation dose to man. (author)

  10. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  11. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhang

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995 in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  12. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China. PMID:26252956

  13. The updated soil protection act. A decision support tool for contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Henk; 364465476

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Not much attention was paid to the subsurface environmental quality of the Netherlands until the big pollution scandals in the early 1980’s. As a response, the government developed the multifunctional soil protection act (Wbb) to be applicable fo

  14. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  15. Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Barnes, Andrew D.; Thakur, Madhav P.; Brose, Ulrich; Ciobanu, Marcel; Reich, Peter B.; Rich, Roy L.; Rosenbaum, Benjamin; Stefanski, Artur; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is predicted to alter the structure, stability, and functioning of food webs1-5. Yet, despite the importance of soil food webs for energy and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of warming on these food webs—particularly in combination with other global change drivers—are largely unknown. Here, we present results from two complementary field experiments that test the interactive effects of warming with forest canopy disturbance and drought on energy flux in boreal-temperate ecotonal forest soil food webs. The first experiment applied a simultaneous above- and belowground warming treatment (ambient, +1.7 °C, +3.4 °C) to closed-canopy and recently clear-cut forest, simulating common forest disturbance6. The second experiment crossed warming with a summer drought treatment (-40% rainfall) in the clear-cut habitats. We show that warming reduces energy flux to microbes, while forest canopy disturbance and drought facilitates warming-induced increases in energy flux to higher trophic levels and exacerbates the reduction in energy flux to microbes, respectively. Contrary to expectations, we find no change in whole-network resilience to perturbations, but significant losses in ecosystem functioning. Warming thus interacts with forest disturbance and drought, shaping the energetic structure of soil food webs and threatening the provisioning of multiple ecosystem functions in boreal-temperate ecotonal forests.

  16. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential Groundwater Recharge and the Effects of Soil Heterogeneity on Flow at Two Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, V.; Levitt, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    Two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs), consisting of shallow land burial disposal units at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), are managed by Bechtel Nevada for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration. The NTS has an arid climate with annual average precipitation of about 17 cm at the Area 3 RWMS and about 13 cm at the Area 5 RWMS. The vadose zone is about 490 m thick at the Area 3 RWMS, and about 235 m thick at the Area 5 RWMS. Numerous studies indicate that under current climatic conditions, there is generally no groundwater recharge at these sites. Groundwater recharge may occur at isolated locations surrounding the RWMSs, such as in large drainage washes. However, groundwater recharge scenarios (and radionuclide transport) at the RWMSs are modeled in support of Performance Assessment (PA) documents required for operation of each RWMS. Recharge scenarios include conditions of massive subsidence and flooding, and recharge resulting from deep infiltration through bare-soil waste covers. This paper summarizes the groundwater recharge scenarios and travel time estimates that have been conducted in support of the PAs, and examines the effects of soil hydraulic property heterogeneity on flow

  18. Recycling soil nitrate nitrogen by amending agricultural lands with oily food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P

    2003-01-01

    With current agricultural practices the amounts of fertilizer N applied are frequently more than the amounts removed by the crop. Excessive N application may result in short-term accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in soil, which can easily be leached from the root zone and into the ground water. A management practice suggested for conserving accumulated NO3-N is the application of oily food waste (FOG; fat + oil + greases) to agricultural soils. A two-year field study (1995-1996 and 1996-1997) was conducted at Elora Research Center (43 degrees 38' N, 80 degrees W; 346 m above mean sea level), University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the effect of FOG application in fall and spring on soil NO3-N contents and apparent N immobilization-mineralization of soil N in the 0- to 60-cm soil layer. The experiment was planned under a randomized complete block design with four replications. An unamended control and a reference treatment [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop] were included in the experiment to compare the effects of fall and spring treatment of oily food waste on soil NO3-N contents and apparent N immobilization-mineralization. Oily food waste application at 10 Mg ha(-1) in the fall decreased soil NO3-N by immobilization and conserved 47 to 56 kg NO3-N ha(-1), which would otherwise be subject to leaching. Nitrogen immobilized due to FOG application in the fall was subsequently remineralized by the time of fertilizer N sidedress, whereas no net mineralization was observed in spring-amended plots at the same time.

  19. Soil water storage and groundwater behaviour in a catenary sequence beneath forest in central Amazonia: I. Comparisons between plateau, slope and valley floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hodnett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water storage was monitored in three landscape elements in the forest (plateau, slope and valley floor over a 3 year period to identify differences in sub-surface hydrological response. Under the plateau and slope, the changes of storage were very similar and there was no indication of surface runoff on the slope. The mean maximum seasonal storage change was 156 mm in the 2 m profile but it was clear that, in the dry season, the forest was able to take up water from below 3.6 m. Soil water availability was low. Soil water storage changes in the valley were dominated by the behaviour of a shallow water table which, in normal years, varied between 0.1 m below the surface at the end of the wet season and 0.8 m at the end of the dry season. Soil water storage changes were small because root uptake was largely replenished by groundwater flow towards the stream. The groundwater behaviour is controlled mainly by the deep drainage from beneath the plateau and slope areas. The groundwater gradient beneath the slope indicated that recharge beneath the plateau and slope commences only after the soil water deficits from the previous dry season have been replenished. Following a wet season with little recharge, the water table fell, ceasing to influence the valley soil water storage, and the stream dried up. The plateau and slope, a zone of very high porosity between 0.4 and 1.1 m, underlain by a less conductive layer, is a probable route for interflow during, and for a few hours after, heavy and prolonged rainfall.

  20. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, flow of water in unsaturated soil, and stable isotope water sourcing in areas of sparse vegetation, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Andraski, Brian J.; Garcia, C. Amanda

    2017-08-29

    This report documents methodology and results of a study to evaluate groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (GWET) in sparsely vegetated areas of Amargosa Desert and improve understanding of hydrologic-continuum processes controlling groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration and GWET rates were computed and characterized at three sites over 2 years using a combination of micrometeorological, unsaturated zone, and stable-isotope measurements. One site (Amargosa Flat Shallow [AFS]) was in a sparse and isolated area of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) where the depth to groundwater was 3.8 meters (m). The second site (Amargosa Flat Deep [AFD]) was in a sparse cover of predominantly shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) where the depth to groundwater was 5.3 m. The third site (Amargosa Desert Research Site [ADRS]), selected as a control site where GWET is assumed to be zero, was located in sparse vegetation dominated by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) where the depth to groundwater was 110 m.Results indicated that capillary rise brought groundwater to within 0.9 m (at AFS) and 3 m (at AFD) of land surface, and that GWET rates were largely controlled by the slow but relatively persistent upward flow of water through the unsaturated zone in response to atmospheric-evaporative demands. Greater GWET at AFS (50 ± 20 millimeters per year [mm/yr]) than at AFD (16 ± 15 mm/yr) corresponded with its shallower depth to the capillary fringe and constantly higher soil-water content. The stable-isotope dataset for hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) illustrated a broad range of plant-water-uptake scenarios. The AFS saltgrass and AFD shadscale responded to changing environmental conditions and their opportunistic water use included the time- and depth-variable uptake of unsaturated-zone water derived from a combination of groundwater and precipitation. These results can be used to estimate GWET in other areas of Amargosa Desert where hydrologic conditions are similar.

  1. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences

  2. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Erica M. [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  3. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  4. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Johnsen, Anders R.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were......-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated...... calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching...

  5. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater, vol. I: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Bioremedial technologies, whether applied exclusively or in conjunction with other physical or chemical approaches for the clean-up of organic contamination, constitute powerful tools in the control, management, and diminution of petroleum products in soil and groundwater. This report evaluates the rapidly expanding list of bioremedial techniques developed over the past years and provides a comparison between the feasibility and relative effectiveness of these techniques and conventional physical and/or chemical treatment technologies.

  6. Conceptual Model for the Transport of Energetic Residues from Surface Soil to Groundwater by Range Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    fluoranthenes are common products of diesel emissions (Hering et al. 1984). Benzo(a)pyrene is common in creosote and motor vehicle particulate emissions (Wild...military ranges are associated with on-site vegetative burning, diesel exhaust, and atmospheric deposi- tion. Metals Metal oxides and salts are...Hence, slow transport of TNT from the soil bed is a limiting fac- tor in the phytoremediation or bioremediation of TNT. Fluxes were, in de- creasing

  7. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other

  8. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  9. Demonstrating practical application of soil and groundwater clean-up and recovery technologies at natural gas processing facilities: Bioventing, air sparging and wetlands remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the project newsletter described the nature of bioventing, air sparging and wetland remediation. It reviewed their effectiveness in remediating hydrocarbon contaminated soil above the groundwater surface. Bioventing was described as an effective, low cost treatment in which air is pumped below ground to stimulate indigenous bacteria. The bacteria then use the oxygen to consume the hydrocarbons, converting them to CO 2 and water. Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater surface. As the air rises, hydrocarbons are stripped from the contaminated soil and water. The advantage of air sparging is that it cleans contaminated soil and water from below the groundwater surface. Hydrocarbon contamination of wetlands was described as fairly common. Conventional remediation methods of excavation, trenching, and bellholes to remove contamination often cause extreme harm to the ecosystem. Recent experimental evidence suggests that wetlands may be capable of attenuating contaminated water through natural processes. Four hydrocarbon contaminated wetlands in Alberta are currently under study. Results to date show that peat's high organic content promotes sorption and biodegradation and that some crude oil spills can been resolved by natural processes. It was suggested that assuming peat is present, a good clean-up approach may be to contain the contaminant source, monitor the lateral and vertical extent of contamination, and wait for natural processes to resolve the problem. 3 figs

  10. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil using Candida catenulata and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M.; Shoda, Makoto; Phae, Chae-Gun

    2008-01-01

    Even though petroleum-degrading microorganisms are widely distributed in soil and water, they may not be present in sufficient numbers to achieve contaminant remediation. In such cases, it may be useful to inoculate the polluted area with highly effective petroleum-degrading microbial strains to augment the exiting ones. In order to identify a microbial strain for bioaugmentation of oil-contaminated soil, we isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency of diesel fuel in culture. The efficacy of the isolated microbial strain, identified as Candida catenulata CM1, was further evaluated during composting of a mixture containing 23% food waste and 77% diesel-contaminated soil including 2% (w/w) diesel. After 13 days of composting, 84% of the initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes containing a powdered form of CM1 (CM1-solid), compared with 48% of removal ratio in control reactor without inoculum. This finding suggests that CM1 is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with food waste through composting processes. - Enhancement on degradation ability of petroleum hydrocarbon by the microbial strain in the composting process with food waste

  11. They all like it hot: faster cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Clean up a greasy kitchen spill with cold water and the going is slow. Us hot water instead and progress improves markedly. So it makes sense that cleanup of greasy underground contaminants such as gasoline might go faster if hot water or steam were somehow added to the process. The Environmental Protection Agency named hundreds of sites to the Superfund list - sites that have been contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum products or solvents. Elsewhere across the country, thousands of properties not identified on federal cleanup lists are contaminated as well. Given that under current regulations, underground accumulations of solvent and hydrocarbon contaminants (the most serious cause of groundwater pollution) must be cleaned up, finding a rapid and effective method of removing them is imperative. In the early 1990`s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore developed dynamic underground stripping. This method for treating underground contaminants with heat is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods.

  12. In-situ chemical oxidation of BTEX in soil and groundwater for the redevelopment of a brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, D. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This conference presentation discussed the chemical oxidation of BTEX in soil and groundwater. The presentation provided background on the study and conceptual site model. The site was a former highway maintenance yard until the early 1990s, purchased by the municipality and then sold to private owners in 2004. Remediation was done in 2006 and 2007 for hydrocarbon impacts. A treatability study was conducted to evaluate the hydrology and geology of the site; natural oxidant demand; potential for mobilization of redox-sensitive metals; transport mechanisms to ensure contact between oxidant and contaminant; and, sodium loading. It was also necessary to determine the hydrocarbon mass in each phase, stoichiometry-contaminant and oxidant, as well as mass oxidant required for the delivery mechanism. Logistics, safety, and contingency planning were also part of the study design. Pilot and full-scale implementation were presented as well as the results, costs, and conclusions of the study. It was concluded that higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide caused moderate localized heat generation and synergism was observed in combination with hydrogen peroxide and catalyst. tabs., figs.

  13. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted of available techniques for the biological treatment of oil and associated hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. The study involved a detailed literature search and review, as well as discussions with the users and developers of a number of the bioremediation techniques assessed. The result is a compendium of selected state-of-the-art bioremediation technologies which can serve to guide the selection process for treatment technology for a particular site subject to remediation. Background is provided on the various classes of sites on which petroleum-related contamination could occur, and the nature of contaminants typical of such sites. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon biodegradation are outlined along with various approaches to bioremediation such as in-situ, on-site, bioreactors, landfarming, composting, and physical/chemical treatments. Field trials required to characterize the site and provide an indication of the suitability of bioremediation and the most appropriate bioremediation approach are described. Commercially available bioremediation technologies are briefly discussed. A number of the bioremedial techniques reviewed are compared to more conventional treatment processes in terms of such criteria as operating cost, effectiveness, advantages, risks, applicability, equipment and manpower requirements, and considerations regarding usage in Canadian conditions. 15 figs., 17 tabs

  14. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted of available techniques for the biological treatment of oil and associated hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. The study involved a detailed literature search and review, as well as discussions with the users and developers of a number of the bioremediation techniques assessed. The result is a compendium of selected state-of-the-art bioremediation technologies which can serve to guide the selection process for treatment technology for a particular site subject to remediation. Background is provided on the various classes of sites on which petroleum-related contamination could occur, and the nature of contaminants typical of such sites. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon biodegradation are outlined along with various approaches to bioremediation such as in-situ, on-site, bioreactors, landfarming, composting, and physical/chemical treatments. Field trials required to characterize the site and provide an indication of the suitability of bioremediation and the most appropriate bioremediation approach are described. Commercially available bioremediation technologies are briefly discussed. A number of the bioremedial techniques reviewed are compared to more conventional treatment processes in terms of such criteria as operating cost, effectiveness, advantages, risks, applicability, equipment and manpower requirements, and considerations regarding usage in Canadian conditions. 15 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Interconnection between precipitation density, soil contamination levels and 90Sr and 137Cs content in food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data dynamically characterizing the density of radioactive fallout, contamination of soil and the main kinds of food stuffs with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. It is shown that 90 Sr contamination of bakery products in the country within the whole period of observation is in direct dependence on the density of atmospheric fallouts as a whole in the northern hemisphere. In the reverse, 90 Sr potato contamination primarily correlates with nuclide content in the soil. The dependence between milk contamination and fallout density has an intermediate character as compared with the above types of food stuffs. The same is true for 137 Cs, but a clear tendency to a faster decrease in the level of food stuffs contamination is observed. The importance of the soil way in food stuffs contamination and peculiarities of nuclide migration in food stuffs from various types of soil are considered

  16. Air sparging/high vacuum extraction to remove chlorinated solvents in groundwater and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Gilliat, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    An air sparging and high vacuum extraction was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system to reduce the long-term remediation schedule. The site is located at the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, just south of Dayton. The air sparging system consists of 23 wells interspersed between 17 soil vapor extraction wells. The SVE system has extracted about 1,500 lbs of VOCs in five months. The air sparging system operated for about 6 weeks before shutdown due to suspected biochemical fouling. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system

  17. Radiological impact of a municipal solid waste landfill on soil and groundwater using 2-D resistivity tomography and gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehirim, C.N.; Itota, G.O.

    2011-01-01

    The radiological impacts of a municipal solid waste landfill on soil and groundwater in Port Harcourt municipality was investigated by integrating 2-D resistivity imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The objective of the study is to determine the lateral and vertical limits of leachate contamination, and to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in soil and groundwater. Results show that the soil and ground water have been contaminated by landfill emissions and radioactive materials throughout the landfill area. The distribution of the contamination is uneven and spotty, both horizontally and vertically, and has penetrated to depths exceeding 31m into the ground water aquifer. The primary contaminants found in the site were leachate, landfill gases, and 40 K, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra radionuclides. The mean absorbed dose rates of 31.98nGy/hr, 10.51nGy/hr and 6.98nGy/hr, and mean dose rate equivalents of 0.28mSv/yr, 0.09mSv/yr and 0.06mSv/yr were obtained for the soil, leachate and water samples, respectively. The mean absorbed and equivalent dose rates in the soil and water samples are greater than their controls, suggesting that the landfill area is contaminated. These results are comparable to those reported for other waste sites in the area and lower than the maximum permitted limits for the general public of 1mSv/yr and 0.1mSv/yr for soil and water, respectively. These therefore, have no immediate radiological health burden on the inhabitants who depend on the soil and groundwater for their crops and potable water supply, except for the effects of disease causing micro-organism and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the leachate. However, with continuous consumption of crop products and intake of groundwater, increase in the activity concentration and dose rates of these radionuclides may occur over time, with adverse effects on humans.

  18. Estimating soil water-holding capacities by linking the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil map of the world with global pedon databases and continuous pedotransfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Rawls, W. J.

    2000-12-01

    Spatial soil water-holding capacities were estimated for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) digital Soil Map of the World (SMW) by employing continuous pedotransfer functions (PTF) within global pedon databases and linking these results to the SMW. The procedure first estimated representative soil properties for the FAO soil units by statistical analyses and taxotransfer depth algorithms [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1996]. The representative soil properties estimated for two layers of depths (0-30 and 30-100 cm) included particle-size distribution, dominant soil texture, organic carbon content, coarse fragments, bulk density, and porosity. After representative soil properties for the FAO soil units were estimated, these values were substituted into three different pedotransfer functions (PTF) models by Rawls et al. [1982], Saxton et al. [1986], and Batjes [1996a]. The Saxton PTF model was finally selected to calculate available water content because it only required particle-size distribution data and results closely agreed with the Rawls and Batjes PTF models that used both particle-size distribution and organic matter data. Soil water-holding capacities were then estimated by multiplying the available water content by the soil layer thickness and integrating over an effective crop root depth of 1 m or less (i.e., encountered shallow impermeable layers) and another soil depth data layer of 2.5 m or less.

  19. Effect of two organic fertilizers on food webs of soil cultivated with blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Orozco Aceves

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertilization with organic fertilizers comprises a practice that improves the soil biological properties; however, the effect of these on the soil food web (SFW has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two commercial organic fertilizers on the structure of the SFW associated with roots of blackberry plants (Rubus adenotrichos. The research was conducted in two blackberry plantations located one in San Martín de León Cortés, and the other one in Buena Vista de Pérez Zeledón in San José, Costa Rica, from August to December, 2010. In the two plantations, plants were fertilized with compost or vermicompost. The roots of blackberry plants surrounding soil were sampled in order to quantify groups of the SFW through the following techniques: bacteria and filamentous fungi by plate count, protozoa by the most probable number, spores from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nematodes by flotation-centrifugation, microarthropods, macroarthropods, and worms were directly counted in soil samples. The dataset was analyzed by multidimensional scaling analysis. The addition of organic fertilizers to soil caused a differential effect on the structure of the SFW (as compared with non-fertilized soils. The effect differed in soil from each of the experimental plantations according to fertilizer type. The groups of organisms mainly affected were actinomycetes and protozoa, which implies that the structure of SFW and consequently, the function of soil were not affected by the addition of organic fertilizers.

  20. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyndrickx, M

    2011-01-01

    Specific endo spore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus) the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endo spore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like non proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively

  1. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Heyndrickx

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific endospore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endospore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively.

  2. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  3. Application of a soil and ground-water pollutant-transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, M.; Duguid, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    A general two-dimensional model was developed for simulation of saturated-unsaturated transport of radionuclides in ground water. This model is being applied to the transport of radionuclides from waste-disposal sites, where field investigations are currently under way to obtain the necessary parameters. A zero-order simulation of a waste-disposal trench is presented. Estimated values of the soil properties have been used since very limited experimental information is available at the present time. However, as more measured values become available from field studies, the simulation will be updated. The end product of this research will be a reliable computer model useful both in predicting future transport of radionuclides from buried waste and in examining control measures if they are shown to be necessary. (U.S.)

  4. 'David and Goliath' of the soil food web - Flagellates that kill nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Rønn, Regin

    2008-01-01

    Nematodes and flagellates are important bacterial predators in soil and sediments. Generally, these organisms are considered to be competitors for bacterial food. We studied the interaction among flagellates and nematodes using axenic liquid cultures amended with heat-killed bacteria as food...... and showed for the first time that a small and common soil flagellate (Cercomonas sp.) is able to attack and kill the much larger nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The killing process is not caused by soluble metabolites but requires direct contact between the flagellate cells and the nematode surface...... and occurs rapidly (within a few hours) at high flagellate density. At lower flagellate density, adult nematodes sometimes avoid attachment of flagellates, feed on them and become the dominant bacterial predator. Considering that bacterial feeders affect bacterial communities differently, and that one...

  5. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in Dried Foods, Fresh Vegetables and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigeko

    2017-01-01

     The present study surveyed the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in dried foods including milk powder, spices and herbs and others, and fresh vegetables commercially available in markets, and ground soil materials for the agriculture. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 15% of 33 spice and herb samples and 3% of 36 taste foods, and these were C. turicensis, C. malonaticus, C. sakazakii and C. dubliensis. Cronobacter spp. from fresh vegetables were detected in 12% of field vegetables and 13% of hydroponic vegetables. C. turicensis was prevalent in field vegetables, and C. malonaticus was in hydroponic ones. And, Cronobacter spp. in shredded vegetables were detected from 44% of 9 samples, and these were C. dubliensis, C. turicensis and C. sakazakii. Also, Cronobacter spp. in soil from rice field, vegetable field and sandpits were predominantly C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus.

  6. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1987-01-01

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Fungal-to-bacterial dominance of soil detrital food-webs: Consequences for biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Frey, Serita

    2015-04-01

    Resolving fungal and bacterial groups within the microbial decomposer community is thought to capture disparate microbial life strategies, associating bacteria with an r-selected strategy for carbon (C) and nutrient use, and fungi with a K-selected strategy. Additionally, food-web models have established a widely held belief that the bacterial decomposer pathway in soil supports high turnover rates of easily available substrates, while the slower fungal pathway supports the decomposition of more complex organic material, thus characterising the biogeochemistry of the ecosystem. Three field-experiments to generate gradients of SOC-quality were assessed. (1) the Detritus Input, Removal, and Trenching - DIRT - experiment in a temperate forest in mixed hardwood stands at Harvard Forest LTER, US. There, experimentally adjusted litter input and root input had affected the SOC quality during 23 years. (2) field-application of 14-C labelled glucose to grassland soils, sampled over the course of 13 months to generate an age-gradient of SOM (1 day - 13 months). (3) The Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted, UK, where 150-years continuous N-fertilisation (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1 y-1) has affected the quality of SOM in grassland soils. A combination of carbon stable and radio isotope studies, fungal and bacterial growth and biomass measurements, and C and N mineralisation (15N pool dilution) assays were used to investigate how SOC-quality influenced fungal and bacterial food-web pathways and the implications this had for C and nutrient turnover. There was no support that decomposer food-webs dominated by bacteria support high turnover rates of easily available substrates, while slower fungal-dominated decomposition pathways support the decomposition of more complex organic material. Rather, an association between high quality SOC and fungi emerges from the results. This suggests that we need to revise our basic understanding for soil microbial communities and the processes

  8. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Aljassim, Nada I.; Timraz, Kenda Hussain Hassan; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic

  9. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    Interpreting and predicting the evolution of water resources and soils at regional scale are continuing challenges for natural scientists. Examples include non-point source (NPS) pollution of soil and surface and subsurface water from agricultural chemicals and pathogens, as well as overexploitation of groundwater resources. The presence and build up of NPS pollutants may be harmful for both soil and groundwater resources. The accumulation of salts and trace elements in soils can significantly impact crop productivity, while loading of salts, nitrates, trace elements and pesticides into groundwater supplies can deteriorate a source of drinking and irrigation water. Consequently, predicting the spatial distribution and fate of NPS pollutants in soils at applicative scales is now considered crucial for maintaining the fragile balance between crop productivity and the negative environmental impacts of NPS pollutants, which is a basis of sustainable agriculture. Soil scientists and hydrologists are regularly asked to assist state agencies to understand these critical environmental issues. The most frequent inquiries are related to the development of mathematical models needed for analyzing the impacts of alternative land-use and best management use and management of soil and water resources. Different modelling solutions exist, mainly differing on the role of the vadose zone and its horizontal and vertical variability in the predictive models. The vadose zone (the region from the soil surface to the groundwater surface) is a complex physical, chemical and biological ecosystem that controls the passage of NPS pollutants from the soil surface where they have been deposited or accumulated due to agricultural activities, to groundwater. Physically based distributed hydrological models require the internal variability of the vadose zone be explored at a variety of scales. The equations describing fluxes and storage of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone used in these

  10. Instrumenting an upland research catchment in Canterbury, New Zealand to study controls on variability of soil moisture, shallow groundwater and streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Hilary; Srinivasan, Ms

    2015-04-01

    Hydrologists recognise the importance of vertical drainage and deep flow paths in runoff generation, even in headwater catchments. Both soil and groundwater stores are highly variable over multiple scales, and the distribution of water has a strong control on flow rates and timing. In this study, we instrumented an upland headwater catchment in New Zealand to measure the temporal and spatial variation in unsaturated and saturated-zone responses. In NZ, upland catchments are the source of much of the water used in lowland agriculture, but the hydrology of such catchments and their role in water partitioning, storage and transport is poorly understood. The study area is the Langs Gully catchment in the North Branch of the Waipara River, Canterbury: this catchment was chosen to be representative of the foothills environment, with lightly managed dryland pasture and native Matagouri shrub vegetation cover. Over a period of 16 months we measured continuous soil moisture at 32 locations and near-surface water table (versus hillslope locations, and convergent versus divergent hillslopes. We found that temporal variability is strongly controlled by the climatic seasonal cycle, for both soil moisture and water table, and for both the mean and extremes of their distributions. Groundwater is a larger water storage component than soil moisture, and the difference increases with catchment wetness. The spatial standard deviation of both soil moisture and groundwater is larger in winter than in summer. It peaks during rainfall events due to partial saturation of the catchment, and also rises in spring as different locations dry out at different rates. The most important controls on spatial variability are aspect and distance from stream. South-facing and near-stream locations have higher water tables and more, larger soil moisture wetting events. Typical hydrological models do not explicitly account for aspect, but our results suggest that it is an important factor in hillslope

  11. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil using Candida catenulata and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Shoda, Makoto; Phae, Chae-Gun

    2008-12-01

    Even though petroleum-degrading microorganisms are widely distributed in soil and water, they may not be present in sufficient numbers to achieve contaminant remediation. In such cases, it may be useful to inoculate the polluted area with highly effective petroleum-degrading microbial strains to augment the exiting ones. In order to identify a microbial strain for bioaugmentation of oil-contaminated soil, we isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency of diesel fuel in culture. The efficacy of the isolated microbial strain, identified as Candida catenulata CM1, was further evaluated during composting of a mixture containing 23% food waste and 77% diesel-contaminated soil including 2% (w/w) diesel. After 13 days of composting, 84% of the initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes containing a powdered form of CM1 (CM1-solid), compared with 48% of removal ratio in control reactor without inoculum. This finding suggests that CM1 is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with food waste through composting processes.

  12. Study of Cs/sup 137/ contamination in soil and food samples of Jhangar valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z.S.; Khan, H.M.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident has been the main source of artificial radioactive contamination throughout the world and its effects have been found in Pakistan as well. In the present study, activities of an important anthropogenic radionuclide, Cs/sup 137/ in soil and food samples of Jhangar Valley of Pakistan have been determined using PC based gamma spectrometer. Soil-375 from IAEA was used as reference material. The soil samples were collected from the agricultural fields of the selected area while food samples, grown in the selected area, were collected from the fields or from local market. After proper treatment, the samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The following values for average specific activity of Cs/sup 137/ were found: soil (range 1.3-46.8 Bq/kg) (12.0 Bq/kg), wheat (0.9 +- 0.05 Bq/kg), millet (1.5 +- 0.06 Bq/kg), lentils (2.0 +- 0.1 Bq/kg), potato (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg) and cauliflower (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg). The results have been discussed and compared with other data available in the literature. (author)

  13. Sorption Kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp on Two Soil Layers Associated with a Groundwater Table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kemka

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study has been carried out on two soil layers (HX and HY located above a groundwater table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa. The main purpose of this study was to assess the retention potential or sorption kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. on these soil layers. For both soil layers, bacterial sorption on soil particles occurred rapidly during the first 30 minutes of incubation of bacteria and soil particles in aqueous media, and increased gradually with incubation time up to 300 min. In some cases, adsorption rates fluctuated after 30 min of incubation, probably due to bacterial cell sorption to and de-sorption from soil particles. Using Freundlich isotherms, it was noted that adsorption coefficient related to adsorption capacity varied from 19 to 4026 E. coli.mg-1 of soil, and from 506 to 847 Salmonella sp.mg-1 of soil. For both bacterial species, the adsorption coefficient of layer HY (located in close proximity of the water table was greater than that of HX (located above layer HY and seemed to positively correlate with the pH values and N/P ratios, and to negatively correlate with the values of C/N and C/P ratios. The linearity coefficient related to adsorption intensity varied from 0.5841 to 1.0023 for E. coli, and from 0.7068 to 1.5236 for Salmonella sp. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil particles seemed to influence the sorption kinetics of bacteria on soil.

  14. A simple daily soil-water balance model for estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in temperate humid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dripps, W.R.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of natural groundwater recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective groundwater modeling and management. As flow models become increasingly utilized for management decisions, there is an increased need for simple, practical methods to delineate recharge zones and quantify recharge rates. Existing models for estimating recharge distributions are data intensive, require extensive parameterization, and take a significant investment of time in order to establish. The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) has developed a simple daily soil-water balance (SWB) model that uses readily available soil, land cover, topographic, and climatic data in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater recharge at the watershed scale for temperate humid areas. To demonstrate the methodology and the applicability and performance of the model, two case studies are presented: one for the forested Trout Lake watershed of north central Wisconsin, USA and the other for the urban-agricultural Pheasant Branch Creek watershed of south central Wisconsin, USA. Overall, the SWB model performs well and presents modelers and planners with a practical tool for providing recharge estimates for modeling and water resource planning purposes in humid areas. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  15. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-01-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  16. Geochemical effects on the behavior of LLW radionuclides in soil/groundwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Sterne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Assessing the migration potential of radionuclides leached from low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and decommissioning sites necessitates information on the effects of sorption and precipitation on the concentrations of dissolved radionuclides. Such an assessment requires that the geochemical processes of aqueous speciation, complexation, oxidation/reduction, and ion exchange be taken into account. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for defining the solubility and sorption behavior of radionuclides in soil/ground-water environments associated with engineered cementitious LLW disposal systems and decommissioning sites. Geochemical modeling is being used to predict solubility limits for radionuclides under geochemical conditions associated with these environments. The solubility limits are being used as maximum concentration limits in performance assessment calculations describing the release of contaminants from waste sources. Available data were compiled regarding the sorption potential of radionuclides onto {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} cement/concrete where the expected pH of the cement pore waters will equal to or exceed 10. Based on information gleaned from the literature, a list of preferred minimum distribution coefficients (Kd`s) was developed for these radionuclides. The K{sub d} values are specific to the chemical environments associated with the evolution of the compositions of cement/concrete pore waters.

  17. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, K.; Verta, M.; Marttinen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  18. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  19. Burning management in the tallgrass prairie affects root decomposition, soil food web structure and carbon flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, E. A.; Denef, K.; Milano de Tomasel, C.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Wall, D. H.

    2015-09-01

    Root litter decomposition is a major component of carbon (C) cycling in grasslands, where it provides energy and nutrients for soil microbes and fauna. This is especially important in grasslands where fire is a common management practice and removes aboveground litter accumulation. In this study, we investigated whether fire affects root decomposition and C flow through the belowground food web. In a greenhouse experiment, we applied 13C-enriched big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) root litter to intact tallgrass prairie soil cores collected from annually burned (AB) and infrequently burned (IB) treatments at the Konza Prairie Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Incorporation of 13C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids and nematode trophic groups was measured on six occasions during a 180-day decomposition study to determine how C was translocated through the soil food web. Results showed significantly different soil communities between treatments and higher microbial abundance for IB. Root decomposition occurred rapidly and was significantly greater for AB. Microbes and their nematode consumers immediately assimilated root litter C in both treatments. Root litter C was preferentially incorporated in a few groups of microbes and nematodes, but depended on burn treatment: fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungivore nematodes for AB and only omnivore nematodes for IB. The overall microbial pool of root litter-derived C significantly increased over time but was not significantly different between burn treatments. The nematode pool of root litter-derived C also significantly increased over time, and was significantly higher for the AB treatment at 35 and 90 days after litter addition. In conclusion, the C flow from root litter to microbes to nematodes is not only measurable, but significant, indicating that higher nematode trophic levels are critical components of C flow during root decomposition which, in turn, is significantly

  20. Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

  1. Soil-food chain-pesticide wildlife relationships in aldrin-treated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  2. Plant species identity and diversity effects on different trophic levels of nematodes in the soil food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies on biodiversity and soil food web composition have mentioned plant species identity, as well as plant species diversity as the main factors affecting the abundance and diversity of soil organisms. However, most studies have been carried out under limitations of time, space, or

  3. Microbial food web dynamics along a soil chronosequence of a glacier forefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial food webs are critical for efficient nutrient turnover providing the basis for functional and stable ecosystems. However, the successional development of such microbial food webs and their role in "young" ecosystems is unclear. Due to a continuous glacier retreat since the middle of the 19th century, glacier forefields have expanded offering an excellent opportunity to study food web dynamics in soils at different developmental stages. In the present study, litter degradation and the corresponding C fluxes into microbial communities were investigated along the forefield of the Damma glacier (Switzerland. 13C-enriched litter of the pioneering plant Leucanthemopsis alpina (L. Heywood was incorporated into the soil at sites that have been free from ice for approximately 10, 60, 100 and more than 700 years. The structure and function of microbial communities were identified by 13C analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL. Results showed increasing microbial diversity and biomass, and enhanced proliferation of bacterial groups as ecosystem development progressed. Initially, litter decomposition proceeded faster at the more developed sites, but at the end of the experiment loss of litter mass was similar at all sites, once the more easily-degradable litter fraction was processed. As a result incorporation of 13C into microbial biomass was more evident during the first weeks of litter decomposition. 13C enrichments of both PLEL and PLFA biomarkers following litter incorporation were observed at all sites, suggesting similar microbial foodwebs at all stages of soil development. Nonetheless, the contribution of bacteria, especially actinomycetes to litter turnover became more pronounced as soil age increased in detriment of archaea, fungi and protozoa, more prominent in recently deglaciated terrain.

  4. Tree Sampling as a Method to Assess Vapor Intrusion Potential at a Site Characterized by VOC-Contaminated Groundwater and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Limmer, Matthew A; Samaranayake, V A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-09-19

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the "sampler' and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700-1600 m 2 , the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  5. Tree sampling as a method to assess vapor intrusion potential at a site characterized by VOC-contaminated groundwater and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Samaranayake, V. A.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the “sampler’ and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700–1600 m2, the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  6. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica Dragos V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability

  7. An investigation of radionuclide uptake into food crops grown in soils treated with bauxite mining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Clarke, P.C.; Robertson, W.; McPharlin, I.R.; Jeffrey, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Sandy soils of the coastal plain area of Western Australia have poor phosphorous retention capacity which leads to pollution of surface water bodies in the region. Application of bauxite mining residues (termed 'red mud') to vegetable and crops has been proposed as a solution to increase the phosphorous and water retention and thereby reduce the leaching of nutrients. The thorium and radium-226 concentrations in the 'red mud' residues are in excess of 1 kBq/kg, and 300 Bq/kg respectively. Potentially, the use of these residues on agricultural land could result in increased levels of radionuclides in food grown in amended soils. The transfer of long-lived radionuclides of both the natural thorium and uranium series to a variety of vegetable crops grown under controlled conditions is investigated. The effects of varying the rates of application of 'red mud' and phosphate fertilizers on radionuclide uptake are studied. It has been shown previously that fallout caesium-137 is sandy soils of the region transfers readily to food and grazing crops. Some of the parameters which influence that transfer are also examined. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  8. Measured and simulated effects of sophisticated drainage techniques on groundwater level and runoff hydrochemistry in areas of boreal acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BÄRLUND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To abate the environmental problems caused by the severe acidity and high metal concentrations in rivers draining acid sulphate (AS soils of Western Finland, control drainage (CD and lime filter drainage (LFD, and their combination, were investigated. The effectiveness of these best management practices (BMP’s on drainage water quality was studied on plot scale in two locations. In Ilmajoki, where the sulphidic materials are more than 2 m below the soil surface, CD efficiently reduced the concentrations of sulphate, aluminium, manganese and iron concentrations and to some extent also increased the pH of the drainage waters. LFD, in contrast, effectively reduced the drainage water acidity and raised the pH level. Decrease of the groundwater level owing to strong evapotranspiration in summer could, however, not be properly prevented by CD. In Mustasaari where sulphidic materials were as shallow as 1 m below soil surface, the positive effects of LFD recognised in Ilmajoki were hardly seen. This shows, that the tested BMP’s work properly, and can thus be recommended, for intensively artificially drained AS soils like in Ilmajoki where most of the acidity has already been transported to watercourses. LFD can, however, not be recommended for as yet poorly leached and thus particularly problematic AS soils like in Mustasaari. This is, of course, a drawback of the tested BMP, as it is not effective for the soils which would need it most. The field data were tentatively utilised to test the performance of the HAPSU (Ionic Flow Model for Acid Sulphate Soils simulation model developed to estimate the loads of harmful substances from AS soils.;

  9. The structure of salt marsh soil mesofauna food webs - The prevalence of disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynert, Kristin; Kiggen, Mirijam; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mesofauna taxa fill key trophic positions in soil food webs, even in terrestrial-marine boundary habitats characterized by frequent natural disturbances. Salt marshes represent such boundary habitats, characterized by frequent inundations increasing from the terrestrial upper to the marine pioneer zone. Despite the high abundance of soil mesofauna in salt marshes and their important function by facilitating energy and carbon flows, the structure, trophic ecology and habitat-related diet shifts of mesofauna species in natural salt marsh habitats is virtually unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of natural disturbance (inundation frequency) on community structure, food web complexity and resource use of soil mesofauna using stable isotope analysis (15N, 13C) in three salt marsh zones. In this intertidal habitat, the pioneer zone is exposed to inundations twice a day, but lower and upper salt marshes are less frequently inundated based on shore height. The mesofauna comprised 86 species / taxa dominated by Collembola, Oribatida and Mesostigmata. Shifts in environmental disturbances influenced the structure of food webs, diversity and density declined strongly from the land to the sea pointing to the importance of increasing levels of inundation frequency. Accordingly, the reduced diversity and density was associated by a simplification of the food web in the pioneer zone as compared to the less inundated lower and upper salt marsh with a higher number of trophic levels. Strong variations in δ15N signatures demonstrated that mesofauna species are feeding at multiple trophic levels. Primary decomposers were low and most mesofauna species functioned as secondary decomposers or predators including second order predators or scavengers. The results document that major decomposer taxa, such as Collembola and Oribatida, are more diverse than previously assumed and predominantly dwell on autochthonous resources of the respective salt marsh zone. The results further

  10. Development of Tier 1 screening tool for soil and groundwater vulnerability assessment in Korea using classification algorithm in a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K. H.; Kim, K. H.; Ki, S. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The vulnerability assessment tool at a Tier 1 level, although not often used for regulatory purposes, helps establish pollution prevention and management strategies in the areas of potential environmental concern such as soil and ground water. In this study, the Neural Network Pattern Recognition Tool embedded in MATLAB was used to allow the initial screening of soil and groundwater pollution based on data compiled across about 1000 previously contaminated sites in Korea. The input variables included a series of parameters which were tightly related to downward movement of water and contaminants through soil and ground water, whereas multiple classes were assigned to the sum of concentrations of major pollutants detected. Results showed that in accordance with diverse pollution indices for soil and ground water, pollution levels in both media were strongly modulated by site-specific characteristics such as intrinsic soil and other geologic properties, in addition to pollution sources and rainfall. However, classification accuracy was very sensitive to the number of classes defined as well as the types of the variables incorporated, requiring careful selection of input variables and output categories. Therefore, we believe that the proposed methodology is used not only to modify existing pollution indices so that they are more suitable for addressing local vulnerability, but also to develop a unique assessment tool to support decision making based on locally or nationally available data. This study was funded by a grant from the GAIA project(2016000560002), Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute, Republic of Korea.

  11. Determination and validation of soil thresholds for cadmium based on food quality standard and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Ma, Yibing; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with high rates of soil-plant transfer. It is essential to establish an accurate soil threshold for the implementation of soil management practices. This study takes root vegetable as an example to derive soil thresholds for Cd based on the food quality standard as well as health risk assessment using species sensitivity distribution (SSD). A soil type-specific bioconcentration factor (BCF, ratio of Cd concentration in plant to that in soil) generated from soil with a proper Cd concentration gradient was calculated and applied in the derivation of soil thresholds instead of a generic BCF value to minimize the uncertainty. The sensitivity variations of twelve root vegetable cultivars for accumulating soil Cd and the empirical soil-plant transfer model were investigated and developed in greenhouse experiments. After normalization, the hazardous concentrations from the fifth percentile of the distribution based on added Cd (HC5 add ) were calculated from the SSD curves fitted by Burr Type III distribution. The derived soil thresholds were presented as continuous or scenario criteria depending on the combination of soil pH and organic carbon content. The soil thresholds based on food quality standard were on average 0.7-fold of those based on health risk assessment, and were further validated to be reliable using independent data from field survey and published articles. The results suggested that deriving soil thresholds for Cd using SSD method is robust and also applicable to other crops as well as other trace elements that have the potential to cause health risk issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment of intake of foods and soil, and air radiation dose after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaga, Aiichiro; Yoneda, Minoru; Ikegami, Maiko

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment of soil contaminated with radionuclides, due to the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant after the earthquake on March 11, 2011, was carried out by considering consumption of the contaminated food. The exposure routes were set as food intake, ingestion and inhalation of soil particles, and external radiation from the ground. As a result, exposures by ingestion, and inhalation of soil particles were negligible, and exposure by food intake and external exposure from the ground were comparatively large. This study shows air dose by the accident should be under 0.2 μSv/hour in order to control the radiation dose with consumption of food under 1 μSv/year. (author)

  13. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems.

  14. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported

  15. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  16. Alpha spectroscopic determination of plutonium and uranium in food, biological materials, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frindik, O.

    1980-07-01

    An alpha-spectrometric method for the plutonium determination which was tested in different samples is described in detail. In particular, this method is capable of determining the very low plutonium levels found in food at present, and allow recoveries of 85-95% of the tracer added. Inorganic samples, such as soil samples for example, can be analyzed by using an abbreviated modification of the method. The measuring preparations show a high degree of spectral purity. Uranium can be separated during the analytical procedure and, after purification, can also be determined alpha-spectrometrically. 90-100% of the uranium are recovered. (orig.) [de

  17. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-06-17

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H'), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments.

  18. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  19. Toxic Elements in Soil and Groundwater: Short-Time Study on Electrokinetic Removal of Arsenic in the Presence of other Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ahmad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrokinetic technique is an emerging technology presently tested in situ to remove dissolved heavy metals from contaminated groundwater. There is a growing interest for using this system to cleanse clayey soil contaminated by toxic metallic ions. Currently, there are very few available non-destructive treatment methods that could be successfully applied in situ on low permeable type of soil matrix. The main objective of presented study was to validate and possibly enhance the overall efficiency of decontamination by the electrokinetic technique of the low permeable soil polluted by the arsenic in combination with chromium and copper ions. The chosen mixture of ions was imitating leak of pesticide well known as chromate copper arsenate (CCA. The chosen technique is showing a big promise to be used in the future as a portable, easy to install and run on sites with spills or leaks hard to reach otherwise; such as in the dense populated and urbanized areas. Laboratory electrokinetic experiments were designed to understand and possibly manipulate main mechanisms involved during forced migration of ions. All tests were conducted on artificially contaminated kaolinite (low permeable clay soil. Electrokinetic migration was inducted by the low voltage dc current applied through soil column. Series of experiments were designed to assess the efficiency of arsenic-chromium-copper remediation by applying (1 only dc current; and (2 by altering the soil environment. Obtained results showed that arsenic could be successfully removed from the soil in one day (25 hours span. It was significant time reduction, very important during emergency response. Mass recovered at the end of each test depended on initial condition of soil and type of flushing solution. The best results were obtained, when soil was flushed with either NaOH or NaOCl (total removal efficiency 74.4% and 78.1%, respectively. Direct analysis of remained arsenic in soil after these tests

  20. High-resolution monitoring across the soil-groundwater interface - Revealing small-scale hydrochemical patterns with a novel multi-level well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Griebler, Christian; Stumpp, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical turnover processes in the subsurface are highly variable both in time and space. In order to capture this variability, high resolution monitoring systems are required. Particular in riparian zones the understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes is of interest, as they are regarded as important buffer zones for nutrients and contaminants with high turnover rates. To date, riparian research has focused on influences of groundwater-surface water interactions on element cycling, but little is known about processes occurring at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated zone during dynamic flow conditions. Therefore, we developed a new type of high resolution multi-level well (HR-MLW) that has been installed in the riparian zone of the Selke river. This HR-MLW for the first time enables to derive water samples both from the unsaturated and the saturated zone across one vertical profile with a spatial vertical resolution of 0.05 to 0.5 m to a depth of 4 m b.l.s. Water samples from the unsaturated zone are extracted via suction cup sampling. Samples from the saturated zone are withdrawn through glass filters and steel capillaries. Both, ceramic cups and glass filters, are installed along a 1" HDPE piezometer tube. First high resolution hydrochemical profiles revealed a distinct depth-zonation in the riparian alluvial aquifer. A shallow zone beneath the water table carried a signature isotopically and hydrochemically similar to the nearby river, while layers below 1.5 m were influenced by regional groundwater. This zonation showed temporal dynamics related to groundwater table fluctuations and microbial turnover processes. The HR-MLW delivered new insight into mixing and turnover processes between riverwater and groundwater in riparian zones, both in a temporal and spatial dimension. With these new insights, we are able to improve our understanding of dynamic turnover processes at the soil - groundwater interface and of surface

  1. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Recommendations toaddress contaminated soils, concrete, and corrective action managementunit/groundwater contamination at Ashtabula, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoglu, Emily; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Gombert, Dirk; Hazen, Terry; Johnson, Bob; Looney, Brian; Krstich, Michael A.; Rautman, Chris; Tripp,Julia; Whitmill, Larry

    2002-08-26

    The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP) at Department of Energy-Ohio (DOE-OH) requested technical assistance from the EM-50 Lead Lab to aid in defining new cost and time effective approaches in the following problem areas: soils, concrete, and groundwater/Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) at RMIES in Ashtabula, Ohio. Attachment 1 provides the site request for assistance. The technical assistance team assembled for this request is provided in Attachment 2. These individuals reviewed key site information prior to convening with DOE and contractor personnel (RMIES and Earthline) for a three-and-a-half-day meeting to better understand baseline technologies, limitations, and site-specific issues. After listening to presentations about the nature and extent of known contamination, the team broke out into several groups to brainstorm ideas and develop viable solutions. This executive summary details unresolved issues requiring management attention as well as recommendations to address soils, concrete, and groundwater/CAMU. It also provides a summary of additional technical assistance that could be provided to the site. More details are presented in the body of this report.

  2. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Cao, Q.; Zheng, Y.M.; Huang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in plants grown in the reference soil, and exceeded the permissible limits set by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) in China and the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming food crops grown in wastewater-irrigated soils ingest significant amount of the metals studied. However, health risk index values of less than 1 indicate a relative absence of health risks associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. - Long-term wastewater irrigation leads to buildup of heavy metals in soils and food crops

  3. Metal dispersion in groundwater in an area with natural and processed black shale - Nationwide perspective and comparison with acid sulfate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergren, Ulf; Astroem, Mats E.; Falk, Helena; Bergbaeck, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Black shale is often rich in sulfides and trace elements, and is thus a potential environmental threat in a manner similar to acid sulfate soils and active or abandoned sulfide mines. This study aims at characterising how exposed and processed (mined and burnt) black shale (alum shale) in Degerhamn, SE Sweden, affects the chemistry (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Si, Na, Sr, S, U, V and Zn) of the groundwater. There were large variations in groundwater chemistry between nearby sampling points, while the temporal variations generally were small. Acidic groundwater (around pH 4), found in deposits of burnt and carbonate-poor shale where the conditions for sulfide oxidation were favourable, was strongly elevated in Al, U and several chalcophilic metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn). Cadmium and U were also, together with Mo, abundant in many of the near-neutral waters, both in the non-mined black shale bedrock and in the deposits of burnt shale. An extrapolation to a national level suggests that the dispersion of Ni from naturally occurring black shale is similar to that from anthropogenic point sources, while for Cd and As it is assessed to be approximately one tenth of that from point sources. The processed shale was, however, a much larger source of metals than the black shale bedrock itself, showing this material's potential as a massive supplier of metals to the aquatic environment. A comparison of waters in contact with the processed Cambrian-Ordovician black shale in Degerhamn and acid sulfate soils of the region shows that these two sulfide-bearing materials, in many respects very different, delivers basically the same suite of trace elements to the aquatic environment. This has implications for environmental planning and protection in areas where these types of materials exist

  4. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed

  5. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  6. Breakthrough of two pesticides into tile drain and shallow groundwater: comparison of tile drain reaction and soil profiles within a field scale irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Julian; Zehe, Erwin; Elsner, Martin; Palm, Juliane; Schneider, Dorothee; Schröder, Boris; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; West, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported into surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport might be an environmental problem, if the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To investigate the behaviour of two pesticides with different chemical characteristics and to compare their transport behaviour in soil and into the tile drain an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is approximately 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and shows discharge over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started, the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon (80 g) and Flufenacet (20 g) (IPU and FLU) according to conventional agricultural practice on the field plot. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) with in total 33.6 mm of precipitation. During the first block 1600 g of Bromide were mixed in the irrigation water. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe. About 50 water samples ware taken during the experimental day, and several samples more the days after the experiment. They were analysed for the pesticides, bromide and water isotopes. In the two days after the experiment three soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken on a 10x10 cm² scheme. One week after the experiment two additional profiles were excavated. The soil was analysed for IPU, FLU

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Merta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable measurements of radioisotope concentrations are of primary importance for the laboratories dealing with radioactivity determinations. According to the Polish regulations, since 2002 it is obligatory to organize every two years national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of various radionuclides in food and environmental samples. First such ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil was organized by the National Atomic Energy Agency of Poland in 2004 with the participation of fourteen laboratories from Polish research institutes and universities. The ILC was conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Two types of water (surface and potable; six samples), wheat flour and soil (four samples) were spiked with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. From the results obtained in all participating laboratories it can be concluded that the procedures of assigning value and preparation of homogeneous material have been done properly and the majority of the determinations remain in good agreement with the assigned values and with the results obtained by other laboratories. Such agreement means that the performance of the laboratories is good and also that the samples are equivalent

  8. Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    An overview is presented of the determined degree of global land degradation (principally occurring through soil erosion), with some consideration of its possible impact on global food security. Most determinations of the extent of land degradation (e.g. GLASOD) have been made on the basis of "expert judgement" and perceptions, as opposed to direct measurements of this multifactorial phenomenon. More recently, remote sensing measurements have been made which indicate that while some regions of the Earth are "browning" others are "greening". The latter effect is thought to be due to fertilisation of the growth of biomass by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, and indeed the total amount of global biomass was observed to increase by 3.8% during the years 1981-2003. Nonetheless, 24% of the Earth's surface had occasioned some degree of degradation in the same time period. It appears that while long-term trends in NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) derivatives are only broad indicators of land degradation, taken as a proxy, the NDVI/NPP (net primary productivity) trend is able to yield a benchmark that is globally consistent and to illuminate regions in which biologically significant changes are occurring. Thus, attention may be directed to where investigation and action at the ground level is required, i.e. to potential "hot spots" of land degradation and/or erosion. The severity of land degradation through soil erosion, and an according catastrophic threat to the survival of humanity may in part have been overstated, although the rising human population will impose inexorable demands for what the soil can provide. However the present system of industrialised agriculture would not be possible without plentiful provisions of cheap crude oil and natural gas to supply fuels, pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers. It is only on the basis of these inputs that it has been possible for the human population to rise above 7 billion. Hence, if the cheap oil and gas

  9. When does the fluazifop-P-butyl degradate, TFMP, leach through an agricultural loamy soil to groundwater?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Norgaard, Trine; Olsen, Preben

    2016-01-01

    In intensely cultivated regions, it is crucial to have knowledge of the leaching potential related to pesticides in agricultural production. This is especially true in countries, like Denmark, that base its drinking water supply on untreated groundwater. Since fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is applied...

  10. Identifying groundwater recharge connections in the Moscow (USA) sub-basin using isotopic tracers and a soil moisture routing model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.H.J.; Brooks, Erin; Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Grader, George; Dijksma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aquifers are suffering from large abstractions resulting in groundwater level declines. These declines can be caused by excessive abstraction for drinking water, irrigation purposes or industrial use. Basaltic aquifers also face these conflicts. A large flood basalt area (1.1 × 105 km2)

  11. Texas Panhandle soil-crop-beef food chain for uranium: a dynamic model validated by experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Wallwork-Barber, K.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Long-term simulations of uranium transport in the soil-crop-beef food chain were performed using the BIOTRAN model. Experimental data means from an extensive Pantex beef cattle study are presented. Experimental data were used to validate the computer model. Measurements of uranium in air, soil, water, range grasses, feed, and cattle tissues are compared to simulated uranium output values in these matrices when the BIOTRAN model was set at the measured soil and air values. The simulations agreed well with experimental data even though metabolic details for ruminants and uranium chemical form in the environment remain to be studied

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of groundwater depths and soil nutrients in a small watershed in the Ethiopian highlands: Topographic and land-use controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christian D.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Dagnew, Dessalegn C.; Zimale, Fasikaw A.; Zegeye, Assefa D.; Boll, Jan; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil and water conservation structures, promoted by local and international development organizations throughout rural landscapes, aim to increase recharge and prevent degradation of soil surface characteristics. This study investigates this unexamined relationship between recharge, water table depths, and soil surface characteristics (nutrients) in a small sub-watershed in the northwestern Ethiopian highlands. These highland watersheds have high infiltration rates (mean 70 mm hr-1, median 33 mm hr-1), recharging the shallow unconfined hillslope aquifer with water transport occurring via subsurface pathways down the slope. The perched water tables reflect the subsurface flux and are deep where this flux is rapid in the upland areas (138 cm below surface). Soil saturation and overland flow occur when the subsurface flux exceeds the transport capacity of the soil in the lower downslope areas near the ephemeral stream (19 cm below surface). Land use is directly related to the water table depth, corresponding to grazing and fallowed (saturated) land in the downslope areas and cultivated (unsaturated) land in the middle and upper parts where the water table is deeper. Kjeldahl Total Nitrogen (TN), Bray II available phosphorus (AP), and exchangeable potassium (K+) averages exhibit different behaviors across slope, land use transects, or saturation conditions. TN was moderate to low (0.07% ± 0.04) in various land uses and slope regions. Bray II AP had very low concentrations (0.25 mg kg-1 ± 0.26) among the different slope regions with no significant differences throughout (p > .05). The exchangeable cation (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) concentrations and pH, however, were greater in non-cultivated (seasonally saturated) lands and in a downslope direction (p < .001, p < .005, p < .05, and p < .005, respectively). These results show that the perched groundwater plays an important role in influencing land use, the amount of water seasonally available for crop growth, and exchangeable

  13. Presence of Epsilon HCH Together with Four Other HCH Isomers in Drinking Water, Groundwater and Soil in a Former Lindane Production Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuscoletti, Valentina; Achene, Laura; Gismondi, Fabrizio; Lamarra, Daniela; Lucentini, Luca; Spina, Salvatore; Veschetti, Enrico; Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of a long-standing action of remediation of industrial soil and prevention of water pollution, a monitoring of the drinking water of the Italian town of Colleferro was performed by the ISS. The town has 22,000 inhabitants and is adjacent to a big industrial site where HCH was produced. Industrial wastes were buried in the site, eventually contaminating superficial aquifers, while a canal serving the industrial plant spread the contamination into the Sacco river and thence to the agricultural soil and to cow milk. The contamination of superficial aquifers engendered fears of pollution of the deep aquifers whence the town draws its drinking water. The results of the monitoring indicate that there is no risk for the population from consumption of the water. In one of the wells the ε-HCH was the main isomer reaching a concentration of 66 ng/L: so far the presence of this isomer in water was never reported. The paper also summarily reports the main features of soil and superficial groundwater pollution in the area and briefly describes the main actions taken by the authorities.

  14. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  15. Geochemical and Pb isotopic characterization of soil, groundwater, human hair, and corn samples from the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2018-01-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out to investigate metal contamination in the Domizio Littoral and Agro Aversano area (Southern Italy) by means of soil, groundwater, human hair and corn samples. Pb isotope ratios were also determined to identify the sources of metals. Specifically, the investigation focused on topsoils (n = 1064), groundwater (n = 26), 25 human hair (n = 24) and corn samples (n = 13). Topsoils have been sampled and analysed in a previous study for 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), and determined by ICP-MS after dissolving with aqua regia. Groundwater was analysed for 72 elements by ICP-MS and by ICP-ES. Samples of human hair were prepared and analysed for 16 elements by ICP-MS. Dried corn collected at several farms were also analysed for 53 elements by ICP-MS. The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb in selected topsoil (n = 24), groundwater (n = 9), human hair (n = 9) and corn (n = 4) samples were analysed from both eluates and residues to investigate possible anthropogenic contamination and geogenic contributions. All data were processed and mapped by ArcGis software to produce interpolated maps and contamination factor maps of potentially harmful elements, in accordance with Italian Environmental Law (Legislative Decree 152/06). Results show that soil sampling sites are characterized by As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn contents exceeding the action limits established for residential land use (RAL) and, in some cases, also the action limits for industrial land use (IAL) as established by Legislative Decree 152/06. A map of contamination factors and a map showing the degrees of contamination indicate that the areas in the municipalities of Acerra, Casoria and Giugliano have been affected by considerable anthropogenic-related pollution. To interpret the isotopic data and roughly estimate proportion of Pb from an anthropogenic source we broadly defined possible natural and anthropogenic Pb end

  16. Reclamation of heavy metals from contaminated soil using organic acid liquid generated from food waste: removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn, and soil fertility improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shijin; Li, Yang; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Youcai

    2017-06-01

    Food waste fermentation generates complicated organic and acidic liquids with low pH. In this work, it was found that an organic acid liquid with pH 3.28 and volatile low-molecular-weight organic acid (VLMWOA) content of 5.2 g/L could be produced from food wastes after 9-day fermentation. When the liquid-to-solid ratio was 50:1, temperature was 40 °C, and contact time was 0.5-1 day, 92.9, 78.8, and 52.2% of the Cd, Cu, and Zn in the contaminated soil could be washed out using the fermented food waste liquid, respectively. The water-soluble, acid-soluble, and partly reducible heavy metal fractions can be removed after 0.5-day contact time, which was more effective than that using commercially available VLMWOAs (29-72% removal), as the former contained microorganisms and adequate amounts of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca) which favored the washing process of heavy metals. It is thus suggested that the organic acid fractions from food waste has a considerable potential for reclaiming contaminated soil while improving soil fertility.

  17. The implications of soil acidification on a future HLW repository. Pt 2. Influence on deep granitic groundwater. The Klipperaas study site as test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Bruno, J.; Laaksoharju, M.

    1994-05-01

    The effect of acidification on deep groundwater is assessed with a geochemical box model based on the STEADYQL code. The application of the model to the Klipperaas study site shows a remarkable agreement between observed and predicted groundwater composition and offers an adequate description of the geochemical evolution of the aquifer. Proton fluxes are shown to be controlled mainly by calcite weathering and organic carbon degradation processes. The impact of increased acidification is evaluated on the basis of various test cases and by including the soil compartment in the model framework. The results indicate that calcite weathering will be increased by a factor of two to three as a result of increased acidification. Furthermore, the calculations suggest that, once the powerful carbonate buffer is depleted, the buffer capacity is provided mainly by anaerobic respiration and ion exchange processes. Further ongoing acidic loading would lead to neutralization of alkalinity fluxes leaving the system with a very low buffering capacity towards fluctuations in proton fluxes. Estimation of time scales of aquifer acidification was assessed under the focus of calcite depletion with aid of two acidification scenarios. These predict a time range of 12400 to 370000 years for calcite depletion to take place down to 500 meters depth. It is suggested from inherent model assumptions that these estimated time scales are conservative. 53 refs

  18. The implications of soil acidification on a future HLW repository. Pt 2. Influence on deep granitic groundwater. The Klipperaas study site as test case.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P; Bruno, J [MBT Tecnologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain); Laaksoharju, M [Geopoint AB, Spaanga (Sweden)

    1994-05-01

    The effect of acidification on deep groundwater is assessed with a geochemical box model based on the STEADYQL code. The application of the model to the Klipperaas study site shows a remarkable agreement between observed and predicted groundwater composition and offers an adequate description of the geochemical evolution of the aquifer. Proton fluxes are shown to be controlled mainly by calcite weathering and organic carbon degradation processes. The impact of increased acidification is evaluated on the basis of various test cases and by including the soil compartment in the model framework. The results indicate that calcite weathering will be increased by a factor of two to three as a result of increased acidification. Furthermore, the calculations suggest that, once the powerful carbonate buffer is depleted, the buffer capacity is provided mainly by anaerobic respiration and ion exchange processes. Further ongoing acidic loading would lead to neutralization of alkalinity fluxes leaving the system with a very low buffering capacity towards fluctuations in proton fluxes. Estimation of time scales of aquifer acidification was assessed under the focus of calcite depletion with aid of two acidification scenarios. These predict a time range of 12400 to 370000 years for calcite depletion to take place down to 500 meters depth. It is suggested from inherent model assumptions that these estimated time scales are conservative. 53 refs.

  19. Intercomparison of model predictions of tritium concentrations in soil and foods following acute airborne HTO exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.J.; Watkins, B.M.; Belot, Y.; Davis, P.A.; Edlund, O.; Galeriu, D.; Raskob, W.; Russell, S.; Togawa, O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model intercomparision exercise for predicting tritium transport through foodchains. Modellers were asked to assume that farmland was exposed for one hour to an average concentration in air of 10 4 MBq tritium m -3 . They were given the initial soil moisture content and 30 days of hourly averaged historical weather and asked to predict HTO and OBT concentrations in foods at selected times up to 30 days later when crops were assumed to be harvested. Two fumigations were postulated, one at 10.00 h (i.e., in day-light), and the other at 24.00 h (i.e., in darkness).Predicted environmental media concentrations after the daytime exposure agreed within an order of magnitude in most cases. Important sources of differences were variations in choices of numerical values for transport parameters. The different depths of soil layers used in the models appeared to make important contributions to differences in predictions for the given scenario. Following the night-time exposure, however, greater differences in predicted concentrations appeared. These arose largely because of different ways key processes were assumed to be affected by darkness. Uptake of HTO by vegetation and the rate it is converted to OBT were prominent amongst these processes. Further research, experimental data and modelling intercomparisons are required to resolve some of these issues. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Divergence of feeding channels within the soil food web determined by ecosystem type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Felicity V; Blackshaw, Rod P; Adl, Sina M; Inger, Richard; Murray, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding trophic linkages within the soil food web (SFW) is hampered by its opacity, diversity, and limited niche adaptation. We need to expand our insight between the feeding guilds of fauna and not just count biodiversity. The soil fauna drive nutrient cycling and play a pivotal, but little understood role within both the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles that may be ecosystem dependent. Here, we define the structure of the SFW in two habitats (grassland and woodland) on the same soil type and test the hypothesis that land management would alter the SFW in these habitats. To do this, we census the community structure and use stable isotope analysis to establish the pathway of C and N through each trophic level within the ecosystems. Stable isotope ratios of C and N from all invertebrates were used as a proxy for trophic niche, and community-wide metrics were obtained. Our empirically derived C/N ratios differed from those previously reported, diverging from model predictions of global C and N cycling, which was unexpected. An assessment of the relative response of the different functional groups to the change from agricultural grassland to woodland was performed. This showed that abundance of herbivores, microbivores, and micropredators were stimulated, while omnivores and macropredators were inhibited in the grassland. Differences between stable isotope ratios and community-wide metrics, highlighted habitats with similar taxa had different SFWs, using different basal resources, either driven by root or litter derived resources. Overall, we conclude that plant type can act as a top-down driver of community functioning and that differing land management can impact on the whole SFW.

  1. Transfer and accumulation of metals in a soil-diet-wood mouse food chain along a metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogival, Damien; Scheirs, Jan; Blust, Ronny

    2007-01-01

    We studied the accumulation and transfer of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the compartments of a soil-diet-wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) food chain at five sites located along a metal pollution gradient. We observed a clear gradient in metal exposure at increasing distance from the smelter in all compartments of the food chain for the non-essential metals. The gradient was less clear or absent for the essential metals in acorn and mice target tissues. Regression analysis showed overall strong relationships within the soil-diet and diet-wood mouse compartments for the non-essential metals, while relationships for the essential metals were weak or absent. Total metal in soil appeared as a better predictor for the diet metal content than the available metal fraction. Our results suggest a more important transfer of non-essential elements through the food chain than essential elements, which is probably a consequence of homeostatic control of the latter group. - Non-essential metal transfer through a soil-diet-wood mouse food chain is more important than essential metal transfer

  2. Bacterial traits, organism mass, and numerical abundance in the detrital soil food web of Dutch agricultural grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.; Cohen, J.E.; Setälä, H.; Bloem, J.; Breure, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares responses to environmental stress of the ecophysiological traits of organisms in the detrital soil food webs of grasslands in the Netherlands, using the relationship between average body mass M and numerical abundance N. The microbial biomass and biodiversity of belowground fauna

  3. Interaction between Food-borne Pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes) and a Common Soil Flagellate (Cercomonas sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa may harbor, protect, and disperse bacteria, including those ingested and passed in viable form in feces. The flagellates are very important predators on bacteria in soil, but their role in the survival of food-borne pathogens associated with fruits and vegetables is not well...

  4. Transfer of lead (Pb) in the soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird beetle food chain, a comparison between two host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Xingmin; Ashraf, Umair; Qiu, Baoli; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become an issue of concern on global scale. This study investigates the translocation of lead (Pb) along the soil - plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) food chain. Soil amendments used for this study were adjusted to 0, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of Pb (w/w). The results revealed significantly higher transfer of Pb in tomato when compared to eggplant. Bio-magnification of Pb (2-4 times) was observed for soil - root transfer whereas Pb was bio-minimized in later part of food chain (shoot - mealybug - ladybird transfer). A dose dependent increase in transfer of Pb across the multi-trophic food chain was observed for both host plants. A decrease in coefficients of Pb transfer (from root - shoot and shoot - mealybug) was observed with increase in Pb concentrations. Our results also showed removal of Pb from the bodies of ladybird beetle during metamorphosis. Further studies are required to explain the mechanisms or physiological pathways involved in the bio-minimization of Pb across the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective alteration of soil food web components by invasive Giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea) in two distinct habitat types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Megen, van H.H.B.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Helder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to

  6. Selective alteration of soil food web components by invasive giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea in two distinct habitat types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Van Megen, H.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Helder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to

  7. Biogas Production from Batch Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil with Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadawut Khanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the biogas production from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil (NS with Food Waste (FW. The batch experiment was conducted through the NS and FW with a ratio of 70:30 by weight. The experiment is mainly evaluated by the characteristic of Co-Digestion and Biogas Production. In addition of food waste was inflating the COD loading from 17,863 to 42,063 mg/L which is 135 % increased. As the result, it shows that pH has dropped off in the beginning of 7-day during digestion and it was slightly increased into the range of optimum anaerobic condition. After digestion of the biogas production was 2,184 l and 56.5 % of methane fraction has obtained within 31 days of experimentation. The investigation of Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP and Specific Methanogenic Activities (SMA were highly observed. And the results were obtained by 34.55 mL CH4/gCODremoval and 0.38 g CH4-COD/gVSS-d. While the average COD removal from the 4 outlets got 92%, 94%, 94 % and 92 % respectively. However, the effluent in COD concentration was still high and it needs further treatment before discharge.

  8. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one

  9. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in projects dealing with radioisotope measurement of nutrient flow in soil arthropod food chains, the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the terrestrial decomposition process, and field projects investigating the response to perturbation by island ecosystems on granitic outcrops. Radioisotopes in combination with system modeling techniques are being used to estimate nutrient flow rates in food chains of soil arthropods, and help to evaluate their impact on the decomposition process. Field work on granitic outcrop ecosystems has been completed. Evaluations of input-output budgets showed that the ecosystems are essentially in balance. They showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, as far as chemical perturbations and drought are concerned

  10. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr, D A

    1979-07-15

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one (drought).

  11. The effect of remedial measures upon groundwater quality in connection with soil contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and the related costs - by example of the City of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mull, R.; Mull, J.; Pielke, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of remedial actions on the groundwater quality was investigated in the aquifer of the City of Hannover. The improvement of groundwater quality was related to the costs for the remedial actions. The attention was focussed on groundwater pollution by chlorinated hydrocarbons as the most important contaminants of groundwater in urban areas. (orig.)

  12. Soil chemistry and ground-water quality of the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, 1998 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Navy, began an investigation to determine background ground-water quality of the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer and soil chemistry at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, and to compare these data to two abandoned solid- waste disposal areas (referred to by the U.S. Navy as Sites 5 and 16). The quality of water in the water-table zone generally is within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water regulation. The pH of ground water in the study area ranged from 4.0 to 7.6 standard units, with a median value of 5.4. Water from 29 wells is above the pH range and 3 wells are within the range of the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation (formerly known as the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level or SMCL) of 6.5 to 8.5 standard units. Also, water from one well at Site 5 had a chloride concentration of 570 milligrams per liter (mg/L,), which is above the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation of 250 mg/L. Sulfate concentrations in water from two wells at Site 5 are above the USEPA secondary drinking-water regulation of 250 mg/L. Of 22 soil-sampling locations for this study, 4 locations had concentrations above the detection limit for either volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral acids (BNAs), or pesticides. VOCs detected in the study area include toluene in one background sample; and acetone in one background sample and one sample from Site 16--however, detection of these two compounds may be a laboratory artifact. Pesticides detected in soil at the Submarine Base include two degradates of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT): 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDD) in one background sample, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4'-DDE) in one background sample and one sample from Site 16; and dibenzofuran in one sample from Site 16. BNAs were detected in one background sample and in two

  13. Integrated method of RS and GPR for monitoring the changes in the soil moisture and groundwater environment due to underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Lei, Shaogang; Inyang, Hilary I.; Chang, Luqun; Zhang, Richen; Zhou, Chengjun; He, Xiao

    2009-03-01

    Mining affects the environment in different ways depending on the physical context in which the mining occurs. In mining areas with an arid environment, mining affects plants’ growth by changing the amount of available water. This paper discusses the effects of mining on two important determinants of plant growth—soil moisture and groundwater table (GWT)—which were investigated using an integrated approach involving a field sampling investigation with remote sensing (RS) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). To calculate and map the distribution of soil moisture for a target area, we initially analyzed four models for regression analysis between soil moisture and apparent thermal inertia and finally selected a linear model for modeling the soil moisture at a depth 10 cm; the relative error of the modeled soil moisture was about 6.3% and correlation coefficient 0.7794. A comparison of mined and unmined areas based on the results of limited field sampling tests or RS monitoring of Landsat 5-thermatic mapping (TM) data indicated that soil moisture did not undergo remarkable changes following mining. This result indicates that mining does not have an effect on soil moisture in the Shendong coal mining area. The coverage of vegetation in 2005 was compared with that in 1995 by means of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) deduced from TM data, and the results showed that the coverage of vegetation in Shendong coal mining area has improved greatly since 1995 because of policy input RMB¥0.4 per ton coal production by Shendong Coal Mining Company. The factor most affected by coal mining was GWT, which dropped from a depth of 35.41 m before mining to a depth of 43.38 m after mining at the Bulianta Coal Mine based on water well measurements. Ground-penetrating radar at frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz revealed that the deepest GWT was at about 43.4 m. There was a weak water linkage between the unsaturated zone and groundwater, and the decline of water table

  14. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  15. Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.; Silver, W.J.; Coles, D.G.; Lamson, K.C.; McIntyre, D.R.; Mendoza, B.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential hazard associated with the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. Conditions were chosen that would maximize exposure to the 239 Pu in the sludge through resuspension and in plant content and thus approximated the maximum potential hazards due to the inhalation and ingestion pathways. The estimated 50-year radiation doses to the pulmonary region of the lung, bone, and liver based on the results of the inhalation experiment are 6 x 10 -4 rem, 1.2 x 10 -3 rem, and 0.55 x 10 -4 rem, respectively. Similarly, the 50-year radiation doses attributable to ingestion of the sludge-grown vegetables were 2.2 x 10 -5 rem to the bone and 1.5 x 10 -5 rem to the liver. Thus, the inhalation pathway is the more critical of the two. The maximum permissible annual doses to the lungs, bone, and the liver for a member of the general public are 1.5, 3.0, and 1.5 rem, respectively. Thus, the maximum credible 50-year lung, bone, and liver dose commitments associated with the use of the 239 Pu-contaminated sludge as a soil conditioner are approximately 4.0 x 10 -2 percent of the annual maximum permissible dose. Under more realistic exposure circumstances, one might expect less drying of the sludge, less resuspension of dust and flying dirt before and during rototilling, and a much smaller sludge vegetable consumption rate. The conservative assumptions made in this analysis tend to assure that actual radiation doses would be even less than those calculated. (auth)

  16. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web

  17. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A

    2003-11-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  18. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  19. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Progress has been made in two sub-projects related to the radioisotope measurement of nutrient flow in soil arthropod food chains and the influence of soil arthropods as regulators of decomposition in ecological systems. Radioisotopes were utilized to evaluate models describing nutrient accumulation by arthropods. Radionuclide turnover rates and nutrient contents of microarthropods are being measured. A field experiment in granitic outcrop areas is nearing completion. This work will describe nutrient input-output budgets for island ecosystems which occur on outcrops. Experimental perturbations are being used to evaluate importance of ecosystem components in system maintenance

  20. PIMS(trademark): Remediation of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated With Metals. PIMS Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Lead at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    particularly lead, cadmium, arsenic , uranium, and thorium, and open pit mining of these minerals has caused extensive environmental issues in...ESTCP CU-200020 EXTRACTION Bioremediation/ Phytoremediation - Of all the bioremediation methods, phytoremediation is the only one applicable to...The advantages of phytoremediation are the low input costs, soil stabilization, pleasing aesthetics (no excavation), and reduced leaching of water

  1. Mobilization and transport of soil colloids as influenced by texture, organic matter, and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    The thin layer of soil on the Earth’s surface has major environmental and socioeconomic impacts. The soils sustain our life and society, and do not act only as a growth medium for food, feed and fuel. Soil is an invaluable resource and the processes within it are responsible for waste disposal...... was mainly seen as an impact on soil organic carbon. Results from the column leaching experiments from three sites likewise indicate that basic soil properties, such as the clay content, were the main drivers of colloid mobilization and transport. Effects of management and cropping system seemed secondary......, purification and recharge of groundwater aquifers. Many environmental contaminants are broken down through their passage through the soil and slow percolation through the soil cleanses rainwater before it reaches the groundwater. Strongly sorbing environmental contaminants cannot be assumed to be immobile...

  2. Response of detritus food web and litter quality to elevated CO2 and crop cultivars and their feedback to soil functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengkun; Chen, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Chunwu; Bonkowski, Michael; Hu, Shuijin; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Liu, Manqiang

    2017-04-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) often increase plant growth and alter the belowground detritus soil food web. Interactions with agriculture management may further modify soil process and the associated ecosystem functionality. Little attention, however, has been directed toward assessing the responses of soil food web and their feedback to soil functionality, particularly in wetland agroecosystems. We report results from a long-term free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a rice paddy field that examined the responses of detritus food webs to eCO2 (200 ppm higher than ambient CO2 (aCO2)) of two rice cultivars with distinctly weak and strong responses to eCO2. Soil detritus food web components, including soil microbes and microfauna, soil environment as well as resources availability variables, were determined at the rice ripening stage. To obtain the information of soil functionality, indicated by litter decomposition and enzyme activities, we adopted a reciprocal transplant approach that fully manipulate the factors of litter straw and food web components for the incubation of 120 days. Results about the field investigation showed that eCO2 lead to a higher C/N ratio of litter and soil compared to aCO2, especially for the strong responsive cultivar. eCO2-induced enhanced carbon input stimulated the fungal decomposition pathway by increasing fungal biomass, fungi: bacteria ratio and fungivorous nematode. Results from the manipulative incubation experiment showed eCO2-induced lower quality of straw decreased cumulative C mineralization, but changes in detritus food web induced by eCO2 and strongly responsive cultivar lead to an increased CO2 respiration coincidently within each straw type, mainly due to the adaption to the high C/N ratio environment which increased their functional breadth. Based on SEMs and curves of carbon mineralization rate, soil communities showed significant effects on C release at the early stage through mediating enzyme

  3. Spatial patterns of soil nutrients and groundwater levels within the Debre Mawi watershed of the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christian; Tilahun, Seifu; Dagnew, Dessalegn; Zegeye, Assefe; Tebebu, Tigist; Yitaferu, Birru; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Persistent patterns of erosion have emerged in the Ethiopian highlands leading to soil and water conservation practices being implemented throughout the countryside. A common concern is the loss of soil fertility and loss of soil water. This study investigates the spatial patterns of soil nutrients and water table depths in a small sub-watershed in the northwestern Ethiopian highlands. NPK, a particularly important group of nutrients for inorganic fertilizer considerations, did not follow a consistent trend as a group along and across slope and land use transects. Whereas nitrogen content was greatest in the upslope regions (~0.1% TN), available phosphorus had comparably similar content in the different slope regions throughout the watershed (~2.7 mg/kg). The exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg) did increase in content in a downslope direction (in most cases though, they were highest in the middle region) but not consistently later in the season. On average, calcium (40 cmol/kg), magnesium (5 cmol/kg), and potassium (0.5 cmol/kg) were orders of magnitudes different in content. The perched water table in different areas of the watershed showed a very distinct trend. The lower part of the sub-watershed had shallower levels of water table depths (less than 10 cm from the surface) than did the upper parts of the sub-watershed (usually greater than 120 cm from the surface). The middle part of the sub-watershed had water table depths located at 40 to 70 cm below the surface. These results show how the landscape slope position and land use may be important for planning where and when soil nutrients and water would be expected to be appropriately "conserved" or stored.

  4. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  5. SIMPL: A Simplified Model-Based Program for the Analysis and Visualization of Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mines to Prevent Contamination of Water and Soils by Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cessation of dewatering following underground mine closure typically results in groundwater rebound, because mine voids and surrounding strata undergo flooding up to the levels of the decant points, such as shafts and drifts. SIMPL (Simplified groundwater program In Mine workings using the Pipe equation and Lumped parameter model, a simplified lumped parameter model-based program for predicting groundwater levels in abandoned mines, is presented herein. The program comprises a simulation engine module, 3D visualization module, and graphical user interface, which aids data processing, analysis, and visualization of results. The 3D viewer facilitates effective visualization of the predicted groundwater level rebound phenomenon together with a topographic map, mine drift, goaf, and geological properties from borehole data. SIMPL is applied to data from the Dongwon coal mine and Dalsung copper mine in Korea, with strong similarities in simulated and observed results. By considering mine workings and interpond connections, SIMPL can thus be used to effectively analyze and visualize groundwater rebound. In addition, the predictions by SIMPL can be utilized to prevent the surrounding environment (water and soil from being polluted by acid mine drainage.

  6. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Progress and current status are reported for research projects concerned with mineral element and nutrient dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer analogs of nutrients. This year, emphasis has been placed on field work in which soil arthropod population size and nutrients inputs were varied experimentally. The presence of microarthropods in field microcosms increased the mineralization of N and P in each case, but rates were not correlated with arthropod densities. Experiments recently started are using both arthropod and microfloral inhibitors, in open systems on the forest floor, with the objective of quantifying arthropod enhancement of microbial immobilization of nutrients

  7. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1975--October 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is described in radioisotope measurement of nutrient element flow in soil-litter arthropod food chains. Two models of accumulation (Goldstein-Elwood, Reichle-Crossley) were tested experimentally and found to yield equivalent predictions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr movement through arthropod populations. Radioisotope retention studies were used to compare trophic strategies of soil tipulids from arctic tundra and temperate forest. Arctic tipulids were found to compensate for low temperatures with enhanced assimilation and slower turnover of nutrients. Electron microprobe analysis is being used to measure elemental content of soil microarthropods. Concentrations as high as 70,000 ppm of Ca are reported for oribatid mites. Improved measurements of input-output nutrient concentrations are reported for island ecosystems on granitic outcrops, which are being subjected to experimental alteration in studies of ecosystem function

  8. Levels of Sulfur as an Essential Nutrient Element in the Soil-Crop-Food System in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Sager

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total sulfur data of various agricultural and food items from the lab of the author, have been compiled to develop an understanding of sulfur levels and ecological cycling in Austria. As sulfur level is not an included factor among the quality criteria of soil and fertilizer composition, the database is rather small. Problems in analytical determinations of total sulfur, in particular digestions, are outlined. As a protein component, sulfur is enriched in matrices of animal origin, in particular in egg white. There is substantial excretion from animals and man via urine. Organic fertilizers (manures, composts might contribute significantly to the sulfur budget of soils, which is important for organic farming of crops with high sulfur needs. For soils, drainage is a main route of loss of soluble sulfate, thus pot experiments may yield unrealistic sulfur budgets.

  9. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Vries, F.T.; Thébault, E.; Liiri, M.; Birkhofer, K.; Tsiafouli, M.A.; Bjornlund, L.; Bracht Jorgensen, H.; Brady, M.V.; Christensen, S.; de Ruiter, P.C.; d'Hertefeldt, T.; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, L.; Hol, W.H.G.; Hotes, S.; Mortimer, S. R.; Setälä, H.; Sgardelis, S.P.; Uteseny, K.; van der Putten, W.H.; Wolters, V.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 35 (2013), s. 14296-14301 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : modeling * nitrogen * soil fauna * soil microbes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.809, year: 2013

  10. Two approaches to biological decontamination of groundwater and soil polluted by aromatics-characterization of microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demnerová, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Spevákova, Veronika; Beranova, Katarina; Kochánková, Lucie; Lovecká, Petra; Ryslavá, Edita; Macek, Tomas

    2005-09-01

    As part of the EU project MULTIBARRIERS, six new endogenous aerobic bacterial isolates able to grow in the presence of BTmX (benzene, toluene, m-xylene) were characterized with respect to their growth specificities. Preliminary analysis included restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles and 16S rDNA sequencing. The diversity of these strains was confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Additional aerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of plants grown in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soils. Pot experiments were designed to show the beneficial effect of plants on the bacterial degradation of PCBs. The effect of PCB removal from soil was evaluated and bacteria isolated from three different plant species were examined for the presence of the bph operon.

  11. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik; Reinlert, Andre; Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo; Greger, Maria

    2009-10-01

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  12. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  14. Cadmium in soils and its transfer to plants and the human food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium occurs naturally in all soils, but few soils contain higher than 1mg Cd kg-1. Most geogenic Cd is accompanied by 100-200 fold higher Zn except for marine shale or phosphorite derived soils which may have 1g Cd per 10g Zn or higher. Contamination by mining or smelter emissions of Zn-Pb-Cu i...

  15. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the .... hydrochemical methods to assess the suitability of groundwater in .... levels and aid in the production of energy and pro- tein. ...... Alkali Soils; Agric Handbook 60.

  16. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  17. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-01-01

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D and D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D and D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources

  18. Heavy metals in neogene sedimentary rocks as a potential geogenic hazard for sediment, soil, surface and groundwater contamination (Eastern Posavina and Lopare Basin, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grba Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geochemical processes (weathering, erosion and dilution of Internal Dinarides to the Posavina Neogene Basin and their implication to the pollution of Sava River sediments of four sampling sites in the Eastern Posavina (Županja, Brčko, Bosanska Rača and Sremska Mitrovica was studied. For this purpose, comparison of contents of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, As, Hg of the Eastern Posavina sediments with local background values was performed. Sediments from two boreholes of the Lopare Basin considered as non-polluted and representative for specific geologic and hydrogeologic system were used for calculation of local background values. The aim was to assess whether observed heavy metals concentrations of four sampling sites along the Sava River represent background/natural or anthropogenic contamination. This task is performed using the geo-accumulation index and total enrichment factor. According to values of the total enrichment factor (0.25 - 0.71, the anthropogenic impact on the investigated area is quite low. The heavy metals contents in river sediments, soil and groundwater are mainly controlled by geochemical processes, particularly weathering (Chemical Proxy of Alteration value ~ 60. The results also offer novel insights into the elevated geogenic levels of Cr and Ni in the Eastern Posavina region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176006

  19. When soils become sediments: Large-scale storage of soils in sandpits and lakes and the impact of reduction kinetics on heavy metals and arsenic release to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jos P M; van Zomeren, Andre; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J

    2017-08-01

    Simulating the storage of aerobic soils under water, the chemical speciation of heavy metals and arsenic was studied over a long-term reduction period. Time-dynamic and redox-discrete measurements in reactors were used to study geochemical changes. Large kinetic differences in the net-complexation quantities of heavy metals with sulfides was observed, and elevated pore water concentrations remained for a prolonged period (>1 year) specifically for As, B, Ba, Co, Mo, and Ni. Arsenic is associated to the iron phases as a co-precipitate or sorbed fraction to Fe-(hydr)oxides, and it is being released into solution as a consequence of the reduction of iron. The composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reducing pore water was monitored, and relative contributions of fulvic, humic and hydrophylic compounds were measured via analytical batch procedures. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in organic compounds occur during reduction; DOM increased up to a factor 10, while fulvic acids become dominant over humic acids which disappear altogether as reduction progresses. Both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions increase and may even become the dominant fraction. Reactive amorphous and crystalline iron phases, as well as dissolved FeII/FeIII speciation, were measured and used as input for the geochemical model to improve predictions for risk assessment to suboxic and anaerobic environments. The release of arsenic is related to readily reducible iron fractions that may be identified by 1 mM CaCl 2 extraction procedure. Including DOM concentration shifts and compositional changes during reduction significantly improved model simulations, enabling the prediction of peak concentrations and identification of soils with increased emission risk. Practical methods are suggested to facilitate the practice of environmentally acceptable soil storage under water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of native and exotic range-expanding plant species on taxonomic and functional composition of nematodes in the soil food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrien, E.; Duyts, H.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to climate warming, many plant species shift ranges towards higher latitudes. Plants can disperse faster than most soil biota, however, little is known about how range-expanding plants in the new range will establish interactions with the resident soil food web. In this paper we examine how the

  1. Land use change from rainforests to oil palm plantations and food gardens in Papua New Guinea: Effects on soil properties and S fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alepa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in soil sulfur (S fractions were assessed in oil palm and food garden land use systems developed on forest vegetation in humid tropical areas of Popondetta in northern Province. The study tested a hypothesis that S in food gardens are limiting nutrient factor and are significantly lower than in plantations and forests. Subsistence food gardens are under long-term slash and burn practice of cropping and such practice is expected to accelerate loss of biomass S from the ecosystem. From each land use, surface soil (0–15 cm samples were characterised and further pseudocomplete fractionated for S. Conversion of forest to oil palm production decreased (p<0.001 soil pH and electrical conductivity values. The reserve S fraction in soil increased significantly (p<0.05 due to oil palm production (∼ 28 % and food gardening activity (∼ 54 %. However, plant available SO_4^(2--S was below 15 mg kg^(−1 in the food garden soils and foliar samples of sweet potato crop indicating deficiency of plant available S. Soil organic carbon content (OC was positively and significantly correlated to total S content (r=0.533; p<0.001 among the land use systems. Thus, crop management practices that affect OC status of the soils would potentially affect the S availability in soils. The possible changes in the chemical nature of mineralisable organic S compounds leading to enhanced mineralisation and leaching losses could be the reasons for the deficiency of S in the food garden soils. The results of this study conclude that long-term subsistence food gardening activity enriched top soils with reserve S or total S content at the expense of soluble S fraction. The subsistence cropping practices such as biomass burning in food gardens and reduced fallow periods are apparently threatening food security of oil palm households. Improved soil OC management strategies such as avoiding burning of fallow vegetation, improved fallows, mulching with fallow biomass, use of

  2. Use of the food-chain model FOOD III and the soil model SCEMR to assess irrigation as a biosphere pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.

    1985-02-01

    Irrigation of contaminated water onto crop land is a relatively direct pathway for radionuclides to deliver a radiation dose to man. Irrigation was not originally included in the SYVAC assessment model for the Precambrian Shield because no irrigation is currently practised in the region. This report re-evaluates this decision. An analysis of meteorological data shows that crop yield in northern Ontario would benefit from irrigation. Thus, incentives are present for subsistence-scale, and perhaps commercial-scale, irrigation of surface or well water. A food-chain analysis indicated that irrigation with contaminated water could deliver a dose comparable to direct consumption (drinking) of the same water, for some radionuclides. Long-term contamination of soil through irrigation was predicted to be a substantial hazard, even when soil leaching was incorporated into the food-chain model. This report presents parameter estimates that could be used to incorporate irrigation as a pathway in the SYVAC code and will constitute the basis for further decisions concerning this pathway

  3. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  4. Migration of radionuclides in the soil-crop-food product system and assessment of agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Ageyets, V.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on dynamics of redistribution of radionuclides through of profile of the different soils on uncultivated agricultural lands of Belarus during the 1986-1995 period show that vertical migration occurs with low rate. In arable soils the radionuclides are distributed in comparatively uniform way through the whole depth of the 25-30 cm cultivated layer. Investigations on migration of radionuclides with wind erosion on the drained series of wet sandy and peat soils and water erosion on sloping lands show that one should take into consideration the secondary contamination of soils while forecasting a possible accumulation of radionuclides in farm products

  5. Relationship between the 137Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km -2 137 Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), who had whole-body 137 Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body 137 Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10 -9 ). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body 137 Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174)

  6. Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: translocation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25 mg kg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, F.T.; Thébault, E.; Liiri, M.; Birkhofer, K.; Tsiafouli, M.A.; Bjørnlund, L.; Jørgensen, H.B.; Brady, M.V.; Christensen, S.; De Ruiter, P.C.; D'Hertefeldt, T.; Frouz, J.; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, L.; Hol, W.H.G.; Hotes, S.; Mortimer, S.R.; Setälä, H.; Sgardelis, S.P.; Uteseny, K.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Wolters, V.; Bardget, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and

  8. Assessment of environmental radioactivity in soil, water and foods consumed in the northeastern state of Sergipe - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, L.X.; Souza, S.O., E-mail: fiseandro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: susanasouzalalic@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Cardoso, S.N.M.; Alhanati, C.E., E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: alhanat@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente e Seguranca do Trabalho; Ciolini, R., E-mail: r.ciolini@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa (UNIPI), Largo Lazzarino, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of radioactivity in the environment are of great importance in monitoring and control of radiation levels to which humans are exposed directly or indirectly. Two nuclear power plants are planned in the northeast Brazilian region by the Ministry of Mines and Energy under the National Energy Plan 2030. Even without defining the exact location where these new plants would be built, there is great speculation that new units will be built along the banks of the San Francisco River. This region is extremely poor in studies from the standpoint of determining the radioactivity in the environment, being practically non-existent in the literature data on the state of Sergipe. This study aimed to contribute to analysis of the occurrence of natural and artificial radioactive material in soil, water and food products of the State of Sergipe, focusing primarily on Neopolis Plateau region, which is located the banks of the Rio San Francisco. For this purpose, radionuclides found in all samples collected from soil and cement, fertilizer and food chain products were analyzed by gamma spectrometry, whose activity was measured employing an HPGe detector. The ingestion of contaminated food is a potentially important form of internal exposure. The internal dose due to ingestion depends on the concentration of radionuclides in food and their effective half-life. This study also presents new data for the activity of several natural radionuclides in some aliments produced in the region and the corresponding effective dose due to their intake. Be-7 was detected in organic fertilizers and lemon peel and Th-232 found in samples of soil and cement, both unprecedented results in the literature. The committed effective dose by radionuclides and the total average effective dose calculated for food and the activities of radionuclides measured in all kind of samples were below the Brazilian radioprotection law dose limits. However, it was also detected Cs-137 in some samples, due to

  9. Assessment of environmental radioactivity in soil, water and foods consumed in the northeastern state of Sergipe - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.X.; Souza, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity in the environment are of great importance in monitoring and control of radiation levels to which humans are exposed directly or indirectly. Two nuclear power plants are planned in the northeast Brazilian region by the Ministry of Mines and Energy under the National Energy Plan 2030. Even without defining the exact location where these new plants would be built, there is great speculation that new units will be built along the banks of the San Francisco River. This region is extremely poor in studies from the standpoint of determining the radioactivity in the environment, being practically non-existent in the literature data on the state of Sergipe. This study aimed to contribute to analysis of the occurrence of natural and artificial radioactive material in soil, water and food products of the State of Sergipe, focusing primarily on Neopolis Plateau region, which is located the banks of the Rio San Francisco. For this purpose, radionuclides found in all samples collected from soil and cement, fertilizer and food chain products were analyzed by gamma spectrometry, whose activity was measured employing an HPGe detector. The ingestion of contaminated food is a potentially important form of internal exposure. The internal dose due to ingestion depends on the concentration of radionuclides in food and their effective half-life. This study also presents new data for the activity of several natural radionuclides in some aliments produced in the region and the corresponding effective dose due to their intake. Be-7 was detected in organic fertilizers and lemon peel and Th-232 found in samples of soil and cement, both unprecedented results in the literature. The committed effective dose by radionuclides and the total average effective dose calculated for food and the activities of radionuclides measured in all kind of samples were below the Brazilian radioprotection law dose limits. However, it was also detected Cs-137 in some samples, due to

  10. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  11. A comparison of estimates of basin-scale soil-moisture evapotranspiration and estimates of riparian groundwater evapotranspiration with implications for water budgets in the Verde Valley, Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Wiele, Stephen M.; Pool, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth in the Verde Valley in Arizona has led to efforts to better understand water availability in the watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a substantial component of the water budget and a critical factor in estimating groundwater recharge in the area. In this study, four estimates of ET are compared and discussed with applications to the Verde Valley. Higher potential ET (PET) rates from the soil-water balance (SWB) recharge model resulted in an average annual ET volume about 17% greater than for ET from the basin characteristics (BCM) recharge model. Annual BCM PET volume, however, was greater by about a factor of 2 or more than SWB actual ET (AET) estimates, which are used in the SWB model to estimate groundwater recharge. ET also was estimated using a method that combines MODIS-EVI remote sensing data and geospatial information and by the MODFLOW-EVT ET package as part of a regional groundwater-flow model that includes the study area. Annual ET volumes were about same for upper-bound MODIS-EVI ET for perennial streams as for the MODFLOW ET estimates, with the small differences between the two methods having minimal impact on annual or longer groundwater budgets for the study area.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Mercury (Hg Concentration in Agricultural Soil and Its Risk Assessment on Food Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqian Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil mercury (Hg pollution in some areas of China is a serious problem and has aroused a lot of attention on a local scale. However, there are few studies on Hg pollution on a national scale. This study collected 444 published papers during 2005–2015 on Hg concentrations in agricultural soil throughout China, under seven land uses, namely: dry land, paddy field, vegetable field, tea garden, orchard, traditional Chinese medicine field and tobacco field, to assess the spatial distribution of Hg concentration and evaluate its influence on food safety. The averaged Hg concentration (0.108 mg/kg was higher than its background (0.065 mg/kg, but much lower than the guidelines (GB15618-1995 II for crop production. The spatial distribution of Hg throughout China showed great variability, with some hotspots due to Hg related mining and smelting activities. According to the Environment Quality Standard for soil in China (GB15618-1995 II, 4.2% of agricultural soil should be abandoned due to Hg pollution, and 2.0% faced a high risk of Hg pollution.

  13. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater contamination decreases the amount of available groundwater ...... ture; Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Irrigation and Drainage, paper No. ... province); The 1st IWA Malaysia Young Water Profes- sionals Conference ...

  14. Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Fen; Yang, Yiru; Yin, Yunlong

    2013-06-15

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  16. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported for research projects on nutrient dynamics during terrestrial decomposition, as influenced by soil arthropods. Radioactive tracers are used as analogs of nutrients, to measure material movement along food chains and dynamics of processes during decomposition. Forest floor systems from which arthropods were excluded, or in which microfloral activity was depressed, trapped incoming nutrients from canopy throughfall at different rates. Faunal stimulation of microfloral activities could not be demonstrated, but drought conditions disturbed the experiment. Turnover measurements for radionuclides in collembolans are also reported, and compared with information on mites and other arthropods

  17. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  18. Do European Standard Disinfectant tests truly simulate in-use microbial and organic soiling conditions on food preparation surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Morin, V N; Rödger, H-J; Holah, J; Bird, C

    2010-04-01

    The results from European standard disinfectant tests are used as one basis to approve the use of disinfectants in Europe. The design of these laboratory-based tests should thus simulate as closely as possible the practical conditions and challenges that the disinfectants would encounter in use. No evidence is available that the organic and microbial loading in these tests simulates actual levels in the food service sector. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total viable count (TVC) were determined on 17 visibly clean and 45 visibly dirty surfaces in two restaurants and the food preparation surfaces of a large retail store. These values were compared to reference values recovered from surfaces soiled with the organic and microbial loading, following the standard conditions of the European Surface Test for bactericidal efficacy, EN 13697. The TOC reference values for clean and dirty conditions were higher than the data from practice, but cannot be regarded as statistical outliers. This was considered as a conservative assessment; however, as additional nine TOC samples from visibly dirty surfaces were discarded from the analysis, as their loading made them impossible to process. Similarly, the recovery of test organisms from surfaces contaminated according to EN 13697 was higher than the TVC from visibly dirty surfaces in practice; though they could not be regarded as statistical outliers of the whole data field. No correlation was found between TVC and TOC in the sampled data, which re-emphasizes the potential presence of micro-organisms on visibly clean surfaces and thus the need for the same degree of disinfection as visibly dirty surfaces. The organic soil and the microbial burden used in EN disinfectant standards represent a realistic worst-case scenario for disinfectants used in the food service and food-processing areas.

  19. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  20. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Krapac, I.J.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, N.; Mackie, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These determinants were found to be seeping into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. The identities and origin of these genes in groundwater were confirmed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses. Tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates from groundwater harbored the tet(M) gene, which was not predominant in the environmental samples and was identical to tet(M) from the lagoons. The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain.

  1. Soils Newsletter, Vol. 31, No. 2, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The global food crisis in 2008 has brought worldwide attention to issues relating to food and agriculture, including the impacts of climate change, extreme climatic variability and finite fossil fuel energy resources on sustainable agriculture. The underlying causes of this food crisis are complex and require not only immediate but also long term solutions. To enhance long term food security, it is important to improve land productivity by improving soil fertility and soil organic matter status and enhancing soil nutrient, fertilizer and water use efficiency under both rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Our preoccupation with addressing the immediate food crisis means that issues such as land management, which require long term solutions, are frequently neglected. Yet inappropriate land management not only causes a reduction in land productivity, thus creating food insecurity and poverty, but it also leads to the degradation of farmers' environments through reductions in the quality and quantity of water supplies for rural and downstream communities and an increase in socioeconomic and -political instability. To combat land degradation, it is important to restore soil health through improving soil fertility and soil organic matter and also to mitigate the causes of land degradation. Some of these causes include: (i) inadequate use of fertilizers to combat soil nutrient deficiencies and to compensate for nutrient removal from animal and crop products, (ii) intensive land cultivation without adequate crop residue return, (iii) overgrazing or poor grazing management which destroys soil structure through soil trampling by livestock and (iv) poor irrigation, leading to salinity and excessive loss of soil nutrients to groundwater. The activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition (SWMCN) Section and Soil Science Unit in 2008 both through the network of coordinated research projects (CRPs) and technical cooperation projects (TCPs) have focused on

  2. Soils Newsletter, Vol. 31, No. 2, January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    The global food crisis in 2008 has brought worldwide attention to issues relating to food and agriculture, including the impacts of climate change, extreme climatic variability and finite fossil fuel energy resources on sustainable agriculture. The underlying causes of this food crisis are complex and require not only immediate but also long term solutions. To enhance long term food security, it is important to improve land productivity by improving soil fertility and soil organic matter status and enhancing soil nutrient, fertilizer and water use efficiency under both rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Our preoccupation with addressing the immediate food crisis means that issues such as land management, which require long term solutions, are frequently neglected. Yet inappropriate land management not only causes a reduction in land productivity, thus creating food insecurity and poverty, but it also leads to the degradation of farmers' environments through reductions in the quality and quantity of water supplies for rural and downstream communities and an increase in socioeconomic and -political instability. To combat land degradation, it is important to restore soil health through improving soil fertility and soil organic matter and also to mitigate the causes of land degradation. Some of these causes include: (i) inadequate use of fertilizers to combat soil nutrient deficiencies and to compensate for nutrient removal from animal and crop products, (ii) intensive land cultivation without adequate crop residue return, (iii) overgrazing or poor grazing management which destroys soil structure through soil trampling by livestock and (iv) poor irrigation, leading to salinity and excessive loss of soil nutrients to groundwater. The activities of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition (SWMCN) Section and Soil Science Unit in 2008 both through the network of coordinated research projects (CRPs) and technical cooperation projects (TCPs) have focused on

  3. Impacts of land-use and soil properties on groundwater quality in the hard rock aquifer of an irrigated catchment: the Berambadi (Southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, Muddu; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Braun, Jean Jacques; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri S.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has large impacts on groundwater resources, both in terms of quantity and quality: when combined with intensive chemical fertilizer application, it can lead to progressive groundwater salinization. Mapping the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater quality is not only essential for assessing the impacts of different types of agricultural systems but also for identifying hotspots of water quality degradation that are posing a risk to human and ecosystem health. In peninsular India the development of minor irrigation led to high density of borewells which constitute an ideal situation for studying the heterogeneity of groundwater quality. The annual groundwater abstraction reaches 400 km3, which leads to depletion of the resource and degradation of water quality. In the agricultural Berambadi catchment (84km2, Southern India, part of the environmental observatory BVET/ Kabini CZO) the groundwater table level and chemistry are monitored in 200 tube wells. We recently demonstrated that in this watershed, irrigation history and groundwater depletion can lead to hot spots of NO3 concentration in groundwater, up to 360 ppm (Buvaneshwari et al., 2017). Here we focus on the respective roles of evapotranspiration, groundwater recycling and chemical fertilizer application on chlorine concentration [Cl] in groundwater. Groundwater [Cl] in Berambadi spans over two orders of magnitude with hotspots up to 380 ppm. Increase in groundwater [Cl] results from evapotranspiration and recycling, that concentrates the rain Cl inputs ("Natural [Cl]") and/or from KCl fertilization ("Anthropogenic [Cl]"). To quantify the origin of Cl in each tube well, we used a novel method based on (1) a reference element, sodium, originating only from atmosphere and Na-plagioclase weathering and (2) data from a nearby pristine site, the Mule Hole forested watershed (Riotte et al., 2014). In the forested watershed, the ranges of Cl concentration and Na/Cl molar ratio are 9-23 ppm and 2

  4. Soil protection. Looseleaf manual of measures and recommendations for protection, maintenance and decontamination of soils, landscapes and groundwater; Bodenschutz. Ergaenzbares Handbuch der Massnahmen und Empfehlungen fuer Schutz, Pflege und Sanierung von Boeden, Landschaft und Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Guenther; Koenig, Wilhelm; Utermann, Jens (eds.)

    2012-04-15

    The 52th supplement consists of three main chapters. The first chapter is concerned to soil in the environmental policy, scientific basis, investigation and evaluation of soils and adverse soil alterations. The second chapter reports on fundamentals for measures of soil protection and soil decontamination, execution questions of the soil protection legislation. The third chapter contains the actual legislative provisions.

  5. Radioecological investigations in the food-chain air-soil-vine-wine. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Fischer, E.

    1988-12-01

    In a field investigation (1983-1985) comprising 8 locations of the most important viticultural regions in Germany, the contents of H-3, C-14, Sr-90, and Cs-137 in air, soils, leaves of the vine, grapes and wine were measured and site-specific transfer factors were calculated. Data concerning soil parameters, climatic conditions, cultivation and vinification were collected. The T contents of all samples were 10 Bq/l water of combustion, independent of location and year. The specific activity of C-14 in the atmosphere and in biological material was 0.22 Bq/g C, independent of site and year. Sr-90 contents of soils fluctuated between 0.7 and 3.5 Bq/kg dry matter. The mean content of leaves was 2 Bq/kg fresh material, of grapes 0.035 Bq/kg and of wine 0.008 Bq/l. The Cs-137 level of soils fluctuated between 1.3 and 7.9 Bq/kg dry matter. The mean content of leaves was 0.098 Bq/kg fresh material, of grapes 0.021 Bq/kg and of wine 0.0085 Bq/l. A relation between transfer and soil parameters and between the contents of grapes and wine was not recognizeable. While cultivar-specific differences were not observed in grapes, red wines contained somewhat more Cs-137 than white wines. Transfer factors soil-grapes were 0.027 for Sr-90 and 0.0057 for Cs-137. Site-specific influences such as soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years led to a small fluctuation of values. No influence of the Neckarwestheim reactor has been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). ... topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the ... of effective sites for infiltration of recharge water.

  7. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches .... The overall 'pollution potential' or DRASTIC index is established by applying the formula: DRASTIC Index: ... affected by the structure of the soil surface.

  8. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    decision-making for groundwater management and protection. ... (1) Depth to water table; (2) Recharge (net); (3) Aquifer media; (4) Soil media; ... Methodology .... Petty, R 1987, 'DRASTIC: A standardized system for evaluating ground water.

  9. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  10. Macronutrients and trace metals in soil and food crops of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Ansari, Maryam; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Kaabi, Helena; Kermani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K > Ca > S > Mg > P and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S ≈ K > P > Mg > Ca and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants.

  11. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater. Keywords: Groundwater ...

  12. An intelligent instrument for measuring the dynamic parameters of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guoping

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent instrument was developed for measuring direction and velocity of the groundwater, permeability coefficient, hydraulic transmitting coefficient, static level, hydraulic gradient and flow direction of each layer. The instrument can be widely applied for detecting seepage of abutment and river bank, exploitation of groundwater, conservation of water and soil, water surging in mine, survey of groundwater resource and environment protection etc

  13. Uranium transfer in the food chain from soil to plants, animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Betz, I.; Anke, M.; Witte, H.; Schilling, C.; Knoth, E.

    2010-01-01

    Our investigations aimed at following up the scientific basis of uranium transfer from the soils of different geological origins and from the immediate vicinity of uranium waste dumps in the vegetation, in waters (drinking water, mineral water and medicinal water), vegetable and animal foodstuffs and beverages; the regional human uranium intake, excretion, apparent absorption and balance in Germany and Mexico. Another aim of the investigations was to draw conclusions from the rules of transfer of this element from the rocks and soils to plants, animals and man. (authors)

  14. Biosolids, Soils, and Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Michael R; Yager, Tracy J. B; Smith, David B; Crock, James G

    2003-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District...

  15. Biosolids, Soil, Crop, Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for A Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yager, Tracy J; Smith, David B; Crock, James G

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District...

  16. Biosolids, Soil, Crop, Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for a Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2002-2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yager, Tracy J; Smith, David B; Crock, James G

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District...

  17. Biosolids, Soil, Crop, Ground-Water, and Streambed-Sediment Data for A Biosolids-Application Area Near Deer Trail, Colorado, 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yager, Tracy J; Smith, David B; Crock, James G; Stevens, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began an expanded monitoring program near Deer Trail, Colorado, in cooperation with the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District and the North Kiowa Bijou Groundwater Management District...

  18. Animal Feces Contribute to Domestic Fecal Contamination: Evidence from E. coli Measured in Water, Hands, Food, Flies, and Soil in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Kwong, Laura H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Kullmann, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Colford, John M

    2017-08-01

    Fecal-oral pathogens are transmitted through complex, environmentally mediated pathways. Sanitation interventions that isolate human feces from the environment may reduce transmission but have shown limited impact on environmental contamination. We conducted a study in rural Bangladesh to (1) quantify domestic fecal contamination in settings with high on-site sanitation coverage; (2) determine how domestic animals affect fecal contamination; and (3) assess how each environmental pathway affects others. We collected water, hand rinse, food, soil, and fly samples from 608 households. We analyzed samples with IDEXX Quantitray for the most probable number (MPN) of E. coli. We detected E. coli in source water (25%), stored water (77%), child hands (43%), food (58%), flies (50%), ponds (97%), and soil (95%). Soil had >120 000 mean MPN E. coli per gram. In compounds with vs without animals, E. coli was higher by 0.54 log 10 in soil, 0.40 log 10 in stored water and 0.61 log 10 in food (p food increased with increasing E. coli in soil, ponds, source water and hands. We provide empirical evidence of fecal transmission in the domestic environment despite on-site sanitation. Animal feces contribute to fecal contamination, and fecal indicator bacteria do not strictly indicate human fecal contamination when animals are present.

  19. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  20. Food for early succession birds: relationships among arthropods, shrub vegetation, and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt

    2006-01-01

    During spring and early summer, shrub- and herbaceous-level vegetation provides nesting and foraging habitat for many shrub-habitat birds. We examined relationships among arthropod biomass and abundance, foliage leaf surface area and weight, vegetation ground cover, soil characteristics, relative humidity, and temperature to evaluate what factors may influence...

  1. Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechi, V.; Brussaard, L.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.

    2015-01-01

    Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the

  2. Soil use and management strategy for raising food and cash output in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutunga, V.; Janssen, B.H.; Mantel, S.; Janssens, M.

    2007-01-01

    Rwanda is a poor country and land is scarce, with only 0.65 ha of suitable farmland per household. Literature search for identifying constraints and solutions to productive and sustainable agriculture and livestock production was carried out. The country is facing with increasing soil fertility

  3. Radioecological investigations in the food-chain air-soil-vine-wine. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1989-10-01

    This Part 2 presents all of the results, including the harvest of 1986 and 1987; it thus describes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. H-3, C-14, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were determined in soil, vine leaves, grapes and wine at different locations. In some of the samples Cs-134, K-40 and Ra-226 were also measured. Site-specific transfer factors were calculated for Sr-90 and for the Cs radionuclides. The mean content of Cs-137 before Chernobyl (after Chernogyl) was about 4 (9) Bq/kg dry matter in soil (top 30 cm), 0.07 (3) Bq/kg fresh matter in leaves, 0.02 (0.4) Bq/kg FM in grapes, and 0.008 (0.9) Bq/l in wine. As comapred to 1986 distinctly lower levels were found in leaves, grapes and wine from 1987. The content of Cs-134 was about half that of Cs-137 in 1986. Due to its shorter half-life Cs-134 had fallen below detection limit in many of the 1987 samples. Mean Sr-90 levels were 1-2 Bq/kg in soil and in leaves (dry matter and fresh matter, respectively), 19-56 mBq/kg in grapes, and 3-11 mBq/l in wine. Samples obtained in the fall of 1986 showed no increase of Sr-90 in soil and leaves, whereas a slight increase was found in grapes and wine as a consequence of Chernobyl. Site-specific influences such als soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years had no pronounced effects on transfer factors. No influence of the nuclear power station Neckarwestheim has been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Radioecological investigations in the food-chain air-soil-vine-wine. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.

    1989-01-01

    This Part 2 presents all of the results, including the harvest of 1986 and 1987; it thus describes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. H-3, C-14, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were determined in soil, vine leaves, grapes and wine at different locations. In some of the samples Cs-134, K-40 and Ra-226 were also measured. Site-specific transfer factors were calculated for Sr-90 and for the Cs radionuclides. The mean content of Cs-137 before Chernobyl (after Chernobyl) was about 4 (9) Bq/kg dry matter in soil (top 30 cm), 0.07 (3) Bq/kg fresh matter in leaves, 0.02 (0.4) Bq/kg FM in grapes, and 0.008 (0.9) Bq/l in wine. As compared to 1986 distinctly lower levels were found in leaves, grapes and wine from 1987. The content of Cs-134 was about half that of Cs-137 in 1986. Due to its shorter half-life Cs-134 had fallen below detection limit in many of the 1987 samples. Mean Sr-90 levels were 1-2 Bq/kg in soil and in leaves (dry matter and fresh matter, respectively), 19-56 mBq/kg in grapes, and 3-11 mBq/l in wine. Samples obtained in the fall of 1986 showed no increase of Sr-90 in soil and leaves, whereas a slight increase was found in grapes and wine as a consequence of Chernobyl. Site-specific influences such als soil parameters, climate, cultivation, vinification and differences between years had no pronounced effects on transfer factors. No influence of the nuclear power station Neckarwestheim has been found in any of the radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  6. Analysis of confidence in continental-scale groundwater recharge estimates for Africa using a distributed water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Mansour, Majdi; Bonsor, Helen; Pachocka, Magdalena; Wang, Lei; MacDonald, Alan; Macdonald, David; Bloomfield, John

    2014-05-01

    There is a growing need for improved access to reliable water in Africa as population and food production increases. Currently approximately 300 million people do not have access to a secure source of safe drinking water. To meet these current and future demands, groundwater will need to be increasingly abstracted; groundwater is more reliable than surface water sources due to its relatively long response time to meteorological stresses and therefore is likely to be a more secure water resource in a more variable climate. Recent studies also quantified the volumes of groundwater potentially available which suggest that, if exploited, groundwater could help to meet the demand for fresh water. However, there is still considerable uncertainty as to how these resources may respond in the future due to changes in groundwater recharge and abstraction. Understanding and quantifying groundwater recharge is vital as it forms a primary indicator of the sustainability of underlying groundwater resources. Computational hydrological models provide a means to do this, but the complexity of recharge processes in Africa mean that these simulations are often highly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate our confidence in simulating groundwater recharge over Africa based on a sensitivity analysis using a distributed hydrological model developed by the British Geological Survey, ZOODRM. The model includes land surface, canopy, river, soil and groundwater components. Each component is able to exchange water and as such, forms a distributed water balance of Africa. The components have been parameterised using available spatial datasets of African vegetation, land-use, soil and hydrogeology while the remaining parameters have been estimated by calibrating the model to available river flow data. Continental-scale gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets, based on remotely sensed and ground observations, have been used to force the model. Following calibration, the

  7. Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation with Reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for the both the groundwater and