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Sample records for groundwater sampling results

  1. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  2. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  3. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  4. Final report : results of aquifer pumping and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. As a result of this meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities to augment the CCC/USDA's investigations at Everest, Kansas, and assist in the selection of remedial approaches to be evaluated as part of a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections illustrating the hydrogeologic setting along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, as well as in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Installation of additional permanent monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western, northern, and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a phased pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property.

  5. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), and natural inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements). Isotopic tracers (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) also were measured to help identify processes affecting groundwater quality and the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. More than 200 constituents and water-quality indicators were measured during the trend sampling period.Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix-spikes, and surrogate compounds) were collected at about one-third of the trend sites, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. On the basis of detections in laboratory and field blank samples collected by GAMA-PBP study units, including the 12 study units presented here, reporting levels for some groundwater results were adjusted in this report. Differences between replicate samples were mostly within acceptable ranges, indicating low variability in analytical results. Matrix-spike recoveries were largely within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent).This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater used for drinking water typically is treated, disinfected, and blended with other waters to achieve acceptable water quality. The comparison benchmarks used in this report apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. To provide some context for the results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in these groundwater samples were compared with benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of California. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  7. Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

  8. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence, D.W. Woolery

    2010-07-08

    This document reports the findings of the groundwater and leachate monitoring and sampling at the Environmental restoration Disposal Facility for calendar year 2009. The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  9. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  10. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  11. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    -nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), and naturally-occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements). Naturally-occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) also were measured to help identify processes affecting groundwater quality and the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. Nearly 300 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at 24 percent of the 55 status wells resampled for trends, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were mostly within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability in analytical results. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for 75 percent of the compounds for which matrix spikes were collected. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. The benchmarks used in this report apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. To provide some context for the results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in these groundwater samples were compared with benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. Most constituents that

  12. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  13. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  14. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  15. A new design of groundwater sampling device and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yih-Jin Tsai; Ming-Ching T.Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Compounds in the atmosphere contaminate samples of groundwater. An inexpensive and simple method for collecting groundwater samples is developed to prevent contamination when the background concentration of contaminants is high. This new design of groundwater sampling device involves a glass sampling bottle with a Teflon-lined valve at each end. A cleaned and dried sampling bottle was connected to a low flow-rate peristaltic pump with Teflon tubing and was filled with water. No headspace volume was remained in the sampling bottle. The sample bottle was then packed in a PVC bag to prevent the target component from infiltrating into the water sample through the valves. In this study, groundwater was sampled at six wells using both the conventional method and the improved method.The analysis of trichlorofluoromethane(CFC-11 ) concentrations at these six wells indicates that all the groundwater samples obtained by the conventional sampling method were contaminated by CFC-11 from the atmosphere. The improved sampling method greatly eliminated theproblems of contamination, preservation and quantitative analysis of natural water.

  16. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R. L.; Lawrence, B. L.

    2011-06-09

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD2 and the ERDF Amended ROD (EPA 1999). The overall objective of the groundwater monitoring program is to determine whether ERDF has impacted the groundwater. This objective is complicated by the fact that the ERDF is situated downgradient of the numerous groundwater contamination plumes originating from the 200 West Area.

  17. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  18. Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Tellam, John H; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken.

  19. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Résumé Les écoulements souterrains influencent les différents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'écoulement réduit le mélange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le système aquifère. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout déterminés par des différences dans le flux d'eau météorique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine déterminée), les lignes marquant une évolution prograde (séquence de faciès) se développent normalement dans la direction de l'écoulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la

  20. Results of groundwater monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in April 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-05

    constrain the existing contaminant plume. (c) Resampling of all existing permanent monitoring points for VOCs and biodegradation parameter analyses, at the request of the KDHE. On the basis of these studies (Argonne 2006a,b) and the CCC/USDA's past investigations at Everest (Argonne 2006c), the CCC/USDA concluded that groundwater extraction is not an effective remedial option for the main body of the groundwater plume, and the KDHE concurred (KDHE 2006); the KDHE later noted, however (KDHE 2007a), that this and other technologies might represent viable remedial options in the event of further downgradient migration of the plume toward the intermittent creek. In February 2007, the CCC/USDA presented preliminary analyses of (1) the AS-SVE remedial alternative, incorporating the use of LDBs, and (2) the risks to human health and the environment posed by the observed carbon tetrachloride plume in groundwater (Argonne 2007a). The results of these analyses demonstrated the following: (1) Neither groundwater extraction nor AS-SVE in LDBs represents a practical approach for effective remediation of the groundwater contamination at Everest (near the Nigh property). (2) Periodic sampling and analyses for VOCs conducted by the CCC/USDA documented that the areal extent and range of carbon tetrachloride concentrations detected in the groundwater plume at Everest had changed relatively little from 2000 to 2006. (3) Estimates of groundwater flow and contaminant migration times, based on the hydrogeologic properties of the groundwater flow system identified at Everest (Argonne 2003, 2006b,c), indicated that, at minimum, approximately 4 years would be required for the carbon tetrachloride plume (in the subsurface) to reach the vicinity of the intermittent creek directly west of the Nigh property, and more than 20 years would be required for the contamination to reach the identified groundwater discharge area southwest of the Nigh property. (4) The existing (January-March 2006) plume

  1. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  2. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-09-03

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF, to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  3. Methods for Minimization and Management of Variability in Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    statistical analyses. A balanced dataset based on analytical results for each planned primary sample: 480 total samples Two demonstration sites... balanced dataset of analytical results from 480 groundwater samples based on analytical results for each planned primary sample: two demonstration...the peer review analyst of the staff chemist , the department supervisor, and finally the data entry personnel. The laboratory report will be

  4. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 {mu}g.L{sup -1} were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  6. Integrated sampling and analytical approach for common groundwater dissolved gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Kimberley; Ryan, M Cathryn; Chu, Angus

    2007-12-15

    A novel passive gas diffusion sampler (PGDS) combines sampling, storage and direct injection into a single gas chromatograph (GC). The sampler has a 4.5 mL internal volume when deployed, is easy to operate, and eliminates sample-partitioning. The associated GC method analyzes for a large, dynamic sampling range from a single, small volume injection. Dissolved gases were separated on parallel Rt-Molsieve 5A and Rt-Q-PLOT columns and eluted solutes were quantified using a pulse discharge helium ionization detector (PD-HID). The combined sampling and analytical method appears to be less prone to systematic bias than conventional sampling and headspace partitioning and analysis. Total dissolved gas pressure used in tandem with the PGDS improved the accuracy of dissolved gas concentrations. The incorporation of routine measurements of dissolved biogeochemical and permanent gases into groundwater investigations will provide increased insight into chemical and biological processes in groundwater and improve chemical mass balance accuracy.

  7. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  8. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Kearney (A.T.), Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-01-20

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters.

  9. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Brown, W.L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, P.O. Box 950, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, 825 Jadwin Ave., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons. Historically, the monitoring activities have been very 'people intensive'. Field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from two official electronic databases: the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers traditionally used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information. In Automating Groundwater Sampling at Hanford (HNF-38542-FP Revision 0, Presented at Waste Management 2009 Conference, March 1 - March 5, 2009, Phoenix, AZ), we described the methods, tools, and techniques that would be used in automating the activities associated with measuring water levels. The Field Logging and Electronic Data Gathering (FLEDG) application/database that automates collecting the water-level measurement data has now been implemented at Hanford. In addition to

  10. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Jennifer S. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Conley, S. F. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Brown, W. L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwatermonitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons.

  11. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Madrid et al., 2013) as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map (Figure 1) and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report (Jackson et al., 2011). The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites (Table 1). In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015

  12. A downhole passive sampling system to avoid bias and error from groundwater sample handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sanford L; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2010-07-01

    A new downhole groundwater sampler reduces bias and error due to sample handling and exposure while introducing minimal disturbance to natural flow conditions in the formation and well. This "In Situ Sealed", "ISS", or "Snap" sampling device includes removable/lab-ready sample bottles, a sampler device to hold double end-opening sample bottles in an open position, and a line for lowering the sampler system and triggering closure of the bottles downhole. Before deployment, each bottle is set open at both ends to allow flow-through during installation and equilibration downhole. Bottles are triggered to close downhole without well purging; the method is therefore "passive" or "nonpurge". The sample is retrieved in a sealed condition and remains unexposed until analysis. Data from six field studies comparing ISS sampling with traditional methods indicate ISS samples typically yield higher volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations; in one case, significant chemical-specific differentials between sampling methods were discernible. For arsenic, filtered and unfiltered purge results were negatively and positively biased, respectively, compared to ISS results. Inorganic constituents showed parity with traditional methods. Overall, the ISS is versatile, avoids low VOC recovery bias, and enhances reproducibility while avoiding sampling complexity and purge water disposal.

  13. Optimization of groundwater sampling approach under various hydrogeological conditions using a numerical simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengqi; Hou, Deyi; Luo, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a numerical model based on field data to simulate groundwater flow in both the aquifer and the well-bore for the low-flow sampling method and the well-volume sampling method. The numerical model was calibrated to match well with field drawdown, and calculated flow regime in the well was used to predict the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the purging period. The model was then used to analyze sampling representativeness and sampling time. Site characteristics, such as aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and sampling choices, such as purging rate and screen length, were found to be significant determinants of sampling representativeness and required sampling time. Results demonstrated that: (1) DO was the most useful water quality indicator in ensuring groundwater sampling representativeness in comparison with turbidity, pH, specific conductance, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and temperature; (2) it is not necessary to maintain a drawdown of less than 0.1 m when conducting low flow purging. However, a high purging rate in a low permeability aquifer may result in a dramatic decrease in sampling representativeness after an initial peak; (3) the presence of a short screen length may result in greater drawdown and a longer sampling time for low-flow purging. Overall, the present study suggests that this new numerical model is suitable for describing groundwater flow during the sampling process, and can be used to optimize sampling strategies under various hydrogeological conditions.

  14. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD THE NEXT STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; CONLEY SF; HILDEBRAND RD; CUNNINGHAM DE; R_D_Doug_Hildebrand@rl.gov; DeVon_E_Cunningham@rl.gov

    2010-01-21

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very "people intensive." Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or "samplers." These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  15. Preserving the distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater and acid mine drainage samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of inorganic arsenic species must be preserved in the field to eliminate changes caused by metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, photochemical oxidation, and redox reactions. Arsenic species sorb to iron and manganese oxyhydroxide precipitates, and arsenite can be oxidized to arsenate by photolytically produced free radicals in many sample matrices. Several preservatives were evaluated to minimize metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, such as inorganic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA was found to work best for all sample matrices tested. Storing samples in opaque polyethylene bottles eliminated the effects of photochemical reactions. The preservation technique was tested on 71 groundwater and six acid mine drainage samples. Concentrations in groundwater samples reached 720 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 1080 ??g-As/L for arsenate, and acid mine drainage samples reached 13 000 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 3700 ??g-As/L for arsenate. The arsenic species distribution in the samples ranged from 0 to 90% arsenite. The stability of the preservation technique was established by comparing laboratory arsenic speciation results for samples preserved in the field to results for subsamples speciated onsite. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between arsenite and arsenate concentrations for samples preserved with EDTA in opaque bottles and field speciation results were analytically insignificant. The percentage change in arsenite:arsenate ratios for a preserved acid mine drainage sample and groundwater sample during a 3-month period was -5 and +3%, respectively.

  16. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  17. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Vertical Sampling in Recharge Areas Versus Lateral Sampling in Discharge Areas: Assessing the Agricultural Nitrogen Legacy in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, T. E.; Genereux, D. P.; Solomon, D. K.; Mitasova, H.; Burnette, M.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural nitrogen (N) is a legacy contaminant often found in shallow groundwater systems. This legacy has commonly been observed using well nests (vertical sampling) in recharge areas, but may also be observed by sampling at points in/beneath a streambed using pushable probes along transects across a channel (lateral sampling). We compared results from two different streambed point sampling approaches and from wells in the recharge area to assess whether the different approaches give fundamentally different pictures of (1) the magnitude of N contamination, (2) historic trends in N contamination, and (3) the extent to which denitrification attenuates nitrate transport through the surficial aquifer. Two different arrangements of streambed points (SP) were used to sample groundwater discharging into a coastal plain stream in North Carolina. In July 2012, a 58 m reach was sampled using closely-spaced lateral transects of SP, revealing high average [NO3-] (808 μM, n=39). In March 2013, transects of SP were widely distributed through a 2.7 km reach that contained the 58 m reach and suggested overall lower [NO3-] (210 μM, n=30), possibly due to variation in land use along the longer study reach. Mean [NO3-] from vertical sampling (2 well nests with 3 wells each) was 296 μM. Groundwater apparent ages from SP in the 58 m and 2.7 km reaches suggested lower recharge [NO3-] (observed [NO3-] plus modeled excess N2) in 0-10 year-old water (1250 μM and 525 μM, respectively), compared to higher recharge [NO3-] from 10-30 years ago (about 1600 μM and 900 μM, respectively). In the wells, [NO3-] was highest (835 μM) in groundwater with apparent age of 12-15 years and declined as apparent age increased, a trend that was consistent with SP in the 2.7 km reach. The 58 m reach suggested elevated recharge [NO3-] (>1100 μM) over a 50-year period. Excess N2 from wells suggested that about 62% of nitrate had been removed via denitrification since recharge, versus 51% and 78

  19. Physicochemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Amalner Town inJalgaon District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater and municipal water in Amalner town by taking water samples from five different stations. The study was carried out by collecting four groundwater samples (Two open well, two bore well and one municipal water sample during November 2007-February 2008. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and ISI 10500-91. Total 15 parameters were analysed. It was found that the underground water was contaminated at few sampling sites namely Shirud Naka, Cotton Market and Shivaji Nagar. The sampling sites Dekhu road showed physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficients were calculated for water quality assessment.

  20. Aquifer Sampling Tube Results for Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Peterson, Robert E.

    2003-10-27

    This report presents and discusses results of the fiscal year 2003 sampling event associated with aquifer tubes along the Columbia River in the northern Hanford Site. Aquifer tube data help define the extent of groundwater contamination near the river, determine vertical variations in contamination, monitor the performance of interim remedial actions near the river, and support impact studies.

  1. Results of sampling and analysis of groundwater from multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 between spring 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program (OMO) during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1 (151.2-156.8 m, 311.2-336.8 m and 524.4-528.4 m), OL-KR3 (242.6-253.2 m), OL-KR5 (277.2-284.6 m and 457.2-476.2 m), OL-KR9 (468.2-482.2 m), OL-KR11 (597.5-628.1 m) and OLKR12 (363-368 m). The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's (1967) classification, the collected groundwater samples represent either the borehole water type Na-Cl (OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OLK-R1/ T/311.2-336.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.6 m, OL-KR11/ T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m) or Na-Ca-Cl (OL-KR1/T/524.4- 528.4 m, OL-KR5/T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m). The groundwater samples from OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6- 253.2 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.2 m, OL-KR11/T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m were brackish (1000 mg/L < TDS < 10000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples (OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m), were saline (TDS> 10000 mg/L). Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes were seen between samplings done at the different times. Only the groundwater sampled from OL-KR1/T/311.2-336.8 m had significant changes in its chemical composition during the reference period, but also in OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T

  2. Influence of thermal treatments on radiocarbon dating of groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Iuliana Madalina; Sava, Tiberiu Bogdan; Pacesila, Doru Gheorghe; Gaza, Oana; Simion, Corina Anca; Stefan, Bianca Maria; Sava, Gabriela Odilia; Ghita, Dan Gabriel; Mosu, Vasile

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water provides information about the formation of oceanic circulation of the water volumes, the hydrogeological systems, and also valuable information can be gained about the aquifer storage and the degree of containment relative to the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating refers to the determination of small quantities of the naturally occurring carbon 14 in the water, which can be integrated in the groundwater mass through the gaseous CO2, carbonaceous deposits dissolved by water and organic remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the temperature and pressure over the amount of each isotope of carbon during the sample preparation stage. The first step was to evaporate several underground water samples at 65°C under different conditions until the carbonates were obtained, then the CO2 was extracted with orto-phosphoric acid and transformed to graphite. The second step was to obtain graphite from an untreated water sample. Finally, the samples were measured with the 1MV Cockcroft-Walton Tandetron Accelerator by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

  3. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    to 11 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data obtained from the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges for nearly all compounds, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix-spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw groundwater were compared with regulatory and nonregulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and with aesthetic and technical thresholds established by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only and do not indicate compliance or noncompliance with those thresholds. The concentrations of most constituents detected in groundwater samples from REDSAC were below drinking-water thresholds. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and pesticides were detected in less than one-quarter of the samples and were generally less than a hundredth of any health-based thresholds. NDMA was detected in one grid well above the NL-CA. Concentrations of all nutrients and trace elements in samples from REDSAC wells were below the health-based thresholds except those of arsenic in three samples, which were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US). However

  4. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.

  6. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.; Takala, M.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of groundwater colloids and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1, ONK-PVA5 and ONK-PVA10 in August 2013. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters in which the groundwater was run through. The particle calculations were performed with computer software ImageJ 1.47. In addition, field flow fractionation (FFF) measurements were performed from the unfiltered water samples. The colloid concentration (diameter 0 - 1 μm) determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs in ONK-PVA1 was 300 μg/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA5 was 30 μg/l and ONK-PVA10 40 μg/l. FFF measurements supported the results of single particle analyses with a difference that an extra peak was found from ONK-PVA1 sample. The peak, which showed no evidence in single particle analyses, was suspected to contain humic substances. (orig.)

  8. Data Validation Package: April 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso, Tashina [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Widdop, Michael [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site as specified in the March 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the US Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas (DOE-LM/1602-2008). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The wells sampled included the cell performance monitoring wells (0709, 0858, 0880, 0906, and 0921) and the groundwater monitoring wells (0862, 0886, 0891, 0924, and 0963). A duplicate sample was collected from location 0891. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. Historically, cell performance monitoring wells 0908 and 0916 have not produced water and were confirmed as dry during this sampling event. These wells are completed above the saturated interval in the formation. Notable observations for time-concentration graphs in this report include: (1) uranium concentrations in well 0891 continue to increase; (2) the uranium concentration in well 0880 is higher than the 2015 value and lower than the 2014 value, and it remains within the range of historical values; and (3) uranium concentrations in the other sampled wells are below 2 mg/L and consistent with previous results.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  10. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services (NNES), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  11. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ground water. In total, over 230 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 5-8 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic and technical concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and thresholds for drinking-water are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those thresholds. Most constituents that were detected in groundwater samples in the 59 wells in MOJO were found at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. In MOJO's 52 grid wells, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in 40 percent of the wells, and pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 23 percent of the grid wel

  12. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    , radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes and dissolved noble gases also were measured to provide a dataset that will be used to help interpret the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater in subsequent reports. In total, 221 constituents were investigated for this study. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells in the CAMP study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 90 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All organic constituents and most inorganic constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the 90 grid wells

  13. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  14. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2006-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of

  15. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  16. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    the 70 wells sampled, 3 surface-water samples were collected in streams near 2 of the sampled wells in order to better comprehend the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-TCP), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and alkalinity), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), and dissolved gases (including noble gases) also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 298 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix-spikes) were collected at approximately 3 to 12 percent of the wells in the SCRC study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were less than 10 percent relative and/or standard deviation, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  18. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Inkollu Mandal, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater quality based on Physic-chemical parameters at Inkollu mandal, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for Drinking purpose. Nine ground water samples were collected from different places of Inkollu mandal of Prakasam district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Iron. By observing the results, it was shown that the parameters from the water samples were compared with WHO (World Health Organization and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards, USPH (United state Public health for ground water .The results revealed that some parameters were in high concentration and quality of the potable water has deteriorated to a large extent at some sampling locations.

  19. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    , oxygen, and carbon, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 300 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 11 percent of the wells sampled for each analysis, and the results obtained from these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that data for the groundwater samples were not compromised by possible contamination during sample collection, handling or analysis. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and with aesthetic and technical thresholds established by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with regulatory thresholds. The concentrations of most constituents detected in groundwater samples from MADCHOW wells were below drinking-water thresholds. Organic compounds (VOCs and pesticides

  20. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, and arsenic, chromium, and iron species); and radioactive constituents (radon-222 and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stables isotopes of inorganic carbon and boron dissolved in water, isotope ratios of dissolved strontium, tritium activities, and carbon-14 abundances) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 281 constituents and water-quality indicators were measured. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 12 percent of the wells in the Santa Barbara study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 82 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by

  1. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Nevada study unit: granitic, metamorphic, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks. One natural spring that is not used for drinking water was sampled for comparison with a nearby primary grid well in the same cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA] and perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major ions, total dissolved solids, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (radium isotopes, radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, and uranium isotopes). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-14, strontium isotopes, and tritium), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells sampled for each analysis, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection, handling, and analytical procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, with few exceptions. Matrix-spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to finished drinking water that is served to the consumer, not to untre

  2. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-03-31

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries.

  3. [Water Sample Results : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum, from sample collector (organization unknown) Cathy H. to Rocky Mountain Arsenal staff, prefaces tabular water sample results collected from various...

  4. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well

  5. Data Validation Package December 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site does not require groundwater monitoring because groundwater in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and supplemental standards have been applied to the aquifer. However, at the request of the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy conducts annual monitoring at three locations: monitoring wells 0409, 0675, and 0678. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Monitoring Well 0409 was not sampled during this event because it was dry. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. One duplicate sample was collected from location 0675. Groundwater samples from the two sampled wells were analyzed for the constituents listed in Table 1. Time-concentration graphs for selected analytes are included in this report. At well 0675, the duplicate results for total dissolved solids and for most metals (magnesium, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, and uranium) were outside acceptance criteria, which may indicate non-homogeneous conditions at this location. November 2014 results for molybdenum and uranium at well 0675 also were outside acceptance criteria. The well condition will be evaluated prior to the next sampling event.

  6. Purification and Detection of 39Ar in Groundwater Samples via Low-Level Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Humble, P.; Panisko, M.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Argon-39 can be used as a radiotracer to age-date groundwater aquifers to study recharge rates and to better understand the mean residence time, or age distributions, of groundwater. Argon-39 (with a half-life of 269 years) is created in the atmosphere by cosmic rays interacting with argon in the air (primarily 40Ar). The use of 39Ar as a radiotracer fills a gap in the age dating range which is currently covered by 3H/3He or 85Kr (1000 years); 39Ar fills the intermediate time scale range from 50-1000 years where the previously established radiotracers are not adequate. We will introduce the process for purifying and detecting 39Ar in ground water using ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPCs) at the shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Argon-39 is detected through direct beta counting using ULBPCs loaded with a mixture of geologic argon (extracted from a carbon dioxide well with no measureable 39Ar activity) and methane, which enhances the sensitivity for 39Ar measurements. The ULBPCs have been shown to have a background count rate of 148 counts per day (cpd) in the energy range 3-400 keV when filled with 10 atm of P-10 counting gas (90% geologic Ar, 10% CH4). Initial demonstration samples were collected from groundwater aquifers in Fresno, California supported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A discussion of the sampling technique to degas the water from these wells and to then purify it for counting will be presented. In order to quantify the 39Ar contribution in the groundwater samples, the ULBPCs were characterized to determine two components: 1) the detector efficiency to modern levels of 39Ar, and 2) the remaining detector background (using geologic sourced argon which is free from 39Ar - no measureable 39Ar activity). These characterization results will be presented along with a discussion of the quantification of the 39Ar age of the demonstration measurements.

  7. Groundwater monitoring programme. A guide for groundwater sampling and analysis. 2. ed.; Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm. Leitfaden fuer Probenahme und Analytik von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Quality assurance guidelines have been developed and introduced in Baden-Wuerttemberg for groundwater monitoring. The contribution contains the fundamentals and technical guides for sampling and measurement of the Baden-Wuerttemberg groundwater monitoring programme, as well as parameter groups and a preliminary assessment of the methods. [German] Bei der Gewinnung von Umweltdaten sind hohe Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der erhobenen Daten zu stellen. Dies trifft in besonderem Masse gerade auch fuer Grundwasseruntersuchungen zu, da hier haeufig Konzentrationen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze auftreten. Fuer das Grundwassermessnetz Baden-Wuerttemberg sind qualitaetssichernde Regelungen entwickelt und eingefuehrt worden. In der vorliegenden Zusammenstellung sind die Grundsatzpapiere, bzw. Technischen Anleitungen aus dem Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer die Grundwasserprobennahme sowie zu Messverfahren, Parametergruppen und zur ersten Beurteilung der Messergebnisse enthalten. (orig.)

  8. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    results obtained from these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that data for the groundwater samples were not compromised by possible contamination during sample collection, handling or analysis. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw groundwater were compared with regulatory and nonregulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and with aesthetic and technical thresholds established by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only and do not indicate of compliance or noncompliance with regulatory thresholds. The concentrations of most constituents detected in groundwater samples from the Tahoe-Martis wells were below drinking-water thresholds. Organic compounds (VOCs and pesticides) were detected in about 40 percent of the samples from grid wells, and most concentrations were less than 1/100th of regulatory and nonregulatory health-based thresholds, although the conentration of perchloroethene in one sample was above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US). Concentrations of all trace elements and nutrients in samples from grid wells were below regulatory and nonregulatory health-based thresholds, with five exceptions. Concentra

  9. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    -control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compoundsThis study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with drinking water standards. Most constituents that were detected in groundwater samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in about one-half of the samples and pesticides detected in about one-third of the samples; all detections of these constituents were below health-based thresholds. Most detections of trace elements and nutrients in samples from ANT wells were below health-based thresholds. Exceptions include: one detection of nitrite plus nitr

  11. Dynamic groundwater monitoring networks: a manageable method for reviewing sampling frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Fournier, Magali F; Daughney, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of a water quality network through a change in sampling frequency is the only way to increase cost-efficiency without any reduction in the robustness of the data. Existing techniques define optimal sampling frequency based on analysis of historical data from the monitoring network under investigation. Their application to a large network comprised of many sites and many monitored parameters is both technical and challenging. This paper presents a simple non-parametric method for reviewing sampling frequency that is consistent with highly censored environmental data and oriented towards reduction of sampling frequency as a cost-saving measure. Based on simple descriptive statistics, the method is applicable to large networks with long time series and many monitored parameters. The method also provides metrics for interpretation of newly collected data, which enables identification of sites for which a future change in sampling frequency may be necessary, ensuring that the monitoring network is both current and adaptive. Application of this method to the New Zealand National Groundwater Monitoring Programme indicates that reduction of sampling frequency at any site would result in a significant loss of information. This paper also discusses the potential for reducing analysis frequency as an alternative to reduction of sampling frequency.

  12. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ], and radioactive constituents [gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity and radon-222]. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and activities of tritium and carbon-14] and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 288 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 4-11 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a significant source of bias in the data obtained from the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were less than 10 percent relative standard deviation, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and/or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and nonregulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and to nonregulatory thresholds established for aesthetic and technical concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and thresholds for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of complia

  13. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  14. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater sampling: Experience derived from radioactive waste disposal programmes in Sweden and Finland during 1980-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J.A.T. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, M. [Intera, Solletuna (Sweden); Snellman, M.V. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P.H. [Fintact Oy, (Finland)

    1999-09-01

    Existing Finnish and Swedish hydrogeochemical field data from the 1980s and the early 1990s have been closely examined in the light of other influencing activities, such as geology and hydrology, which form an integral part of site-specific investigations. The report has considered data relating to the monitoring of groundwater chemical trends and groundwater sampling and analysis. These data have been used to simulate the effects of important parameters on groundwater quality and representativeness, to generate recommendations to improve the standard of hydrogeochemical sampling and analyses, and to discuss these results in the broader context of future site-specific investigations. (orig.)

  15. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented.

  16. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    approximately 30 percent of the wells, and the results were used to evaluate the quality of the data obtained from the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a significant source of bias in the data. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges and matrix-spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw groundwater were compared to regulatory and nonregulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and to thresholds established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only and do not indicate compliance or noncompliance with those thresholds. The concentrations of most constituents detected in groundwater samples were below drinking-water thresholds. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected in approximately 35 percent of grid well samples; all concentrations were below health-based thresholds. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in about 20 percent of all samples; detections were below health-based thresholds. No concentrations of constituents of special interest or nutrients were detected above health-based thresholds. Most of the major and minor ion constituents sampled do not have health-based thresholds; the exception is chloride. Concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and total dis

  17. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  18. Effect of the extent of well purging on laboratory parameters of groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reka Mathe, Agnes; Kohler, Artur; Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-04-01

    Chemicals reaching groundwater cause water quality deterioration. Reconnaissance and remediation demands high financial and human resources. Groundwater samples are important sources of information. Representativity of these samples is fundamental to decision making. According to relevant literature the way of sampling and the sampling equipment can affect laboratory concentrations measured in samples. Detailed and systematic research on this field is missing from even international literature. Groundwater sampling procedures are regulated worldwide. Regulations describe how to sample a groundwater monitoring well. The most common element in these regulations is well purging prior to sampling. The aim of purging the well is to avoid taking the sample from the stagnant water instead of from formation water. The stagnant water forms inside and around the well because the well casing provides direct contact with the atmosphere, changing the physico-chemical composition of the well water. Sample from the stagnant water is not representative of the formation water. Regulations regarding the extent of the purging are different. Purging is mostly defined as multiply (3-5) well volumes, and/or reaching stabilization of some purged water parameters (pH, specific conductivity, etc.). There are hints for sampling without purging. To define the necessary extent of the purging repeated pumping is conducted, triplicate samples are taken at the beginning of purging, at one, two and three times well volumes and at parameter stabilization. Triplicate samples are the means to account for laboratory errors. The subsurface is not static, the test is repeated 10 times. Up to now three tests were completed.

  19. CRUMP 2003 Selected Water Sample Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point locations and water sampling results performed in 2003 by the Church Rock Uranium Monitoring Project (CRUMP) a consortium of organizations (Navajo Nation...

  20. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site (Shoal) in May 2015. Groundwater samples were collected from wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, H-3, HC-1, HC-2d, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1. Sampling was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department-energy­ office-legacy-management-sites). Monitoring wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, HC-2d, HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1 were purged prior to sampling using dedicated submersible pumps. At least one well casing volume was removed, and field parameters (temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were allowed to stabilize before samples were collected. Samples were collected from wells H-3, HC-1, HC-3, and HC-6 using a depth-specific bailer because these wells are not completed with dedicated submersible pumps. Samples were submitted under Requisition Index Number (RIN) 15057042 to ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, for the determination of bromide, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium isotopes, and total uranium (by mass); and under RIN 15057043 to the University of Arizona for the determination of carbon-14 and iodine-129. A duplicate sample from location MV-2 was included with RIN 15057042. The laboratory results from the 2015 sampling event are consistent with those of previous years with the exception of sample results from well HC-4. This well continues to be the only well with tritium concentrations above the laboratory’s minimum detectable concentration which is attributed to the wells proximity to the nuclear detonation. The tritium concentration (731 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]) is consistent with past results and is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20,000 p

  1. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt;

    innovative investi-gation methods for characterization of the source zone hydrogeology and contamination, including FLUTe system hydraulic profiling and Water-FLUTe multilevel groundwater sampling, in fractured bryo-zoan limestone bedrock. High resolution hydraulic profiling was conducted in three cored......Characterization of the contaminant source zone architecture and the hydraulics is essential to develop accurate site specific conceptual models, delineate and quantify contaminant mass, perform risk as-sessment, and select and design remediation alternatives. This characterization is particularly...... challeng-ing in deposit types as fractured limestone. The activities of a bulk distribution facility for perchloroe-thene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) at the Naverland site near Copenhagen, Denmark, has resulted in PCE and TCE DNAPL impacts to a fractured clay till and an underlying fractured limestone...

  2. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  3. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids, and alkalinity) were collected at all 170 sites. In addition to these constituents, the samples from grid wells were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine, or NDMA), radioactive constituents (radon-222 and gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity), and geochemical and age-dating tracers (stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon-14 abundances, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, and tritium activities).Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 11 percent of the wells in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. With the exception of trace elements, blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample-collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Low concentrations of some trace elements were detected in blanks; therefore, the data were re-censored at higher reporting levels. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. The median values of matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), but were only approximately 64 percent for pesticides and pesticide degradates.The sample-collection protocols used in this study were designed to obtain representative samples of groundwater. The quality of groundwater can differ from the quality of drinking water because water chemistry can change as a result of contact with plumbing systems or the atmosphere; because of treatment

  4. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  5. Statistical literacy and sample survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.

  6. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This biennial event includes sampling five groundwater locations (four monitoring wells and one domestic well) at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site. For this event, the domestic well (location 0543) could not be sampled because no one was in residence during the sampling event (Note: notification was provided to the resident prior to the event). Per Appendix A of the Groundwater Compliance Action Plan, sampling is conducted to monitor groundwater quality on a voluntary basis. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). One duplicate sample was collected from location 0505. Water levels were measured at each sampled monitoring well. The constituents monitored at the Lakeview site are manganese and sulfate. Monitoring locations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for these constituents are listed in Table 1. Review of time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that manganese and sulfate concentrations are consistent with historical measurements.

  7. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  8. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, M.; Ojala, S.; Jarvinen, E.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of colloids and composition of the colloid phase on the basis of the water chemistry results of filtered and unfiltered water samples and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1 and ONK-PVA3 in October 2011. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters. The change in the water chemistry due to filtration was also analysed. The decrease of element concentrations due to filtration would possibly reflect the composition of the colloid phase. Because the concentration of the colloids is very low, two parallel water samples were analysed five times with an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyser so that the chemical differences between the filtered and unfiltered water could be evaluated. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA1, determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs, was 6 {mu}g/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA3 was 7 {mu}g/l. The colloid phase composition could not be reliably determined due to the low colloid concentration. (orig.)

  9. Hanford groundwater modeling: statistical methods for evaluating uncertainty and assessing sampling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of three documents which address the role of uncertainty in the Rockwell Hanford Operations groundwater model development and application program at Hanford Site. Groundwater data collection activities at Hanford are reviewed as they relate to Rockwell groundwater modeling. Methods of applying statistical and probability theory in quantifying the propagation of uncertainty from field measurements to model predictions are discussed. It is shown that measures of model accuracy or uncertainty provided by a statistical analysis can be useful in guiding model development and sampling network design. Recommendations are presented in the areas of model input data needs, parameter estimation data needs, and model verification and variance estimation data needs. 8 figures.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in censoring of less than 0.4 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw ground water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply, not to the raw ground water, but to treated water that is served to the consumer. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and as well as with thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. VOCs and pesticides each were detected in approximately 60 percent of the grid wells, and detections of all compounds but one were below health-based thresholds. The fumigant, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), was detected above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in one sample. Detections of most inorganic constituents were also below health-based thresholds. Constituents detected above health-based thresholds include: nitrate, (MCL-US, 2 samples), arsenic (MCL-US, 2 samples), and vanadium (California notification level, NL-CA, 1 sample). All detections of radioactive constituents were below health-based thresholds, although nine samples had activities of radon-222 above the lower proposed MCL-US. Most of the samples from KERN wells had concentrations of major elements, total dissolved solids, and trace elements below the non-enforceable thresholds set for aesthetic concerns.

  11. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    , replicates, laboratory matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the ground-water samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most constituents. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or noncompliance with regulatory thresholds. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. VOCs were detected in less than one-third and pesticides and pesticide degradates in just over one-half of the grid wells, and all detections of these constituents in samples from all wells of the MSACV study unit were below health-based thresholds. All detections of trace elements in samples from MSACV grid wells were below health-based thresholds, with the exceptions of arsenic and boro

  13. Will Jakarta Be The Next Atlantis? Excessive Groundwater Use Resulting From A Failing Piped Water Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colbran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the connection between a failing piped water network and excessive groundwater use in Jakarta. It discusses the political history of the city's piped water network, which was privatised in 1998, and how privatisation was intended to increase access to clean, safe water for its residents. The article asserts that this has not eventuated, and that tap water remains costly, unreliable and does not provide noticeable benefits when compared with groundwater. The result is that households, industry, businesses, luxury apartment complexes and hotels choose alternative water sources and distribution methods, in particular groundwater. This is having an unsustainable impact on groundwater levels and Jakarta 's natural environment, causing significant land subsidence, pollution and salinisation of aquifers, and increased levels of flooding. The effect is so severe that the World Bank has predicted much of Jakarta will be inundated by seawater in 2025, rendering one third of the city uninhabitable and displacing millions. The article concludes by discussing and assessing the steps the government has taken to address excessive and unlicensed groundwater use. These steps include new regulations on groundwater, a public awareness campaign on the importance of groundwater and a commitment to improve the raw water supplied to the piped water network. However, the article observes that the government is yet to develop long term policies for improvement of the network itself. The question therefore remains, has the government done enough, or will groundwater use continue unabated making Jakarta the next lost city of Atlantis?

  14. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Johnson, Richard [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location HMC-951. Alluvium wells are completed in the alluvial sediments in the former channel of the Rio San Jose, which was covered by basalt lava flows known as the El Malpais, and are identified by the suffix (M). Bedrock wells are completed in the San Andres Limestone/Glorieta Sandstone hydrologic unit (San Andres aquifer) and are identified by the suffix (SG). Wells HMC-951 and OBS-3 are also completed in the San Andres aquifer. The LTSP requires monitoring for molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); PCB monitoring occurs only during November sampling events. This event included sampling for an expanded list of analytes to characterize the site aquifers and to support a regional groundwater investigation being conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ground water. A quality-control sample (blank, replicate, or matrix spike) was collected at approximately one quarter of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in V-coding less than 0.1 percent of the data collected. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is supplied to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic purposes (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents detected in ground-water samples were at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. Volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and pesticide degradates were detected in less than one-third of the grid well samples collected. All VOC and pesticide concentrations measured were below health-based thresholds. Potential waste-water indicators were detected in less than half of the wells sampled, and no detections were above health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in seven grid wells; concentrations from two wells were above the CDPH maximum contaminant level (MCL-CA). Most detections of trace elements in samples collected from COA Study Unit wells were below water-quality thresholds. Exceptions include five samples of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US), two detections of boron above the CDPH notification level (NL-CA), and two detections of mol

  16. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, Reika

    2016-09-01

    Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters. Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr (81 Kr and 85 Kr) possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled determination of ultra-trace noble gas radioisotope abundances using 5-10 μ L of pure Kr. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries. Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled (138 K) activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. This simple process uses a single adsorbent and separates 99% of the bulk atmospheric gases from Kr without significant loss. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas. Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The presented Kr separation system has a demonstrated capability of extracting Kr with > 90% yield and 99% purity within 75 min from 1.2 to 26.8 L STP of atmospheric air with various concentrations of CH4. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples.

  17. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-03-28

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality.

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks or replicates, or samples for matrix spikes) were collected from approximately 26 percent of the wells, and the analyses of these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the quality of the environmental data was good, with low bias and low variability, and as a result, less than 0.1 percent of the analytes detected in ground-water samples were censored. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is delivered (or, supplied) to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were reported at concentrations below their established health-based thresholds. VOCs, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds were detected in about 33 percent or less of the 42 SCRV grid wells. Concentrations of all detected organic constituents were below established health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in approximately 12 percent of the SCRV grid wells; all concentrations reported were below the NL-CA threshold. Additional constituents, including major ions, trace elements, and nutrients were collected at 26 wells (16 grid wells and 10 understanding wells) of the 53 wells sampled f

  19. Groundwater sampling and chemical characterization of the Laxemar deep borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, A.C. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-02-01

    The Laxemar deep borehole, KLX02 (1705 m depth), located close to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), has been investigated. Groundwater sampling was conducted on two occasions and using different methods. The first sampling was taken in the open borehole using the so-called Tube sampler; the second sampling carried out using the SKB-packer equipment to isolate pre-determined borehole sections. Groundwater compositions consist of two distinct groupings; one shallow to intermediate Sodium-Bicarbonate type (Na(Ca,K):HC{sub 3}Cl(SO{sub 4})) to a depth of 1000 m, and the other of deep origin, a calcium-chloride type (Ca-Na(K):Cl-SO{sub 4}(Br)), occurring below 1000 m. The deep brines contain up to 46000 mg of Cl per litre. The influence of borehole activities are seen in the tritium data which record significant tritium down to 1000 m, and even to 1420 m. Mixing modelling shows that water from the 1960`s is the main source for this tritium. The high tritium values in the 1090-1096.2 m section are due to contamination of 1% shallow water from 1960 and 2% of modern shallow water. The upper 800 m of bedrock at Laxemar lies within a groundwater recharge area; the sub-vertical to moderate angled fracture zones facilitate groundwater circulation to considerable depths, at least to 800 m, thus accounting for some of the low saline brackish groundwaters in these conducting fracture zones. Below 1000 m the system is hydraulically and geochemically `closed` such that highly saline brines exist in a near-stagnant environment. 30 refs, 22 figs, 8 tabs.

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    ) were collected at ten percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control data resulted in censoring of less than 0.03 percent of the analyses of ground-water samples. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Health Services (CADHS) (Maximum Contaminant Levels [MCLs], notification levels [NLs], or lifetime health advisories [HA-Ls]) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels [SMCLs]). All wells were sampled for organic constituents and selected general water quality parameters; subsets of wells were sampled for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and radioactive constituents. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 49 out of 83 wells sampled and pesticides were detected in 35 out of 82 wells; all detections were below health-based thresholds, with the exception of 1 detection of 1,2,3-trichloropropane above a NL. Of the 43 wells sampled for trace elements, 27 had no detections of a trace element above a health-based threshold and 16 had at least one detection above. Of the 18 trace elements with health-based thresholds, 3 (arsenic, barium, and boron) were detected at concentrations higher an MCL. Of the 43 wells sampled for nitrate, only 1 well had a detection above the MCL. Twenty wells were sampled for radioactive constituents; only 1 (radon-222) was measured at activiti

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    radioactivity, and microbial indicators (total coliform and Escherichia coli [E. coli]). Isotopic tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, isotopic ratios of dissolved strontium in water, and stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon), dissolved noble gases, and age-dating tracers (tritium and carbon-14) were measured to help identify sources and ages of sampled groundwater. Quality-control samples (field blanks, replicate sample pairs, and matrix spikes) were collected at 13 percent of the sites in the KLAM study unit, and the results were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. Field blank samples rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample collection or analysis was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. More than 99 percent of the replicate pair samples were within acceptable limits of variability. Matrix-spike sample recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 91 percent of the compounds. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-health-based benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by the CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All concentrations of organic constituents from grid sites

  2. Variable infiltration and river flooding resulting in changing groundwater quality - A case study from Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Postma, Dieke; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe changes in groundwater quality occurring in a buried valley aquifer following a reduction in groundwater exploitation and enhanced infiltration due to extensive flooding of the Odra River in 1997 were investigated. Long-time series data for the chemical composition of groundwater in a large well field for drinking water supply indicated the deterioration of groundwater quality in the wells capturing water from the flooded area, which had been intensively cultivated since the 1960s. Infiltration of flooded river water into the aquifer is suggested by an elevated chloride concentration, although salt flushing from the rewatered unsaturated zone due to the enhanced recharge event is much more feasible. Concomitantly with chloride increases in the concentrations of sulphate, ferrous iron, manganese, and nickel imply the oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2) which is abundant in the aquifer. The proton production resulting from pyrite oxidation is buffered by the dissolution of calcite, while the Ca:SO 4 stoichiometry of the groundwater indicates that pyrite oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the dominant process occurring in the aquifer. The pyritic origin of SO42- is confirmed by the sulphur isotopic composition. The resultant Fe 2+ increase induces Mn-oxide dissolution and the mobilisation of Ni 2+ previously adsorbed to Mn-oxide surfaces. The study has a major implication for groundwater quality prediction studies where there are considerable variations in water level associated with groundwater management and climate change issues.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    , replicate samples, matrix spike samples) were collected for approximately one-third of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information from the field blanks resulted in applying 'V' codes to approximately 0.1 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples (meaning a constituent was detected in blanks as well as the corresponding environmental data). See the Appendix section 'Quality-Control-Sample Results'. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is delivered to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. VOCs were detected in about one-half of the grid wells, while pesticides were detected in about one-fifth of the grid wells. Concentrations of all VOCs and pesticides detected in samples from all SFBAY wells were below health-based thresholds. No pharmaceutical compounds were detected in any SFBAY well. One potential wastewater-indicator compound, caffeine, was detected in one grid well in SFBAY. Concentrations of most trace elements and nutrients detected in samples from all SFBAY wells were below health-based thresholds. Exceptions include nitrate, detected above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in 3samples; arsenic, above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in 3 samples; c

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    ] and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fourth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a significant source of bias. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in applying ?V? codes to approximately 0.1 percent of the data collected for ground-water samples (meaning a constituent was detected in blanks as well as the corresponding environmental data). This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable drinking-water quality. Regulatory thresholds are applied to the treated drinking water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH, formerly California Department of Health Services [CADHS]) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those thresholds. VOCs were detected in alm

  6. Data Validation Package, June 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Hallam, Nebraska, Decommissioned Reactor Site, August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan [LTSP] for the Decommissioned Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska (http://www.lm.doe.gov/Hallam/Documents.aspx) requires groundwater monitoring once every 2 years. Seventeen monitoring wells at the Hallam site were sampled during this event as specified in the plan. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and at two additional wells (6A and 6B) prior to the start of sampling. Additionally, water levels of each sampled well were measured at the beginning of sampling. See Attachment 2, Trip Report, for additional details. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Gross alpha and gross beta are the only parameters that were detected at statistically significant concentrations. Time/concentration graphs of the gross alpha and gross beta data are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations observed are consistent with values previously observed and are attributed to naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium and uranium decay chain products) in the groundwater.

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Results from field blanks indicated contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for ground-water samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most constituents. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Therefore, any comparisons of the results of this study to drinking-water standards only is for illustrative purposes and is not indicative of compliance or non-compliance to those standards. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water standards or thresholds. Six constituents? fluoride, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, gross-alpha radioactivity, and radon-222?were detected at concentrations higher than thresholds set for health-based regulatory purposes. Three additional constituents?pH, iron and manganese?were detected at concentrations above thresholds set for aesthetic concerns. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, were detected in less than one-third of the samples and generally at less than one one-hundredth of a health-based threshold.

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    for approximately one-sixth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the environmental data were of good quality, with low bias and low variability, and resulted in censoring of less than 0.3 percent of the detections found in ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CADPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CADPH. VOCs and pesticides were detected in approximately half of the grid wells, and all detections in samples from CESJO wells were below health-based thresholds. All detections of nutrients and major elements in grid wells also were below health-based thresholds. Most detections of constituents of special interest, trace elements, and radioactive constituents in samples from grid wells were below health-based thresholds. Exceptions included two detections of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US), one detection of lead above the USEPA action level (AL-US), and one detection of vanadium and three detections of 1,2,3-TCP that were above the CADPH notification levels (NL-CA). All detections of radioactive constituents were below health-based thresholds, although fourteen samples had activities of radon-222 above the lower proposed MCL-US. Most of th

  10. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries: A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate; A solids sample from ; A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed. Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or

  11. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after...

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  13. Passive sampling and analyses of common dissolved fixed gases in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Brian P; Watson, David B

    2008-05-15

    An in situ passive sampling and gas chromatographic protocol was developed for analysis of the major and several minor fixed gases (He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2O) in groundwater. Using argon carrier gas, a HayeSep DB porous polymer phase, and sequential thermal conductivity and reductive gas detectors, the protocol achieved sufficient separation and sensitivity to measure the mixing ratio of all these gases in a single 0.5 mL gas sample collected in situ, stored, transported, and injected using a gastight syringe. Within 4 days of immersion in groundwater, the simple passive in situ sampler, whether initially filled with He or air, attained an equivalent and constant mixing ratio for five of the seven detected gases. The abundant mixing ratio of N2O, averaging 2.6%, indicated that significant denitrification is likely ongoing within groundwater contaminated with uranium, acidity, nitrate, and organic carbon from a group of four closed radioactive wastewater seepage ponds at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center. Over 1000 passive gas samples from 12 monitoring wells averaged 56% CO2, 32.4% N2, 2.6% O2, 2.6% N2O, 0.21% CH4, 0.093% H2, and 0.025% CO with an average recovery of 95 +/- 14% of the injected gas volume.

  14. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  15. Environmental forensics in groundwater coupling passive sampling and high resolution mass spectrometry for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Coralie; Coureau, Charlotte; Togola, Anne

    2016-09-01

    One of the difficulties encountered when monitoring groundwater quality is low and fluctuating concentration levels and complex mixtures of micropollutants, including emerging substances or transformation products. Combining passive sampling techniques with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) should improve environmental metrology. Passive samplers accumulate compounds during exposure, which improves the detection of organic compounds and integrates pollution fluctuations. The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) were used in this study to sequester polar to semi-polar compounds. The methodology described here improves our knowledge of environmental pollution by highlighting and identifying pertinent compounds to be monitored in groundwater. The advantage of combining these two approaches is demonstrated on two different sites impacted by agricultural and/or urban pollution sources where groundwater was sampled for several months. Grab and passive sampling were done and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF). Various data processing approaches were used (target, suspect and non-target screening). Target screening was based on research from compounds listed in a homemade database and suspect screening used a database compiled using literature data. The non-target screening was done using statistical tools such as principal components analysis (PCA) with direct connections between original chromatograms and ion intensity. Trend plots were used to highlight relevant compounds for their identification. The advantage of using POCIS to improve screening of polar organic compounds was demonstrated. Compounds undetected in water samples were detected with these tools. The subsequent data processing identified sentinel molecules, molecular clusters as compounds never revealed in these sampling sites, and molecular fingerprints. Samples were compared and multidimensional

  16. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  17. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  18. Plutonium Mobility Studies: 216-Z-9 Trench Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-09-05

    A variety of analyses were conducted on selected sediment samples collected from two wells (299 W15-46 and 299-W15-48) drilled near the 216-Z-9 Trench to elucidate the form and potential for Pu and Am to be mobilized under present conditions and those that could be expected in future remediation scenarios. Analyses included moisture content, determination of the less than sand size fraction (silt plus clay), carbon analysis, SEM/EDS analysis, microwave-assisted acid digestions for total element analysis, and extraction tests using Hanford groundwater as the leachate. Results of the extraction tests were used as input to conduct equilibrium geochemical modeling of the solutions with Geochemist’s Workbench®. Geochemical modeling results for Pu were evaluated in terms of recent conclusions regarding the solubility and redox reactions of Pu by Neck et al. (2007a, 2007b). It was found that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am were associated with sediments of low silt/clay content and occur above silt/clay rich layers within the sediment profile. It was also found that the Pu and Am were relatively enriched in the silt/clay portion of these samples. The fact that the highest concentrations of Pu and Am occurred in sediments with low silt/clay contents suggests that waste solutions had perched on top of the low permeability silt/clay rich layers and interactions with the high silt/clay layers was minimal. SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the Pu and Am in these sediments does not occur as discrete micron size particles, and therefore must occur as mononuclear or polynuclear/ nanoclusters size particles adsorbed throughout the sediment samples. Leaching of these samples with Hanford groundwater indicates that release of Pu and Am from the sediments is correlated most significantly with the acidity of the water and not the initial concentrations of Pu and Am in the sediments. Only extracts that were acidic after contact with the sediments (pH 4.3 to 5.4) contained

  19. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    ), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), and naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, total arsenic and iron [unfiltered] and arsenic, chromium, and iron species [filtered]). Isotopic tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, isotopic ratios of strontium in water, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), dissolved standard gases (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon), and dissolved noble gases (argon, helium-4, krypton, neon, and xenon) were measured to help identify sources and ages of sampled groundwater. In total, 245 constituents and 8 water-quality indicators were measured. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, or matrix spikes) were collected at 16 percent of the wells in the WSJV study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples all were within acceptable limits of variability. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 87 percent of the compounds. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results

  20. Wells provide a distorted view of life in the aquifer: implications for sampling, monitoring and assessment of groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Kathryn; Chariton, Anthony; Stephenson, Sarah; Greenfield, Paul; Hose, Grant C.

    2017-01-01

    When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer. This study uses DNA community profiling (metabarcoding) of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, combined with traditional stygofauna sampling methods, to characterise groundwater biota from four catchments within eastern Australia. Aquifer waters were dominated by Archaea and bacteria (e.g. Nitrosopumilales) that are often associated with nitrification processes, and contained a greater proportion of bacteria (e.g. Anaerolineales) associated with fermenting processes compared to well waters. In contrast, unpurged wells contained greater proportions of pathogenic bacteria and bacteria often associated with denitrification processes. In terms of eukaryotes, the abundances of copepods, syncarids and oligochaetes and total abundances of stygofauna were greater in wells than aquifers. These findings highlight the need to consider sampling requirements when completing groundwater ecology surveys. PMID:28102290

  1. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Sherwood, Washington, Disposal Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    The 2001 Long-Term Surveillance Plan (LTSP) for the US. Department of Energy Sherwood Project (UMI'RCA Title II) Reclamation Cell, Wellpinit, Washington, does not require groundwater compliance monitoring at the Sherwood site. However, the LTSP stipulates limited groundwater monitoring for chloride and sulfate (designated indicator parameters) and total dissolved solids (TDS) as a best management practice. Samples were collected from the background well, MW-2B, and the two downgradient wells, MW-4 and MW-10, in accordance with the LTSP. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Water levels were measured in all wells prior to sampling and in four piezometers completed in the tailings dam. Time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that the chloride, sulfate, and TDS concentrations are consistent with historical measurements. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate are well below the State of Washington water quality criteria value of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for both parameters.

  2. Molecular analysis of microbial community in a groundwater sample polluted by landfill leachate and seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yang-jie; YANG Hong; WU Xiu-juan; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Seashore landfill aquifers are environments of special physicochemical conditions (high organic load and high salinity), and microbes in leachate-polluted aquifers play a significant role for intrinsic bioremediation. In order to characterize microbial diversity and look for clues on the relationship between microbial community structure and hydrochemistry, a culture-independent examination of a typical groundwater sample obtained from a seashore landfill was conducted by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA clone library. Two sets of universal 16S rDNA primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from the groundwater so that problems arising from primer efficiency and specificity could be reduced. Of 74 clones randomly selected from the libraries, 30 contained unique sequences whose analysis showed that the majority of them belonged to bacteria (95.9%), with Proteobacteria (63.5%) being the dominant division. One archaeal sequence and one eukaryotic sequence were found as well. Bacterial sequences belonging to the following phylogenic groups were identified: Bacteroidetes (20.3%), β, γ, δ and ε-subdivisions of Proteobacteria (47.3%, 9.5%, 5.4% and 1.3%, respectively), Firmicutes (1.4%), Actinobacteria (2.7%), Cyanobacteria (2.7%). The percentages of Proteobacteria and Bacteroides in seawater were greater than those in the groundwater from a non-seashore landfill, indicating a possible influence of seawater. Quite a few sequences had close relatives in marine or hypersaline environments. Many sequences showed affiliations with microbes involved in anaerobic fermentation. The remarkable abundance of sequences related to (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (C1RB) in the groundwater was significant and worthy of further study.

  3. January 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 27, 2015, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. Samples were collected from wells USGS-1, USGS-4, and USGS-8 during this monitoring event. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-8 and water levels were measured in all the monitoring wells onsite. Refer to the sample location map for well locations. Samples were analyzed by GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, strontium-90, and tritium. The sample from well USGS-1 was analyzed for tritium using the enrichment method to achieve a lower minimum detectable concentration (MDC). Radionuclide contaminants were detected in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8. The detection of radionuclides in these wells was expected because the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a tracer test between these wells in 1963 using the dissolved radionuclides tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 as tracers. Radionuclide time-concentration graphs are included in this report for these wells. Analytical data obtained from this and past sampling events are also available in electronic format on the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Geospatial Environmental Mapping System website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#site=GNO.

  4. Changes in the Chemistry of Groundwater Reacted with CO2: Comparison of Laboratory Results with the ZERT Field Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Abedini, Atosa A.; Beers, Sarah; Thomas, Burt

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ZERT program, sediments from two wells at the ZERT site, located in Bozeman, Montana, USA were reacted with a solution having the composition of local groundwater. A total of 50 water samples were collected from 7 containers placed for 15 days in a glove box with one atmosphere of CO2 to investigate detailed changes in the concentrations of major, minor and trace inorganic compounds, and to compare these with changes observed in groundwater at the ZERT site following CO2 injection. Laboratory results included rapid changes in pH (8.6 to 5.7), alkalinity (243 to 1295 mg/L as HCO3), electrical conductance (539 to 1822 μS/cm), Ca (28 to 297 mg/L), Mg (18 to 63 mg/L), Fe (5 to 43 μg/L) and Mn (2 to 837 μg/L) following CO2 injection. These chemical changes, which are in general agreement with those obtained from sampling the ZERT monitoring wells, could provide early detection of CO2 leakage into shallow groundwater. Dissolution of calcite, some dolomite and minor Mn-oxides, and desorption/ion exchange are likely the main geochemical processes responsible for the observed changes.

  5. Data Validation Package - July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Groundwater sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site is conducted every 5 years to monitor disposal cell performance. During this event, samples were collected from eight monitoring wells as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0723. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled and seven additional wells. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that require additional action or follow-up.

  6. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.;

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  7. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  8. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from

  9. Examination of groundwater flow scales and results of water balance observation in the regional hydrogeological study project field.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Tomoya; Inaba, Kaoru; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tono Geoscience Center, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The Tono Geoscience center has been continuing water balance observation since fiscal 1998, and examining groundwater recharge into the basement rock. This report analyzes water balance at seven catchments in the regional hydrogeological study project field, and the applicability of area precipitation, an important item of water balance analysis, is examined. The result of the examination is shown below. Values of groundwater recharge in the small-scale catchments, such as upstream and downstream of the Shobagawa, are influence by the local groundwater flow system. But, those in the Shobagawa catchment are influenced by the larger groundwater flow system. The plane distribution of groundwater recharge matches the result of the distribution of groundwater flow analysis. (author)

  10. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  11. Application of the freeze-dried bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206 to the biomonitoring of groundwater samples from monitoring wells near gasoline leakage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kong, In Chul

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the applicability of a freeze-dried bioluminescent bioreporter, Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206 (called KG1206), to the biomonitoring of groundwater samples. Samples were collected from the monitoring wells of gas station tanks or old pipeline leakage sites in Korea. In general, the freeze-dried strain in the presence of pure inducer chemicals showed low bioluminescence activity and a different activity order compared with that of the subcultured strain. The effects of KNO3 as a bioluminescence stimulant were observed on the pure inducers and groundwater samples. The stimulation rates varied according to the type of inducers and samples, ranging from 2.2 to 20.5 times (for pure inducers) and from 1.1 to 11 times (for groundwater samples) the total bioluminescence of the control. No considerable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence intensity of the freeze-dried strain and the inducer concentrations in the samples (R (2) < 0.1344). However, samples without a high methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) level and those from the gas station leakage site showed reasonable correlations with the bioluminescence activity with R (2) values of 0.3551 and 0.4131, respectively. These results highlight the potential of using freeze-dried bioluminescent bacteria as a rapid, simple, and portable tool for the preliminary biomonitoring of specific pollutants at contaminated sites.

  12. Nutrient sampling slam: high resolution surface-water sampling in streams reveals patterns in groundwater chemistry and flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater–surface water interface (GSWI), consisting of shallow groundwater adjacent to stream channels, is a hot spot for nitrogen removal processes, a storage zone for other solutes, and a target for restoration activities. Characterizing groundwater-surface water intera...

  13. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  14. Data Validation Package, April and June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site, October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the draft 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in June because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0126, 0477, and 0780. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 3. Interpretation and presentation of results, including an assessment ofthe natural flushing compliance strategy, will be reported in the upcoming 2016 Verification Monitoring Report. U.S.

  15. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids, and alkalinity) were collected at all 170 sites. In addition to these constituents, the samples from grid wells were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine, or NDMA), radioactive constituents (radon-222 and gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity), and geochemical and age-dating tracers (stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon-14 abundances, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, and tritium activities).Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 11 percent of the wells in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. With the exception of trace elements, blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample-collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Low concentrations of some trace elements were detected in blanks; therefore, the data were re-censored at higher reporting levels. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. The median values of matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), but were only approximately 64 percent for pesticides and pesticide degradates.The sample-collection protocols used in this study were designed to obtain representative samples of groundwater. The quality of groundwater can differ from the quality of drinking water because water chemistry can change as a result of contact with plumbing systems or the atmosphere; because of treatment

  16. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  17. Groundwater-quality data for the Madera/Chowchilla–Kings shallow aquifer study unit, 2013–14: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-02-03

    Groundwater quality in the 2,390-square-mile Madera/Chowchilla–Kings Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey from August 2013 to April 2014 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program’s Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems of the Madera, Chowchilla, and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. The shallow aquifer system corresponds to the part of the aquifer system generally used by domestic wells and is shallower than the part of the aquifer system generally used by public-supply wells. This report presents the data collected for the study and a brief preliminary description of the results.Groundwater samples were collected from 77 wells and were analyzed for organic constituents, inorganic constituents, selected isotopic and age-dating tracers, and microbial indicators. Most of the wells sampled for this study were private domestic wells. Unlike groundwater from public-supply wells, the groundwater from private domestic wells is not regulated for quality in California and is rarely analyzed for water-quality constituents. To provide context for the sampling results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks established for drinking-water quality by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the State of California, and the U.S. Geological Survey.Of the 319 organic constituents assessed in this study (90 volatile organic compounds and 229 pesticides and pesticide degradates), 17 volatile organic compounds and 23 pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in groundwater samples; concentrations of all but 2 were less than the respective benchmarks. The fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP

  18. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater indicator compounds [WICs]), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), and inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, and arsenic and iron species), and uranium and other radioactive constituents (radon-222 and activities of tritium and carbon-14). Isotopic tracers (of hydrogen and oxygen in water, of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, of dissolved boron, isotopic ratios of strontium in water, and of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved noble gases (argon, helium-4, krypton, neon, and xenon) were measured to help identify the sources and ages of sampled groundwater. In total, groundwater samples were analyzed for 289 unique constituents and 8 water-quality indicators in the BEAR study unit. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicate pairs, or matrix spikes) were collected at 13 percent of the sites in the BEAR study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. Blank samples rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample collection or analysis was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate pair samples all were within acceptable limits of variability. Matrix-spike sample recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84 percent of the compounds. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations

  19. Data from exploratory sampling of groundwater in selected oil and gas areas of coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties in southern San Joaquin Valley, 2014–15: California oil, gas, and groundwater project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, David B.; Davis, Tracy A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Land, Michael T.; Wright, Michael T.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-12-09

    Exploratory sampling of groundwater in coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties of the southern San Joaquin Valley was done by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 2014 through January 2015 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Water Quality in Areas of Oil and Gas Production Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program was established in response to the California Senate Bill 4 of 2013 mandating that the California State Water Resources Control Board design and implement a groundwater-monitoring program to assess potential effects of well-stimulation treatments on groundwater resources in California. The U.S. Geological Survey is in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to collaboratively implement the Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program through the California Oil, Gas, and Groundwater Project.Many researchers have documented the utility of different suites of chemical tracers for evaluating the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. The purpose of this exploratory sampling effort was to determine whether tracers reported in the literature could be used effectively in California. This reconnaissance effort was not designed to assess the effects of oil and gas on groundwater quality in the sampled areas. A suite of water-quality indicators and geochemical tracers were sampled at groundwater sites in selected areas that have extensive oil and gas development. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of 51 wells, including 37 monitoring wells at 17 multiple-well monitoring sites in coastal Los Angeles County and 5 monitoring wells and 9 water-production wells in southern San Joaquin Valley, primarily in Kern and Kings Counties.Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators; organic constituents, including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and dissolved organic carbon indicators; naturally

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    -nitrosodimethylamine, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, nitrate, radon-222, and coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations higher than health-based regulatory thresholds. Six constituents, including total dissolved solids, hexavalent chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and sulfate were detected at concentrations above levels set for aesthetic concerns. One-third of the randomized wells sampled for the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley GAMA study had at least a single detection of a VOC or gasoline additive. Twenty-eight of the 88 VOCs and gasoline additives investigated were found in ground-water samples; however, detected concentrations were one-third to one-sixty-thousandth of their respective regulatory thresholds. Compounds detected in 10 percent or more of the wells sampled include chloroform, a compound resulting from the chlorination of water, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a common solvent. Pesticides and pesticide degradates also were detected in one-third of the ground-water samples collected; however, detected concentrations were one-thirtieth to one-fourteen-thousandth of their respective regulatory thresholds. Ten of the 122 pesticides and pesticide degradates investigated were found in ground-water samples. Compounds detected in 10 percent or more of the wells sampled include the herbicide simazine, and the pesticide degradate deethylatrazine. Ground-water samples had a median total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of 467 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and 16 of the 34 samples had TDS concentrations above the recommended secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL-a threshold established for aesthetic qualities: taste, odor, and color) of 500 mg/L, while four samples had concentrations above the upper SMCL of 1,000 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite ranged from 0.04 to 37.8 mg/L (as nitrogen), and two samples had concentrations above the health-based threshold for nitrate of 10 mg/L (as nitrogen). The median sulfate concentration

  1. Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2004-05-01

    Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

  2. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  3. Data Validation Package, July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Shirley Basin South, Wyoming, Disposal Site November 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sampling Period: July 14-15, 2016 The 2004 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Shirley Basin South (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site, Carbon County, Wyoming, requires annual monitoring to verify continued compliance with the pertinent alternate concentration limits (ACLs) and Wyoming Class III (livestock use) groundwater protection standards. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Point-of-compliance (POC) wells 19-DC, 5-DC, and 5-SC, and monitoring wells 10-DC, 110-DC, 112-DC, 113-DC, 40-SC, 54-SC, 100-SC, 102-SC, and K.G.S.#3 were sampled. POC well 51-SC and downgradient well 101-SC were dry at the time of sampling. The water level was measured at each sampled well. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). ACLs are approved for cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, radium-226, radium-228, selenium, thorium-230, and uranium in site groundwater. Time-concentration graphs of the contaminants of concern in POC wells are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The only ACL exceedance in a POC well was radium-228 in well 5-DC where the concentration was 30.7 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), exceeding the ACL of 25.7 pCi/L. Concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids continue to exceed their respective Wyoming Class III groundwater protection standards for livestock use in wells 5-DC, 5-SC, and 54-SC as they have done throughout the sampling history; however, there is no livestock use of the water from these aquifers at the site, and no constituent concentrations exceed groundwater protection standards at the wells near the site boundary.

  4. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  5. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  6. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  7. Data Validation Package February 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  8. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells and extraction wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  9. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  10. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 19F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  11. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  12. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  13. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  14. Subtask 1.15-Passive Diffusion Sample Bags Made from Expanded Polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) to Measure VOC Concentrations in Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry W. Botnen

    2006-08-01

    With laboratory testing of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes complete, collected data support that volatile organic compound (VOC) molecules will readily diffuse across ePTFE membranes. Membrane samples, supplied by BHA Technologies (GE Osmonics), were tested to determine diffusion rates for VOCs in groundwater. Tests were conducted using membranes with two different pore sizes, with and without thermally laminated spun bond backing, and multiple concentrations of contaminated groundwater. Results suggest that typical residence times associated with traditional samplers constructed of polyethylene (2 weeks) can be reduced by 1 week using ePTFE membranes (reducing project costs) and that VOCs will diffuse more readily at lower temperatures (2.2-3.3 C) across ePTFE materials.

  15. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    OpenAIRE

    Venedam, Richard J.; Hartman, Mary J.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Scott R. Burge

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Si...

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally-occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, and species of inorganic chromium), and radioactive constituents (radon-222, radium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally-occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, boron, and strontium in water, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of sampled groundwater. In total, 223 constituents and 12 water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 10 percent of the wells in the CLUB study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Median matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 85 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated

  17. The effect of sampling technique on PCR-based bacteriological results of bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Simojoki, Heli; Kalmus, Piret; Holopainen, Jani; Pyörälä, Satu; Taponen, Suvi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sampling technique on the microbiological results of bovine milk samples using multiplex real-time PCR. Comparison was made between a technique where the milk sample was taken directly from the udder cistern of the udder quarter using a needle and vacuum tube and conventional sampling. The effect of different cycle threshold (Ct) cutoff limits on the results was also tested to estimate the amount of amplified DNA in the samples. A total of 113 quarters from 53 cows were tested pairwise using both techniques, and each sample was studied with real-time PCR. Sampling from the udder cistern reduced the number of species per sample compared with conventional sampling. In conventional samples, the number of positive Staphylococcus spp. results was over twice that of samples taken with the needle technique, indicating that most of the Staphylococcus spp. originated from the teat or environmental sources. The Ct values also showed that Staphylococcus spp. were present in most samples only in low numbers. Routine use of multiplex real-time PCR in mastitis diagnostics could benefit from critical evaluation of positive Staphylococcus spp. results with Ct values between 34.0 and 37.0. Our results emphasize the importance of a careful aseptic milk sampling technique and a microbiologically positive result for a milk sample should not be automatically interpreted as an intramammary infection or mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  19. Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains email from Scott Miller, US EPA to Scott Kramer. Subject: Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building. (2:52 PM) and Gore(TM) Surveys Analytical Results U.S. Geological Survey, Montgomery, AL.

  20. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  1. Plan for proposed aquifer hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-February 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, to further assist in selecting and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, and in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. On October 21, 2005, Argonne issued a brief Cross Section Analysis (Argonne 2006a) addressing these concerns, on behalf of the CCC/USDA. This report includes the following: (1) Preliminary recommendations for the siting of three new monitoring wells, at locations identified by the KDHE. Argonne also suggested, however, that the installation and sampling of these wells be deferred until after completion of the CAS evaluation. (2) A proposed strategy for testing of the Everest aquifer unit near the Nigh property, involving initial test pumping of the former Nigh domestic

  2. California GAMA Program: Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Results for the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces of Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2005-01-20

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the California Aquifer Susceptibility (CAS) project (under the GAMA Program) is to assess water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the Sacramento Valley and Volcanic Provinces. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  3. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  4. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah S. Huber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA. The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15 with the highest number of lithi- um samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R2 = 0.226, P <0.001 dur- ing the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation.

  5. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rebekah S; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E; Renshaw, Perry F; Kondo, Douglas G

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R(2) = 0.226, P accounting also for the impact of geographical variation.

  6. Potential groundwater sampling sites for installation of a well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). This dataset includes 90 potential groundwater sampling sites randomly generated using...

  7. 2,4-D abatement from groundwater samples by photo-Fenton processes at circumneutral pH using naturally iron present. Effect of inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, Héctor M; Rojas, Karen L; Sanabria, Janeth; Rengifo-Herrera, Julián Andrés

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated, at laboratory scale, if the using iron naturally present (0.3 mg L(-1)) and adding 10 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide was effective to remove 24.3 mgL(-1) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from groundwater samples by simulated solar irradiation (global intensity = 300 W m(-2)). Under these conditions, the degradation of 2,4-D reached 75.2 % and the apparition of its main oxidation byproduct 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) was observed. On the other hand, pH exhibited an increasing from 7.0 to 8.3 during the experiment. Experiments using Milli-Q water at pH 7.0, iron, and H2O2 concentrations of 0.3 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively, were carried out in order to study the effect of ions such as carbonate species, phosphate, and fluoride in typical concentrations often found in groundwater. Ion concentrations were combined by using a factorial experimental design 2(3). Results showed that carbonates and fluoride did not produce a detrimental effect on the 2,4-D degradation, while phosphate inhibited the process. In this case, the pH increased also from 7.0 to 7.95 and 8.99. Effect of parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the 2,4-D degradation by the photo-Fenton process in groundwater was evaluated by using a factorial experimental design 2(3). Results showed that the pH was the main parameter affecting the process. This study shows for the first time that using the photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH and iron naturally present seems to be a promising process to remove pesticides from groundwater.

  8. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Baur, Gary [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Sampling Period: August 4, 2015. The 1998 Interim Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Cheney Disposal Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado, requires annual monitoring to assess the performance of the disposal cell. Monitoring wells 0731, 0732, and 0733 were sampled as specified in the plan. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The water level was measured at each sampled well. The water level in well 0733, located in the disposal cell, is lower than water levels in adjacent wells 0731 and 0732, indicating a hydraulic gradient toward the disposal cell. Results from this sampling event were generally consistent with results from the past as shown in the attached concentration-versus-time graphs. There have been no large changes in contaminant concentration observed over the last several years with the following exception. The uranium concentration in well 0733 has been trending upward since 2003. High uranium concentrations are expected in this well because it is located in the disposal cell. The selenium concentrations observed in wells 0731 and 0732 are elevated when compared to the disposal cell 0733. Wells 0731 and 0732 are completed at the alluvium/Mancos contact; here, elevated selenium concentrations are expected due to contributions from the Mancos shale.

  9. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    delivered to consumers. Water supplied to consumers typically is treated after withdrawal from the ground, disinfected, and blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and non-regulatory thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contamination levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. VOCs and pesticides were detected in samples from less than one-third of the grid wells; all detections were below health-based thresholds, and most were less than one-one hundredth of threshold values. All detections of perchlorate and nutrients in samples from OWENS were below health-based thresholds. Most detections of trace elements in ground-water samples from OWENS wells were below health-based thresholds. In samples from the 53 grid wells, three constituents were detected at concentrations above USEPA maximum contaminant levels: arsenic in 5 samples, uranium in 4 samples, and fluoride in 1 sample. Two constituents were detected at concentrations above CDPH notification levels (boron in 9 samples and vanadium in 1 sample), and two were above USEPA lifetime health advisory levels (molybdenum in 3 samples and strontium in 1 sample). Most of the samples from OWENS wells had concentrations of major elements, TDS, and trace elements below the non-enforceable standards set for aesthetic concerns. Samples from nine grid wells had concentrations of manganese, iron, or TDS above the SMCL-CAs.

  11. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    and November 2014 sampling events. (Well RFN-0609 was inadvertently sampled instead of RFN-0195 in 2014.) The results for RFN-0195 have been corrected, and are included in associated time-concentration graphs for this location. Recent results for RFN-0195 are consistent with established trends with the possible exception of vanadium. The most recent result for vanadium showed an increase over recent values. Vanadium concentrations at RFN-0195 and other locations will continue to be evaluated in the future to determine the potential for deviations from established trends. The surface water locations were sampled to monitor the impact of groundwater discharge. COC concentrations at Colorado River surface water locations RFN-0324 and RFN-0326, downgradient of the site, remained low and were consistent with historical results, as shown in the time-concentration graphs. COC concentrations did not indicate there are any impacts related to groundwater discharge to the river. In many cases, elevated COC concentrations at the New Rifle site pond locations were observed, as shown in the time-versus concentration graphs. As noted in the GCAP, this indicates impacts from groundwater discharge to the ponds. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR). Analytes measured at the Old Rifle site included COCs (selenium, uranium, and vanadium), major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation-reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, temperature, were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. The monitoring strategy described in the GCAP is designed to determine progress of the natural flushing process in meeting compliance standards for site COCs. Standards for selenium and vanadium are the

  12. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  13. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  14. Analysis of s-triazine herbicides in model systems and samples of groundwater by gas and liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, residues of s-triazine herbicides (Simazine, Atrazine, Amethrine, Promethrine and Azyprothrine have been determined in samples of model systems and real groundwater samples by gas-chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. S-triazine herbicides were isolated from water samples by chloroform-methanol mixture (1:1, followed by purification of extract on the Al2O3 column. Gas-chromatographic determination the residues of s-triazines is performed on parallel capilar columns ULTRA I and ULTRA II, using specific NP detector. Liquid-chromatographic determination the s-triazines was performed on the column TSK ODS-120 A 5 mm 'LKB', using the mobile phase methanol-water (60:40. Total concentration of s-triazines in samples of Danube water was 3.54 mg dm-3. .

  15. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  16. Groundwater Quality Sampling and Analysis Plan for Environmental Monitoring Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  17. Data Validation Package May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, August 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations 14(SG) and 21(M). Sampling originally scheduled for the week of May 11, 2015 was interrupted by heavy rainfall and later completed in June.

  18. Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E; Kolpin, Dana W; Fields, Chad L; Hladik, Michelle L; Iwanowicz, Luke R

    2017-10-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Highlighting the complexities of a groundwater pilot study during an avian influenza outbreak: Methods, lessons learned, and select contaminant results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fields, Chad L.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak. While site selection was expedient, there were often delays in sample response times due to both relationship building between agencies, groups, and producers and logistical time constraints. This study's design and sampling process highlights the unpredictable nature of disease outbreaks and the corresponding difficulty in environmental sampling of such events. The lessons learned, including field protocols and approaches, can be used to improve future research on AIV in the environment.

  20. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  1. Permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of groundwater in a mining area: results for a pilot-scale project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Belen Martinez-Martinez, Lucia; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina-Ruiz, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union is located in the Region of Murcia, Southeast of Spain. This zone presents high levels of heavy metals due to natural, geogenic reasons. In addition, the prolonged mining activity, and subsequent abandonment of farms, has had consequences on the environment, including severe affectation of the groundwater in the area. To remediate this situation, the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) technology was assayed, which required in addition to the hydro-geological study of the zone, a careful optimization study for the design and construction of PRBs. For such a purpose a pilot-scale project was developed, and this communication reports some of the most relevant findings obtained after a four-years monitorization period. The selected reactive material for the PRBs was limestone filler. The filler is a waste material produced in many factories in the zone. These residues have good adsorption properties, high alkalinity, low cost and high availability, which make them suitable for use in remediation. The PRB was constituted by a 50% limestone filler and 50% sand, a proportion optimized by means of independent batch experiments. A layer of gravel was placed at the top, and on it a layer of natural soil. The barrier was designed in the form of a continuous trench, because the level of the contaminated groundwater was not very deep. In this way, the barrier could be prepared with standard excavation equipment. Parallel to the barrier, 6 wells where arranged downstream for sample collection. The pH and conductivity of the samples was measured directly in situ, and the content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb were analyzed in the laboratory. All the samples collected after the PRB was constructed had basic pH values between 7.5 and 8. The conductivity was between 5 and 11 mS / cm except for the well 4, which had a value of 3.70 mS / cm. The concentration values of trace elements were below the detection limit (atomic absorption measurement) in

  2. Exploring Technostress: Results of a Large Sample Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steponas Jonušauskas; Agota Giedre Raisiene

    2016-01-01

    With reference to the results of a large sample factor analysis, the article aims to propose the frame examining technostress in a population. The survey and principal component analysis of the sample consisting of 1013 individuals who use ICT in their everyday work was implemented in the research. 13 factors combine 68 questions and explain 59.13 per cent of the answers dispersion. Based on the factor analysis, questionnaire was reframed and prepared to reasonably analyze the respondents’ an...

  3. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  4. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 5 FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E.

    2012-03-14

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their

  6. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  7. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATERRESULTS OF PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTS IN BANGLADESH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowolik, K; Addy, S.E.A.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. Many methods of arsenic removal (mostly using chemical adsorbents) have been studied, but most of these are too expensive and impractical to be implemented in poor countries such as Bangladesh. This project investigates ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) as an affordable means of removing arsenic. Experiments were performed on site in Bangladesh using a prototype termed “sushi”. This device consists of carbon steel sheets that serve as electrodes wrapped into a cylinder, separated by plastic mesh and surrounded by a tube-like container that serves as a holding cell in which the water is treated electrochemically. During the electrochemical process, current is applied to both electrodes causing iron to oxidize to various forms of iron (hydr)oxides. These species bind to arsenic(V) with very high affi nity. ECAR also has the advantage that As(III), the more toxic form of arsenic, oxidizes to As(V) in situ. Only As(V) is known to complex with iron (hydr)oxides. One of the main objectives of this research is to demonstrate the ability of the new prototype to reduce arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater from >200 ppb to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb. In addition, varying fl ow rate and dosage and the effect on arsenic removal was investigated. Experiments showed that ECAR reduced Bangladeshi water with an initial arsenic concentration as high as 250 ppb to below 10 ppb. ECAR proved to be effective at dosages as high as 810 Coulombs/Liter (C/L) and as low as 386 C/L (current 1 A, voltage 12 V). These results are encouraging and provide great promise that ECAR is an effi cient method in the remediation of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. A preliminary investigation of arsenic removal trends with varying Coulombic dosage, complexation time and fi ltration methods is

  9. Analytical results from routine DSSHT and SEHT monthly samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 8B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Cs removal continues to be excellent, with decontamination factors (DF) averaging 22,100 (114% RSD). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior, other than lacking the anticipated degree of dilution that is calculated to occur during Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing.

  10. Improved Understanding of Sources of Variability in Groundwater Sampling for Long-Term Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Lab Sample ID: 600-44501-11 Acetone 1100 RL 1000 ug/L 8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 200 Analyte Result Qualifier Unit Dil Fac D Method Prep Type Benzene 8260B...8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 22 Analyte Result Qualifier Unit Dil Fac D Method Prep Type Trichloroethene - DL 8260B Total/NA1100 200 ug/L 20036 cis-1,2...L 8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 200 Benzene 8260B Total/NA7100 200 ug/L 20016 Chlorobenzene 8260B Total/NA2200 200 ug/L 20024 Chloroform 8260B Total/NA57 J

  11. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  12. Characterization of 200-UP-1 Aquifer Sediments and Results of Sorption-Desorption Tests Using Spiked Uncontaminated Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Brown, Christopher F.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-11-16

    Core characterization showed only 4 out of 13 core liner samples were intact samples and that the others were slough material. The intact samples showed typical Ringold Unit E characteristics such as being dominated by gravel and sand. Moderately reducing conditions are inferred in some core from borehole C4299. This reducing condition was caused by the hard tool process used to drill the wells. One core showed significant presence of ferric iron oxide/clay coatings on the gravels. There were no highly contaminated sediments found in the cores from the three new boreholes in UP-1 operable unit, especially for uranium. The presence of slough and ''flour'' caused by hard tooling is a serious challenge to obtaining field relevant sediments for use in geochemical experiments to determine the adsorption-desorption tendencies of redox sensitive elements such as uranium. The adsorption of COCs on intact Ringold Formation sediments and Fe/clay coatings showed that most of the anionic contaminants [Tc(VII), Se(VI), U(VI), Cr(VI), and I(-I)] did not adsorbed very well compared to cationic [Np(V), Sr(II), and Cs(I)] radionuclides. The high hydrous iron oxide content in Fe/clay coatings caused the highest Kd values for U and Np, suggesting these hydrous oxides are the key solid adsorbent in the sediments. Enhanced adsorption behavior for Tc, and Cr and perhaps Se on the sediments was considered an ?artifact? result caused by the induced reducing conditions from the hard tool drilling. Additional U(VI) adsorption Kd studies were performed on Ringold Formation sediments to develop more robust Kd data base for U. The <2 mm size separates of three UP-1 sediments showed a linear U(VI) adsorption isotherm up 1 ppm of total U(VI) concentration in solution. The additional U(VI) Kds obtained from varying carbonate concentration indicated that U(VI) adsorption was strongly influenced by the concentration of carbonate in solution. U(VI) adsorption decreased with

  13. GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2003-08-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

  14. GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2004-01-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

  15. Analytical Results from Routine DSSHT and SEHT Monthly Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-17

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 8B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal for times when monosodium titanate (MST) is used. Even with no MST strike being performed there exists some small Pu and Sr removal, likely from filtration of fines containing these elements. The Cs removal continues to be excellent, with decontamination factors (DF) averaging 16,400. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior. SRNL recommends that a sample of the strip feed be analyzed for cation and anion content if a further decline in boron concentration is noted in future SEHT samples.

  16. Effect of sample stratification on dairy GWAS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Artificial insemination and genetic selection are major factors contributing to population stratification in dairy cattle. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sample stratification and the effect of stratification correction on results of a dairy genome-wide association study (GWAS)....

  17. Global results from the HARPS metal-poor sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségransan D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the global results of a HARPS-GTO program to search for planets orbiting a sample of metal-poor stars. The detection of several giant planets in long period orbits is discussed in the context of the metallicitygiant planet correlation.

  18. ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Wallace William T.; Alverson, James T.; Benoit, Mickie J.; Gillispie, Robert L.; Hunter, David; Kuo, Mike; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Hudson, Edgar K.; Loh, Leslie J.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues the annual tradition of summarizing at this conference the results of chemical analyses performed on archival potable water samples returned from the International Space Station (ISS). 2016 represented a banner year for life on board the ISS, including the successful conclusion for two crew members of a record one-year mission. Water reclaimed from urine and/or humidity condensate remained the primary source of potable water for the crew members of ISS Expeditions 46-50. The year 2016 was also marked by the end of a long-standing tradition of U.S. sampling and monitoring of Russian Segment potable water sources. Two water samples taken during Expedition 46 in February 2016 and returned on Soyuz 44, represented the final Russian Segment samples to be collected and analyzed by the U.S. side. Although anticipated for 2016, a rise in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the product water from the U.S. water processor assembly due to breakthrough of organic contaminants from the system did not materialize, as evidenced by the onboard TOC analyzer and archive sample results.

  19. The influence of sampling technique on ACT Plus results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Monique E; Miraziz, Ramen; Agbulos, Grace; Steel, Rona; Hales, Peter; Klineberg, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The manufacturer of the ACT Plus Automated Coagulation Timer, Medtronic Inc., recommends that test cartridges be prewarmed and the activating reagent resuspended (tapped/ mixed) before patient testing. In a busy clinical environment, these recommendations may be overlooked or disregarded. In this study, the impact of sampling technique on ACT Plus test results was investigated. In Series 1, two test cartridges were split into four individual chambers. Two ACT Plus machines were used, allowing for three separate comparisons to be made. The sample results from test Chambers 2 (cold/tapped), 3 (warmed/ not tapped), and 4 (cold/not tapped) were compared individually against the result from test Chamber 1, the recommended technique (warm/tapped). In Series 2, the manufacturer's recommendations were tested using a single double cartridge (warm/ tapped). Results were interpreted using the Bland-Altman method of analysis. The prewarming and tapping of cartridges before use independently influenced the agreement of results when compared with cartridges that were not prewarmed and tapped. Each factor (temperature and mixing) when excluded was found to affect the standard deviation and decrease the agreement of results. By following the manufacturer's recommendations to standardize the sampling technique, ACT Plus test results are more accurate.

  20. Installation-Restoration Program Stage 3. McClellan AFB, California. Remedial investigation/feasibility study ground-water sampling and analysis program, January through March 1989 data summary. Final report, January-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-19

    This Data Summary presents the results of ground-water sampling activities conducted on and in the vicinity of McClellan Air Force Base from the sampling period of January through March, 1989. Concentrations of purgeable halocarbons and aromatic compounds detected in 336 wells 26 monitoring wells are located on base in Area A, B, C, D, and adjacent on-base areas and off-base in the Northwest and Southwest areas. There was no detected increase in the areal extent of contaminated ground-water, nor was there any increase in the depth that contaminated ground-water was detected. The Area D extraction system is effectively operating to change hydraulic gradients, so groundwater in Area D flows toward the extraction wells. Contaminant concentrations have decreased in Area D deep zone monitoring wells. Samples from three middle-zone monitoring wells located in Area D also show decreases in contaminant concentration during this sampling period. Decreasing contaminant concentrations have stabilized in shallow zone monitoring wells located off-base, west of Area D.

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2014-2015: Results from the California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater samples from 95 domestic wells in Tulare and Kings Counties, California in 2014-2015. The wells were sampled for the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project’s assessment of the quality of groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply. Domestic wells commonly are screened at shallower depths than are public-supply wells. The Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit includes the Kaweah, Tule, and Tulare Lake subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin and adjacent areas of the Sierra Nevada. The study unit was divided into equal area grid cells and one domestic well was sampled in each cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality parameters, volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, noble gases, tritium, carbon-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon, stable isotopic ratios of water and dissolved nitrate, and microbial indicators.These data support the following publication:Fram, M.S., 2017, Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and Adjacent Highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3001, 4 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20173001.

  2. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  3. Sample Results From Tank 48H Samples HTF-48-14-158, -159, -169, and -170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 48H in support of determining the cause for the unusually high dose rates at the sampling points for this tank. A set of two samples was taken from the quiescent tank, and two additional samples were taken after the contents of the tank were mixed. The results of the analyses of all the samples show that the contents of the tank have changed very little since the analysis of the previous sample in 2012. The solids are almost exclusively composed of tetraphenylborate (TPB) salts, and there is no indication of acceleration in the TPB decomposition. The filtrate composition shows a moderate increase in salt concentration and density, which is attributable to the addition of NaOH for the purposes of corrosion control. An older modeling simulation of the TPB degradation was updated, and the supernate results from a 2012 sample were run in the model. This result was compared to the results from the 2014 recent sample results reported in this document. The model indicates there is no change in the TPB degradation from 2012 to 2014. SRNL measured the buoyancy of the TPB solids in Tank 48H simulant solutions. It was determined that a solution of density 1.279 g/mL (~6.5M sodium) was capable of indefinitely suspending the TPB solids evenly throughout the solution. A solution of density 1.296 g/mL (~7M sodium) caused a significant fraction of the solids to float on the solution surface. As the experiments could not include the effect of additional buoyancy elements such as benzene or hydrogen generation, the buoyancy measurements provide an upper bound estimate of the density in Tank 48H required to float the solids.

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  5. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  6. Recent Belle results from Y(5S) sample

    CERN Document Server

    Louvot, Remi

    2011-01-01

    The large data sample recorded with the Belle detector at the Y(5S) energy provides a unique opportunity to study the poorly-known $\\bs$ meson. Two analyses, performed with a data sample representing an integrated luminosity of 121 /fb, are presented: the measurement of the Bs0->J/psi f0(980) and Bs0->J/psi f0(1370) branching fractions, and the 5sigma observation of the decay Bs0-bar->Lambda(c)+ pi- Lambda-bar which is the first observation of a baryonic Bs0 decay. In addition, we present new results of a measurement of the CKM angle phi_1(beta) with B pi tagged events.

  7. Exploring Technostress: Results of a Large Sample Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steponas Jonušauskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the results of a large sample factor analysis, the article aims to propose the frame examining technostress in a population. The survey and principal component analysis of the sample consisting of 1013 individuals who use ICT in their everyday work was implemented in the research. 13 factors combine 68 questions and explain 59.13 per cent of the answers dispersion. Based on the factor analysis, questionnaire was reframed and prepared to reasonably analyze the respondents’ answers, revealing technostress causes and consequences as well as technostress prevalence in the population in a statistically validated pattern. A key elements of technostress based on factor analysis can serve for the construction of technostress measurement scales in further research.

  8. New results from the HRX BL Lac sample

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Beckmann, Volker; Wolter, Anna

    2000-01-01

    We present results for the Hamburg BL Lac sample, based on data provided by the RASS-BSC. By fitting a single power law to the X-ray data we find, in a number of objects, an additional absorbing component to the galactic value of NH, which might be attributed to intrinsic absorption. A more probable cause seems however to be a curvature in the X-ray spectra in the sense that they are more curved for steeper slopes. The known relation between the X-ray spectral slope and the ratio between optical and X-ray flux alpha_ox also applies to this BL Lac sample, even though less significant than in previous works. We also find a dependence of X-ray luminosity on alpha_ox.

  9. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  10. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ{sup 37}Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water.

  11. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Baur, Gary [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-03

    The 1998 Interim Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Cheney Disposal Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado, requires annual monitoring to assess the performance of the disposal cell. Monitoring wells 0731, 0732 and 0733 were sampled as specified in the plan. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites.

  12. Isotope tracing of submarine groundwater discharge offshore Ubatuba, Brazil: results of the IAEA-UNESCO SGD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, P P; Bokuniewicz, H; Burnett, W C; Cable, J; Charette, M; Comanducci, J-F; Kontar, E A; Moore, W S; Oberdorfer, J A; de Oliveira, J; Peterson, R; Stieglitz, T; Taniguchi, M

    2008-10-01

    Results of groundwater and seawater analyses for radioactive (3H, 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) and stable (D and 18O) isotopes are presented together with in situ spatial mapping and time series 222Rn measurements in seawater, direct seepage measurements using manual and automated seepage meters, pore water investigations using different tracers and piezometric techniques, and geoelectric surveys probing the coast. This study represents first time that such a new complex arsenal of radioactive and non-radioactive tracer techniques and geophysical methods have been used for simultaneous submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) investigations. Large fluctuations of SGD fluxes were observed at sites situated only a few meters apart (from 0 cm d(-1) to 360 cm d(-1); the unit represents cm3/cm2/day), as well as during a few hours (from 0 cm d(-1) to 110 cm d(-1)), strongly depending on the tidal fluctuations. The average SGD flux estimated from continuous 222Rn measurements is 17+/-10 cm d(-1). Integrated coastal SGD flux estimated for the Ubatuba coast using radium isotopes is about 7x10(3) m3 d(-1) per km of the coast. The isotopic composition (deltaD and delta18O) of submarine waters was characterised by significant variability and heavy isotope enrichment, indicating that the contribution of groundwater in submarine waters varied from a small percentage to 20%. However, this contribution with increasing offshore distance became negligible. Automated seepage meters and time series measurements of 222Rn activity concentration showed a negative correlation between the SGD rates and tidal stage. This is likely caused by sea level changes as tidal effects induce variations of hydraulic gradients. The geoelectric probing and piezometric measurements contributed to better understanding of the spatial distribution of different water masses present along the coast. The radium isotope data showed scattered distributions with offshore distance, which imply that seawater

  13. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  14. Database dictionary for the results of groundwater tracer tests using tritiated water, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huff, D.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    In 1977, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two tracer tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using tritiated water to study the relative importance of bedding-plane openings on shallow groundwater flow. Through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the data were made available to researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), who organized the data into a data management format. The results of these groundwater tracer tests have been compiled into a collection of four SAS data sets. This report documents these SAS data sets, including their structure, methodology, and content. The SAS data sets include information on precipitation, tritium, water levels, and well construction for wells at or near ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds 4, 5, and 6.

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  16. Spatial Prediction and Optimized Sampling Design for Sodium Concentration in Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Erum; Hussain, Ijaz; Spöck, Gunter; Faisal, Muhammad; Shabbir, Javid; M AbdEl-Salam, Nasser; Hussain, Tajammal

    Sodium is an integral part of water, and its excessive amount in drinking water causes high blood pressure and hypertension. In the present paper, spatial distribution of sodium concentration in drinking water is modeled and optimized sampling designs for selecting sampling locations is calculated for three divisions in Punjab, Pakistan. Universal kriging and Bayesian universal kriging are used to predict the sodium concentrations. Spatial simulated annealing is used to generate optimized sampling designs. Different estimation methods (i.e., maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, ordinary least squares, and weighted least squares) are used to estimate the parameters of the variogram model (i.e, exponential, Gaussian, spherical and cubic). It is concluded that Bayesian universal kriging fits better than universal kriging. It is also observed that the universal kriging predictor provides minimum mean universal kriging variance for both adding and deleting locations during sampling design.

  17. Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Soliven, P.P.; Werner, S.L.; Vaught, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples has been developed. Caffeine is extracted from a 1 L water sample with a 0.5 g graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted with methylene chloride-methanol (80 + 20, v/v), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The single-operator method detection limit for organic-free water samples was 0.02 ??g/L. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations were 93 ?? 13% for organicfree water samples fortified at 0.04 ??g/L and 84 ?? 4% for laboratory reagent spikes fortified at 0.5 ??g/L. Environmental concentrations of caffeine ranged from 0.003 to 1.44 ??g/L in surface water samples and from 0.01 to 0.08 ??g/L in groundwater samples.

  18. Effect of sample quantity on the results of ferromagnetic resonance studies of lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, J. B.; Crowe, H. R.; Housley, R. M.; Cirlin, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements at 9.5 and 35 GHz were made on lunar fines in order to determine the amount of single domain FE(0) and to ascertain the effect of sample quantity on the results of these experiments. Samples containing more than 10 micrograms of Fe(0) in an X-band TE(104) cavity, or more than 0.11 micrograms in a Ka-band cavity can cause errors greater than 1% in the quantitative determination of Fe(0), as well as cause anomalous broadening of the FMR line. Theoretical calculations were derived to show this effect which results from a nonlinear response of the FMR experiment with the sample quantity. Using samples of nominal weights, the amount of Fe(0) determined at 34 GHz was 1.1-1.8 times greater than at 9.5 GHz, while the linewidths increased by a factor of 1.2. As the particle size increases, the ratio of Fe(0) determined at 35 GHz to that determined at 9.5 GHz increases, suggesting that the additional iron is due to larger spheroidal particles which change from multidomain to single domain at the larger fields.

  19. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  20. Determination of eight fluoroquinolones in groundwater samples with ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M M Parrilla; Vázquez, P Parrilla; Galera, M Martínez; García, M D Gil

    2012-10-20

    -107%) were obtained for the extraction of the target analytes in groundwater samples. This simple and economic method has been successfully applied to analyse real groundwater samples with satisfactory results.

  1. Sampling Instruction: Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2012-05-01

    Several types of data are needed to assess the flux of Cr(VI) from the excavation into the groundwater. As described in this plan, these data include (1) temporal Cr(VI) data in the shallow groundwater beneath the pit; (2) hydrologic data to interpret groundwater flow and contaminant transport; (3) hydraulic gradient data; and (4) as a contingency action if necessary, vertical profiling of Cr(VI) concentrations in the shallow aquifer beyond the depth possible with aquifer tubes.

  2. Results of Back Bay Nutrient Sampling, April 1986 - March 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine nutrient levels in Back Bay, water samples were collected monthly from April, 1986 through March, 1987. Surface water samples were collected at six...

  3. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-04-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.

  4. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS, NITROPHENOLS, AND METHYLPHENOLS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  5. Global sampling to assess the value of diverse observations in conditioning a real-world groundwater flow and transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsman, Joost R.; Winters, Pieter; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Lebbe, Luc

    2016-03-01

    The use of additional types of observational data has often been suggested to alleviate the ill-posedness inherent to parameter estimation of groundwater models and constrain model uncertainty. Disinformation in observational data caused by errors in either the observations or the chosen model structure may, however, confound the value of adding observational data in model conditioning. This paper uses the global generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology to investigate the value of different observational data types (heads, fluxes, salinity, and temperature) in conditioning a groundwater flow and transport model of an extensively monitored field site in the Netherlands. We compared model conditioning using the real observations to a synthetic model experiment, to demonstrate the possible influence of disinformation in observational data in model conditioning. Results showed that the value of different conditioning targets was less evident when conditioning to real measurements than in a measurement error-only synthetic model experiment. While in the synthetic experiment, all conditioning targets clearly improved model outcomes, minor improvements or even worsening of model outcomes was observed for the real measurements. This result was caused by errors in both the model structure and the observations, resulting in disinformation in the observational data. The observed impact of disinformation in the observational data reiterates the necessity of thorough data validation and the need for accounting for both model structural and observational errors in model conditioning. It further suggests caution when translating results of synthetic modeling examples to real-world applications. Still, applying diverse conditioning data types was found to be essential to constrain uncertainty, especially in the transport of solutes in the model.

  6. Clinical exome sequencing: results from 2819 samples reflecting 1000 families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillano, Daniel; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M; Kumar Kandaswamy, Krishna; Weiss, Maximilian ER; Köster, Julia; Marais, Anett; Paknia, Omid; Schröder, Rolf; Garcia-Aznar, Jose Maria; Werber, Martin; Brandau, Oliver; Calvo del Castillo, Maria; Baldi, Caterina; Wessel, Karen; Kishore, Shivendra; Nahavandi, Nahid; Eyaid, Wafaa; Al Rifai, Muhammad Talal; Al-Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al-Twaijri, Waleed; Alothaim, Ali; Alhashem, Amal; Al-Sannaa, Nouriya; Al-Balwi, Mohammed; Alfadhel, Majid; Rolfs, Arndt; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2017-01-01

    We report our results of 1000 diagnostic WES cases based on 2819 sequenced samples from 54 countries with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Clinical information given by the requesting physicians was translated to HPO terms. WES processes were performed according to standardized settings. We identified the underlying pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 307 families (30.7%). In further 253 families (25.3%) a variant of unknown significance, possibly explaining the clinical symptoms of the index patient was identified. WES enabled timely diagnosing of genetic diseases, validation of causality of specific genetic disorders of PTPN23, KCTD3, SCN3A, PPOX, FRMPD4, and SCN1B, and setting dual diagnoses by detecting two causative variants in distinct genes in the same patient. We observed a better diagnostic yield in consanguineous families, in severe and in syndromic phenotypes. Our results suggest that WES has a better yield in patients that present with several symptoms, rather than an isolated abnormality. We also validate the clinical benefit of WES as an effective diagnostic tool, particularly in nonspecific or heterogeneous phenotypes. We recommend WES as a first-line diagnostic in all cases without a clear differential diagnosis, to facilitate personal medical care. PMID:27848944

  7. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  8. 234U/238U isotope data from groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples near Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Horton, Robert J.; Otton, James K.; Ketterer, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases 234U/238U isotope data, expressed as activity ratios, and uranium concentration data from analyses completed at Northern Arizona University for groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples that were collected in and around Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona, in 2008.

  9. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  10. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  11. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  12. Light scattering by planetary-regolith analog samples: computational results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Timo; Markkanen, Johannes; Hadamcik, Edith; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lasue, Jeremie; Blum, Jürgen; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-04-01

    We compute light scattering by a planetary-regolith analog surface. The corresponding experimental work is from Hadamcik et al. [1] with the PROGRA2-surf [2] device measuring the polarization of dust particles. The analog samples are low density (volume fraction 0.15 ± 0.03) agglomerates produced by random ballistic deposition of almost equisized silica spheres (refractive index n=1.5 and diameter 1.45 ± 0.06 µm). Computations are carried out with the recently developed codes entitled Radiative Transfer with Reciprocal Transactions (R2T2) and Radiative Transfer Coherent Backscattering with incoherent interactions (RT-CB-ic). Both codes incorporate the so-called incoherent treatment which enhances the applicability of the radiative transfer as shown by Muinonen et al. [3]. As a preliminary result, we have computed scattering from a large spherical medium with the RT-CB-ic using equal-sized particles with diameters of 1.45 microns. The preliminary results have shown that the qualitative characteristics are similar for the computed and measured intensity and polarization curves but that there are still deviations between the characteristics. We plan to remove the deviations by incorporating a size distribution of particles (1.45 ± 0.02 microns) and detailed information about the volume density profile within the analog surface. Acknowledgments: We acknowledge the ERC Advanced Grant no. 320773 entitled Scattering and Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Particulate Media (SAEMPL). Computational resources were provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd, Finland. References: [1] Hadamcik E. et al. (2007), JQSRT, 106, 74-89 [2] Levasseur-Regourd A.C. et al. (2015), Polarimetry of stars and planetary systems, CUP, 61-80 [3] Muinonen K. et al. (2016), extended abstract for EMTS.

  13. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  14. γ-ray spectrometry results versus sample preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to recommended conditions two bio-samples, tea leave and flour, are prepared with different methods: grounding into powder and reducing to ash, then they were analyzed by γ ray spectrometry. Remarkable difference was shown between the measured values of tea samples prepared with these different methods. One of the reasons may be that the method of reducing to ash makes some nuclides lost. Compared with the "non-destructive"method of grounding into powder, the method of reducing to ash can be much more sensible to the loss of some nuclides. The probable reasons are discussed for the varied influences of different preparation methods of tea leave and flour samples.

  15. Design and evaluation of a field study on the contamination of selected volatile organic compounds and wastewater-indicator compounds in blanks and groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bender, David A.; Mueller, David K.; Rose, Donna L.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bernard, Bruce; Zogorski, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The Field Contamination Study (FCS) was designed to determine the field processes that tend to result in clean field blanks and to identify potential sources of contamination to blanks collected in the field from selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and wastewater-indicator compounds (WICs). The VOCs and WICs analyzed in the FCS were detected in blanks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1996-2008 and 2002-08, respectively. To minimize the number of variables, the study required ordering of supplies just before sampling, storage of supplies and equipment in clean areas, and use of adequate amounts of purge-and-trap volatile-grade methanol and volatile pesticide-grade blank water (VPBW) to clean sampling equipment and to collect field blanks. Blanks and groundwater samples were collected during 2008-09 at 16 sites, which were a mix of water-supply and monitoring wells, located in 9 States. Five different sample types were collected for the FCS at each site: (1) a source-solution blank collected at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) using laboratory-purged VPBW, (2) source-solution blanks collected in the field using laboratory-purged VPBW, (3) source-solution blanks collected in the field using field-purged VPBW, (4) a field blank collected using field-purged VPBW, and (5) a groundwater sample collected from a well. The source-solution blank and field-blank analyses were used to identify, quantify, and document extrinsic contamination and to help determine the sources and causes of data-quality problems that can affect groundwater samples. Concentrations of compounds detected in FCS analyses were quantified and results were stored in the USGS National Water Information System database after meeting rigorous identification and quantification criteria. The study also utilized information provided by laboratory analysts about evidence indicating the presence of selected compounds

  16. [Predator disease sampling results in Montana 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains data from predator disease sampling in Montana for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge....

  17. [Biological Advisory Subcommittee Sampling Methods : Results, Resolutions, and Correspondences : 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a variety of information concerning Biological Advisory Subcommittee sampling methods at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge in 2002. Multiple...

  18. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  19. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTERIM SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 8 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D{sub (Cs)}) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  20. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  1. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  2. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  3. Development of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor to assess groundwater quality impacts resulting from geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G.; Goueguel, Christian; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin

    2015-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep aquifers can potentially affect the quality of groundwater supplies were leakage to occur from the injection formation or fluids. Therefore, the detection of CO2 and/or entrained contaminants that migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers is important both to assess storage permanence and to evaluate impacts on water resources. Naturally occurring elements (i.e., Li, Sr) in conjunction with isotope ratios can be used to detect such leakage. We propose the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique to detect a suite of elements in water samples. LIBS has real time monitoring capabilities and can be applied for elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of probe design and use of fiber optics make it a suitable technique for real time measurements in harsh conditions and in hard to reach places. The laboratory scale experiments to measure Li, K, Ca, and Sr composition of water samples indicate that the technique produces rapid and reliable data. Since CO2 leakage from saline aquifers may accompany a brine solution, we studied the effect of sodium salts on the accuracy of LIBS analysis. This work specifically also details the fabrication and application of a miniature ruggedized remotely operated diode pumped solid state passively Q-switched laser system for use as the plasma excitation source for a real time LIBS analysis. This work also proposes the optical distribution of many laser spark sources across a wide area for widespread leak detection and basin monitoring.

  4. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)

    2010-06-17

    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  5. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M

    2011-02-22

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (3) There is an estimated concentration of trimethylbenzene (2.25 mg/L). This is not a WAC analyte, but it is the first time this organic compound has been detected in a quarterly WAC sample from Tank 50. (4) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  6. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  7. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  8. Sample-to-Result STR Genotyping Systems: Potential and Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, J A; Bienvenue, J M; Landers, J P

    2012-07-01

    Forensic DNA analysis using short tandem repeats (STRs) has become the cornerstone for human identification, kinship analysis, paternity testing, and other applications. However, it is a lengthy, laborious process that requires specialized training and numerous instruments, and it is one of the factors that has contributed to the formation and expansion of a casework backlog in the United States of samples awaiting DNA processing. Although robotic platforms and advances in instrumentation have improved the throughput of samples, there still exists a significant potential to enhance sample-processing capabilities. The application of microfluidic technology to STR analysis for human identification offers numerous advantages, such as a completely closed system, reduced sample and reagent consumption, and portability, as well as the potential to reduce the processing time required for biological samples to less than 2 h. Development of microfluidic platforms not only for forensic use, but clinical and diagnostic use as well, has exponentially increased since the early 1990s. For a microfluidic system to be generally accepted in forensic laboratories, there are several factors that must be taken into consideration and the data generated with these systems must meet or exceed the same guidelines and standards that are applicable for the conventional methods. This review covers the current state of forensic microfluidic platforms starting with microchips for the individual DNA-processing steps of extraction, amplification, and electrophoresis. For fully integrated devices, challenges that come with microfluidic platforms are covered, including circumventing issues with surface chemistry, monitoring flow control, and proper allele calling. Finally, implementation and future implications of a microfluidic rapid DNA system are discussed.

  9. Results from tests of TFL Hydragard sampling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    When the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is operational, processed radioactive sludge will be transferred in batches to the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), where glass frit will be added and the contents concentrated by boiling. Batches of the slurry mixture are transferred from the SME to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). Hydragard{reg_sign} sampling systems are used on the SME and the MFT for collecting slurry samples in vials for chemical analysis. An accurate replica of the Hydragard sampling system was built and tested in the thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) to determine the hydragard accuracy. It was determined that the original Hydragard valve frequently drew a non-representative sample stream through the sample vial that ranged from frit enriched to frit depleted. The Hydragard valve was modified by moving the plunger and its seat backwards so that the outer surface of the plunger was flush with the inside diameter of the transfer line when the valve was open. The slurry flowing through the vial accurately represented the composition of the slurry in the reservoir for two types of slurries, different dilution factors, a range of transfer flows and a range of vial flows. It was then found that the 15 ml of slurry left in the vial when the Hydragard valve was closed, which is what will be analyzed at DWPF, had a lower ratio of frit to sludge as characterized by the lithium to iron ratio than the slurry flowing through it. The reason for these differences is not understood at this time but it is recommended that additional experimentation be performed with the TFL Hydragard loop to determine the cause.

  10. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  11. Methods for Minimization and Management of Variability in Long Term Groundwater Monitoring Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Figure ES-2. Semi- quantitative analysis of sampling methods. ............................................. ES-3  Figure 1. Summary of sampling methods...factors such as cost, ease of implementation, and sample volume requirements rather than concerns regarding data quality. At both sites, low flow standard...prior studies have suggested a low bias for the active no purge method. ES-3 Figure ES-2 Semi- quantitative analysis of sampling methods Gray

  12. INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Forbes

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes 2006 perched water and groundwater monitoring activities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During 2006, groundwater samples were collected from a total of 22 Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) monitoring wells, plus six aquifer wells sampled for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) monitoring program. In addition, perched water samples were collected from 21 perched wells and 19 suction lysimeters. Groundwater and perched water samples were analyzed for a suite of radionuclides and inorganic constituents. Laboratory results in this report are compared to drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Such comparison is for reference only and it should be noted that the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision does not require that perched water comply with drinking water standards.

  13. Uranium and radium in groundwater and surface water samples in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakam, O. K.; Choukri, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Reyss, J.-L.; Lferde, M.

    2001-06-01

    Activities and activity ratios of uranium and radium isotopes ( 234U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 234U/ 238U, 226Ra/ 238U, 228Ra/ 226Ra) have been determined for 15 wells, 14 hot springs, 7 cold springs and 11 rivers. Activities of the radium isotopes were measured by ultra gamma spectrometry using a low background and high efficiency well type germanium detector whereas those of uranium were counted in an alpha spectrometer. The minimal, maximal and average values are reported here for each water source. The obtained results show that, unlike well waters, the thermal spring waters present relatively low 238U activities and elevated 226Ra activities and 234U/ 238U activity ratios. Uranium and radium activities are similar to those published for other non polluting regions of the world.

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  15. Recovery data for surface water, groundwater and lab reagent samples analyzed by the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory schedule 2437, water years 2013-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical recovery is the concentration of an analyte measured in a water-quality sample expressed as a percentage of the known concentration added to the sample (Mueller and others, 2015). Analytical recovery (hereafter referred to as “recovery”) can be used to understand method bias and variability and to assess the temporal changes in a method over time (Martin and others, 2009). This data set includes two tables: one table of field spike recovery data and one table of lab reagent spike recovery data. The table of field spike recovery data includes results from paired environmental and spike samples collected by the National Water Quality Program, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project in surface water and groundwater. These samples were collected as part of the NAWQA Project’s National Water Quality Network: Rivers and Streams assessment, Regional Stream Quality Assessment studies and in multiple groundwater networks following standard practices (Mueller and others, 1997).  This table includes environmental and spike water-quality sample data stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7P55KJN). Concentrations of pesticides in spike samples, while stored in the NWIS database, are not publically available. The calculation of recovery based on these field sample data is outlined in Mueller and others (2015). Lab reagent spikes are pesticide-free reagent water spiked with a known concentration of pesticide. Lab reagent spikes are prepared in the lab and their recovery can be directly measured. The table of lab reagent spike data contains quality control sample information stored in the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) database. Both tables include fields for data-quality indicators that are described in the data processing steps of this metadata file. These tables were developed in order to support a USGS Scientific Investigations Report with the working title

  16. User's guide to Model Viewer, a program for three-dimensional visualization of ground-water model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.; Winston, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Model Viewer is a computer program that displays the results of three-dimensional groundwater models. Scalar data (such as hydraulic head or solute concentration) may be displayed as a solid or a set of isosurfaces, using a red-to-blue color spectrum to represent a range of scalar values. Vector data (such as velocity or specific discharge) are represented by lines oriented to the vector direction and scaled to the vector magnitude. Model Viewer can also display pathlines, cells or nodes that represent model features such as streams and wells, and auxiliary graphic objects such as grid lines and coordinate axes. Users may crop the model grid in different orientations to examine the interior structure of the data. For transient simulations, Model Viewer can animate the time evolution of the simulated quantities. The current version (1.0) of Model Viewer runs on Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT and 2000 operating systems, and supports the following models: MODFLOW-2000, MODFLOW-2000 with the Ground-Water Transport Process, MODFLOW-96, MOC3D (Version 3.5), MODPATH, MT3DMS, and SUTRA (Version 2D3D.1). Model Viewer is designed to directly read input and output files from these models, thus minimizing the need for additional postprocessing. This report provides an overview of Model Viewer. Complete instructions on how to use the software are provided in the on-line help pages.

  17. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-934-935-936: June 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-934-935-936), pulled on 07/01/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-934-935-936 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB) and the TiDG concentrations are 8% and 29 % below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, up to 21.1 ± 4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 17.5 μg/mL) was detected in this sample (as determined by the XRF method of undigested sample). The current gamma level (1.41E5 dpm/mL) confirmed that the gamma concentration has returned to previous levels (as observed in the late 2015 samples) where the process operated normally and as expected.

  18. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1317-1318-1319: September 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1317-1318-1319), pulled on 09/12/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1317-1318-1319 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 5% and 9% below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 76% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below.

  19. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1363-1364-1365: November 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1363-1364-1365), pulled on 11/15/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1363-1364-1365 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is at its nominal level (100%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS- 7SB) are 8% and 2 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 7% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below.

  20. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1247-1248-1249: August 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1247-1248-1249), pulled on 08/22/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1247-1248-1249 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 7% and 9 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 63% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below.

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    and seawater samples from the marine and terrestrial environment of Amchitka Island adjacent to the three detonation sites and at a background or reference site, Adak Island, 180 miles to the east. Consistent with the goals of the Amchitka LTS&M Plan, four data quality objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 2011 sampling event.

  2. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-348-349-350: March 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-17

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-348-349-350), pulled on 03/30/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-348-349-350 indicated the IsoparTML concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB) and the TiDG concentrations are 9% and 55% below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, IsoparTML, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  3. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-270-271-272: February 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-12

    Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-270-271-272), pulled on 02/21/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-270-271-272 indicated the IsoparTML concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB), the extractant (MaxCalix), and the TiDG concentrations are 7%, 6%, and 40% below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in November 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, IsoparTML, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  4. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-934-935-936: June 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-934-935-936), pulled on 07/01/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-934-935-936 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB) and the TiDG concentrations are 8% and 29 % below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  5. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-596-597-598: April 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Advanced Characterization and Processing; Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Research Support

    2016-07-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-596-597-598), pulled on 04/30/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-596-597-598 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The modifier (CS-7SB) is 14% below its nominal concentration, while the TiDG and MaxCalix concentrations are at and above their nominal concentrations, respectively. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  6. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1363-1365. November 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1363-1364-1365), pulled on 11/15/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1363-1364-1365 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is at its nominal level (100%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS- 7SB) are 8% and 2 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 7% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the trim and Isopar™ additions to the solvent in November. This analysis also indicates the solvent did not require further additions. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  7. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results For MCU-15-710-711-712: June 2015 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-710, MCU-15-711, and MCU-15-712), pulled on 06/15/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-710-711-712 indicated a low concentration (~ 55 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent that were slightly lower than nominal. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier (92 % of nominal) to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier were sufficient when this solvent sample was collected from MCU. A higher cesium concentration (9.3 E6 dpm/mL) was observed in this sample relative to recent samples. In the past, this level of cesium appeared to correlate with upsets in the MCU operation. It is not known at this time the reason for the higher cesium level in this solvent. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). In addition, the sample contains up to 10.4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 8.7 µg/mL). A relatively large cesium concentration (9.3 E 6 dpm/mL) was measured in this solvent and it may indicate poor cesium stripping. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  8. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-15-556-557-558. March 2015 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-04

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-556, MCU-15-557, and MCU-15-558), pulled on 03/16/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-556-557-558 indicated a low concentration (~ 78 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (CS-7SB) in the solvent that were slightly lower than nominal. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). However, the p-nut vials that delivered the samples contained small (1 mm) droplets of oxidized modifier and amides (as detected by the FTIR analysis). In addition, up to 21 microgram of mercury per gram of solvent (or 17.4 µg/mL) was detected in this sample. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  9. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  10. Methods for evaluating temporal groundwater quality data and results of decadal-scale changes in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States, 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal-scale changes in groundwater quality were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Samples of groundwater collected from wells during 1988-2000 - a first sampling event representing the decade ending the 20th century - were compared on a pair-wise basis to samples from the same wells collected during 2001-2010 - a second sampling event representing the decade beginning the 21st century. The data set consists of samples from 1,236 wells in 56 well networks, representing major aquifers and urban and agricultural land-use areas, with analytical results for chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate. Statistical analysis was done on a network basis rather than by individual wells. Although spanning slightly more or less than a 10-year period, the two-sample comparison between the first and second sampling events is referred to as an analysis of decadal-scale change based on a step-trend analysis. The 22 principal aquifers represented by these 56 networks account for nearly 80 percent of the estimated withdrawals of groundwater used for drinking-water supply in the Nation. Well networks where decadal-scale changes in concentrations were statistically significant were identified using the Wilcoxon-Pratt signed-rank test. For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. However, for networks that had statistically significant changes, increased concentrations outnumbered decreased concentrations by a large margin. Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. Dissolved solids concentrations increased significantly in 41 percent of the 54 networks with dissolved solids data, and nitrate concentrations increased significantly in 23 percent of 56 networks. At least one of the three - chloride, dissolved solids, or

  11. Information Transfer With Censored Data: Some Large-Sample Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robin T.

    1991-06-01

    This paper presents some new results for the transfer and extension of information at sites with short hydrological records. The results refer particularly to the transfer and extension of annual flood data. The methods described make use of incomplete or "censored" data such as may be supplied by people living near a river or from records collected for nonhydrological purposes, and they constitute extensions to methods already described in the literature. For two specific censoring configurations, the gain in information is assessed analytically; it is shown that, under certain conditions, the gain in information can be substantial, but in general the gain is small, particularly where scale parameters are estimated. For other configurations of censored data, an analytical formulation is not possible, and integrals are given from which information gain may be assessed by numerical calculation. Another result extends the use of flood peaks exceeding some threshold value ("peaks over a threshold," POTs); probabilistic models of flood frequency using POTs are, in effect, fitted using censored data. The value of the results presented in the paper is likely to be restricted by assumptions about the probabilistic structure of flood sequences: in one case that their distribution (at different sites) is bivariate lognormal, and, for the POT model, that floods occur as a Poisson process with POTs exponentially distributed. The results show, in strictly qualitative terms, the circumstances in which information might be gained by the use of censored data at two sites, and how large (or small) the gains might be.

  12. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results For MCU-15-750-751-752-: June Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-750, MCU-15-751, and MCU-15-752), pulled on 06/22/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-750-751-752 indicated a low concentration (~ 49 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and slightly lower than nominal concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time but it is recommended that an addition of TiDG, modifier and Isopar™L should be made in the near future. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). In addition, up to 13.9 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 11.5 µg/mL) was detected in this sample. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  13. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1317-1318-1319. September 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1317-1318-1319), pulled on 09/12/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1317-1318-1319 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 5% and 10 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 77% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below. This analysis confirms the Isopar™ addition to the solvent in August. This analysis also indicates the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier to restore them to nominal levels.

  14. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-15-661-662-663: April 2015 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-08

    The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-661, MCU-15-662, and MCU-15-663 pulled on April 2, 2015) for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-661-662-663 indicated a low concentration (~ 63% of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and a slightly below the nominal concentration (~ 10% below nominal) of the extractant (MaxCalix). The modifier (CS-7SB) level was also 10% below its nominal value while the Isopar™ L level was slightly above its nominal value. This analysis confirms the addition of Isopar™L to the solvent on March 6, 2015. Despite that the values are below target component levels, the current levels of TiDG, CS-7SB and MaxCalix are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time until the next monthly sample. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent. However, the sample was found to contain approximately 18.4 ug/gsolvent mercury. The gamma level increased to 8 E5 dpm/mLsolvent and it represents an order of magnitude increase relative to previous solvent samples. The increase means less cesium is being stripped from the solvent. Further analysis is needed to determine if the recent spike in the gamma measurement is due to external factors such as algae or other material that may impede stripping. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurity or degradation of the solvent components.

  15. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  17. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-1247-1248-1249: August 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1247-1248-1249), pulled on 08/22/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1247-1248-1249 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 7% and 9 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 63% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier and MaxCalix to restore then to nominal levels. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. At the time of writing this report, A solvent trim batch containing TiDG, modifier and MaxCalix, was added to the SHT (October 2016) and expect the concentration of these components to be at their nominal values.

  18. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 1993 through January 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Ferree, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate general ground-water- quality conditions and contaminant locations in the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples from 36 observation wells in 12 well nests were analyzed. The well nests are located along three roads near the Rio Grande--two well nests near Paseo del Norte, five well nests near Monta?o Road, and five well nests near Rio Bravo Boulevard. The water samples were collected from October 19, 1993, through January 18, 1994. Water-quality types by major-ion composition were calcium bicarbonate (found in most samples), sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate chloride. Nutrients were detected in all but one sample. Ammonia was detected in 34 samples, nitrite in 4 samples, and nitrate in 17 samples. Orthophosphate was detected in 31 samples. Organic carbon was detected in all samples collected. The trace elements arsenic and barium were detected in all samples and zinc in 31 samples. Fourteen samples contained detectable copper. Cadmium was detected in one sample, chromium in two samples, lead in four samples, and selenium in two samples. Mercury and silver were not detected.

  19. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-53-55. January 2016 Monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-53-54-55), pulled on 01/25/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-53-54-55 indicated the Isopar™L, and MaxCalix are at nominal levels. The modifier and TiDG concentrations are 3% and 23 % below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent on November 28, 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, the Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) method detected trace levels (a few ppm) of amides (a possible degradation product of TiDG). In addition, up to 21 ± 4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 17.5 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. There appears to be a possible correlation between the mercury level and the TiDG concentration in the solvent. The current gamma level (9.16 E4 dpm/mL) confirmed that the gamma concentration has returned to previous level where the process operated normally and as expected. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  20. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-15-914-915-916. December 2015 Monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-914-915-916), pulled on 12/22/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-914-915-916 indicated the TiDG, Isopar™L, and MaxCalix are at nominal levels. The modifier concentration is 3% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in November 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, the Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) method detected trace levels (a few ppm) of amides (more indicative of bacteria than a possible degradation product of TiDG). In addition, up to 18 ± 4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 14.8 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. The current gamma concentration level (8.48E4 dpm/mL) confirmed that the gamma concentration has returned to the previous level where the process operated normally as expected. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  1. Nitrate Transport Modeling in Deep Aquifers. Comparison between Model Results and Data from the Groundwater Monitoring Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffink GJM; Romkens PFAM; LBG

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate measurements from the Netherlands Groundwater Monitoring Network and model simulations were compared for deep aquifers in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The area studied measured 40 x 30 km2. The model describes advective-dispersive solute transport in groundwater and utilizes a first-

  2. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2016-12-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  3. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  4. Delineating groundwater/surface water interaction in a karst watershed: Lower Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rugel

    2016-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Prior water resource studies in the LFRB were based on regional modeling that neglected local heterogeneities in groundwater/surface water connectivity. Our results demonstrated groundwater inputs were concentrated around five of fifty sampled reaches, evidenced by increases in multiple groundwater indicators at these sites. These five reaches contributed up to 42% of the groundwater detected along the entire 50-km sampling section, with ∼24% entering through one groundwater-dominated tributary, Chickasawhatchee Creek. Intermittent flows occurred in two of these upstream reaches during extreme drought and heavy groundwater pumping, suggesting reach-scale behaviors should be considered in resource management and policy.

  5. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI: methodology and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulatewicz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI. This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  6. Use of major ions to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion, West Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom El-Said; Osman, Osman M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the groundwater geochemistry in western Nile Delta area as an example of an aquifer influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion. To conduct this study, 63 groundwater samples and one surface water sample from El Nubaria Canal were collected. To estimate the origin of dissolved ions and the geochemical processes influencing this groundwater, integration between land use change, pedological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and statistical approaches was considered. Results suggest that the groundwater flow regime changed from northeast and southwest directions around El Nubaria canal before 1966 to northern and northeastern directions due to newly constructed channel network. Soil salinity and mineral contents, seepage from irrigation canal, and seawater intrusion are the main factors controlling the groundwater chemistry. Statistically, the groundwater samples were classified into eight groups, one to four for the deep groundwater and five to eight for the shallow groundwater. The deep groundwater is characterized by two groups of chemicals (SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca-K and Cl-Na), while the shallow groundwater groups of chemicals are Na-Cl-SO4 and K-HCO3-Ca-Mg. Both shallow groundwater and deep groundwater are mostly saturated with respect to carbonate minerals and undersaturated with respect to chloride minerals. Sulfate minerals are above the saturation limit in the shallow groundwater, but in the deep samples, these minerals are under the saturation limit. Ion exchange, carbonate production, mineral precipitation, and seawater intrusion are the geochemical processes governing the groundwater chemistry in the study area.

  7. Environmental monitoring final report: groundwater chemical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of groundwater qualtiy at the SRC-I Demonstration Plant site in Newman, Kentucky. Samples were obtained from a network of 23 groundwater observation wells installed during previous studies. The groundwater was well within US EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards for trace metals, radioactivity, and pesticides, but exceeded the standard for coliform bacteria. Several US EPA Secondary Drinking Water Standards were exceeded, namely, manganese, color, iron, and total dissolved solids. Based on the results, Dames and Moore recommend that all wells should be sterilized and those wells built in 1980 should be redeveloped. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. Pollutant plume delineation from tree core sampling using standardized ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahyudi, Agung; Bogaert, Patrick; Trapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech R...... groundwater and tree core measurements. Nonetheless, tree core sampling and analysis proved to be a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative method and a useful tool.......There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech...

  9. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  10. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  11. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  12. Impacts of Sampling and Handling Procedures on DNA- and RNA-based Microbial Characterization and Quantification of Groundwater and Saturated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    and shipped on ice (Hendrickson et al., 2002; Major et al., 2002; Macbeth et al., 2004). Alternatively, groundwater is filtered and frozen...2002; Dennis et al., 2003; Macbeth et al., 2004; Freeborn et al., 2005; Grostern and Edwards, 2006; Rahm et al., 2006). PCR was performed using... Macbeth , T. W., D. E. Cummings, S. Spring, L. M. Petzke, and K. S. Sorenson. 2004. Molecular characterization of a dechlorinating community resulting

  13. Groundwater dating for understanding nitrogen in groundwater systems - Time lag, fate, and detailed flow path ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Hadfield, John; Stenger, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a problem world-wide. Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential. Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones. We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected. Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification

  14. Apparatus and method for time-integrated, active sampling of contaminants in fluids demonstrated by monitoring of hexavalent chromium in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Isaac B; Driver, Erin M; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-15

    Annual U.S. expenditures of $2B for site characterization invite the development of new technologies to improve data quality while reducing costs and minimizing uncertainty in groundwater monitoring. This work presents a new instrument for time-integrated sampling of environmental fluids using in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE). The In Situ Sampler (IS2) is an automated submersible device capable of extracting dissolved contaminants from water (100s-1000smL) over extended periods (hours to weeks), retaining the analytes, and rejecting the processed fluid. A field demonstration of the IS2 revealed 28-day average concentration of hexavalent chromium in a shallow aquifer affected by tidal stresses via sampling of groundwater as both liquid and sorbed composite samples, each obtained in triplicate. In situ SPE exhibited 75±6% recovery and an 8-fold improvement in reporting limit. Relative to use of conventional methods (100%), beneficial characteristics of the device and method included minimal hazardous material generation (2%), transportation cost (10%), and associated carbon footprint (2%). The IS2 is compatible with commercial SPE resins and standard extraction methods, and has been certified for more general use (i.e., inorganics and organics) by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the U.S. Department of Defense.

  15. Oskarshamn site investigation. Hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes 2009. Summary of ground water chemistry results from spring and autumn sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regander, Claes; Bergman, Bo (Sweco Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report summarises the results obtained in 2009 from the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes. During 2009 groundwater sampling has been performed in monitored (permanently installed) boreholes in two sampling periods, spring (May-June), and autumn (October-November). Both in spring and autumn groundwater sampling was carried out in the following 12 sections; HLX28:2, HLX35:2, HLX37:1, HLX39:1, KLX08:4, KLX10:2, KLX10:5, KLX12A:2, KLX15A:3, KLX15A:6, KLX18A:3, KLX19A:3. The programme started in 2005 and since then water sampling has been performed twice every year. The objective of the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme is to determine the groundwater composition in selected sections chosen for this purpose. In 2009 the sampling of core drilled borehole sections has been conducted in time series, where each borehole section has been sampled at seven occasions. Percussion drilled borehole sections has been sampled at three occasions. The final sample in each section was taken when the electric conductivity had reached a stable level. Obtained results from the activities presented here include groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 5 including options and SKB chemistry reduced class 5. SKB chemistry reduced class 5 includes analysis of pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, density, drill water (uranine), major cations (Chapter 5.4), F-, Br-, Cl-, SO{sub 4}2-, Fe(II)/Fe(tot), HS-, DOC, TOC and the isotopes delta2H, delta18O and 3H. Options for SKB chemistry class 5 include even lanthanoids and other trace elements, As, In, I, environmental metals, NH{sub 4}+, nutrient salts and the isotopes delta34S, delta37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, 10B/11B, delta13C, 226Ra, 222Rn, 238U, 234U, 230Th and 232Th. All data from the activity are stored in the SICADA database

  16. Evaluation of Groundwater Renewability in the Henan Plains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Shi, X.

    2011-12-01

    The sustainability of groundwater resources in the Henan Plains, located in the eastern portion of central China, has been threatened by both increasing industrial and agricultural pumping and periods of drought occurring since the 1990s. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve water resources management in the Henan Plains. However, the recharge and annual renewal rate are very difficult to calculate when based only on traditional hydrogeological methods because of inadequate hydrometeorologic data. In this study, tritium concentrations in groundwater and reconstructed 3H concentration time series from 1953~2009 in precipitation were used to determine the annual groundwater renewal rate. The 3H concentrations mostly range from 2.91 to 40.30 TU in the shallow groundwater with a mean 3H concentration of 19.13TU, which suggests that the shallow groundwater is recharged from modern precipitation after 1953 in the study area. Three exceptionally low 3H concentration(less than 1TU) wells were sampled in Xinxiang, Puyang and Zhengyang which indicates that those wells contain deep old groundwater recharge before 1953 as a result of over-pumping. High renewal rates (more than 4%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the recharge area such as along the Yellow River and in the pediments of Taihang Mountain, Songqi Mountain, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountain, where the groundwater extraction volume could be increased. Moderate renewal rates (2%/a~3%/a) of groundwater are mainly in the runoff area where the groundwater extraction volume can be kept at current levels. Low renewal rates (1%/a~2%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the discharge areas in the eastern regions of Nanle, Puyang, Shangqiu, Luyi where the groundwater extraction volume should be reduced. The lowest renewal rates of (less than 1%/a) groundwater are in Puyang, Xinxiang, Zhengyang and Xixian, where the groundwater extraction volume should be restricted.

  17. Assessing the impact of CO2 and brine leakage on shallow groundwater quality: Results from a natural analog study in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, E. H.; Hakala, A.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Carey, J. W.; Fessenden, J. E.; Pawar, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    A vital aspect to public and regulatory acceptance of carbon sequestration is assurance that drinking water in overlying aquifers will be protected. Direct observations of CO2 flowing through shallow drinking water aquifers are invaluable for informing credible risk assessments. To this end, we have sampled shallow wells in a natural analog site in New Mexico, USA, where CO2 from natural sources is upwelling from depth, and have conducted laboratory experiments on aquifer sediments. Collectively, this work has generated insights into the processes controlling major ion and trace element geochemistry in a CO2-rich system. One finding has been that impacts related to upwelling saline water far exceed those related to in-situ CO2-induced trace metal mobilization. We have also developed 3-D reactive-transport simulations to represent the key aspects of this particular type of drinking water aquifer. In this paper we will summarize field and laboratory findings, and compare reactive-transport simulations with field data. We will then show how field-tested simulations can be used to predict the temporal evolution of shallow groundwater in hypothetical CO2 leakage scenarios. These simulations highlight the importance of transient, non-equilibrium effects. These effects should be carefully considered in risk assessments and monitoring network design. We conclude by presenting sensitivity analysis results showing the most important uncertain model parameters; these results can be used to guide future laboratory and field studies.

  18. Groundwater-derived nutrient and trace element transport to a nearshore Kona coral ecosystem: Experimental mixing model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Fackrell, Joseph; Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Study regionThe groundwater influenced coastal waters along the arid Kona coast of the Big Island, Hawai’i.Study focusA salinity-and phase partitioning-based mixing experiment was constructed using contrasting groundwater endmembers along the arid Konacoast of the Big Island, Hawai’i and local open seawater to better understand biogeochemical and physicochemical processes that influence the fate of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)-derived nutrients and trace elements.New Hydrological Insights for the RegionTreated wastewater effluent was the main source for nutrient enrichment downstream at the Honokōhau Harbor site. Conservative mixing for some constituents, such as nitrate + nitrite, illustrate the effectiveness of physical mixing to maintain oceanic concentrations in the colloid (0.02–0.45 μm) and truly dissolved (

  19. Erratum to "Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2009-04-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl- concentration and delta18O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3--N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  20. Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2008-10-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl(-) concentration and delta(18)O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3(-)-N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  1. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  2. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  3. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  4. Impact of irrigation with high arsenic burdened groundwater on the soil-plant system: Results from a case study in the Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, H; Norra, S; Tang, X; Guo, H; Stüben, D

    2012-04-01

    Consequences of irrigation by arsenic (As) enriched groundwater were assigned in the Hetao Plain, part of Chinas' Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Examinations followed the As flow path from groundwater to soil and finally plants. A sunflower and a maize field were systematically sampled, each irrigated since three years with saline well water, characterized by elevated As concentrations (154 and 238μgL(-1)). The annual As input per m(2) was estimated as 120 and 186mg, respectively. Compared to the geogenic background, As concentrations increased toward the surface with observed enrichments in topsoil being relatively moderate (up to 21.1mgkg(-1)). Arsenic concentrations in plant parts decreased from roots toward leaves, stems and seeds. It is shown that the bioavailability of As is influenced by a complex interplay of partly counteracting processes. To prevent As enrichment and soil salinization, local farmers were recommended to switch to a less problematic water source.

  5. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Coastal Region of Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengshan Ma; Aihua Wei; Qinghai Deng; Haijun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting groundwater samples from the coastal region of Tangshan, China, the hydrochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the quality of resources were analyzed. Chemical constituents, factor analysis, and a graphic method were em-ployed in this research. The results show that human activities obviously affect fresh groundwater. The deep groundwater distributed in the southern part of the region is severely affected by saliniza-tion, and the shallow groundwater in the north is also beginning to show the same deterioration. The chemical concentrations of the deep groundwater depend largely upon the water-rock interaction, the mixing of saline water and the ion exchange processes. With the exception of sample C-33, all the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking. Tests show that roughly half of the deep groundwater samples have at least one water quality index indicating that it is chemically doubtful or unsuitable for irrigation. Therefore, it is concluded that deep groundwater is becoming an unacceptable resource to irrigate areas located near the coastline because the groundwater quality in the study area is exhibiting signs of degradation. This study’s findings contribute to a better under-standing of groundwater resources in order to support regional management and protection.

  6. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse...... intensive diffuse sources (clean keeping of farm yards). It is important to determine the source type in order to make correct management decisions. This project aimed to identify and develop a set of indicators that can be used to determine whether pesticides detected in a groundwater sample (e...... differ. Therefore, a useful indicator for point sources was defined: if a groundwater sample has findings of ≥4 compounds, and/or at ≥ 2 compounds above 0.1g/l. Model results show that the breakthrough curves from point and diffuse sources differ, with diffuse sources resulting in flat breakthrough...

  7. Summary of New Los Alamos National Laboratory Groundwater Data Loaded in July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Steven M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides information concerning groundwater monitoring data obtained by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under its interim monitoring plan and contains results for chemical constituents that meet seven screening criteria laid out in the Compliance Order on Consent. Tables are included in the report to organize the findings from the samples. The report covers groundwater samples taken from wells or springs that provide surveillance of the groundwater zones indicated in the table.

  8. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  9. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  10. Natural Biological Attenuation of Benzene in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Benzene has been found in subsurface unsaturated soil and groundwater beneath a petro-chemical plant. Although the groundwater contained several mg/L of benzene in the area immediately beneath the source, benzene was not detected in monitoring wells approximately 800m down stream. All kinds of physical processes such as adsorption and advection/dispersion are considered to account for the observed attenuation. The results indicated that the attenuation was primarily due to natural biological processes occurring within the aquifer. The evidence for the natural bioremediation of benzene from the groundwater included: (1) analysis of groundwater chemistry, (2) laboratory studies demonstrating benzene biodegradation in aquifer samples, and (3) computer simulations examining benzene transport. Laboratory experiments indicated that for conditions similar to those in the plume, the aerobic degradation of benzene by the naturally occurring microorganisms in the polluted groundwater samples was quite rapid with a half-life time of from 5 to 15 days. In situ analyses indicated the level of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater was over 2mg/L. Thus, oxygen should not limit the biodegradation. In fact, the benzene was also shown to degrade under anaerobic conditions. The results from the modeling simulations indicate that biodegradation is the dominant process influencing attenuation of the benzene.

  11. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  12. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Saeid; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hassan; Bijani, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on `sustainable behavior' among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner's comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users (n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of "groundwater sustainable behavior". Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users' attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

  13. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Venedam

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analyticalsensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expandedin this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene inmonitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2. The platform was interfacedwith chromium (VI and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installedadjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. Agroundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River throughthe gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployedfor the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations atmore frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methodsemployed a the Site.

  14. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  15. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than the...

  16. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use.

  17. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Hydrologic and Natural Gas Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted hydrologic and natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 16, and 17, 2009. Hydrologic sampling consists of collecting water samples from water wells and surface water locations. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. The water well samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and tritium. Surface water samples were analyzed for tritium. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. Water samples were analyzed by ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, and natural gas samples were analyzed by Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois. Concentrations of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides in water samples collected in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy site continue to demonstrate that the sample locations have not been impacted by detonation-related contaminants. Results from the sampling of natural gas from producing wells demonstrate that the gas wells nearest the Gasbuggy site are not currently impacted by detonation-related contaminants. Annual sampling of the gas production wells nearest the Gasbuggy site for gas and produced water will continue for the foreseeable future. The sampling frequency of water wells and surface water sources in the surrounding area will be reduced to once every 5 years. The next hydrologic sampling event at water wells, springs, and ponds will be in 2014.

  18. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  19. Importance of dissolved organic carbon flux through submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean: Results from Masan Bay, the southern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong Hwa; Lee, Yong-Woo; Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-09-01

    In order to estimate the fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), salinity and DOC concentrations in groundwater, stream water, and seawater were investigated in May 2006 and 2007 (dry season) and August 2006 (wet season) in Masan Bay, Korea. In both seasons, the average concentrations of DOC in groundwater (139 ± 23 μM in May and 113 ± 18 μM in August) were relatively lower than those in stream water (284 ± 104 μM in May and 150 ± 36 μM in August) but similar to those of the bay water (149 ± 17 μM in May and 117 ± 13 μM in August). The DOC concentrations in groundwater, stream water, and seawater showed negative relationships with salinity, but those in the surface bay water were observed above the theoretical mixing line, indicating that DOC may be produced by in situ primary production in this bay. Based on a simple DOC mass balance model, SGD-derived DOC fluxes in Masan Bay were estimated to be 6.7 × 105 mol d- 1 in the dry season and 6.4 × 105 mol d- 1 in the wet season, showing no remarkable seasonal variation. The DOC fluxes through SGD in Masan Bay accounted for approximately 65% of the total input fluxes. This result suggests that the DOC flux through SGD can be the most important source of DOC in this bay, and SGD may play an important role in carbon budget and biogeochemistry in coastal areas.

  20. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-14

    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples.

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  2. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  3. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  4. Analytical results and sample locality map of heavy-mineral-concentrate and rock samples from the Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area (CDCA- 266), San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, B.M.; Frisken, J.G.; Malcolm, M.J.; Crock, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The report presents water-quality and geohydrologic information for 106 public water-supply wells in Illinois. These wells were sampled during April to December 1984 as part of a pilot program to develop a ground-water observation network in the State. The pilot program was designed to sample single-aquifer wells from three major aquifer systems--(1) sand and gravel, both confined and unconfined; (2) Silurian dolomite; and (3) the Ironton-Galesville deep sandstone. Data are tabulated for water temperature, pH, specific conductance, oxidation-reduction potential, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, arsenic, lead, mercury, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, cyanide, phenols, selenium, residue on evaporation at 180 degrees Celsius, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, barium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, chormium, copper, cobalt, iron, aluminum, manganese, nickel, silver, strontium, vanadium, zinc, and selected geohydrologic information.

  5. The effect of sample handling on cross sectional HIV incidence testing results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To determine if mishandling prior to testing would make a sample from a chronically infected subject appear recently infected when tested by cross-sectional HIV incidence assays. METHODS: Serum samples from 31 subjects with chronic HIV infection were tested. Samples were subjected to different handling conditions, including incubation at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, for 1, 3, 7 or 15 days prior to testing. Samples were also subjected to 1,3, 7 and 15 freeze-thaw cycles prior to testing. Samples were tested using the BED capture enzyme immuno assay (BED-CEIA, Vironostika-less sensitive (V-LS, and an avidity assay using the Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 plus O EIA (avidity assay. RESULTS: Compared to the sample that was not subjected to any mishandling conditions, for the BED-CEIA, V-LS and avidity assay, there was no significant change in test results for samples incubated at 4 °C or 25 °C prior to testing. No impact on test results occurred after 15 freeze-thaw cycles. A decrease in assay results was observed when samples were held for 3 days or longer at 37 °C prior to testing. CONCLUSIONS: Samples can be subjected up to 15 freeze-thaw cycles without affecting the results the BED-CEIA, Vironostika-LS, or avidity assays. Storing samples at 4 °C or 25 °C for up to fifteen days prior to testing had no impact on test results. However, storing samples at 37°C for three or more days did affect results obtained with these assays.

  6. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  7. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  8. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  9. Application of vector autoregressive model for rainfall and groundwater level analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Chai Yoke; Shan, Fam Pei; Shimizu, Kunio; Imoto, Tomoaki; Lateh, Habibah; Peng, Koay Swee

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater is a crucial water supply for industrial, agricultural and residential use, hence it is important to understand groundwater system. Groundwater is a dynamic natural resource and can be recharged. The amount of recharge depends on the rate and duration of rainfall, as rainfall comprises an important component of the water cycle and is the prime source of groundwater recharge. This study applies Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model in the analysis of rainfall and groundwater level. The study area that is focused in the study is along the East-West Highway, Gerik-Jeli, Malaysia. The VAR model with optimum lag length 8, VAR(8) is selected to model the rainfall and groundwater level in the study area. Result of Granger causality test shows significant influence of rainfall to groundwater level. Impulse Response Function reveals that changes in rainfall significantly affect changes in groundwater level after some time lags. Moreover, Variance Decomposition reported that rainfall contributed to the forecast of the groundwater level. The VAR(8) model is validated by comparing the actual value with the in-sample forecasted value and the result is satisfied with all forecasted groundwater level values lies inside the confidence interval which indicate that the model is reliable. Furthermore, the closeness of both actual and forecasted groundwater level time series plots implies the high degree of accurateness of the estimated model.

  10. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  11. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Groundwater Sampling Device at the Former McClellan Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Region 1, 1996), and 3) (where applicable) passive dif- fusion samplers such as the Regenerated Cellulose (RGC or dialysis membrane) sampler...Nielsen (2002), and the ASTM (2003). However, because low-flow sampling draws water most heavily from the most permeable part of the geological...freshwater. The overlying Valley Springs Formation consists of weathered ash from volcanic eruptions, forming low permeability clay with some sand and

  12. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  13. Analytical Results from the Area G Nitrate Salt Samples Submitted to C-AAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Lawrence Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-03

    Table 1 is a summary of the analysis results on sample 4174-1-6/7 and 4174-2-6/7. The results in Table 2 are the major and trace metals analysis values. Samples 4174-1-6 and 4174-2-7 were introduced into a radiological glovebox in CMR for partitioning and analysis. Samples 4174-1-7 and 4174-2-6 were assayed by gamma spectrometry and then sent to TA 48 (C-NR) for further analysis. The validated analytical procedures used by C-AAC are cited at the end of this document. The results have not been approved by formal QA release.

  14. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area of...

  15. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  16. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  17. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  18. Practical considerations for the interpretation of microbial testing results based on small numbers of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Pouillot, Régis

    2013-11-01

    While adequate, statistically designed sampling plans should be used whenever feasible, inference about the presence of pathogens in food occasionally has to be made based on smaller numbers of samples. To help the interpretation of such results, we reviewed the impact of small sample sizes on pathogen detection and prevalence estimation. In particular, we evaluated four situations commonly encountered in practice. The first two examples evaluate the combined impact of sample size and pathogen prevalence (i.e., fraction of contaminated food items in a given lot) on pathogen detection and prevalence estimation. The latter two examples extend the previous example to consider the impact of pathogen concentration and imperfect test sensitivity. The provided examples highlight the difficulties of making inference based on small numbers of samples, and emphasize the importance of using appropriate statistical sampling designs whenever possible.

  19. Environmental isotopes investigation in groundwater of Challaghatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    water. Further, from the results of 14C it is inferred that some groundwater samples in Challaghatta valley belongs ... Bangalore, known, as the Silicon Valley of Asia, is one of the major class ... Considering the climatic water balance, soil characteristics ..... basin (central Tunisia) during Holocene period using pluridisplinary.

  20. Tank 214-AW-105, grab samples, analytical results for the finalreport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-02-20

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AW-105 grab samples. Twenty grabs samples were collected from risers 10A and 15A on August 20 and 21, 1996, of which eight were designated for the K Basin sludge compatibility and mixing studies. This document presents the analytical results for the remaining twelve samples. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DO). The results for the previous sampling of this tank were reported in WHC-SD-WM-DP-149, Rev. 0, 60-Day Waste Compatibility Safety Issue and Final Results for Tank 241-A W-105, Grab Samples 5A W-95-1, 5A W-95-2 and 5A W-95-3. Three supernate samples exceeded the TOC notification limit (30,000 microg C/g dry weight). Appropriate notifications were made. No immediate notifications were required for any other analyte. The TSAP requested analyses for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for all liquids and centrifuged solid subsamples. The PCB analysis of the liquid samples has been delayed and will be presented in a revision to this document.

  1. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  2. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  3. Evaluation of Environmental Sample Analysis Methods and Results Reporting in the National Children's Study Vanguard Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Maire S A; Khalaf, Abdisalam; Beard, Barbara; Viet, Susan M; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-05-01

    During the initial Vanguard phase of the U.S. National Children's Study (NCS), about 2000 tap water, surface wipe, and air samples were collected and analyzed immediately. The shipping conditions, analysis methods, results, and laboratory performance were evaluated to determine the best approaches for use in the NCS Main Study. The main conclusions were (1) to employ established sample analysis methods, when possible, and alternate methodologies only after careful consideration with method validation studies; (2) lot control and prescreening sample collection materials are important quality assurance procedures; (3) packing samples correctly requires careful training and adjustment of shipping conditions to local conditions; (4) trip blanks and spiked samples should be considered for samplers with short expiration times and labile analytes; (5) two study-specific results reports should be required: laboratory electronic data deliverables (EDD) of sample results in a useable electronic format (CSV or SEDD XML/CSV) and a data package with sample results and supporting information in PDF format. These experiences and lessons learned can be applied to any long-term study.

  4. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  7. Ground-water flow near two radioactive-waste-disposal areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; results of flow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Bugliosi, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper 3 meters of till generally moves downward through a 20- to 30-meter thick sequence of tills underlain by lacustrine and kame-delta deposits of fine sand and silt. Groundwater in the weathered, upper 3 meters of till can move laterally for several meters before either moving downward into the kame-delta deposits or discharging to the land surface. A two-dimensional finite-element model that simulates two vertical sections was used to evaluate hydrologic factors that control groundwater flow in the till. Conditions observed during March 1983 were reproduced accurately in steady-state simulations that used four isotropic units of differing hydraulic conductivity to represent two fractured and weathered till units near land surfaces, an intermediate group of isolated till zones that contain significant amounts of fine sand and silt, and a sequence of till units at depths that have been consolidated by overburden pressure. Recharge rates used in the best-fit simulation ranged from 1.4 cm/yr along smooth, sloping or compacted surfaces to 3.8 cm/yr near swampy areas. Values of hydraulic conductivity and infiltration used in the calibrated best-fit model were nearly identical to values used in a previous model analysis of the nearby commercial-waste burial area. Results of the model simulations of a burial pit assumed to be filled with water indicate that water near the bottom of the burial pit would migrate laterally in the shallow, weathered till for 5 to 6 meters before moving downward into the unweathered till, and water near the top of the pit would move laterally

  8. Groundwater characterisation and modelling: problems, facts and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [INTERA KB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    For the last 10 years, the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden has been the main test site for the development of suitable methods for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Major achievements have been made in the development of new groundwater sampling and modelling techniques. The natural condition of the groundwater is easily disturbed by drilling and sampling. The effects from borehole activities which may bias the real character of the groundwater have been identified. The development of new sampling techniques has improved the representativeness of the groundwater samples. In addition, methods to judge the representativeness better have been developed. For modelling of the Aespoe site, standard groundwater modelling codes based on thermodynamic laws have been applied. The many limitations of existing geochemical models used at the Aespoe site and the need to decode the complex groundwater information in terms of origin, mixing and reactions at site scale necessitated the development of a new modelling tool. This new modelling concept was named M3. In M3 modelling the assumption is that the groundwater chemistry is a result of mixing as well as water/rock reactions. The M3 model compares the groundwater compositions from a site. The similarities and differences of the groundwater compositions are used to quantify the contribution from mixing and reactions on the measured data. In order to construct a reliable model the major components, stable isotopes and tritium are used. Initially, the method quantifies the contribution from the flow system. Subsequently, contributions from reactions are calculated. The model differs from many other standard models which primarily use reactions rather than mixing to determine the groundwater evolution. The M3 code has been used for the following type of modelling: calculate the mixing portions at Aespoe, quantify the contribution from inorganic and organic reactions such as biogenic decomposition and sulphate

  9. Distribution and potential health risk of groundwater uranium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woosik; Oh, Jungsun; Choung, Sungwook; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Yun, Uk; Woo, Nam-Chil; Kim, Hyun Koo

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure even to extremely low specific radioactivity of natural uranium in groundwater results in kidney problems and potential toxicity in bones. This study was conducted to assess the potential health risk via intake of the groundwater containing uranium, based on the determination of the uranium occurrence in groundwater. The groundwater was investigated from a total of 4140 wells in Korea. Most of the groundwater samples showed neutral pH and (sub-)oxic condition that was influenced by the mixing with shallow groundwater due to long-screened (open) wells. High uranium contents exceeding the WHO guideline level of 30 μg L(-1) were observed in the 160 wells located mainly in the plutonic bedrock regions. The statistical analysis suggested that the uranium component was present in groundwater by desorption and re-dissolution processes. Predominant uranium phases were estimated to uranyl carbonates under the Korean groundwater circumstances. These mobile forms of uranium and oxic condition facilitate the increase of potential health risk downgradient. In particular, long-term intake of groundwater containing >200 μg U L(-1) may induce internal exposure to radiation as well as the effects of chemical toxicity. These high uranium concentrations were found in twenty four sampling wells of rural areas in this study, and they were mainly used for drinking. Therefore, the high-level uranium wells and neighboring areas must be properly managed and monitored to reduce the exposure risk for the residents by drinking groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Results for the first quarter calendar year 2017 tank 50H salt solution sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-12

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the First Quarter Calendar Year 2017 (CY17) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The First Quarter CY17 Tank 50H samples [a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-50-17-7) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-17-8)] were obtained on January 15, 2017 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on January 16, 2017. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. All volatile organic analysis (VOA) and semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA) were performed on the surface sample and all other analyses were performed on the variable depth sample. The information from this characterization will be used by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the First Quarter CY17 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). This memorandum is part of Deliverable 2 from SRR request. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the TTQAP for the Tank 50H saltstone task.

  11. Hair analysis of anabolic steroids in connection with doping control-results from horse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anielski, P

    2008-07-01

    Doping control of anabolic substances is normally carried out with urine samples taken from athletes and horses. Investigation of alternative specimens, e.g. hair samples, is restricted to special cases, but can also be worthwhile, in addition to urine analysis. Moreover, hair material is preferred in cases of limited availability or complicated collection of urine samples, e.g. from horses. In this work, possible ways of interpretation of analytical results in hair samples are discussed and illustrated by practical experiences. The results demonstrate the applicability of hair analysis to detect anabolic steroids and also to obtain further information about previous abuse. Moreover, the process of incorporation of steroids into hairs is described and the consequences on interpretation are discussed, e.g. on the retrospective estimation of the application date. The chosen examples deal with the detection of the anabolic agent testosterone propionate. Hair samples of an application study, as well as a control sample taken from a racing horse, were referred to. Hair material was investigated by a screening procedure including testosterone, nandrolone and several esters (testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, decanoate, undecanoate, cypionate; nandrolone decanoate, dodecanoate and phenylpropionate; limits of detection (LODs) between 0.1 and 5.0 pg/mg). Confirmation of testosterone propionate (LOD 0.1 pg/mg) was carried out by an optimised sample preparation. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) and tert-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives were detected by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).

  12. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 10 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 10 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  13. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A

    2011-01-01

    -positive cytopathological results and needle tract seeding are also discussed. The present Clinical Guideline describes the results of EUS-guided sampling in the different clinical settings, considers the role of this technique in patient management, and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. A two......-page executive summary of evidence statements and recommendations is provided. A separate Technical Guideline describes the general technique of EUS-guided sampling, particular techniques to maximize the diagnostic yield depending on the nature of the target lesion, and sample processing. The target readership......This article is part of a combined publication that expresses the current view of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) about endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology, including EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and EUS-guided trucut biopsy (EUS...

  14. Characterization Results for the March 2016 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-09

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on March 16, 2016. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  15. Characterization Results for the January 2017 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-11

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on January 19, 2017. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  16. Evaluation of deep groundwater development for arsenic mitigation in western Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Naoaki; Lei, Peifeng; Kamata, Akira

    2007-10-01

    Groundwater contamination by arsenic frequently occurs in western Bangladesh. Integrated hydrogeological studies were carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in the Jessore, Jhenaidah and Chuadanga districts to assess the possibility of supplying safe drinking water from deep aquifers. The subsurface geology of up to 300 m in depth was classified into 5 formations (viz. A to E formations in descending order). Thick clay facies are found in C formation in the Jessore district, however, clay facies are absent in the Jhenaidah and Chuadanga districts. The clay layer separates deep aquifers from shallow aquifers, and controls vertical groundwater flow. The results of core sample analysis showed that high arsenic contents of more than 30 ppm were found not only from shallow clay but also even from deep clay below 200 m. However, the arsenic concentrations in groundwater were generally below 0.05 mg/L in the deep aquifers. The simulation study using a vertical 2-D groundwater model indicates that deep groundwater will not be contaminated by arsenic in shallow groundwater when the piezometric heads of the deep aquifers are higher than the shallow aquifers. However, the simulation results indicate that overexploitation of the deep aquifers will cause arsenic contamination in deep aquifers due to the downward movement of contaminated shallow groundwater when no sorption takes place in the sediments. These results suggest that groundwater management and control of groundwater pumpage in deep aquifers are crucial for sustainable supply of arsenic safe deep groundwater in western Bangladesh.

  17. Optimization of sample preparation for accurate results in quantitative NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Nakamura, Satoe; Saito, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy has received high marks as an excellent measurement tool that does not require the same reference standard as the analyte. Measurement parameters have been discussed in detail and high-resolution balances have been used for sample preparation. However, the high-resolution balances, such as an ultra-microbalance, are not general-purpose analytical tools and many analysts may find those balances difficult to use, thereby hindering accurate sample preparation for qNMR measurement. In this study, we examined the relationship between the resolution of the balance and the amount of sample weighed during sample preparation. We were able to confirm the accuracy of the assay results for samples weighed on a high-resolution balance, such as the ultra-microbalance. Furthermore, when an appropriate tare and amount of sample was weighed on a given balance, accurate assay results were obtained with another high-resolution balance. Although this is a fundamental result, it offers important evidence that would enhance the versatility of the qNMR method.

  18. Indications, results, and clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling in gastroenterology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumonceau, J-M; Polkowski, M; Larghi, A

    2011-01-01

    -positive cytopathological results and needle tract seeding are also discussed. The present Clinical Guideline describes the results of EUS-guided sampling in the different clinical settings, considers the role of this technique in patient management, and makes recommendations on circumstances that warrant its use. A two...

  19. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  20. Modeling of groundwater draft based on satellite-derived crop acreage estimation over an arid region of northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Bidyut Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Paliwal, Rakesh; Jeyaseelan, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater for agricultural crops puts stress on the sustainability of natural resources in the arid region of Rajasthan state, India. Hydrogeological study of groundwater levels of the study area during the pre-monsoon (May to June), post-monsoon (October to November) and post-irrigation (February to March) seasons of 2004-2005 to 2011-2012 shows a steady decline of groundwater levels at the rate of 1.28-1.68 m/year, mainly due to excessive groundwater draft for irrigation. Due to the low density of the groundwater observation-well network in the study area, assessment of groundwater draft, and thus groundwater resource management, becomes a difficult task. To overcome the situation, a linear groundwater draft model (LGDM) has been developed based on the empirical relationship between satellite-derived crop acreage and the observed groundwater draft for the year 2003-2004. The model has been validated for a decade, during three year-long intervals (2005-2006, 2008-2009 and 2011-2012) using groundwater draft, estimated through a discharge factor method. Further, the estimated draft was validated through observed pumping data from random sampled villages (2011-2012). The results suggest that the developed LGDM model provides a good alternative to the estimation of groundwater draft based on satellite-based crop area in the absence of groundwater observation wells in arid regions of northwest India.

  1. Analytical results from salt batch 9 routine DSSHT and SEHT monthly samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 9 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Cs removal continues to be acceptable, with decontamination factors (DF) averaging 25700 (107% RSD). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior, other than lacking the anticipated degree of dilution that is calculated to occur during Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing.

  2. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TEST RESULTS FOR TANK 241-SY-102 SUPERNATE GRAB SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-04-09

    This report describes the electrochemical corrosion scans and conditions for testing of SY-102 supernatant samples taken December 2004. The testing was performed because the tank was under a Justification for Continued Operation allowing the supernatant composition to be outside the chemistry limits of Administrative Control 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation program'. A new electrochemical working electrode of A516 Grade 60 carbon steel was used for each scan; all scans were measured against a saturated calomel electrode, with carbon counter electrodes, and all scans were carried out at 50 C. The samples were scanned twice, once as received and once sparged with argon to deoxygenate the sample. For those scans conducted after argon purging, the corrosion rates ranged from 0.012 to 0.019 mpy. A test for stress corrosion cracking was carried out on one sample (2SY-04-07) with negative results.

  3. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Zhou; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wang, Yanxin; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater) and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes) in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-), SO4(2-)/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+) were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  4. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  5. Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration.

  6. Hydrochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in the Ardabil area, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, N.; Chitsazan, M.; Golestan, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the study area, groundwater is the main water resource for various purposes such as drinking, agriculture and industrial. To evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes, seventy-seven samples were collected and analyzed for various ions. Results show that, groundwater in the study area is mainly hard to very hard, and slightly alkaline-fresh to brackish in nature. According to the hydrochemistry diagrams, the main groundwater types are Ca, Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl. Calculation of mineral saturation index indicate that the groundwater samples are saturated with respect to carbonate minerals and under-saturated with respect to sulfate minerals such as gypsum and anhydride. The mineral weathering, mixing, ion exchange and anthropogenic activity are the dominant hydrogeochemical natural processes. Results of investigating the quality of heavy metals and calculating the heavy metal index indicated that the groundwater of study area is not contaminated with heavy metals. In this research, the various indices were used to determine the quality of groundwater for various uses. Calculate the indices and comparison results with the WHO standards to determine the quality of groundwater for various uses indicated that the most of the groundwater in study area is chemically suitable for drinking, industrial and agricultural uses.

  7. Changes in Selected Biochemical Indices Resulting from Various Pre-sampling Handling Techniques in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloupek Petr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since it is not yet clear whether it is possible to satisfactorily avoid sampling-induced stress interference in poultry, more studies on the pattern of physiological response and detailed quantification of stress connected with the first few minutes of capture and pre-sampling handling in poultry are required. This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling (involving catching, carrying, restraint, and blood collection itself that lasted for various time periods within the interval 30-180 seconds. Methods Stress effects of pre-sampling handling were studied in a group (n = 144 of unsexed ROSS 308 broiler chickens aged 42 d. Handling (catching, carrying, restraint, and blood sampling itself was carried out in a gentle (caught, held and carried carefully in an upright position or rough (caught by the leg, held and carried with lack of care in inverted position manner and lasted for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, 150 s, and 180 s. Plasma corticosterone, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, lactate, triglycerides and total protein were measured in order to assess the stress-induced changes to these biochemical indices following handling in the first few minutes of capture. Results Pre-sampling handling in a rough manner resulted in considerably higher plasma concentrations of all biochemical indices monitored when compared with gentle handling. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone after 150 and 180 s of handling were considerably higher (P Conclusions These results indicate that the pre-sampling procedure may be a considerably stressful procedure for broilers, particularly when carried out with lack of care and exceeding 120 seconds.

  8. Results For The Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 (CY16) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Third Quarter CY16 Tank 50H samples (a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-5-16-63) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-16-64)) were obtained on July 14, 2016 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on the same day. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets.2 Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Third Quarter CY16 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL TTQAP.

  9. Results For The Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 (CY16) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Third Quarter CY16 Tank 50H samples (a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-5-16-63) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-16-64)) were obtained on July 14, 2016 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on the same day. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours, and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Third Quarter CY16 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL TTQAP.

  10. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  11. A sample-to-result system for blood coagulation tests on a microfluidic disk analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing

    2014-09-01

    In this report, we describe in detail a microfluidic analyzer, which is able to conduct blood coagulation tests using whole blood samples. Sample preparation steps, such as whole blood aliquoting and metering, plasma separation, decanting, and mixing with reagents were performed in sequence through microfluidic functions integrated on a disk. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were carried out on the same platform and the test results can be reported in 5 min. Fifty clinical samples were tested for both PT and aPTT utilizing the microfluidic disk analyzer and the instrument used in hospitals. The test results showed good correlation and agreement between the two instruments.

  12. HICOSMO: cosmology with a complete sample of galaxy clusters - II. Cosmological results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The X-ray bright, hot gas in the potential well of a galaxy cluster enables systematic X-ray studies of samples of galaxy clusters to constrain cosmological parameters. HIFLUGCS consists of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters in the Universe, building up a local sample. Here, we utilize this sample to determine, for the first time, individual hydrostatic mass estimates for all the clusters of the sample and, by making use of the completeness of the sample, we quantify constraints on the two interesting cosmological parameters, Ωm and σ8. We apply our total hydrostatic and gas mass estimates from the X-ray analysis to a Bayesian cosmological likelihood analysis and leave several parameters free to be constrained. We find Ωm = 0.30 ± 0.01 and σ8 = 0.79 ± 0.03 (statistical uncertainties, 68 per cent credibility level) using our default analysis strategy combining both a mass function analysis and the gas mass fraction results. The main sources of biases that we correct here are (1) the influence of galaxy groups (incompleteness in parent samples and differing behaviour of the Lx-M relation), (2) the hydrostatic mass bias, (3) the extrapolation of the total mass (comparing various methods), (4) the theoretical halo mass function and (5) other physical effects (non-negligible neutrino mass). We find that galaxy groups introduce a strong bias, since their number density seems to be over predicted by the halo mass function. On the other hand, incorporating baryonic effects does not result in a significant change in the constraints. The total (uncorrected) systematic uncertainties (∼20 per cent) clearly dominate the statistical uncertainties on cosmological parameters for our sample.

  13. Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  14. What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results from a National Sample of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garet, Michael S.; Porter, Andrew C.; Desimone, Laura; Birman, Beatrice F.; Yoon, Kwang Suk

    2001-01-01

    Used a national probability sample of 1,027 mathematics and science teachers to provide a large-scale empirical comparison of effects of different characteristics of professional development on teachers' learning. Results identify three core features of professional development that have significant positive effects on teachers' self-reported…

  15. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  16. Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  17. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  18. Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  20. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  1. Results for the Fourth Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).1 Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The concentration of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC Limits and Targets, unless noted in this section. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits5 compared with the Saltstone WAC1. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Diisooctyl adipate (or diisooctyl hexanedioate) was measured at 1.30E+00 mg/L in one of two replicate measurements conducted on an at-depth sample.a The organic analysis of the at-depth sample was conducted at the request of SRR.4 This analyte was below the detection limit in the surface sample. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  2. Semivolatile organic (GC-MS) and inorganic analyses of groundwater samples during the hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) field test in Visalia, CA, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, M; Knauss, K G; Kumamoto, G; Leif, R N; Newmark, R L

    1998-02-05

    Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) is a novel, in situ, thermal-remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely oxidize a wide range of organic pollutants. A field demonstration of HPO was performed during the summer of 1997 at the Southern California Edison Pole Yard in Visalia, California, a site contaminated with creosote. The goal of the field experiment was to confirm the success of HPO under field remediation conditions. The groundwater was heated by steam injections, and oxygen was added by co-injection of compressed air. The progress of the HPO remediation process was evaluated by monitoring groundwater from multiple wells for dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic contaminant levels. Analyses of groundwater chemistry allowed us to measure the concentrations of creosote components and to identify oxygenated intermediates produced by the HPO treatment. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections because of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of phenols and benzoic acid were measured in wells affected by the steam injections. Concentrations of other oxygenated compounds (i.e., fluorenone, anthrone, and 9,10-anthracenedione) increased in response to the steam injections. The production of these partially oxidized compounds is consistent with the aqueous-phase HPO reactions of creosote. Additional changes in the groundwater in response to steam injection were also consistent with the groundwater HPO chemistry. A drop in dissolved oxygen was observed in the aquifer targeted for the steam injections, and isotope shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool reflected the input of oxidized carbon derived from the creosote carbon.

  3. [Assessment of groundwater quality of different aquifers in Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and its chemical characteristics analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Ju, Yi-Wen; Zhai, Hang; Xu, Liang; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Yi-Qun

    2014-06-01

    In order to evaluate the groundwater quality of Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and to discuss the characteristics of its distribution by the view of hydrochemistry, a total of 151 groundwater samples, collected within study area in the dry period of 2008 according to the geological and hydrogeololgical condition of Tongzhou area, were classified as shallow, middle and deep groundwater, respectively. Based on the data, the groundwater quality was evaluated by the method of F value. The mean and variance of main chemical constituents of groundwater samples were presented. Almost all the quaternary groundwater of Chaobai river pluvial fan belonged to the alkaline water type. The evaluation results based on the analysis results showed that from shallow to deep, the quality of groundwater in Beijing became better. The total areas of groundwater belonging to class IV and V area were 884 km2, 599 km2 and 94 km2 respectively for shallow, middle and deep groundwater. The evaluation results showed that the main exceeding chemical constituents were TDS, hardness, NH4(+), F(-) and total Fe. Most exceeding samples belonged to middle and deep aquifers. The main types of shallow groundwater were HCO2-Ca x Mg- and HCO3 x Cl-Ca x Na x Mg, while the chemical types of mid-deep groundwater were mostly HCO3-Na x Ca- and HCO3 x SO4(2-) -Na x Ca type due to the increased Na(+), SO4(2-) and Cl(-) concentration. Study results showed that the quality of shallow groundwater became worse mainly due to human activities. The deterioration of groundwater quality in mid-deep aquifers was due to both human activities and natural occurrence of poor-quality water.

  4. Changes in selected biochemical indices resulting from various pre-sampling handling techniques in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloupek, Petr; Bedanova, Iveta; Chloupek, Jan; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2011-05-13

    Since it is not yet clear whether it is possible to satisfactorily avoid sampling-induced stress interference in poultry, more studies on the pattern of physiological response and detailed quantification of stress connected with the first few minutes of capture and pre-sampling handling in poultry are required. This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling (involving catching, carrying, restraint, and blood collection itself) that lasted for various time periods within the interval 30-180 seconds. Stress effects of pre-sampling handling were studied in a group (n = 144) of unsexed ROSS 308 broiler chickens aged 42 d. Handling (catching, carrying, restraint, and blood sampling itself) was carried out in a gentle (caught, held and carried carefully in an upright position) or rough (caught by the leg, held and carried with lack of care in inverted position) manner and lasted for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, 150 s, and 180 s. Plasma corticosterone, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, lactate, triglycerides and total protein were measured in order to assess the stress-induced changes to these biochemical indices following handling in the first few minutes of capture. Pre-sampling handling in a rough manner resulted in considerably higher plasma concentrations of all biochemical indices monitored when compared with gentle handling. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone after 150 and 180 s of handling were considerably higher (P technique. Concentrations of plasma lactate were also increased by prolonged handling duration. Handling for 90-180 seconds resulted in a highly significant elevation of lactate concentration in comparison with 30 s handling regardless of handling technique. Similarly to corticosterone concentrations, a strong positive correlation was found between plasma lactate and duration of pre-sampling handling

  5. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-15-815-816-817-818-819-820 November monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-815-816-817-818-819-820), pulled on 11/29/2015 for analysis. The samples were inspected, combined, and analyzed for composition. Chemical analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-815-816-817-818-819-820 indicated the TiDG, Isopar™L, and MaxCalix are at nominal levels. The modifier concentration is 3% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent on November 28, 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, up to 12.5 ± 3 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 10.4 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. The solids residues found at the bottom of the p-nut vial from sample MCU-15-815 were determined to be left-over pipe residues that were flushed into the sample and they were found to have no impact on the solvent purity or on the chemical and physical properties of the solvent. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  6. Factors controlling groundwater salinization and hydrogeochemical processes in coastal aquifers from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argamasilla, M; Barberá, J A; Andreo, B

    2017-02-15

    In detrital coastal aquifers, seawater and surface water may interact with groundwater in multiple ways. Understanding the interference of water fluxes in this type of environment is essential to effectively manage the groundwater resources in water-stressed regions, such as the Mediterranean coastal fringe. In this research, the characterization of the main hydrogeochemical processes and the interaction between surface water and groundwater in the Marbella-Estepona coastal aquifers (southern Spain) have been carried out by means of the combined use of different hydrogeochemical indicators along with isotope data. The results show that the diversity of source lithologies (peridotite, carbonate and/or metapelitic) substantially conditions the groundwater geochemistry. The analysis of ionic deltas made it possible a preliminary screening of the geochemical reactions that occur in the Marbella-Estepona aquifers, while the Discriminant Analysis allowed for a consistent classification of sampled groundwater types. The dissolution of calcite and dolomite determines the chemical composition of the groundwater from the eastern sector that are more conditioned by the rainwater infiltration. The dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals (predominantly forming peridotite rocks) is observed in groundwater samples from the western and central sectors, whose chemical composition showed a greater influence of surface water. The spatial analysis of rCl(-)/Br(-) in groundwater has permitted to corroborate that saline intrusion is negligible, hardly affecting to its original water quality. The irregularly distributed recharge by precipitation (seasonal effect) and the atmospheric circulation of cloud fronts (coastal/continental effect) explains why most of groundwater sampled is isotopically impoverished with respect to the rainfall signature. The isotope approach also suggests the hydraulic relationship between surface water and groundwater in the study site. A deeper knowledge of

  7. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  8. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  9. Results of Remediation and Verification Sampling for the 600-270 Horseshoe Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2005-12-14

    This report presents the results of the 2005 remedial action and verification soil sampling conducted at the 600-270 waste site after removal of soil containing residual concentrations of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its breakdown products dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane. The remediation was performed in response to post-closure surface soil sampling performed between 1998 and 2003 that indicated the presence of residual DDT contamination exceeding the Record of Decision for the 1100 Area National Priorities List site cleanup criteria of 1 mg/kg that was established for the original 1994 cleanup activities.

  10. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Tsuji, Kouichi; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Margui, Eva; Streli, Christina; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Stosnach, Hagen; Yamada, Takashi; Vandenabeele, Peter; Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael; Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K.; Bennun, Leonardo; Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina; Depero, Laura E.

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique.

  11. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater using a stable isotope and 3DEEM in a landfill in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhifei [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yang, Yu; Lian, Xinying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Jiang, Yonghai, E-mail: jyhai203@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Gansu 730070 (China); Peng, Xing [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); and others

    2016-09-01

    The groundwater was sampled in a typical landfill area of the Northeast China. Coupled stable isotope and three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3DEEM) were applied to dentify diffused NO{sub 3}{sup −} inputs in the groundwater in this area. The results indicated that combined with the feature of groundwater hydrochemistry and three-dimensional fluorescence technology can effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources. The nitrate was derived from manure and sewage by δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −} values of groundwater in the different periods. The excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was further evidence of groundwater DOM mainly which comes from the landfill. The protein-like was very significant at the sampling points near the landfill (SPNL), but only fulvic acid-like appeared at downstream of the landfill groundwater sampling points (DLGSP) in the study area. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration in anaerobic environment. - Highlights: • We used stable isotope and 3DEEM to evaluate of nitrate sources. • Groundwater hydrochemistry was used to assess groundwater recharge. • The degradation process of organic matters was assessed using 3DEEM in groundwater. • This approach is a effective tool for trace to the nitrate sources in groundwater.

  12. Characterization Results for the March 2016 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on March 16, 2016. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits. Revision 1 of this document corrects the cumulative beta count initially reported for 90Sr content with the sole 90Sr count obtained after recharacterization of the sample. The initial data was found to be a cumulative beta count rather than the 90Sr count requested.

  13. Understanding cross sample talk as a result of triboelectric charging on future mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Fleming, G.

    2009-12-01

    Proper scientific analysis requires the material that is collected and analyzed by in-situ instruments be as close as possible (chemically and mineralogically) to the initial, unaltered surface material prior to its collection and delivery. However this is not always possible for automated robotic in situ analysis. Therefore it is vital to understanding how the sample has been changed/altered prior to analysis so that analysis can be put in the proper context. We have examined the transport of fines when transferred under ambient martian conditions in hardware analogous to that being developed for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sample acquisition flight hardware. We will discuss the amount of cross sample contamination when different mineralogy’s are transferred under Martian environmental conditions. Similar issues have been identified as problems within the terrestrial mining, textile, and pharmaceutical research communities that may alter/change the chemical and mineralogical compositions of samples before they are delivered to the MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) analytical instruments. These cross-sample contamination will affect the overall quality of the science results and each of these processes need to be examined and understood prior to MSL landing on the surface of Mars. There are two forms of triboelectric charging that have been observed to occur on Earth and they are 1) when dissimilar material comes in contact (one material charges positive and the other negative depending on their relative positions on the triboelectric series and the work function of the material) and 2) when two similar materials come in contact, the larger particles can transfer one of their high energy electrons to a smaller particle. During the collisions, the transferred electron tends to lose energy and the charge tends not to move from the smaller particle back to the larger particle in further collisions. This transfer effect

  14. Research on flow characteristics of deep groundwater by environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Jun; Miyaoka, Kunihide [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki; Senoo, Muneaki; Kumata, Masahiro; Mukai, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Ouchi, Misao

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as the technique for grasping the behavior of groundwater in deep rock bed which is important as the factor of disturbing the natural barrier in the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste, the method of utilizing the environmental isotopes contained in groundwater as natural tracer was taken up, and by setting up the concrete field of investigation, through the forecast of flow by the two or three dimensional groundwater flow analysis using a computer, the planning and execution of water sampling, the analysis of various environmental isotopes, the interpretation based on those results of measurement and so on, the effectiveness of the investigation technique used was verified, and the real state of the behavior of deep groundwater in the district being studied was clarified. In this research, Imaichi alluvial fan located in northern Kanto plain was taken as the object. In fiscal year 1996, three-dimensional steady state groundwater flow simulation was carried out based on the data related to shallow groundwater and surface water systems, and the places where active groundwater flow is expected were selected, and boring will be carried out there. The analysis model and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  15. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  16. Geochemical evolution of lacustrine brines from variable-scale groundwater circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joseph J.; Rose, Arthur W.

    1994-02-01

    Evaporative groundwater-fed lakes in the glaciated North American Great Plains vary widely in chemistry. A contributing cause is chemical variability of source groundwater intercepted by specific lakes, caused in part by differing depths of groundwater circulation. Aqueous chemical characteristics of 61 lakes and 160 groundwater samples were compared for an area where such lakes are common in eastern Montana-western North Dakota. Results indicate that groundwater chemistry varies according to depth in a similar fashion within different aquifers. Lake water evaporation from initial groundwater solutions typical of three depths was geochemically modeled using PHRQPITZ, based on a Pitzer treatment of activities and equilibria. Results show that chemistry of most lake waters in the study area may correspond to that predicted from evaporation of shallow- and intermediate-depth groundwater, but not of deep groundwater as postulated in some previous investigations. Lakes in shallow surface depressions receive water primarily from shallow (local) groundwater flow; lakes located in deep or broad topographic depressions may additionally receive groundwater from deeper circulation. In the field area studied, relative dominance of anions (sulfate vs. carbonate) in brines is a signature for inferred depth of source. Also diagnostic is the suite of brine salts formed (NaSO 4Mg salts for shallow flow; these plus NaCO 3 salts for intermediate depth flow). Such source signatures will vary from area to area according to depth variations in groundwater chemistry and in stratigraphy. Chemical evolution of lake water is a two-stage process, with a groundwater path (influenced by residence time, depth of circulation, aquifer mineralogy, and related factors) and a surface path (influenced by evaporation rates, lake-aquifer hydraulics, and lake geochemical reactions). Groundwater flow patterns may affect the former set of factors, thereby indirectly controlling lake water

  17. Applicability of polar organic compound integrative samplers for monitoring pesticides in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berho, Catherine; Togola, Anne; Coureau, Charlotte; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Amalric, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) for the monitoring of polar pesticides in groundwater were tested on two sites in order to evaluate their applicability by comparison with the spot-sampling approach. This preliminary study shows that, as in surface water, POCIS is a useful tool, especially for the screening of substances at low concentration levels that are not detected by laboratory analysis of spot samples. For quantitative results, a rough estimation is obtained. The challenge is now to define the required water-flow conditions for a relevant quantification of pesticides in groundwater and to establish more representative sampling rates for groundwater.

  18. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-15-802-803-804-805-806-807 August monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-802-803-804-805-806-807), pulled on 08/31/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-802-803-804-805-806-807 indicated a low concentration (~ 45 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and a slightly lower than nominal concentration of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent. The extractant (MaxCalix) concentration was at its nominal value. Based on this current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier were sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim during that time but it is recommended that an addition of TiDG, modifier and Isopar™L should be made in the next few months. This monthly sample’s rheology, as determined by Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR), is consistent with the rheology of the standard NGS solvent made in the lab (Scratch solvent 5/14/2014). No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). In addition, up to 16.7 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 14 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  19. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  20. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in the catchment of Goczałkowice reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2014-05-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2 , volume - 100 million m3 at a typical water level) is a very important source of drinking water for Upper Silesian agglomeration. At the catchment of the reservoir there are many potential sources of groundwater pollution (agriculture, bad practices in wastewater management, intensive fish farming). Thus local groundwater contamination, mainly by nitrogen compounds. The paper presents groundwater monitoring system and preliminary results of the research carried on at Goczałkowice reservoir and its catchment in 2010 - 2014 within the project "Integrated system supporting management and protection of dammed reservoir (ZiZoZap)'. The main objective for hydrogeologists in the project is to assess the role of groundwater in total water balance of the reservoir and the influence of groundwater on its water quality. During research temporal variability of groundwater - surface water exchange has been observed. Monitoring Network of groundwater quality consists of 22 observation wells (nested piezometers included) located around the reservoir - 13 piezometers is placed in two transects on northern and southern shore of reservoir. Sampling of groundwater from piezometers was conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were 255 mg/L, 0,16 mg/L and 3,48 mg/L, respectively. Surface water in reservoir (8 points) has also been sampled. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater are higher than in surface water. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations exceeding standards for drinking water were reported in 18% and 50% of monitored piezometers, respectively. High concentration of nitrate (exceeding more than 5 times maximal admissible concentration) have been a significant groundwater contamination problem in the catchment of the reservoir. Periodically decrease of surface water quality is possible. Results of hydrogeological research indicate substantial spatial

  1. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  2. Characteristics of chemistry and stable isotopes in groundwater of the Chaobai River catchment, Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [Key Laboratory of Engineering Geomechanics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.; Wang, X. [Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Team of Beijing, Beijing 100037 (China); Pang, Z. [Key Laboratory of Engineering Geomechanics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental isotopes and chemical compositions are useful tools for the study of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater of the Chaobai River catchment, Beijing was sampled for chemical and stable isotopes analyses in 2005. Geochemical signatures evolve progressively from CaMg-HCO{sub 3} to NaK-HCO{sub 3}, and then to Na-HCO{sub 3} compositions as groundwater flows from the mountain to discharge areas. Groundwater can be divided into two groups on the basis of stable isotope compositions: ancient groundwater and modern groundwater. Modern groundwater (-9.90/00 to -6.60/00 for δ{sup 18}O) plots along a line with a slope of 4.0 on a δ{sup 2}H versus δ{sup 18}O diagram, reflecting evaporation during the process of recharge, whereas ancient groundwater samples (30 to 12 Ka.) are different in isotopic composition (-11.00/00 and -68.20/00 for δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H, respectively), reflecting the cold and arid climate in the last glacial period. The results have important implications for groundwater management in Beijing City. (authors)

  3. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater quality of Punjab and Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, V.; Douglas, E. M.; Hannigan, R.; Schaaf, C.; Moore, J.

    2016-12-01

    Punjab and Haryana lie in the semi-arid region of northwestern India and are characterized by a limited access to freshwater resources and an increasing dependence on groundwater resources to meet human demand, resulting in overexploitation. The objectives of the present study was to characterize groundwater recharge sources using stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) and to trace geochemical evolution of groundwater using rare earth elements (REEs). Samples were collected from 30 different locations including shallow domestic handpumps, deep irrigation wells, surface water and rainwater. Samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and trace elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) at University of Massachusetts Boston. Precipitation, surface water and irrigation return flow were identified as the primary sources of recharge to groundwater. Sustainability of recharge sources is highly dependent on the glacier-fed rivers from the Himalayas that are already experiencing impacts from climate change. Geochemistry of REEs revealed geochemically evolved groundwater system with carbonate subsurface weathering as major hydrological processes. Enhanced dissolution of carbonates in the future can be a serious issue with extremely hard groundwater leaving scaly deposits inside pipes and wells. This would not only worsen the groundwater quality but would impose financial implications on the groundwater users in the community. If irrigated culture is to survive as an economically viable and environmentally sustainable activity in the region, groundwater management activities have to be planned at the regional scale.

  4. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  5. Groundwater management for agriculture and nature: an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.

    As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering

  6. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  7. Characterization of groundwater in the Ejina Basin,northwest China:hydrochemical and environmental isotopes approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    time.The groundwater content was mainly determined by the dissolutions of halite,gypsum,and Glauber’s salt(Na 2 SO 4),as well as Na + exchange for Ca 2+,and calcite and dolomite precipitation.With the exception of a few locations,most of the groundwater samples were suitable for irrigation uses.Most of the stable isotope compositions in the groundwater sampled plotted close to the Global Meteoric Water Line(GMWL),indicating that the groundwater was mainly sourced from meteoric water.There was evidence of enrichment of heavy isotopes in the groundwater due to evaporation.Based on the tritium content in atmospheric precipitation and by adopting the exponential-piston model(EPM),the mean residence time of the unconfined aquifer groundwater was evaluated.The results show that these groundwaters have low residence time(12 to 48 years) and are renewable.In contrast,the confined groundwater had 14 C ages estimated by the Pearson model between 4,087 to 9,364 years BP.Isotopic signatures indicated formation of deep confined groundwaters in a colder and wetter climate during the late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  8. Radiogenic and Stable Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of Groundwater, Pajarito Plateau and Surrounding Areas, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Longmire, Michael Dale, Dale Counce, Andrew Manning, Toti Larson, Kim Granzow, Robert Gray, and Brent Newman

    2007-07-15

    From October 2004 through February 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Environment Department-Department of Energy Oversight Bureau, and the United States Geological Survey conducted a hydrochemical investigation. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate groundwater flow paths and determine groundwater ages using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 along with aqueous inorganic chemistry. Knowledge of groundwater age and flow paths provides a technical basis for selecting wells and springs for monitoring. Groundwater dating is also relevant to groundwater resource management, including aquifer sustainability, especially during periods of long-term drought. At Los Alamos, New Mexico, groundwater is either modern (post-1943), submodern (pre-1943), or mixed (containing both pre- and post-1943 components). The regional aquifer primarily consists of submodern groundwater. Mixed-age groundwater results from initial infiltration of surface water, followed by mixing with perched alluvial and intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer. No groundwater investigation is complete without using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 dating methods to quantify amounts of modern, mixed, and/or submodern components present in samples. Computer models of groundwater flow and transport at Los Alamos should be calibrated to groundwater ages for perched intermediate zones and the regional aquifer determined from this investigation. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the occurrence of multiple flow paths and groundwater ages occurring within the Sierra de los Valles, beneath the Pajarito Plateau, and at the White Rock Canyon springs. Localized groundwater recharge occurs within several canyons dissecting the Pajarito Plateau. Perched intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer beneath Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos Canyon, Sandia Canyon, Mortandad Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, and Canon de Valle contain a modern component. This modern component consists

  9. Results from a large sample of MRPC-strip prototypes for ALICE TOF detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kiselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Lioublev, E; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Nania, R; Otiougova, P; Pesci, A; Polozov, P A; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellito, S; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zampolli, C; Zgreev, B V; Zichichi, Antonino

    2004-01-01

    The MRPC (multi resistive plate chamber) strip is the basic element of the ALICE time-of-flight detector. A test of a large sample of MRPC-strip prototypes corresponding to 1.2% of the full detector was carried out during the autumn of 2002 at the CERN proton synchrotron facility. This paper summarizes the main results obtained in terms of uniformity of response for all the tested channels.

  10. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  12. Results for the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-11

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Fourth Quarter CY15 Tank 50H samples were obtained on October 29, 2015 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on October 30, 2015. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan.

  13. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  14. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  15. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  16. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  17. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  18. Results on the survival of cryptobiotic cyanobacteria samples after exposure to Mars-like environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Dulai, S.; Kereszturi, A.; Koncz, L.; Lorek, A.; Mohlmann, D.; Marschall, M.; Pocs, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tests on cyanobacteria communities embedded in cryptobiotic crusts collected in hot and cold deserts on Earth were performed under Mars-like conditions. The simulations were realized as a survey, to find the best samples for future research. During the tests organisms have to resist Mars-like conditions such as atmospheric composition, pressure, variable humidity (saturated and dry conditions) and partly strong UV irradiation. Organisms were tested within their original habitat inside the crust. Nearly half of the cryptobiotic samples from various sites showed survival of a substantial part of their coexisting organisms. The survival in general depended more on the nature of the original habitat and type of the sample than on the different conditions they were exposed to. The best survival was observed in samples from United Arab Emirates (Jebel Ali, 25 km SW of Dubai town) and from Western Australia (near the South edge of Lake Barley), by taxa: Tolypothrix byssoidea, Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Nostoc microscopicum, Leptolyngbya or Symploca sp. At both places in salty desert areas members of the Chenopodiaceae family dominated among the higher plants and in the cryptobiotic crust cyanobacterial taxa Tolypothrix was dominant. These organisms were all living in salty locations with dry conditions most of the year. Among them Tolypothrix, Gloeocapsopsis and Symploca sp. were tested in Mars simulation chambers for the first time. The results suggest that extremophiles should be tested with taken into account the context of their original microenvironment, and also the importance to analyse communities of microbes beside single organisms.

  19. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2013 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-04-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminants unless noted in this section. {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility of these materials in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species. The semivolatile organic analysis (SVOA) method employed in the measurement of Norpar 13 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) has resulted in the erroneous reporting of a variety of small chain alcohols, including 4-methyl-3-hexanol and 5-methyl-3-hexanol, in previous quarterly sample reports. It has now been determined that these alcohols are an artifact of the sample preparation. Further work is being conducted in SRNL to delineate the conditions that produce these alcohols, and these findings will be reported separately.

  20. Latest results from a mass–production sample of MRPCs for the ALICE TOF detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A; Antonioli, P; Arcelli, S; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; De Caro, A; De Gruttola, D; De Pasquale, S; Fusco Girard, M; Guarnaccia, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Jung, H T; Jung, W W; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kiselev, S; Laurenti, G; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Luvisetto, M L; Malkevich, D; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Nedosekin, A; Noferini, F; Pagano, P; Pesci, A; Preghenella, R; Russo, G; Ryabinin, M; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Silenzi, A; Silvestri, R; Sun, Y; Tchoumakov, M; Voloshin, K; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A

    2008-01-01

    The double–stack MRPC (Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber) strip is the basic element of the ALICE Time–Of–Flight (TOF) detector. A test of a sample of MRPC strips randomly chosen from two years of mass production (the TOF is made of 1638 strips) was carried out during the autumn of 2006 at the CERN Proton Syncrotron facility. In this paper the most relevant results on the performances of the MRPCs will be presented. The results confirm that these devices have a very good uniformity of response, a long streamer–free plateau, an efficiency higher than 99% and an "intrinsic" time resolution better than about 40 ps.

  1. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-991-992-993: July 2016 Monthly sample and MCU-16-1033-1034-1035: July 2016 Superwashed Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-25

    SRNL received one set of SHT samples (MCU-16-991, MCU-16-992 and MCU-16-993), pulled on 07/13/2016 and another set of SHT samples (MCU-16-1033, MCU-16-1034, and MCU-16-1035) that were pulled on 07/24/2016 after the solvent was superwashed with 300 mM sodium hydroxide for analysis. Samples MCU-16-991, MCU-16-992, and MCU-16-993 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-991-992-993) and samples MCU-16-1033, MCU-16-1034, and MCU-16-1035 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-1033-1034-1035). Of the two composite samples MCU-16-1033-1034-1035 represents the current chemical state of the solvent at MCU. All analytical conclusions are based on the chemical analysis of MCU-16-1033-1034-1035. There were no chemical differences between MCU-16- 991-992-993 and superwashed MCU-16-1033-1034-1035.

  2. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self

  3. Sampling Position under No-Tillage System Affects the Results of Soil Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Jorge Bernabé Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the spatial behavior of soil physical properties under no-tillage system (NT is required for the adoption and maintenance of a sustainable soil management system. The aims of this study were to quantify soil bulk density (BD, porosity in the soil macropore domain (PORp and in the soil matrix domain (PORm, air capacity in the soil matrix (ACm, field capacity (FC, and soil water storage capacity (FC/TP in the row (R, interrow (IR, and intermediate position between R and IR (designated IP in the 0.0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers under NT; and to verify if these soil properties have systematic variation in sampling positions related to rows and interrows of corn. Soil sampling was carried out in transect perpendicular to the corn rows in which 40 sampling points were selected at each position (R, IR, IP and in each soil layer, obtaining undisturbed samples to determine the aforementioned soil physical properties. The influence of sampling position on systematic variation of soil physical properties was evaluated by spectral analysis. In the 0.0-0.1 m layer, tilling the crop rows at the time of planting led to differences in BD, PORp, ACm, FC and FC/TP only in the R position. In the R position, the FC/TP ratio was considered close to ideal (0.66, indicating good water and air availability at this sampling position. The R position also showed BD values lower than the critical bulk density that restricts root growth, suggesting good soil physical conditions for seed germination and plant establishment. Spectral analysis indicated that there was systematic variation in soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer, except for PORm. These results indicated that the soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer were associated with soil position in the rows and interrows of corn. Thus, proper assessment of soil physical properties under NT must take into consideration the sampling positions and previous

  4. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs.

  5. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs. PMID:28068404

  6. Groundwater degassing and two-phase flow in fractured rock: Summary of results and conclusions achieved during the period 1994-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, J.; Destouni, G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Water Resources Engineering; Gale, J. [Fracflow Consultants Inc., (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    drifts, by summarising and systematically interpreting all available laboratory and field investigations that have been conducted within the SKB degassing and two-phase flow programme. Data from various sites in Sweden show that the volumetric percent gas coming out of solution as the pressure of deep groundwater is lowered down to atmospheric pressure is generally less than 5%. Laboratory experiments and an analytical expression showed that conditions often are favourable for trapping and accumulation of gas bubbles in the fracture pore space (once bubbles are formed), implying that local fracture gas saturation degrees may become considerable, even though the evolved percent gas per unit volume flowing water is relatively low. For instance, a saturation degree of 40% was observed in a laboratory fracture for 7% evolved gas. However, degassing effects such as inflow reductions to boreholes and drifts will not be considerable unless the potential degassing zone (where the water pressure is lower than the gas bubble pressure) is sufficiently large in relation to the total length of the fracture. A series of borehole test conducted at Aespoe HRL between 300 and 450 meters depth indicated that degassing only causes considerable flow reductions for gas contents that are well above the normal ones in Swedish granitic bedrock. This field result was reproduced by a predictive degassing model, developed considering independent degassing observations in the laboratory. Since the model predictions were shown to be robust with regard to plausible variable ranges for rock fractures intersecting boreholes at depths between 20 and 600 metres, we conclude more generally that groundwater degassing will not cause considerable inflow reductions in fractures intersecting open boreholes under conditions normal for Swedish granitic bedrock. We also considered the relatively large drift inflow reductions observed in the Stripa simulated drift experiment. These reductions were hypothesised to

  7. Sample support and resistivity imaging interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, L. R.; Gharibi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Three-D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) is a powerful technique that can be used to improve site characterization. In order to integrate ERI with other site characterization measurements such as soil and water chemistry, it is necessary to understand the sample support of various data. We have studied a decommissioned sour gas processing plant which has experienced releases of glycol and amine. Ammonium and acetic acid are degradation products that cause elevated electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and soils.The site is underlain by glacial till that is fractured and has thin sand lenses. 3-D ERI inversion results, direct push tool EC and core EC from the same location are well correlated. However, groundwater EC from piezometer installations are poorly correlated with ERI EC. We hypothesize that the ERI, direct push and core EC are mainly meausuring relatively immobile pore water EC in the fine grain matrix. Piezometer water is derived from mobile groundwater that travels in preferred flow paths such as fractures and higher permeability sand lenses. Due to dewatering and other remediation efforts, the mobile groundwater can have a different chemistry, concentration and EC than the immobile pore water. Consequently, the sample support is different for the groundwater samples and the difference explains the poor correlation between ERI EC and groundwater sample EC. In this particular case, we have the potential to monitor the chemical evolution of the source areas, but cannot use ERI to monitor the chemical evolution of mobile groundwater.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Alhababy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  9. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-701-702-703: May 2016 Monthly Sample and MCU-16-710-711-712: May 2016 Superwashed Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702 and MCU-16-703), pulled on 05/23/2016 and another set of SHT samples (MCU-16-710, MCU-16-711, and MCU-16-712) were pulled on 05/28/2016 after the solvent was superwashed with 300 mM sodium hydroxide for analysis. Samples MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702, and MCU-16-703 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-701-702-703) and samples MCU-16-710, MCU- 16-711, and MCU-16-712 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-710-711-712). Of the two composite samples MCU-16-710-711-712 represents the current chemical state of the solvent at MCU. All analytical conclusions are based on the chemical analysis of MCU-16-710-711-712. There were no chemical differences between MCU-16-701-702-703 and superwashed MCU-16-710-711-712. Analysis of the composited sample MCU-16-710-712-713 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The modifier (CS-7SB) is 16% below its nominal concentration while the TiDG and MaxCalix concentrations are at and above their nominal concentrations respectively. The TiDG level has begun to decrease and it is 7% below its nominal level as of May 28, 2016. Based on this current analysis, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  10. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-701-702-703: May 2016 Monthly Sample and MCU-16-710-711-712: May 2016 Superwashed Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702 and MCU-16-703), pulled on 05/23/2016, and another set of SHT samples (MCU-16-710, MCU-16-711, and MCU-16-712) were pulled on 05/28/2016 after the solvent was superwashed with 300 mM sodium hydroxide for analysis. Samples MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702, and MCU-16-703 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-701-702-703) and samples MCU-16-710, MCU- 16-711, and MCU-16-712 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-710-711-712). Of the two composite samples MCU-16-710-711-712 represents the current chemical state of the solvent at MCU. All analytical conclusions are based on the chemical analysis of MCU-16-710-711-712. There were no chemical differences between MCU-16-701-702-703 and superwashed MCU-16-710-711-712. Analysis of the composited sample MCU-16-710-712-713 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The modifier (CS-7SB) is 16% below its nominal concentration, while the TiDG and MaxCalix concentrations are at and above their nominal concentrations, respectively. The TiDG level has begun to decrease, and it is 7% below its nominal level as of May 28, 2016. Based on this current analysis, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  11. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    There is significant interest in sampling subglacial environments for geochemical and microbiological studies, yet those environments are typically difficult to access. Existing ice-drilling technologies make it cumbersome to maintain microbiologically clean access for sample acquisition and environmental stewardship of potentially fragile subglacial aquatic ecosystems. With the "IceMole", a minimally invasive, maneuverable subsurface ice probe, we have developed a clean glacial exploration technology for in-situ analysis and sampling of glacial ice and sub- and englacial materials. Its design is based on combining melting and mechanical stabilization, using an ice screw at the tip of the melting head to maintain firm contact between the melting head and the ice. The IceMole can change its melting direction by differential heating of the melting head and optional side wall heaters. Downward, horizontal and upward melting, as well as curve driving and penetration of particulate-ladden layers has already been demonstrated in several field tests. This maneuverability of the IceMole also necessitates a sophisticated on-board navigation system, capable of autonomous operations. Therefore, between 2012 and 2014, a more advanced probe was developed as part of the "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project. The EnEx-IceMole offers systems for accurate positioning, based on in-ice attitude determination, acoustic positioning, ultrasonic obstacle and target detection, which is all integrated through a high-level sensor fusion algorithm. In December 2014, the EnEx-IceMole was used for clean access into a unique subglacial aquatic environment at Blood Falls, Antarctica, where an englacial brine sample was successfully obtained after about 17 meters of oblique melting. Particular attention was paid to clean protocols for sampling for geochemical and microbiological analysis. In this contribution, we will describe the general technological approach of the IceMole and report on the

  12. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak

  13. Concordant 241Pu-241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S. J.; Oldham, W. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Katzman, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use 242Pu/239Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the non-global fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, 151Sm (t1/2 = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with ~1E10 atoms 239Pu/g and ~1E8 atoms 151Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that 151Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the 151Sm/239Pu atom ratio for global fallout is ~0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on 137Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. 241Pu-241Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950’s-early 1960’s, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both 242Pu and 151Sm normalizations

  14. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D. [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  15. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  16. Marine reservoir effect on the Southeastern coast of Brazil: results from the Tarioba shellmound paired samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, K D; Souza, R C C L; Aguilera, O A; Carvalho, C; Oliveira, F M; Alves, E Q; Chanca, I S; Silva, E P; Douka, K; Decco, J; Trindade, D C; Marques, A N; Anjos, R M; Pamplona, F C

    2015-05-01

    On the Southeastern coast of Brazil the presence of many archaeological shellmounds offers a great potential for studying the radiocarbon marine reservoir effect (MRE). However, very few such studies are available for this region. These archaeological settlements, mostly dating from 5 to 2 kyr cal BP, include both terrestrial and marine remains in good stratigraphic context and secure association, enabling the comparison of different carbon reservoirs. In a previous study the chronology of the Sambaqui da Tarioba, located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was established based on marine mollusc shells and charcoal samples from hearths, from several layers in two excavated sectors. We now compare the different materials with the aim of studying the MRE in this region. Calibration was performed with Oxford software OxCal v4.2.3 using the marine curve Marine13 with an undetermined offset to account for local corrections for shell samples, and the atmospheric curve SHCal13 for charcoal samples. The distribution of results considering a phase model indicates a ΔR value of -127 ± 67 (14)C yr in the 1 sigma range and the multi-paired approach leads to a mean value of -110 ± 94 (14)C yr.

  17. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  18. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR, such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  19. Results of Hg speciation testing on tank 39 and 1Q16 tank 50 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The seventeenth shipment of samples was designated to include two Tank 39 samples and the 1Q16 Tank 50 Quarterly WAC sample. The surface Tank 39 sample was pulled at 262.1” from the tank bottom, and the depth Tank 39 sample was pulled at 95” from the tank bottom. The 1Q16 Tank 50 WAC sample was drawn from the 1-L variable depth sample received by SRNL.

  20. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.