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Sample records for groundwater samples fall

  1. Data Validation Package: April 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso, Tashina [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Widdop, Michael [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site as specified in the March 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the US Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas (DOE-LM/1602-2008). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The wells sampled included the cell performance monitoring wells (0709, 0858, 0880, 0906, and 0921) and the groundwater monitoring wells (0862, 0886, 0891, 0924, and 0963). A duplicate sample was collected from location 0891. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. Historically, cell performance monitoring wells 0908 and 0916 have not produced water and were confirmed as dry during this sampling event. These wells are completed above the saturated interval in the formation. Notable observations for time-concentration graphs in this report include: (1) uranium concentrations in well 0891 continue to increase; (2) the uranium concentration in well 0880 is higher than the 2015 value and lower than the 2014 value, and it remains within the range of historical values; and (3) uranium concentrations in the other sampled wells are below 2 mg/L and consistent with previous results.

  2. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  3. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  4. Modeling falling groundwater tables in major cities of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Erkens, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater use and its over-consumption are one of the major drivers in the hydrology of many major cities in the world, particularly in delta regions. Yet, a global assessment to identify cities with declining groundwater table problems has not been done yet. In this study we used the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (10 km resolution, for 1960-2010). Using this model, we globally calculated groundwater recharge and river discharge/surface water levels, as well as global water demand and abstraction from ground- and surface water resources. The output of PCR-GLOBWB model was then used to force a groundwater MODFLOW-based model simulating spatio-temporal groundwater head dynamics, including groundwater head declines in all major cities - mainly in delta regions - due to escalation in abstraction of groundwater to meet increasing water demand. Using these coupled models, we managed to identify a number of critical cities having groundwater table falling rates above 50 cm/year (average in 2000-2010), such as Barcelona, Houston, Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York, Rome and many large cities in China, Libya, India and Pakistan, as well as in Middle East and Central Asia regions. However, our simulation results overestimate the depletion rates in San Jose, Tokyo, Venice, and other cities where groundwater usages have been aggressively managed and replaced by importing surface water from other places. Moreover, our simulation might underestimate the declining groundwater head trends in some familiar cases, such as Bangkok (12 cm/year), Ho Chi Minh City (34 cm/year), and Jakarta (26 cm/year). The underestimation was due to an over-optimistic model assumption in allocating surface water for satisfying urban water needs. In reality, many big cities, although they are located in wet regions and have abundant surface water availability, still strongly rely on groundwater sources due to inadequate facilities to treat and distribute surface water resources.

  5. Optimising a fall out dust monitoring sampling programme at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    The aim of this study at the specific cement manufacturing plant and open cast mine was ... Key words: Fall out dust monitoring, cement plant, optimising, air pollution sampling, ..... meters as this is in line with the height of a typical fall out dust.

  6. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  7. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence, D.W. Woolery

    2010-07-08

    This document reports the findings of the groundwater and leachate monitoring and sampling at the Environmental restoration Disposal Facility for calendar year 2009. The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  8. A new design of groundwater sampling device and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yih-Jin Tsai; Ming-Ching T.Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Compounds in the atmosphere contaminate samples of groundwater. An inexpensive and simple method for collecting groundwater samples is developed to prevent contamination when the background concentration of contaminants is high. This new design of groundwater sampling device involves a glass sampling bottle with a Teflon-lined valve at each end. A cleaned and dried sampling bottle was connected to a low flow-rate peristaltic pump with Teflon tubing and was filled with water. No headspace volume was remained in the sampling bottle. The sample bottle was then packed in a PVC bag to prevent the target component from infiltrating into the water sample through the valves. In this study, groundwater was sampled at six wells using both the conventional method and the improved method.The analysis of trichlorofluoromethane(CFC-11 ) concentrations at these six wells indicates that all the groundwater samples obtained by the conventional sampling method were contaminated by CFC-11 from the atmosphere. The improved sampling method greatly eliminated theproblems of contamination, preservation and quantitative analysis of natural water.

  9. Construction of a groundwater-flow model for the Big Sioux Aquifer using airborne electromagnetic methods, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Carter, Janet M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.

    2016-09-28

    The city of Sioux Falls is the fastest growing community in South Dakota. In response to this continued growth and planning for future development, Sioux Falls requires a sustainable supply of municipal water. Planning and managing sustainable groundwater supplies requires a thorough understanding of local groundwater resources. The Big Sioux aquifer consists of glacial outwash sands and gravels and is hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River, which provided about 90 percent of the city’s source-water production in 2015. Managing sustainable groundwater supplies also requires an understanding of groundwater availability. An effective mechanism to inform water management decisions is the development and utilization of a groundwater-flow model. A groundwater-flow model provides a quantitative framework for synthesizing field information and conceptualizing hydrogeologic processes. These groundwater-flow models can support decision making processes by mapping and characterizing the aquifer. Accordingly, the city of Sioux Falls partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey to construct a groundwater-flow model. Model inputs will include data from advanced geophysical techniques, specifically airborne electromagnetic methods.

  10. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  11. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Integrated sampling and analytical approach for common groundwater dissolved gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Kimberley; Ryan, M Cathryn; Chu, Angus

    2007-12-15

    A novel passive gas diffusion sampler (PGDS) combines sampling, storage and direct injection into a single gas chromatograph (GC). The sampler has a 4.5 mL internal volume when deployed, is easy to operate, and eliminates sample-partitioning. The associated GC method analyzes for a large, dynamic sampling range from a single, small volume injection. Dissolved gases were separated on parallel Rt-Molsieve 5A and Rt-Q-PLOT columns and eluted solutes were quantified using a pulse discharge helium ionization detector (PD-HID). The combined sampling and analytical method appears to be less prone to systematic bias than conventional sampling and headspace partitioning and analysis. Total dissolved gas pressure used in tandem with the PGDS improved the accuracy of dissolved gas concentrations. The incorporation of routine measurements of dissolved biogeochemical and permanent gases into groundwater investigations will provide increased insight into chemical and biological processes in groundwater and improve chemical mass balance accuracy.

  13. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  14. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Jennifer S. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Conley, S. F. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Brown, W. L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwatermonitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons.

  15. Ground-water reconnaissance of the Sailor Creek area, Owyhee, Elmore, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1962-01-01

    This reports evaluates the ground-water resources of about 1,000 square miles in the semiarid uplands south of the Snake River between Bruneau River and Salmon Falls Creek. The outcropping rocks are the Idavada Volcanics of Pliocene age, and the Idaho Group of Pliocene and Plieistocene age, consisting of the Banbury Basalt of middle Pliocene age and overlying predominantly sedimentary deposits of middle Pliocene through middle Pleistocene age. These rocks dip gently northward. The volcanic rocks are the best aquifers, but the yield of water from the sedimentary deposits is adequate for domestic and stock use. About 6,000 acre-feet of water is withdrawn annually from the Idavada Volcanics by 9 irrigation wells to irrigate about 3,000 acres. Only a few tends of acre-feet of water withdrawn from the other formations. The regional dip of the rocks induces weak artesian conditions in the volcanic rocks and somewhat higher artesian head in the sedimentary rocks. Estimated depth to water ranges from less than 250 feet to more than 750 feet, as shown in an accompanying map. The eastern part of the area appears to be more favorable for the development of ground water for irrigation than the western part because of better aquifers at shallower depth.

  16. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD THE NEXT STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; CONLEY SF; HILDEBRAND RD; CUNNINGHAM DE; R_D_Doug_Hildebrand@rl.gov; DeVon_E_Cunningham@rl.gov

    2010-01-21

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very "people intensive." Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or "samplers." These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  17. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Tellam, John H; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken.

  19. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Brown, W.L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, P.O. Box 950, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, 825 Jadwin Ave., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons. Historically, the monitoring activities have been very 'people intensive'. Field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from two official electronic databases: the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers traditionally used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information. In Automating Groundwater Sampling at Hanford (HNF-38542-FP Revision 0, Presented at Waste Management 2009 Conference, March 1 - March 5, 2009, Phoenix, AZ), we described the methods, tools, and techniques that would be used in automating the activities associated with measuring water levels. The Field Logging and Electronic Data Gathering (FLEDG) application/database that automates collecting the water-level measurement data has now been implemented at Hanford. In addition to

  20. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 {mu}g.L{sup -1} were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  1. Influence of thermal treatments on radiocarbon dating of groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Iuliana Madalina; Sava, Tiberiu Bogdan; Pacesila, Doru Gheorghe; Gaza, Oana; Simion, Corina Anca; Stefan, Bianca Maria; Sava, Gabriela Odilia; Ghita, Dan Gabriel; Mosu, Vasile

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water provides information about the formation of oceanic circulation of the water volumes, the hydrogeological systems, and also valuable information can be gained about the aquifer storage and the degree of containment relative to the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating refers to the determination of small quantities of the naturally occurring carbon 14 in the water, which can be integrated in the groundwater mass through the gaseous CO2, carbonaceous deposits dissolved by water and organic remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the temperature and pressure over the amount of each isotope of carbon during the sample preparation stage. The first step was to evaporate several underground water samples at 65°C under different conditions until the carbonates were obtained, then the CO2 was extracted with orto-phosphoric acid and transformed to graphite. The second step was to obtain graphite from an untreated water sample. Finally, the samples were measured with the 1MV Cockcroft-Walton Tandetron Accelerator by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

  2. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R. L.; Lawrence, B. L.

    2011-06-09

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD2 and the ERDF Amended ROD (EPA 1999). The overall objective of the groundwater monitoring program is to determine whether ERDF has impacted the groundwater. This objective is complicated by the fact that the ERDF is situated downgradient of the numerous groundwater contamination plumes originating from the 200 West Area.

  3. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Hyde Park landfill, Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslia, M.L.; Johnston, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Hyde Park landfill is a 15-acre chemical waste disposal site located north of Niagara Falls, New York. Underlying the site in descending order are: (1) low permeability glacial till, (2) a moderately permeable fractured rock aquifer--the Lockport Dolomite, and (3) a low permeability unit--the Rochester Shale. The site is bounded on three sides by ground-water drains; the Niagara River Gorge, the Niagara Power Project canal, and the power project conduits. A finite element model was used to simulate ground-water flow along an east-west section through the Hyde Park site (from the power project conduits to the Niagara Gorge). Steady-state conditions were simulated with an average annual recharge rate of 5 inches per year. The calibrated model simulated measured water levels within 5 feet in the glacial till and upper unit of the Lockport Dolomite and approximated the configuration of the water table. Based on simulation, ground-water flow near the Hyde Park site can be summarized as follows: 1. Specific discharge (Darcy velocity) ranges from about 0.01 to 0.1 foot per day in the upper unit of the Lockport Dolomite to less than 0.00001 foot per day in the Rochester Shale. Real velocities are highest in the upper unit of the Lockport, ranging from about 1.5 to 4.8 feet per day. 2. A ground-water divide exists east of the landfill, indicating that all ground water originating near or flowing beneath the landfill will flow toward and discharge in the gorge. 3. The zone of highest velocities (and presumably greatest potential for transporting chemical contaminants) includes the upper unit of the Lockport and part of the lower unit of the Lockport Dolomite between the landfill and the gorge. The time required for ground water to move from the landfill to the gorge in the Lockport Dolomite is estimated to be 5 to 7 years.

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  7. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-09-03

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF, to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  8. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services (NNES), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  9. A downhole passive sampling system to avoid bias and error from groundwater sample handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sanford L; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2010-07-01

    A new downhole groundwater sampler reduces bias and error due to sample handling and exposure while introducing minimal disturbance to natural flow conditions in the formation and well. This "In Situ Sealed", "ISS", or "Snap" sampling device includes removable/lab-ready sample bottles, a sampler device to hold double end-opening sample bottles in an open position, and a line for lowering the sampler system and triggering closure of the bottles downhole. Before deployment, each bottle is set open at both ends to allow flow-through during installation and equilibration downhole. Bottles are triggered to close downhole without well purging; the method is therefore "passive" or "nonpurge". The sample is retrieved in a sealed condition and remains unexposed until analysis. Data from six field studies comparing ISS sampling with traditional methods indicate ISS samples typically yield higher volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations; in one case, significant chemical-specific differentials between sampling methods were discernible. For arsenic, filtered and unfiltered purge results were negatively and positively biased, respectively, compared to ISS results. Inorganic constituents showed parity with traditional methods. Overall, the ISS is versatile, avoids low VOC recovery bias, and enhances reproducibility while avoiding sampling complexity and purge water disposal.

  10. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples.

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2006-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  13. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  14. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. The Falls City site is in Karnes County, Texas, approximately 8 miles [13 kilometers southwest of the town of Falls City and 46 mi (74 km) southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Before surface remedial action, the tailings site consisted of two parcels. Parcel A consisted of the mill site, one mill building, five tailings piles, and one tailings pond south of Farm-to-Market (FM) Road 1344 and west of FM 791. A sixth tailings pile designated Parcel B was north of FM 791 and east of FM 1344.

  15. Antihypertensive medications and serious fall injuries in a nationally representative sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Mary E; Han, Ling; Lee, David S H; McAvay, Gail J; Peduzzi, Peter; Gross, Cary P; Zhou, Bingqing; Lin, Haiqun

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE The effect of serious injuries, such as hip fracture and head injury, on mortality and function is comparable to that of cardiovascular events. Concerns have been raised about the risk of fall injuries in older adults taking antihypertensive medications. The low risk of fall injuries reported in clinical trials of healthy older adults may not reflect the risk in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether antihypertensive medication use was associated with experiencing a serious fall injury in a nationally representative sample of older adults. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING Competing risk analysis as performed with propensity score adjustment and matching in the nationally representative Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey cohort during a 3-year follow-up through 2009. Participants included 4961 community-living adults older than 70 years with hypertension. EXPOSURES Antihypertensive medication intensity based on the standardized daily dose for each antihypertensive medication class that participants used. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serious fall injuries, including hip and other major fractures, traumatic brain injuries, and joint dislocations, ascertained through Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims. RESULTS Of the 4961 participants, 14.1% received no antihypertensive medications; 54.6% were in the moderate-intensity and 31.3% in the high-intensity antihypertensive groups. During follow-up, 446 participants (9.0%) experienced serious fall injuries, and 837 (16.9%) died. The adjusted hazard ratios for serious fall injury were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.03-1.90) in the moderate-intensity and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.91-1.80) in the high-intensity antihypertensive groups compared with nonusers. Although the difference in adjusted hazard ratios across the groups did not reach statistical significance, results were similar in the propensity score-matched subcohort. Among 503 participants with a previous fall injury, the adjusted

  16. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  17. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Kearney (A.T.), Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-01-20

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters.

  18. Groundwater monitoring programme. A guide for groundwater sampling and analysis. 2. ed.; Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm. Leitfaden fuer Probenahme und Analytik von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Quality assurance guidelines have been developed and introduced in Baden-Wuerttemberg for groundwater monitoring. The contribution contains the fundamentals and technical guides for sampling and measurement of the Baden-Wuerttemberg groundwater monitoring programme, as well as parameter groups and a preliminary assessment of the methods. [German] Bei der Gewinnung von Umweltdaten sind hohe Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der erhobenen Daten zu stellen. Dies trifft in besonderem Masse gerade auch fuer Grundwasseruntersuchungen zu, da hier haeufig Konzentrationen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze auftreten. Fuer das Grundwassermessnetz Baden-Wuerttemberg sind qualitaetssichernde Regelungen entwickelt und eingefuehrt worden. In der vorliegenden Zusammenstellung sind die Grundsatzpapiere, bzw. Technischen Anleitungen aus dem Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer die Grundwasserprobennahme sowie zu Messverfahren, Parametergruppen und zur ersten Beurteilung der Messergebnisse enthalten. (orig.)

  19. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  20. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Madrid et al., 2013) as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map (Figure 1) and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report (Jackson et al., 2011). The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites (Table 1). In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015

  1. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  2. Optimization of groundwater sampling approach under various hydrogeological conditions using a numerical simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengqi; Hou, Deyi; Luo, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a numerical model based on field data to simulate groundwater flow in both the aquifer and the well-bore for the low-flow sampling method and the well-volume sampling method. The numerical model was calibrated to match well with field drawdown, and calculated flow regime in the well was used to predict the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the purging period. The model was then used to analyze sampling representativeness and sampling time. Site characteristics, such as aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and sampling choices, such as purging rate and screen length, were found to be significant determinants of sampling representativeness and required sampling time. Results demonstrated that: (1) DO was the most useful water quality indicator in ensuring groundwater sampling representativeness in comparison with turbidity, pH, specific conductance, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and temperature; (2) it is not necessary to maintain a drawdown of less than 0.1 m when conducting low flow purging. However, a high purging rate in a low permeability aquifer may result in a dramatic decrease in sampling representativeness after an initial peak; (3) the presence of a short screen length may result in greater drawdown and a longer sampling time for low-flow purging. Overall, the present study suggests that this new numerical model is suitable for describing groundwater flow during the sampling process, and can be used to optimize sampling strategies under various hydrogeological conditions.

  3. Vertical Sampling in Recharge Areas Versus Lateral Sampling in Discharge Areas: Assessing the Agricultural Nitrogen Legacy in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, T. E.; Genereux, D. P.; Solomon, D. K.; Mitasova, H.; Burnette, M.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural nitrogen (N) is a legacy contaminant often found in shallow groundwater systems. This legacy has commonly been observed using well nests (vertical sampling) in recharge areas, but may also be observed by sampling at points in/beneath a streambed using pushable probes along transects across a channel (lateral sampling). We compared results from two different streambed point sampling approaches and from wells in the recharge area to assess whether the different approaches give fundamentally different pictures of (1) the magnitude of N contamination, (2) historic trends in N contamination, and (3) the extent to which denitrification attenuates nitrate transport through the surficial aquifer. Two different arrangements of streambed points (SP) were used to sample groundwater discharging into a coastal plain stream in North Carolina. In July 2012, a 58 m reach was sampled using closely-spaced lateral transects of SP, revealing high average [NO3-] (808 μM, n=39). In March 2013, transects of SP were widely distributed through a 2.7 km reach that contained the 58 m reach and suggested overall lower [NO3-] (210 μM, n=30), possibly due to variation in land use along the longer study reach. Mean [NO3-] from vertical sampling (2 well nests with 3 wells each) was 296 μM. Groundwater apparent ages from SP in the 58 m and 2.7 km reaches suggested lower recharge [NO3-] (observed [NO3-] plus modeled excess N2) in 0-10 year-old water (1250 μM and 525 μM, respectively), compared to higher recharge [NO3-] from 10-30 years ago (about 1600 μM and 900 μM, respectively). In the wells, [NO3-] was highest (835 μM) in groundwater with apparent age of 12-15 years and declined as apparent age increased, a trend that was consistent with SP in the 2.7 km reach. The 58 m reach suggested elevated recharge [NO3-] (>1100 μM) over a 50-year period. Excess N2 from wells suggested that about 62% of nitrate had been removed via denitrification since recharge, versus 51% and 78

  4. Effect of Niagara power project on ground-water flow in the upper part of the Lockport Dolomite, Niagara Falls area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Niagara River Power Project near Niagara Falls, N.Y., has created recharge and discharge areas that have modified the direction of groundwater flow east and northeast of the falls. Before construction of the power project in 1962, the configuration of the potentiometric surface in the upper part of the Silurian Lockport Dolomite generally paralleled the buried upper surface of the bedrock. Ground water in the central and east parts of the city of Niagara Falls flowed south and southwestward toward the upper Niagara River (above the falls), and ground water in the western part flowed westward into Niagara River gorge. The power project consists of two hydroelectric powerplants separated by a forebay canal that receives water from the upper Niagara River through two 4-mi-long, parallel, buried conduits. During periods of nonpeak power demand, some water in the forebay canal is pumped to a storage reservoir for later release to generate electricity during peak-demand periods. Since the power project began operation in 1962, groundwater within 0.5 mi of the buried conduits has seeped into the drain system that surrounds the conduits, then flows both south from the forebay canal and north from the Niagara River toward the Falls Street tunnel--a former sewer that crosses the conduits 0.65 mi north of the upper Niagara River. Approximately 6 million gallons of ground water a day leaks into the Falls Street tunnel, which carries it 2.3 mi westward to the Niagara River gorge below the falls. Daily water-level fluctuations in the forebay canal affect water levels in the drain system that surrounds the conduits, and this , in turn, affects the potentiometric surface in the Lockport Dolomite within 0.5 mi of the conduits. The drains transmit changes in pressure head near the forebay canal southward at least as far as the Falls Street tunnel area and possibly to the upper Niagara River. Some water in the pumped-storage reservoir recharges ground water in the Lockport

  5. Preserving the distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater and acid mine drainage samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of inorganic arsenic species must be preserved in the field to eliminate changes caused by metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, photochemical oxidation, and redox reactions. Arsenic species sorb to iron and manganese oxyhydroxide precipitates, and arsenite can be oxidized to arsenate by photolytically produced free radicals in many sample matrices. Several preservatives were evaluated to minimize metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, such as inorganic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA was found to work best for all sample matrices tested. Storing samples in opaque polyethylene bottles eliminated the effects of photochemical reactions. The preservation technique was tested on 71 groundwater and six acid mine drainage samples. Concentrations in groundwater samples reached 720 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 1080 ??g-As/L for arsenate, and acid mine drainage samples reached 13 000 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 3700 ??g-As/L for arsenate. The arsenic species distribution in the samples ranged from 0 to 90% arsenite. The stability of the preservation technique was established by comparing laboratory arsenic speciation results for samples preserved in the field to results for subsamples speciated onsite. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between arsenite and arsenate concentrations for samples preserved with EDTA in opaque bottles and field speciation results were analytically insignificant. The percentage change in arsenite:arsenate ratios for a preserved acid mine drainage sample and groundwater sample during a 3-month period was -5 and +3%, respectively.

  6. Effect of the extent of well purging on laboratory parameters of groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reka Mathe, Agnes; Kohler, Artur; Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-04-01

    Chemicals reaching groundwater cause water quality deterioration. Reconnaissance and remediation demands high financial and human resources. Groundwater samples are important sources of information. Representativity of these samples is fundamental to decision making. According to relevant literature the way of sampling and the sampling equipment can affect laboratory concentrations measured in samples. Detailed and systematic research on this field is missing from even international literature. Groundwater sampling procedures are regulated worldwide. Regulations describe how to sample a groundwater monitoring well. The most common element in these regulations is well purging prior to sampling. The aim of purging the well is to avoid taking the sample from the stagnant water instead of from formation water. The stagnant water forms inside and around the well because the well casing provides direct contact with the atmosphere, changing the physico-chemical composition of the well water. Sample from the stagnant water is not representative of the formation water. Regulations regarding the extent of the purging are different. Purging is mostly defined as multiply (3-5) well volumes, and/or reaching stabilization of some purged water parameters (pH, specific conductivity, etc.). There are hints for sampling without purging. To define the necessary extent of the purging repeated pumping is conducted, triplicate samples are taken at the beginning of purging, at one, two and three times well volumes and at parameter stabilization. Triplicate samples are the means to account for laboratory errors. The subsurface is not static, the test is repeated 10 times. Up to now three tests were completed.

  7. Physicochemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Amalner Town inJalgaon District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater and municipal water in Amalner town by taking water samples from five different stations. The study was carried out by collecting four groundwater samples (Two open well, two bore well and one municipal water sample during November 2007-February 2008. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and ISI 10500-91. Total 15 parameters were analysed. It was found that the underground water was contaminated at few sampling sites namely Shirud Naka, Cotton Market and Shivaji Nagar. The sampling sites Dekhu road showed physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficients were calculated for water quality assessment.

  8. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  9. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This biennial event includes sampling five groundwater locations (four monitoring wells and one domestic well) at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site. For this event, the domestic well (location 0543) could not be sampled because no one was in residence during the sampling event (Note: notification was provided to the resident prior to the event). Per Appendix A of the Groundwater Compliance Action Plan, sampling is conducted to monitor groundwater quality on a voluntary basis. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). One duplicate sample was collected from location 0505. Water levels were measured at each sampled monitoring well. The constituents monitored at the Lakeview site are manganese and sulfate. Monitoring locations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for these constituents are listed in Table 1. Review of time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that manganese and sulfate concentrations are consistent with historical measurements.

  10. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  11. Hanford groundwater modeling: statistical methods for evaluating uncertainty and assessing sampling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of three documents which address the role of uncertainty in the Rockwell Hanford Operations groundwater model development and application program at Hanford Site. Groundwater data collection activities at Hanford are reviewed as they relate to Rockwell groundwater modeling. Methods of applying statistical and probability theory in quantifying the propagation of uncertainty from field measurements to model predictions are discussed. It is shown that measures of model accuracy or uncertainty provided by a statistical analysis can be useful in guiding model development and sampling network design. Recommendations are presented in the areas of model input data needs, parameter estimation data needs, and model verification and variance estimation data needs. 8 figures.

  12. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Johnson, Richard [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location HMC-951. Alluvium wells are completed in the alluvial sediments in the former channel of the Rio San Jose, which was covered by basalt lava flows known as the El Malpais, and are identified by the suffix (M). Bedrock wells are completed in the San Andres Limestone/Glorieta Sandstone hydrologic unit (San Andres aquifer) and are identified by the suffix (SG). Wells HMC-951 and OBS-3 are also completed in the San Andres aquifer. The LTSP requires monitoring for molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); PCB monitoring occurs only during November sampling events. This event included sampling for an expanded list of analytes to characterize the site aquifers and to support a regional groundwater investigation being conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department.

  13. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    There is significant interest in sampling subglacial environments for geochemical and microbiological studies, yet those environments are typically difficult to access. Existing ice-drilling technologies make it cumbersome to maintain microbiologically clean access for sample acquisition and environmental stewardship of potentially fragile subglacial aquatic ecosystems. With the "IceMole", a minimally invasive, maneuverable subsurface ice probe, we have developed a clean glacial exploration technology for in-situ analysis and sampling of glacial ice and sub- and englacial materials. Its design is based on combining melting and mechanical stabilization, using an ice screw at the tip of the melting head to maintain firm contact between the melting head and the ice. The IceMole can change its melting direction by differential heating of the melting head and optional side wall heaters. Downward, horizontal and upward melting, as well as curve driving and penetration of particulate-ladden layers has already been demonstrated in several field tests. This maneuverability of the IceMole also necessitates a sophisticated on-board navigation system, capable of autonomous operations. Therefore, between 2012 and 2014, a more advanced probe was developed as part of the "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project. The EnEx-IceMole offers systems for accurate positioning, based on in-ice attitude determination, acoustic positioning, ultrasonic obstacle and target detection, which is all integrated through a high-level sensor fusion algorithm. In December 2014, the EnEx-IceMole was used for clean access into a unique subglacial aquatic environment at Blood Falls, Antarctica, where an englacial brine sample was successfully obtained after about 17 meters of oblique melting. Particular attention was paid to clean protocols for sampling for geochemical and microbiological analysis. In this contribution, we will describe the general technological approach of the IceMole and report on the

  14. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, Reika

    2016-09-01

    Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters. Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr (81 Kr and 85 Kr) possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled determination of ultra-trace noble gas radioisotope abundances using 5-10 μ L of pure Kr. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries. Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled (138 K) activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. This simple process uses a single adsorbent and separates 99% of the bulk atmospheric gases from Kr without significant loss. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas. Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The presented Kr separation system has a demonstrated capability of extracting Kr with > 90% yield and 99% purity within 75 min from 1.2 to 26.8 L STP of atmospheric air with various concentrations of CH4. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples.

  15. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-03-28

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality.

  16. Groundwater sampling and chemical characterization of the Laxemar deep borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Smellie, J. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, A.C. [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-02-01

    The Laxemar deep borehole, KLX02 (1705 m depth), located close to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), has been investigated. Groundwater sampling was conducted on two occasions and using different methods. The first sampling was taken in the open borehole using the so-called Tube sampler; the second sampling carried out using the SKB-packer equipment to isolate pre-determined borehole sections. Groundwater compositions consist of two distinct groupings; one shallow to intermediate Sodium-Bicarbonate type (Na(Ca,K):HC{sub 3}Cl(SO{sub 4})) to a depth of 1000 m, and the other of deep origin, a calcium-chloride type (Ca-Na(K):Cl-SO{sub 4}(Br)), occurring below 1000 m. The deep brines contain up to 46000 mg of Cl per litre. The influence of borehole activities are seen in the tritium data which record significant tritium down to 1000 m, and even to 1420 m. Mixing modelling shows that water from the 1960`s is the main source for this tritium. The high tritium values in the 1090-1096.2 m section are due to contamination of 1% shallow water from 1960 and 2% of modern shallow water. The upper 800 m of bedrock at Laxemar lies within a groundwater recharge area; the sub-vertical to moderate angled fracture zones facilitate groundwater circulation to considerable depths, at least to 800 m, thus accounting for some of the low saline brackish groundwaters in these conducting fracture zones. Below 1000 m the system is hydraulically and geochemically `closed` such that highly saline brines exist in a near-stagnant environment. 30 refs, 22 figs, 8 tabs.

  17. Data Validation Package, June 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Hallam, Nebraska, Decommissioned Reactor Site, August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan [LTSP] for the Decommissioned Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska (http://www.lm.doe.gov/Hallam/Documents.aspx) requires groundwater monitoring once every 2 years. Seventeen monitoring wells at the Hallam site were sampled during this event as specified in the plan. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and at two additional wells (6A and 6B) prior to the start of sampling. Additionally, water levels of each sampled well were measured at the beginning of sampling. See Attachment 2, Trip Report, for additional details. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Gross alpha and gross beta are the only parameters that were detected at statistically significant concentrations. Time/concentration graphs of the gross alpha and gross beta data are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations observed are consistent with values previously observed and are attributed to naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium and uranium decay chain products) in the groundwater.

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  19. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after...

  20. Passive sampling and analyses of common dissolved fixed gases in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Brian P; Watson, David B

    2008-05-15

    An in situ passive sampling and gas chromatographic protocol was developed for analysis of the major and several minor fixed gases (He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2O) in groundwater. Using argon carrier gas, a HayeSep DB porous polymer phase, and sequential thermal conductivity and reductive gas detectors, the protocol achieved sufficient separation and sensitivity to measure the mixing ratio of all these gases in a single 0.5 mL gas sample collected in situ, stored, transported, and injected using a gastight syringe. Within 4 days of immersion in groundwater, the simple passive in situ sampler, whether initially filled with He or air, attained an equivalent and constant mixing ratio for five of the seven detected gases. The abundant mixing ratio of N2O, averaging 2.6%, indicated that significant denitrification is likely ongoing within groundwater contaminated with uranium, acidity, nitrate, and organic carbon from a group of four closed radioactive wastewater seepage ponds at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center. Over 1000 passive gas samples from 12 monitoring wells averaged 56% CO2, 32.4% N2, 2.6% O2, 2.6% N2O, 0.21% CH4, 0.093% H2, and 0.025% CO with an average recovery of 95 +/- 14% of the injected gas volume.

  1. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.; Takala, M.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of groundwater colloids and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1, ONK-PVA5 and ONK-PVA10 in August 2013. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters in which the groundwater was run through. The particle calculations were performed with computer software ImageJ 1.47. In addition, field flow fractionation (FFF) measurements were performed from the unfiltered water samples. The colloid concentration (diameter 0 - 1 μm) determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs in ONK-PVA1 was 300 μg/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA5 was 30 μg/l and ONK-PVA10 40 μg/l. FFF measurements supported the results of single particle analyses with a difference that an extra peak was found from ONK-PVA1 sample. The peak, which showed no evidence in single particle analyses, was suspected to contain humic substances. (orig.)

  2. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  3. Environmental forensics in groundwater coupling passive sampling and high resolution mass spectrometry for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Coralie; Coureau, Charlotte; Togola, Anne

    2016-09-01

    One of the difficulties encountered when monitoring groundwater quality is low and fluctuating concentration levels and complex mixtures of micropollutants, including emerging substances or transformation products. Combining passive sampling techniques with analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) should improve environmental metrology. Passive samplers accumulate compounds during exposure, which improves the detection of organic compounds and integrates pollution fluctuations. The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) were used in this study to sequester polar to semi-polar compounds. The methodology described here improves our knowledge of environmental pollution by highlighting and identifying pertinent compounds to be monitored in groundwater. The advantage of combining these two approaches is demonstrated on two different sites impacted by agricultural and/or urban pollution sources where groundwater was sampled for several months. Grab and passive sampling were done and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF). Various data processing approaches were used (target, suspect and non-target screening). Target screening was based on research from compounds listed in a homemade database and suspect screening used a database compiled using literature data. The non-target screening was done using statistical tools such as principal components analysis (PCA) with direct connections between original chromatograms and ion intensity. Trend plots were used to highlight relevant compounds for their identification. The advantage of using POCIS to improve screening of polar organic compounds was demonstrated. Compounds undetected in water samples were detected with these tools. The subsequent data processing identified sentinel molecules, molecular clusters as compounds never revealed in these sampling sites, and molecular fingerprints. Samples were compared and multidimensional

  4. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  5. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  6. Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M C; Wyndham, R C

    1999-04-01

    The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fcb) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 degrees C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl (M. C. Peel and R. C. Wyndham, Microb. Ecol: 33:59-68, 1997). Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns. These observations are consistent with the recent spread of the cba genes by horizontal transfer as part of transposon Tn5271 in response to contaminant exposure at Hyde Park. Consistent with this hypothesis, IS1071, the flanking element in Tn5271, was found in all isolates that carried the cba genes. Interestingly, IS1071 was also found in a high proportion of isolates from Hyde Park carrying the clc and fcb genes, as well as in type

  7. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  8. Wells provide a distorted view of life in the aquifer: implications for sampling, monitoring and assessment of groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Kathryn; Chariton, Anthony; Stephenson, Sarah; Greenfield, Paul; Hose, Grant C.

    2017-01-01

    When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer. This study uses DNA community profiling (metabarcoding) of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, combined with traditional stygofauna sampling methods, to characterise groundwater biota from four catchments within eastern Australia. Aquifer waters were dominated by Archaea and bacteria (e.g. Nitrosopumilales) that are often associated with nitrification processes, and contained a greater proportion of bacteria (e.g. Anaerolineales) associated with fermenting processes compared to well waters. In contrast, unpurged wells contained greater proportions of pathogenic bacteria and bacteria often associated with denitrification processes. In terms of eukaryotes, the abundances of copepods, syncarids and oligochaetes and total abundances of stygofauna were greater in wells than aquifers. These findings highlight the need to consider sampling requirements when completing groundwater ecology surveys. PMID:28102290

  9. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Sherwood, Washington, Disposal Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    The 2001 Long-Term Surveillance Plan (LTSP) for the US. Department of Energy Sherwood Project (UMI'RCA Title II) Reclamation Cell, Wellpinit, Washington, does not require groundwater compliance monitoring at the Sherwood site. However, the LTSP stipulates limited groundwater monitoring for chloride and sulfate (designated indicator parameters) and total dissolved solids (TDS) as a best management practice. Samples were collected from the background well, MW-2B, and the two downgradient wells, MW-4 and MW-10, in accordance with the LTSP. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Water levels were measured in all wells prior to sampling and in four piezometers completed in the tailings dam. Time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that the chloride, sulfate, and TDS concentrations are consistent with historical measurements. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate are well below the State of Washington water quality criteria value of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for both parameters.

  10. Molecular analysis of microbial community in a groundwater sample polluted by landfill leachate and seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yang-jie; YANG Hong; WU Xiu-juan; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Seashore landfill aquifers are environments of special physicochemical conditions (high organic load and high salinity), and microbes in leachate-polluted aquifers play a significant role for intrinsic bioremediation. In order to characterize microbial diversity and look for clues on the relationship between microbial community structure and hydrochemistry, a culture-independent examination of a typical groundwater sample obtained from a seashore landfill was conducted by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA clone library. Two sets of universal 16S rDNA primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from the groundwater so that problems arising from primer efficiency and specificity could be reduced. Of 74 clones randomly selected from the libraries, 30 contained unique sequences whose analysis showed that the majority of them belonged to bacteria (95.9%), with Proteobacteria (63.5%) being the dominant division. One archaeal sequence and one eukaryotic sequence were found as well. Bacterial sequences belonging to the following phylogenic groups were identified: Bacteroidetes (20.3%), β, γ, δ and ε-subdivisions of Proteobacteria (47.3%, 9.5%, 5.4% and 1.3%, respectively), Firmicutes (1.4%), Actinobacteria (2.7%), Cyanobacteria (2.7%). The percentages of Proteobacteria and Bacteroides in seawater were greater than those in the groundwater from a non-seashore landfill, indicating a possible influence of seawater. Quite a few sequences had close relatives in marine or hypersaline environments. Many sequences showed affiliations with microbes involved in anaerobic fermentation. The remarkable abundance of sequences related to (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (C1RB) in the groundwater was significant and worthy of further study.

  11. THE PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF LOW CONCENTRATION MTBE ON TITANIUM DIOXIDE FROM GROUNDWATER IN A FALLING FILM REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on three objectives: 1) to determine the feasibility of using a falling-film slurry photocatalytic reactor for the degradation of MTBE in water, 2) to assess the feasibility of MTBE photo-oxidation on TiO2 at low initial MTBE concentrations (<10 mg/L), and 3) t...

  12. Definitions of Sarcopenia: Associations with Previous Falls and Fracture in a Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynes, M A; Edwards, M H; Buehring, B; Dennison, E M; Binkley, N; Cooper, C

    2015-11-01

    Sarcopenia is common in later life and may be associated with adverse health outcomes such as disability, falls and fracture. There is no consensus definition for its diagnosis although diagnostic algorithms have been proposed by the European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS) and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH). More recently, Binkley and colleagues devised a score-based system for the diagnosis of "dysmobility syndrome" in an attempt to combine adverse musculoskeletal phenotypes, including sarcopenia and osteoporosis, in order to identify older individuals at particular risk. We applied these criteria to participants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study to define their prevalence in an unselected cohort of UK community-dwelling older adults and assess their relationships with previous falls and fracture. Body composition and areal bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, gait speed was determined by a 3-m walk test and grip strength was assessed with a Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Researcher-administered questionnaires were completed detailing falls and fracture history. The prevalence of sarcopenia in this cohort was 3.3, 8.3 and 2.0% using the EWGSOP, IWGS and related definition of FNIH, respectively; 24.8% of individuals had dysmobility syndrome. Individuals with dysmobility reported significantly higher number of falls (last year and since the age of 45 years) (p sarcopenia as defined by the IWGS reported significantly higher falls in the last year and prevalent fractures (falls in the last year: OR 2.51; CI 1.09-5.81; p = 0.03; fractures OR 2.50; CI 1.05-5.92; p = 0.04) but these significant associations were not seen when the EWGSOP definition was applied. The IWGS definition of sarcopenia appears to be an effective means of identifying individuals at risk of prevalent adverse musculoskeletal events.

  13. January 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 27, 2015, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. Samples were collected from wells USGS-1, USGS-4, and USGS-8 during this monitoring event. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-8 and water levels were measured in all the monitoring wells onsite. Refer to the sample location map for well locations. Samples were analyzed by GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, strontium-90, and tritium. The sample from well USGS-1 was analyzed for tritium using the enrichment method to achieve a lower minimum detectable concentration (MDC). Radionuclide contaminants were detected in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8. The detection of radionuclides in these wells was expected because the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a tracer test between these wells in 1963 using the dissolved radionuclides tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 as tracers. Radionuclide time-concentration graphs are included in this report for these wells. Analytical data obtained from this and past sampling events are also available in electronic format on the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Geospatial Environmental Mapping System website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#site=GNO.

  14. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well

  15. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Inkollu Mandal, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical parameters of groundwater quality based on Physic-chemical parameters at Inkollu mandal, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India have been taken up to evaluate its suitability for Drinking purpose. Nine ground water samples were collected from different places of Inkollu mandal of Prakasam district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Iron. By observing the results, it was shown that the parameters from the water samples were compared with WHO (World Health Organization and BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards, USPH (United state Public health for ground water .The results revealed that some parameters were in high concentration and quality of the potable water has deteriorated to a large extent at some sampling locations.

  16. Women's History and Seneca Falls: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of educational resources related to women's history and the historic Seneca Falls (New York) conference on women's rights. Materials selected include books, academic journals, theme issues, videos, workbooks, and curriculum guides. Includes information on locating, ordering, and reproduction of these resources.…

  17. Purification and Detection of 39Ar in Groundwater Samples via Low-Level Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Humble, P.; Panisko, M.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Argon-39 can be used as a radiotracer to age-date groundwater aquifers to study recharge rates and to better understand the mean residence time, or age distributions, of groundwater. Argon-39 (with a half-life of 269 years) is created in the atmosphere by cosmic rays interacting with argon in the air (primarily 40Ar). The use of 39Ar as a radiotracer fills a gap in the age dating range which is currently covered by 3H/3He or 85Kr (1000 years); 39Ar fills the intermediate time scale range from 50-1000 years where the previously established radiotracers are not adequate. We will introduce the process for purifying and detecting 39Ar in ground water using ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPCs) at the shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Argon-39 is detected through direct beta counting using ULBPCs loaded with a mixture of geologic argon (extracted from a carbon dioxide well with no measureable 39Ar activity) and methane, which enhances the sensitivity for 39Ar measurements. The ULBPCs have been shown to have a background count rate of 148 counts per day (cpd) in the energy range 3-400 keV when filled with 10 atm of P-10 counting gas (90% geologic Ar, 10% CH4). Initial demonstration samples were collected from groundwater aquifers in Fresno, California supported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A discussion of the sampling technique to degas the water from these wells and to then purify it for counting will be presented. In order to quantify the 39Ar contribution in the groundwater samples, the ULBPCs were characterized to determine two components: 1) the detector efficiency to modern levels of 39Ar, and 2) the remaining detector background (using geologic sourced argon which is free from 39Ar - no measureable 39Ar activity). These characterization results will be presented along with a discussion of the quantification of the 39Ar age of the demonstration measurements.

  18. Delineation of a wellhead protection zone and determination of flowpaths from potential groundwater contaminant source areas at Camp Ripley, Little Falls, Minnesota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-22

    Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built on the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.

  19. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-03-31

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries.

  20. Data Validation Package - July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Groundwater sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site is conducted every 5 years to monitor disposal cell performance. During this event, samples were collected from eight monitoring wells as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0723. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled and seven additional wells. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that require additional action or follow-up.

  1. Simulated three-dimensional ground-water flow in the Lockport Group, a fractured-dolomite aquifer near Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional model was developed through a parameter-estimation method based on nonlinear regression to simulate ground-water flow in the Lockport Group, a fractured dolomite aquifer near Niagara Falls, N.Y. Horizontal fracture zones within the Lockport Group were represented by model layers, and connections between the zones were represented by vertical leakage between the layers. Results of steady-state simulations were compared with (1) the observed potentiometric surface of the weathered bedrock surface, (2) average heads measured by piezometers in underlying fracture zones, (3) low-flow measurements of springs and streams, and (4) measurements of discharge from tunnels and excavations. Results indicated that (1) measured flow into the Falls Street tunnel, an unlined storm sewer excavated in bedrock, exceeds the amount that can be sustained by the aquifer, and, therefore, a connection between the tunnel and the Niagara River can be assumed; (2) recharge within the urban parts of the modeled area is greater than in rural areas, possibly because of losses from the municipal water supply or infiltration from unlined storm sewers that intersect the bedrock; and (3) lowlands near the Niagara River might contain widespread areas of upward flow that discharge ground water through evapotranspiration and surface drainage.

  2. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.;

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  3. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  4. Dynamic groundwater monitoring networks: a manageable method for reviewing sampling frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Fournier, Magali F; Daughney, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of a water quality network through a change in sampling frequency is the only way to increase cost-efficiency without any reduction in the robustness of the data. Existing techniques define optimal sampling frequency based on analysis of historical data from the monitoring network under investigation. Their application to a large network comprised of many sites and many monitored parameters is both technical and challenging. This paper presents a simple non-parametric method for reviewing sampling frequency that is consistent with highly censored environmental data and oriented towards reduction of sampling frequency as a cost-saving measure. Based on simple descriptive statistics, the method is applicable to large networks with long time series and many monitored parameters. The method also provides metrics for interpretation of newly collected data, which enables identification of sites for which a future change in sampling frequency may be necessary, ensuring that the monitoring network is both current and adaptive. Application of this method to the New Zealand National Groundwater Monitoring Programme indicates that reduction of sampling frequency at any site would result in a significant loss of information. This paper also discusses the potential for reducing analysis frequency as an alternative to reduction of sampling frequency.

  5. Nutritional Status and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older People: A Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Random Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ming-Hung; Guo, How-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls are common in older people and may lead to functional decline, disability, and death. Many risk factors have been identified, but studies evaluating effects of nutritional status are limited. To determine whether nutritional status is a predictor of falls in older people living in the community, we analyzed data collected through the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (SHLSET). Methods SHLSET include a series of interview surveys conducted by the government on a random sample of people living in community dwellings in the nation. We included participants who received nutritional status assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Taiwan Version 2 (MNA-T2) in the 1999 survey when they were 53 years or older and followed up on the cumulative incidence of falls in the one-year period before the interview in the 2003 survey. Results At the beginning of follow-up, the 4440 participants had a mean age of 69.5 (standard deviation  = 9.1) years, and 467 participants were “not well-nourished,” which was defined as having an MNA-T2 score of 23 or less. In the one-year study period, 659 participants reported having at least one fall. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found the associated odds ratio for falls was 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.23, 2.42) for “not well-nourished,” 1.57 (1.30, 1.90) for female gender, 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) for one-year older, 1.55 (1.22, 1.98) for history of falls, 1.34 (1.05, 1.72) for hospital stay during the past 12 months, 1.66 (1.07, 2.58) for difficulties in activities of daily living, and 1.53 (1.23, 1.91) for difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusion Nutritional status is an independent predictor of falls in older people living in the community. Further studies are warranted to identify nutritional interventions that can help prevent falls in the elderly. PMID:24614184

  6. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented.

  7. Use of a digital model to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on groundwater flow in a fractured rock aquifer at Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslia, Morris L.; Johnston, Richard H.

    1984-12-01

    The Hyde Park landfill is a 15-acre (6.1 ha) chemical waste disposal site located north of Niagara Falls, New York. Underlying the site in descending order are: (1) low-permeability glacial till and lacustrine deposits; (2) a moderately permeable fractured rock aquifer — the Lockport Dolomite; and (3) a low-permeability unit — the Rochester Shale. The site is bounded on three sides by groundwater drains; the Niagara River gorge, the Niagara Power Project canal, and the Niagara Power Project buried conduits. The mechanism by which groundwater moves through fractured rocks underlying a hazardous waste site was investigated using a digital simulation approach. Three hypotheses were tested related to flow in the fractured rocks underlying Hyde Park landfill. For this purpose we used a Galerkin finite-element approximation to solve a saturated-unsaturated flow equation. A primary focus was to investigate anisotropy in the Lockport Dolomite, that is the effectiveness of horizontal (bedding) joints vs. vertical joints as water-transmitting openings. Three hydrogeologic scenarios were set up — each with prescribed limits on the hydrologic parameters. Scenario 1 specified strongly anisotropic conditions in the Lockport Dolomite (horizontal hydraulic conductivity along bedding joints exceeds vertical conductivity by 2-3 orders of magnitude), uniform areal recharge (5 in. yr. -1 or 12.7 cm yr. -1) except at the landfill where there is no recharge, and no flow through the base of the Rochester Shale. Scenario 2 also specified strongly anisotropic conditions in the Lockport; however, areal recharge was 6 in. yr. -1 (15.2 cm yr. -1) except at the landfill where the recharge was 2 in. yr. -1 (5.1 cm yr. -1), and outflow from the Rochester occurred. Scenario 3 specified isotropic conditions (that is, permeability along horizontal and vertical joints is the same in the Lockport Dolomite), recharge rates were the same as in scenario 2 and outflow through Rochester occurred

  8. Nutrient sampling slam: high resolution surface-water sampling in streams reveals patterns in groundwater chemistry and flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater–surface water interface (GSWI), consisting of shallow groundwater adjacent to stream channels, is a hot spot for nitrogen removal processes, a storage zone for other solutes, and a target for restoration activities. Characterizing groundwater-surface water intera...

  9. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site (Shoal) in May 2015. Groundwater samples were collected from wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, H-3, HC-1, HC-2d, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1. Sampling was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department-energy­ office-legacy-management-sites). Monitoring wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, HC-2d, HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1 were purged prior to sampling using dedicated submersible pumps. At least one well casing volume was removed, and field parameters (temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were allowed to stabilize before samples were collected. Samples were collected from wells H-3, HC-1, HC-3, and HC-6 using a depth-specific bailer because these wells are not completed with dedicated submersible pumps. Samples were submitted under Requisition Index Number (RIN) 15057042 to ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, for the determination of bromide, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium isotopes, and total uranium (by mass); and under RIN 15057043 to the University of Arizona for the determination of carbon-14 and iodine-129. A duplicate sample from location MV-2 was included with RIN 15057042. The laboratory results from the 2015 sampling event are consistent with those of previous years with the exception of sample results from well HC-4. This well continues to be the only well with tritium concentrations above the laboratory’s minimum detectable concentration which is attributed to the wells proximity to the nuclear detonation. The tritium concentration (731 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]) is consistent with past results and is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20,000 p

  10. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3]) = -1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  11. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt;

    innovative investi-gation methods for characterization of the source zone hydrogeology and contamination, including FLUTe system hydraulic profiling and Water-FLUTe multilevel groundwater sampling, in fractured bryo-zoan limestone bedrock. High resolution hydraulic profiling was conducted in three cored......Characterization of the contaminant source zone architecture and the hydraulics is essential to develop accurate site specific conceptual models, delineate and quantify contaminant mass, perform risk as-sessment, and select and design remediation alternatives. This characterization is particularly...... challeng-ing in deposit types as fractured limestone. The activities of a bulk distribution facility for perchloroe-thene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) at the Naverland site near Copenhagen, Denmark, has resulted in PCE and TCE DNAPL impacts to a fractured clay till and an underlying fractured limestone...

  12. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  13. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  14. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, M.; Ojala, S.; Jarvinen, E.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of colloids and composition of the colloid phase on the basis of the water chemistry results of filtered and unfiltered water samples and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1 and ONK-PVA3 in October 2011. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters. The change in the water chemistry due to filtration was also analysed. The decrease of element concentrations due to filtration would possibly reflect the composition of the colloid phase. Because the concentration of the colloids is very low, two parallel water samples were analysed five times with an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyser so that the chemical differences between the filtered and unfiltered water could be evaluated. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA1, determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs, was 6 {mu}g/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA3 was 7 {mu}g/l. The colloid phase composition could not be reliably determined due to the low colloid concentration. (orig.)

  15. Data from exploratory sampling of groundwater in selected oil and gas areas of coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties in southern San Joaquin Valley, 2014–15: California oil, gas, and groundwater project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, David B.; Davis, Tracy A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Land, Michael T.; Wright, Michael T.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-12-09

    Exploratory sampling of groundwater in coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties of the southern San Joaquin Valley was done by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 2014 through January 2015 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Water Quality in Areas of Oil and Gas Production Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program was established in response to the California Senate Bill 4 of 2013 mandating that the California State Water Resources Control Board design and implement a groundwater-monitoring program to assess potential effects of well-stimulation treatments on groundwater resources in California. The U.S. Geological Survey is in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to collaboratively implement the Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program through the California Oil, Gas, and Groundwater Project.Many researchers have documented the utility of different suites of chemical tracers for evaluating the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. The purpose of this exploratory sampling effort was to determine whether tracers reported in the literature could be used effectively in California. This reconnaissance effort was not designed to assess the effects of oil and gas on groundwater quality in the sampled areas. A suite of water-quality indicators and geochemical tracers were sampled at groundwater sites in selected areas that have extensive oil and gas development. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of 51 wells, including 37 monitoring wells at 17 multiple-well monitoring sites in coastal Los Angeles County and 5 monitoring wells and 9 water-production wells in southern San Joaquin Valley, primarily in Kern and Kings Counties.Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators; organic constituents, including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and dissolved organic carbon indicators; naturally

  16. Data Validation Package December 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site does not require groundwater monitoring because groundwater in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and supplemental standards have been applied to the aquifer. However, at the request of the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy conducts annual monitoring at three locations: monitoring wells 0409, 0675, and 0678. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Monitoring Well 0409 was not sampled during this event because it was dry. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. One duplicate sample was collected from location 0675. Groundwater samples from the two sampled wells were analyzed for the constituents listed in Table 1. Time-concentration graphs for selected analytes are included in this report. At well 0675, the duplicate results for total dissolved solids and for most metals (magnesium, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, and uranium) were outside acceptance criteria, which may indicate non-homogeneous conditions at this location. November 2014 results for molybdenum and uranium at well 0675 also were outside acceptance criteria. The well condition will be evaluated prior to the next sampling event.

  17. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  18. Data Validation Package, July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Shirley Basin South, Wyoming, Disposal Site November 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sampling Period: July 14-15, 2016 The 2004 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Shirley Basin South (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site, Carbon County, Wyoming, requires annual monitoring to verify continued compliance with the pertinent alternate concentration limits (ACLs) and Wyoming Class III (livestock use) groundwater protection standards. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Point-of-compliance (POC) wells 19-DC, 5-DC, and 5-SC, and monitoring wells 10-DC, 110-DC, 112-DC, 113-DC, 40-SC, 54-SC, 100-SC, 102-SC, and K.G.S.#3 were sampled. POC well 51-SC and downgradient well 101-SC were dry at the time of sampling. The water level was measured at each sampled well. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). ACLs are approved for cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, radium-226, radium-228, selenium, thorium-230, and uranium in site groundwater. Time-concentration graphs of the contaminants of concern in POC wells are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The only ACL exceedance in a POC well was radium-228 in well 5-DC where the concentration was 30.7 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), exceeding the ACL of 25.7 pCi/L. Concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids continue to exceed their respective Wyoming Class III groundwater protection standards for livestock use in wells 5-DC, 5-SC, and 54-SC as they have done throughout the sampling history; however, there is no livestock use of the water from these aquifers at the site, and no constituent concentrations exceed groundwater protection standards at the wells near the site boundary.

  19. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  20. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  1. Data Validation Package February 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  2. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells and extraction wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  3. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  4. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  5. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  6. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    OpenAIRE

    Venedam, Richard J.; Hartman, Mary J.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Scott R. Burge

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Si...

  7. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  8. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2016-12-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  9. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  10. Potential groundwater sampling sites for installation of a well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). This dataset includes 90 potential groundwater sampling sites randomly generated using...

  11. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater sampling: Experience derived from radioactive waste disposal programmes in Sweden and Finland during 1980-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J.A.T. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, M. [Intera, Solletuna (Sweden); Snellman, M.V. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P.H. [Fintact Oy, (Finland)

    1999-09-01

    Existing Finnish and Swedish hydrogeochemical field data from the 1980s and the early 1990s have been closely examined in the light of other influencing activities, such as geology and hydrology, which form an integral part of site-specific investigations. The report has considered data relating to the monitoring of groundwater chemical trends and groundwater sampling and analysis. These data have been used to simulate the effects of important parameters on groundwater quality and representativeness, to generate recommendations to improve the standard of hydrogeochemical sampling and analyses, and to discuss these results in the broader context of future site-specific investigations. (orig.)

  12. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  13. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  14. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  15. Analysis of s-triazine herbicides in model systems and samples of groundwater by gas and liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, residues of s-triazine herbicides (Simazine, Atrazine, Amethrine, Promethrine and Azyprothrine have been determined in samples of model systems and real groundwater samples by gas-chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. S-triazine herbicides were isolated from water samples by chloroform-methanol mixture (1:1, followed by purification of extract on the Al2O3 column. Gas-chromatographic determination the residues of s-triazines is performed on parallel capilar columns ULTRA I and ULTRA II, using specific NP detector. Liquid-chromatographic determination the s-triazines was performed on the column TSK ODS-120 A 5 mm 'LKB', using the mobile phase methanol-water (60:40. Total concentration of s-triazines in samples of Danube water was 3.54 mg dm-3. .

  16. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  17. Groundwater Quality Sampling and Analysis Plan for Environmental Monitoring Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  18. Data Validation Package May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, August 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations 14(SG) and 21(M). Sampling originally scheduled for the week of May 11, 2015 was interrupted by heavy rainfall and later completed in June.

  19. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  20. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  1. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  2. Data Validation Package, April and June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site, October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the draft 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in June because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0126, 0477, and 0780. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 3. Interpretation and presentation of results, including an assessment ofthe natural flushing compliance strategy, will be reported in the upcoming 2016 Verification Monitoring Report. U.S.

  3. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  4. Water-table contours, directions of ground-water movement, and measurements of inflow to American Falls Reservoir, Southeastern Idaho, April 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978 the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluating the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop a capability for predicting aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management. By use of a digital model, this report presents a quantitative description of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The High Plains aquifer consists predominantly of the Tertiary Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits which are hydraulically connected to the High Plains aquifer. Much of the aquifer is underlain by formations of Permian through Cretaceous age, which generally have very small hydraulic conductivities. In some areas parts of underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer in which water moves generally to the east-southeast. Before the beginning of extensive irrigation of the 1960's, the aquifer was essentially in dynamic equilibrium with recharge from precipitation balanced by natural discharge from the aquifer. Ground-water discharge appeared in streams leaving the area or was returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Accurate records of irrigation pumpage are not available from the High Plains. In order to estimate irrigation pumpage, published records of crop distribution were used and a consumptive use was assigned to each principal irrigated crop. This method gave an estimated irrigation demand. Pumpage was taken as a percentage of the total irrigation demand. Irrigation has decreased ground-water discharge from the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water discharge was estimated as approximately 118 cubic feet per second in 1980. A finite-difference digital model was used to simulate flow in the High Plains aquifer. The recharge was adjusted so that 1980 ground-water discharge was 118 cubic feet per

  5. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Baur, Gary [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-03

    The 1998 Interim Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Cheney Disposal Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado, requires annual monitoring to assess the performance of the disposal cell. Monitoring wells 0731, 0732 and 0733 were sampled as specified in the plan. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites.

  6. Assessment of balance and risk for falls in a sample of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colonvega Makasha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a major health concern for older adults and their impact is a significant public health problem. The chief modifiable risk factors for falls in community-dwellers are psychotropic drugs, polypharmacy, environmental hazards, poor vision, lower extremity impairments, and balance impairments. This study focused on balance impairments. Its purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting older adults with possible balance problems for research conducted at a chiropractic research center, and to explore the utility of several widely used balance instruments for future studies of the effect of chiropractic care on balance in older adults. Methods This descriptive study was conducted from September through December 2004. Participants were recruited through a variety of outreach methods, and all were provided with an educational intervention. Data were collected at each of two visits through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examinations. Balance was assessed on both visits using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABCS, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the One Leg Standing Test (OLST. Results A total of 101 participants enrolled in the study. Advertising in the local senior newspaper was the most effective method of recruitment (46%. The majority of our participants were white (86% females (67%. About one third (32% of participants had a baseline BBS score below 46, the cut-off point for predicting risk of falling. A mean improvement in BBS scores of 1.7 points was observed on the second visit. For the subgroup with baseline scores below 46, the mean change was 4.5 points, but the group mean remained below 46 (42.5. Conclusion Recruitment of community-dwelling seniors for fall-related research conducted at a chiropractic research center appears feasible, and the most successful recruitment strategies for this center appeared to be a combination of targeted newspaper ads and personal contact through

  7. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  9. Spatial Prediction and Optimized Sampling Design for Sodium Concentration in Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Erum; Hussain, Ijaz; Spöck, Gunter; Faisal, Muhammad; Shabbir, Javid; M AbdEl-Salam, Nasser; Hussain, Tajammal

    Sodium is an integral part of water, and its excessive amount in drinking water causes high blood pressure and hypertension. In the present paper, spatial distribution of sodium concentration in drinking water is modeled and optimized sampling designs for selecting sampling locations is calculated for three divisions in Punjab, Pakistan. Universal kriging and Bayesian universal kriging are used to predict the sodium concentrations. Spatial simulated annealing is used to generate optimized sampling designs. Different estimation methods (i.e., maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, ordinary least squares, and weighted least squares) are used to estimate the parameters of the variogram model (i.e, exponential, Gaussian, spherical and cubic). It is concluded that Bayesian universal kriging fits better than universal kriging. It is also observed that the universal kriging predictor provides minimum mean universal kriging variance for both adding and deleting locations during sampling design.

  10. Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Soliven, P.P.; Werner, S.L.; Vaught, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples has been developed. Caffeine is extracted from a 1 L water sample with a 0.5 g graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted with methylene chloride-methanol (80 + 20, v/v), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The single-operator method detection limit for organic-free water samples was 0.02 ??g/L. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations were 93 ?? 13% for organicfree water samples fortified at 0.04 ??g/L and 84 ?? 4% for laboratory reagent spikes fortified at 0.5 ??g/L. Environmental concentrations of caffeine ranged from 0.003 to 1.44 ??g/L in surface water samples and from 0.01 to 0.08 ??g/L in groundwater samples.

  11. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Baur, Gary [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Sampling Period: August 4, 2015. The 1998 Interim Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Cheney Disposal Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado, requires annual monitoring to assess the performance of the disposal cell. Monitoring wells 0731, 0732, and 0733 were sampled as specified in the plan. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The water level was measured at each sampled well. The water level in well 0733, located in the disposal cell, is lower than water levels in adjacent wells 0731 and 0732, indicating a hydraulic gradient toward the disposal cell. Results from this sampling event were generally consistent with results from the past as shown in the attached concentration-versus-time graphs. There have been no large changes in contaminant concentration observed over the last several years with the following exception. The uranium concentration in well 0733 has been trending upward since 2003. High uranium concentrations are expected in this well because it is located in the disposal cell. The selenium concentrations observed in wells 0731 and 0732 are elevated when compared to the disposal cell 0733. Wells 0731 and 0732 are completed at the alluvium/Mancos contact; here, elevated selenium concentrations are expected due to contributions from the Mancos shale.

  12. Sampling Instruction: Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2012-05-01

    Several types of data are needed to assess the flux of Cr(VI) from the excavation into the groundwater. As described in this plan, these data include (1) temporal Cr(VI) data in the shallow groundwater beneath the pit; (2) hydrologic data to interpret groundwater flow and contaminant transport; (3) hydraulic gradient data; and (4) as a contingency action if necessary, vertical profiling of Cr(VI) concentrations in the shallow aquifer beyond the depth possible with aquifer tubes.

  13. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS, NITROPHENOLS, AND METHYLPHENOLS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  14. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  15. 234U/238U isotope data from groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples near Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Horton, Robert J.; Otton, James K.; Ketterer, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases 234U/238U isotope data, expressed as activity ratios, and uranium concentration data from analyses completed at Northern Arizona University for groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples that were collected in and around Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona, in 2008.

  16. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  17. Improved Understanding of Sources of Variability in Groundwater Sampling for Long-Term Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Lab Sample ID: 600-44501-11 Acetone 1100 RL 1000 ug/L 8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 200 Analyte Result Qualifier Unit Dil Fac D Method Prep Type Benzene 8260B...8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 22 Analyte Result Qualifier Unit Dil Fac D Method Prep Type Trichloroethene - DL 8260B Total/NA1100 200 ug/L 20036 cis-1,2...L 8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 200 Benzene 8260B Total/NA7100 200 ug/L 20016 Chlorobenzene 8260B Total/NA2200 200 ug/L 20024 Chloroform 8260B Total/NA57 J

  18. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  19. Application of the freeze-dried bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206 to the biomonitoring of groundwater samples from monitoring wells near gasoline leakage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kong, In Chul

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the applicability of a freeze-dried bioluminescent bioreporter, Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206 (called KG1206), to the biomonitoring of groundwater samples. Samples were collected from the monitoring wells of gas station tanks or old pipeline leakage sites in Korea. In general, the freeze-dried strain in the presence of pure inducer chemicals showed low bioluminescence activity and a different activity order compared with that of the subcultured strain. The effects of KNO3 as a bioluminescence stimulant were observed on the pure inducers and groundwater samples. The stimulation rates varied according to the type of inducers and samples, ranging from 2.2 to 20.5 times (for pure inducers) and from 1.1 to 11 times (for groundwater samples) the total bioluminescence of the control. No considerable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence intensity of the freeze-dried strain and the inducer concentrations in the samples (R (2) < 0.1344). However, samples without a high methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) level and those from the gas station leakage site showed reasonable correlations with the bioluminescence activity with R (2) values of 0.3551 and 0.4131, respectively. These results highlight the potential of using freeze-dried bioluminescent bacteria as a rapid, simple, and portable tool for the preliminary biomonitoring of specific pollutants at contaminated sites.

  20. Plan for proposed aquifer hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-February 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, to further assist in selecting and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, and in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. On October 21, 2005, Argonne issued a brief Cross Section Analysis (Argonne 2006a) addressing these concerns, on behalf of the CCC/USDA. This report includes the following: (1) Preliminary recommendations for the siting of three new monitoring wells, at locations identified by the KDHE. Argonne also suggested, however, that the installation and sampling of these wells be deferred until after completion of the CAS evaluation. (2) A proposed strategy for testing of the Everest aquifer unit near the Nigh property, involving initial test pumping of the former Nigh domestic

  1. Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in El Eulma area, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi

    2012-06-01

    The groundwater sources in the El Elma plain have been evaluated for their chemical composition and suitability for irrigation uses. Cluster analysis in Q-mode resulted in three major water types (HCO3 --Ca-2+dominated, Cl--HCO3 --Ca2+-dominated and Cl--Ca2+-Na+-dominated) for the groundwater. The US salinity diagram illustrates that most of the groundwater samples fall in C3S1 quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Based on RSC values, all the samples of the three groups had values less than 1.25 and were good for irrigation.

  2. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  3. Falling chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  4. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  5. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  6. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  7. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 1993 through January 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Ferree, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate general ground-water- quality conditions and contaminant locations in the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples from 36 observation wells in 12 well nests were analyzed. The well nests are located along three roads near the Rio Grande--two well nests near Paseo del Norte, five well nests near Monta?o Road, and five well nests near Rio Bravo Boulevard. The water samples were collected from October 19, 1993, through January 18, 1994. Water-quality types by major-ion composition were calcium bicarbonate (found in most samples), sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate chloride. Nutrients were detected in all but one sample. Ammonia was detected in 34 samples, nitrite in 4 samples, and nitrate in 17 samples. Orthophosphate was detected in 31 samples. Organic carbon was detected in all samples collected. The trace elements arsenic and barium were detected in all samples and zinc in 31 samples. Fourteen samples contained detectable copper. Cadmium was detected in one sample, chromium in two samples, lead in four samples, and selenium in two samples. Mercury and silver were not detected.

  8. Regional hydrogeology of the Silurian and Ordovician sedimentary rock underlying Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakowski, Kentner S.; Lapcevic, Patricia A.

    1988-12-01

    Due to concern over the potential for widespread groundwater contamination in the sedimentary rock underlying the Niagara Falls area, this study was done to investigate the hydrogeology of the Silurian and Ordovician stratigraphy underlying the Upper Niagara River and the Eastern Niagara Peninsula. Seven boreholes (up to 150 m deep) were drilled, instrumented with multiple packer casing, tested for permeability, sampled for inorganic and organic solutes and monitored for hydraulic head to provide data for a conceptual model of regional groundwater flow. Results show that there are at least three distinct groundwater flow regimes in the bedrock. The uppermost regime consists of fracture zones in the Guelph and Lockport Formations, within which hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head measurements and geochemical analyses indicate active groundwater circulation primarily discharging towards the Niagara Gorge and Escarpment. Underlying the Lockport Formation are an overpressured (high hydraulic head) regime in the Clinton-Upper Cataract-Lower Queenston Formation and an underpressured (low hydraulic head) regime in the Lower Cataract-Upper Queenston Formation. In both regimes, geochemical analyses and permeability measurements indicate very old and saline groundwater which probably has undergone minimal migration since pre-Pleistocene time. The implication based on the study so far, is that potential groundwater contamination below the bottom of the Lockport Formation is probably not significant in the Niagara Falls area except adjacent to the Niagara Gorge where vertical permeability in the lower flow regimes may be enhanced.

  9. Falling chains

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C W; Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional falling motion of a bungee chain suspended from a rigid support and of a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Their Lagrangians are found to contain no explicit time dependence. As a result, these falling chains are conservative systems. Each of their Lagrange's equations of motion is shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show in particular that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when the transferred link is emitted by the emitting subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling bungee chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. In the simplified one-dimensional treatment, the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the falling bungee chain is found to be converted by the chain tension at the rigid support into the internal kinetic energy of the chain. However, as t...

  10. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data III A Color Selected Sample at i^*<20 in the Fall Equatorial Stripe

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, X; Richards, G T; Newman, J A; Becker, R H; Schneider, D P; Gunn, J E; Davis, M; White, R L; Lupton, R H

    2000-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u'g'r'i'z') imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the SDSS during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we first present the observations of 14 bright high-redshift quasars (3.66Fall Equatorial Stripe, and the SDSS photometry of two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Combined with the quasars presented in previous papers, we define a color-selected flux-limited sample of 39 quasars at 3.6 < z < 5.0 and i^*<20, covering a total effective area of 182 deg^2. From this sample, we estimate the average spectral power law slope in the rest-frame ultraviolet for quasars at z~4 to be -0.79 with a standard deviation of 0.34, and the average rest-frame equivalent width of the Ly alpha+N V emission line to be 69 A with a standard deviation of 18 A. The selection completeness of this multicolor sample is determined from the mo...

  11. Subtask 1.15-Passive Diffusion Sample Bags Made from Expanded Polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) to Measure VOC Concentrations in Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry W. Botnen

    2006-08-01

    With laboratory testing of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes complete, collected data support that volatile organic compound (VOC) molecules will readily diffuse across ePTFE membranes. Membrane samples, supplied by BHA Technologies (GE Osmonics), were tested to determine diffusion rates for VOCs in groundwater. Tests were conducted using membranes with two different pore sizes, with and without thermally laminated spun bond backing, and multiple concentrations of contaminated groundwater. Results suggest that typical residence times associated with traditional samplers constructed of polyethylene (2 weeks) can be reduced by 1 week using ePTFE membranes (reducing project costs) and that VOCs will diffuse more readily at lower temperatures (2.2-3.3 C) across ePTFE materials.

  12. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  13. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  14. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Alhababy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  15. [Accidental falls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential.

  16. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  17. 2,4-D abatement from groundwater samples by photo-Fenton processes at circumneutral pH using naturally iron present. Effect of inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, Héctor M; Rojas, Karen L; Sanabria, Janeth; Rengifo-Herrera, Julián Andrés

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated, at laboratory scale, if the using iron naturally present (0.3 mg L(-1)) and adding 10 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide was effective to remove 24.3 mgL(-1) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from groundwater samples by simulated solar irradiation (global intensity = 300 W m(-2)). Under these conditions, the degradation of 2,4-D reached 75.2 % and the apparition of its main oxidation byproduct 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) was observed. On the other hand, pH exhibited an increasing from 7.0 to 8.3 during the experiment. Experiments using Milli-Q water at pH 7.0, iron, and H2O2 concentrations of 0.3 and 10 mg L(-1), respectively, were carried out in order to study the effect of ions such as carbonate species, phosphate, and fluoride in typical concentrations often found in groundwater. Ion concentrations were combined by using a factorial experimental design 2(3). Results showed that carbonates and fluoride did not produce a detrimental effect on the 2,4-D degradation, while phosphate inhibited the process. In this case, the pH increased also from 7.0 to 7.95 and 8.99. Effect of parameters such as pH, iron concentration, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the 2,4-D degradation by the photo-Fenton process in groundwater was evaluated by using a factorial experimental design 2(3). Results showed that the pH was the main parameter affecting the process. This study shows for the first time that using the photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH and iron naturally present seems to be a promising process to remove pesticides from groundwater.

  18. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  19. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  20. Apparatus and method for time-integrated, active sampling of contaminants in fluids demonstrated by monitoring of hexavalent chromium in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Isaac B; Driver, Erin M; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-15

    Annual U.S. expenditures of $2B for site characterization invite the development of new technologies to improve data quality while reducing costs and minimizing uncertainty in groundwater monitoring. This work presents a new instrument for time-integrated sampling of environmental fluids using in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE). The In Situ Sampler (IS2) is an automated submersible device capable of extracting dissolved contaminants from water (100s-1000smL) over extended periods (hours to weeks), retaining the analytes, and rejecting the processed fluid. A field demonstration of the IS2 revealed 28-day average concentration of hexavalent chromium in a shallow aquifer affected by tidal stresses via sampling of groundwater as both liquid and sorbed composite samples, each obtained in triplicate. In situ SPE exhibited 75±6% recovery and an 8-fold improvement in reporting limit. Relative to use of conventional methods (100%), beneficial characteristics of the device and method included minimal hazardous material generation (2%), transportation cost (10%), and associated carbon footprint (2%). The IS2 is compatible with commercial SPE resins and standard extraction methods, and has been certified for more general use (i.e., inorganics and organics) by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the U.S. Department of Defense.

  1. Groundwater Quality Assessment in hard rock terrain of Rasipuram Taluk, Namakkal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is of most important to rural development in many countries of the world. Over exploitation of groundwater has become a major challenge not only to the present civilization and also for the future generations. The main focus of this study is to assess the suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in vicinity of Rasipuram block in Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from 15 locations were collected from different wells during January 2015 and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. The usefulness of these parameters in predicting groundwater quality characteristics were discussed. The quality of groundwater in the study area is fresh to brackish water, moderately hard to very hard in nature. The piper plot shows that the most of the groundwater samples fall in the field of Na+ -Cland mixed Ca++ -Na+ -Cltype. Water quality index rating was carried out to quantify overall groundwater quality status of the area. The WQI for these samples ranges from 37.34 to 650. Hence majority of the water samples are poor to very poor in water quality. The area in general is characterized by hard water, hence is not suitable for drinking purpose. The samples plotted in the piper and USSL diagram were used to understand the chemical characteristic of groundwater for irrigation purposes. However, the values of SAR, Na% and RSC indicate that groundwater is suitable for irrigation purposes. Overall water quality of the study area was found satisfactory for drinking purpose except in few locations and suitable for irrigation purpose. Hence the local government needs to initiate remedial measures.

  2. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  3. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  4. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  5. Interpolations of groundwater table elevation in dissected uplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, J David

    2012-01-01

    The variable elevation of the groundwater table in the St. Louis area was estimated using multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging, and cokriging as part of a regional program seeking to assess liquefaction potential. Surface water features were used to determine the minimum water table for MLR and supplement the principal variables for ordinary kriging and cokriging. By evaluating the known depth to the water and the minimum water table elevation, the MLR analysis approximates the groundwater elevation for a contiguous hydrologic system. Ordinary kriging and cokriging estimate values in unsampled areas by calculating the spatial relationships between the unsampled and sampled locations. In this study, ordinary kriging did not incorporate topographic variations as an independent variable, while cokriging included topography as a supporting covariable. Cross validation suggests that cokriging provides a more reliable estimate at known data points with less uncertainty than the other methods. Profiles extending through the dissected uplands terrain suggest that: (1) the groundwater table generated by MLR mimics the ground surface and elicits a exaggerated interpolation of groundwater elevation; (2) the groundwater table estimated by ordinary kriging tends to ignore local topography and exhibits oversmoothing of the actual undulations in the water table; and (3) cokriging appears to give the realistic water surface, which rises and falls in proportion to the overlying topography. The authors concluded that cokriging provided the most realistic estimate of the groundwater surface, which is the key variable in assessing soil liquefaction potential in unconsolidated sediments.

  6. Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

  7. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  8. Global sampling to assess the value of diverse observations in conditioning a real-world groundwater flow and transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsman, Joost R.; Winters, Pieter; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Lebbe, Luc

    2016-03-01

    The use of additional types of observational data has often been suggested to alleviate the ill-posedness inherent to parameter estimation of groundwater models and constrain model uncertainty. Disinformation in observational data caused by errors in either the observations or the chosen model structure may, however, confound the value of adding observational data in model conditioning. This paper uses the global generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology to investigate the value of different observational data types (heads, fluxes, salinity, and temperature) in conditioning a groundwater flow and transport model of an extensively monitored field site in the Netherlands. We compared model conditioning using the real observations to a synthetic model experiment, to demonstrate the possible influence of disinformation in observational data in model conditioning. Results showed that the value of different conditioning targets was less evident when conditioning to real measurements than in a measurement error-only synthetic model experiment. While in the synthetic experiment, all conditioning targets clearly improved model outcomes, minor improvements or even worsening of model outcomes was observed for the real measurements. This result was caused by errors in both the model structure and the observations, resulting in disinformation in the observational data. The observed impact of disinformation in the observational data reiterates the necessity of thorough data validation and the need for accounting for both model structural and observational errors in model conditioning. It further suggests caution when translating results of synthetic modeling examples to real-world applications. Still, applying diverse conditioning data types was found to be essential to constrain uncertainty, especially in the transport of solutes in the model.

  9. Evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in southwest Punjab, India using hydrochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diana Anoubam; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Keesari, Tirumalesh

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater samples from alluvial aquifers of Bathinda district, southwest Punjab were measured for physicochemical parameters as well as major ion chemistry to evaluate the groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to present the current hydrochemical status of groundwater of this district. Temporal variations were analyzed by comparing the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater chemistry. Most of the samples showed contamination: F- (72 %), Mg2+ (22 %), SO4 2- (28 %), TH (25 %), NO3 - (22 %), HCO3 - (22 %) and TDS (11 %) during pre-monsoon and F- (50 %), Mg2+ (39 %), SO4 2- (22 %), TH (28 %), NO3 - (22 %) and TDS (28 %) during post-monsoon above permissible limits for drinking, while rest of the parameters fall within the limits. Irrigation suitability was checked using sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), percent sodium (Na%) and permeability index (PI). Most of the samples fall under good to suitable category during pre-monsoon period, but fall under doubtful to unsuitable category during post-monsoon period. Presence of high salt content in groundwater during post-monsoon season reflects leaching of salts present in the unsaturated zone by infiltrating precipitation. Hydrochemical data was interpreted using Piper's trilinear plot and Chadha's plot to understand the various geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The results indicate that the order of cation dominance is Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+, while anion dominance is in the order Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-. The geochemistry of groundwater of this district is mainly controlled by the carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and ion exchange during pre-monsoon and leaching from the salts deposited in vadose zone during post-monsoon. The main sources of contamination are soluble fertilizers and livestock wastes. This study is significant as the surface water resources are limited and the quality and quantity of groundwater are deteriorating with time due to

  10. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  11. Determination of eight fluoroquinolones in groundwater samples with ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M M Parrilla; Vázquez, P Parrilla; Galera, M Martínez; García, M D Gil

    2012-10-20

    An ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-IL-DLLME) procedure was developed for the extraction of eight fluoroquinolones (marbofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxolinic acid and nalidixic acid) in groundwater, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the formation of the fine cloudy solution using a small volume of disperser solvent (0.4 mL of methanol), which increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. For the DLLME procedure, the IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)MIM] [PF(6)]) and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. By comparing [C(8)MIM] [PF(6)] with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM] [PF(6)]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)MIM] [PF(6)]) as extraction solvents, it was observed that when using [C(8)MIM] [PF(6)] the cloudy solution was formed more readily than when using [C(6)MIM] [PF(6)] or [C(4)MIM] [PF(6)]. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of ionic liquid, type and volume of disperser solvent, cooling in ice-water, sonication time, centrifuging time, sample pH and ionic strength, were optimised. A slight increase in the recoveries of fluoroquinolones was observed when an ice-water bath extraction step was included in the analytical procedure (85-107%) compared to those obtained without this step (83-96%). Under the optimum conditions, linearity of the method was observed over the range 10-300 ng L(-1) with correlation coefficient >0.9981. The proposed method has been found to have excellent sensitivity with limit of detection between 0.8 and 13 ng L(-1) and precision with relative standard deviation values between 4.8 and 9.4% (RSD, n=5). Good enrichment factors (122-205) and recoveries (85

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality and health risk in drinking water basin using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-02-01

    Eğirdir Lake basin was selected as the study area because the lake is the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey and groundwater in the basin is used as drinking water. In the present study, 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters to determine the hydrochemical characteristics, groundwater quality, and human health risk in the study area. The dominant ions are Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(2-), and SO4(2). According to Gibbs plot, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field. A groundwater quality index (WQI) reveals that the majority of the samples falls under good to excellent category of water, suggesting that the groundwater is suitable for drinking and other domestic uses. The Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-SO4-HCO3, and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water types are the dominant water types depending on the water-rock interaction in the investigation area. Risk of metals to human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children. It was indicated that As with HQ ingestion >1 was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. It can be concluded that the highest contributors to chronic risks were As and Cr for both adults and children.

  13. Final report : results of aquifer pumping and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. As a result of this meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities to augment the CCC/USDA's investigations at Everest, Kansas, and assist in the selection of remedial approaches to be evaluated as part of a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections illustrating the hydrogeologic setting along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, as well as in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Installation of additional permanent monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western, northern, and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a phased pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property.

  14. Evaluating the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected districts of the Upper West region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Musah; Aidoo, Felix; Hayford, Michael Saah; Adomako, Dickson; Asare, Enoch

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of the Upper West region of the Ghana where majority of them are farmers. Groundwater serves as the most reliable source of water for their domestic and agricultural activities. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected communities of five districts where farming activities are very intensive. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major anions and cations. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. From the results of the analyses and measurements, the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation were evaluated based on the TDS, EC, percentage sodium (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR) and chloro-alkaline Indices (CAI). US salinity laboratory diagram and Wilcox diagrams were also applied. The EC results show that the groundwater in the study area can be classified as none and slight to moderate. According to the US salinity diagram, groundwater in the study area falls within the low salinity-low sodium hazard and medium salinity-low sodium hazard class. The %Na and the resulting Wilcox diagram also classify the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The groundwater in the study area is generally good for irrigation purposes. However, there are few instances which are problematic and would require special irrigation methods.

  15. Evaluating the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected districts of the Upper West region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Musah; Aidoo, Felix; Hayford, Michael Saah; Adomako, Dickson; Asare, Enoch

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of the Upper West region of the Ghana where majority of them are farmers. Groundwater serves as the most reliable source of water for their domestic and agricultural activities. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected communities of five districts where farming activities are very intensive. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major anions and cations. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. From the results of the analyses and measurements, the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation were evaluated based on the TDS, EC, percentage sodium (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR) and chloro-alkaline Indices (CAI). US salinity laboratory diagram and Wilcox diagrams were also applied. The EC results show that the groundwater in the study area can be classified as none and slight to moderate. According to the US salinity diagram, groundwater in the study area falls within the low salinity-low sodium hazard and medium salinity-low sodium hazard class. The %Na and the resulting Wilcox diagram also classify the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The groundwater in the study area is generally good for irrigation purposes. However, there are few instances which are problematic and would require special irrigation methods.

  16. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Venedam

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analyticalsensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expandedin this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene inmonitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2. The platform was interfacedwith chromium (VI and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installedadjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. Agroundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River throughthe gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployedfor the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations atmore frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methodsemployed a the Site.

  17. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  18. Design and evaluation of a field study on the contamination of selected volatile organic compounds and wastewater-indicator compounds in blanks and groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bender, David A.; Mueller, David K.; Rose, Donna L.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bernard, Bruce; Zogorski, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The Field Contamination Study (FCS) was designed to determine the field processes that tend to result in clean field blanks and to identify potential sources of contamination to blanks collected in the field from selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and wastewater-indicator compounds (WICs). The VOCs and WICs analyzed in the FCS were detected in blanks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1996-2008 and 2002-08, respectively. To minimize the number of variables, the study required ordering of supplies just before sampling, storage of supplies and equipment in clean areas, and use of adequate amounts of purge-and-trap volatile-grade methanol and volatile pesticide-grade blank water (VPBW) to clean sampling equipment and to collect field blanks. Blanks and groundwater samples were collected during 2008-09 at 16 sites, which were a mix of water-supply and monitoring wells, located in 9 States. Five different sample types were collected for the FCS at each site: (1) a source-solution blank collected at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) using laboratory-purged VPBW, (2) source-solution blanks collected in the field using laboratory-purged VPBW, (3) source-solution blanks collected in the field using field-purged VPBW, (4) a field blank collected using field-purged VPBW, and (5) a groundwater sample collected from a well. The source-solution blank and field-blank analyses were used to identify, quantify, and document extrinsic contamination and to help determine the sources and causes of data-quality problems that can affect groundwater samples. Concentrations of compounds detected in FCS analyses were quantified and results were stored in the USGS National Water Information System database after meeting rigorous identification and quantification criteria. The study also utilized information provided by laboratory analysts about evidence indicating the presence of selected compounds

  19. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Ground-water and wasted-wood become resources by utilizing storage-tank; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Chikunetsuso wo riyoshita chikasui oyobi mokushitsu gomi no shigenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H.; Fukumuro, S. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports living comfort in summer by operating a groundwater utilization system using a hot water storage tank and a floor air conditioning system. The groundwater utilization system is a system for room cooling by using groundwater and for supplying water for living use. The system operates as follows: groundwater is passed through a coil-type heat exchanger having pipes each 100 m long laid in parallel for a total length of 200 m, the heat exchanger being installed in a hot water storage tank; the water is used to cool water in the storage tank in summer; and the water is warmed up in the storage tank in winter, further heated by an oil boiler to be used as hot water for cooking and bathing. In the floor air conditioning system, cold water in the water storage tank (warm water in winter) is pumped up by a circulation pump, and passed through the floor air conditioning circuit having a pipe with a total length of 400 m at a flow rate of 14 liters per minute. The system is of a closed circuit in which the water is re-heated by a wood burning boiler in winter and returned to the hot water storage tank. The amount of supplied cold heat from groundwater to the hot water tank obtained on a daily average is 90W. About 20% of the monthly cumulative cold heat amount dissipated from the floor circuit is the monthly cumulative cold heat amount supplied from the groundwater circuit to the hot water storage tank. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  1. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  2. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  3. Hydro chemical characteristic and Quality Assessment of Groundwater of Ranchi Township Area, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhunath Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detail investigation of groundwater for the suitability of drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in Ranchi township area. For this purpose, 27 groundwater samples from wells and tube wellswere collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS , major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ and major anions (HCO3- F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-. pH of the analyzed samples indicates slightly alkaline nature of the water samples. Total dissolved solids of 94% of analyzed groundwater samples were falling in the category of fresh water and 6% in the category of brackish water. HCO3- and Cl- are dominant anions and Ca2+and Na+ as the dominant cation in the water chemistry.In majority of the samples, the analyzed parameters are well within the desirable limits and water is potable for drinking purposes. However, concentrations of EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, and Mg2+exceed the desirable limit at few sites.Parameter like residual sodium carbonate (RSC, permeability index (PI, percent sodium (%Na, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR were calculated and plotted to understand the water quality and utilitarian aspect of groundwater for irrigation uses. The calculated parameters show that the majority of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation uses. However,high salinity values at few sites restrict the suitability of the water for irrigation uses.

  4. Recovery data for surface water, groundwater and lab reagent samples analyzed by the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory schedule 2437, water years 2013-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical recovery is the concentration of an analyte measured in a water-quality sample expressed as a percentage of the known concentration added to the sample (Mueller and others, 2015). Analytical recovery (hereafter referred to as “recovery”) can be used to understand method bias and variability and to assess the temporal changes in a method over time (Martin and others, 2009). This data set includes two tables: one table of field spike recovery data and one table of lab reagent spike recovery data. The table of field spike recovery data includes results from paired environmental and spike samples collected by the National Water Quality Program, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project in surface water and groundwater. These samples were collected as part of the NAWQA Project’s National Water Quality Network: Rivers and Streams assessment, Regional Stream Quality Assessment studies and in multiple groundwater networks following standard practices (Mueller and others, 1997).  This table includes environmental and spike water-quality sample data stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database (https://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7P55KJN). Concentrations of pesticides in spike samples, while stored in the NWIS database, are not publically available. The calculation of recovery based on these field sample data is outlined in Mueller and others (2015). Lab reagent spikes are pesticide-free reagent water spiked with a known concentration of pesticide. Lab reagent spikes are prepared in the lab and their recovery can be directly measured. The table of lab reagent spike data contains quality control sample information stored in the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) database. Both tables include fields for data-quality indicators that are described in the data processing steps of this metadata file. These tables were developed in order to support a USGS Scientific Investigations Report with the working title

  5. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  6. Modeling mineral phase change chemistry of groundwater in a rural-urban fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Srivastava, Prashant K; Gupta, M; Mukherjee, S

    2012-01-01

    This research paper aims to determine the genetic origin of the chemical elements in groundwater. It deals with the results of physicochemical parameters, to evaluate the hydro-geochemistry of groundwater in rural-urban fringe of district Bareilly, India. Pre- and post-monsoon sampling has been carried out, which reveals inter-seasonal variability effect on the hydro-geochemical processes. Geochemical modeling especially computation of saturation index was undertaken using the WATEQ4F model. Majority of samples fall in the category of undersaturation, which further suggests that groundwater still has potential to dissolve more minerals. Chemical categorizations of groundwater samples were performed with the help of the Aquachem model. Grouping of groundwater on the Piper diagram reveals a common composition and origin. In most of the area, water facies is of Ca(2+)-HCO(3)(-) type in both the seasons. It also indicates that in pre-monsoon, ion exchange is the dominant process, whereas in post-monsoon, both ion exchanges as well as reverse ion exchanges are reported in the groundwater of the study area.

  7. Nationwide Surveillance for Pathogenic Microorganisms in Groundwater near Carcass Burials Constructed in South Korea in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Kyung Joung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites. A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012 and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4% and 85 (7.1% of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%. Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%, and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%, and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%. The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites.

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  9. Installation-Restoration Program Stage 3. McClellan AFB, California. Remedial investigation/feasibility study ground-water sampling and analysis program, January through March 1989 data summary. Final report, January-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-19

    This Data Summary presents the results of ground-water sampling activities conducted on and in the vicinity of McClellan Air Force Base from the sampling period of January through March, 1989. Concentrations of purgeable halocarbons and aromatic compounds detected in 336 wells 26 monitoring wells are located on base in Area A, B, C, D, and adjacent on-base areas and off-base in the Northwest and Southwest areas. There was no detected increase in the areal extent of contaminated ground-water, nor was there any increase in the depth that contaminated ground-water was detected. The Area D extraction system is effectively operating to change hydraulic gradients, so groundwater in Area D flows toward the extraction wells. Contaminant concentrations have decreased in Area D deep zone monitoring wells. Samples from three middle-zone monitoring wells located in Area D also show decreases in contaminant concentration during this sampling period. Decreasing contaminant concentrations have stabilized in shallow zone monitoring wells located off-base, west of Area D.

  10. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Groundwater Sampling Device at the Former McClellan Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Region 1, 1996), and 3) (where applicable) passive dif- fusion samplers such as the Regenerated Cellulose (RGC or dialysis membrane) sampler...Nielsen (2002), and the ASTM (2003). However, because low-flow sampling draws water most heavily from the most permeable part of the geological...freshwater. The overlying Valley Springs Formation consists of weathered ash from volcanic eruptions, forming low permeability clay with some sand and

  11. Effects of an intensive hog farming operation on groundwater in east Mediterranean (I): a study on electrical conductivity, as well as nitrogen and sulfur nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2014-12-01

    The discharge of treated animal wastewater produced in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on surface soil (within CAFOs borders) leads to groundwater degradation. In this research, groundwater degradation effects of an intensive hog farming operation, located in a Mediterranean area, were investigated. Treated animal wastewater was discharged on a small plot (~10.8 ha) with a geologic fault. Groundwater samples were taken from seven groundwater monitoring wells close to the farm. These wells were affected by the subsurface flow of waters, due to the presence of the geologic fault. In the summer, a significant increase of electrical conductivity values was noted in and attributed to falling water table levels. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and sulfate were noted and attributed to high precipitation, which assisted in the leaching of nitrogen and sulfur to groundwater.

  12. Falls and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Falls and Older Adults About Falls Risk Increases With Age Many people have a ... problems -- rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than ...

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes using hydrochemical studies in Malwa region, southwestern part of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tajinder; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Saroj

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities is increasing at an alarming rate in most parts of the Punjab, but limited work has been carried out on groundwater quality and monitoring. This paper highlights the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose in Malwa region, a southwestern part of Punjab. The Malwa region makes up the most cultivated area of Punjab with high consumption of pesticides and fertilizers. Twenty-four water samples representing groundwater sources were collected and analyzed for almost all major cations, anions and other physicochemical parameters. Analytical results of physicochemical analysis showed majority of the samples above the permissible limits of the Indian standards. The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative abundance of major cations and anions was Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl-. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 75 % of the samples. The mean concentration of arsenic in groundwater was 9.37 and 11.01µg/L during summer and winter season, respectively. The parameters like sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (Na%) revealed good quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes, whereas magnesium ratio and corrosivity ratio values showed that water is not suitable for agriculture and domestic use. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater was Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. Chloro alkaline indices 1 and 2 indicated that reverse ion exchange is dominant in the region. The samples fall in rock dominance and evaporation dominance fields as indicated by Gibbs diagram. The saturation index shows that all the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  15. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  16. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  17. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  18. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  19. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  20. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  2. Semivolatile organic (GC-MS) and inorganic analyses of groundwater samples during the hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) field test in Visalia, CA, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, M; Knauss, K G; Kumamoto, G; Leif, R N; Newmark, R L

    1998-02-05

    Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) is a novel, in situ, thermal-remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely oxidize a wide range of organic pollutants. A field demonstration of HPO was performed during the summer of 1997 at the Southern California Edison Pole Yard in Visalia, California, a site contaminated with creosote. The goal of the field experiment was to confirm the success of HPO under field remediation conditions. The groundwater was heated by steam injections, and oxygen was added by co-injection of compressed air. The progress of the HPO remediation process was evaluated by monitoring groundwater from multiple wells for dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic contaminant levels. Analyses of groundwater chemistry allowed us to measure the concentrations of creosote components and to identify oxygenated intermediates produced by the HPO treatment. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections because of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of phenols and benzoic acid were measured in wells affected by the steam injections. Concentrations of other oxygenated compounds (i.e., fluorenone, anthrone, and 9,10-anthracenedione) increased in response to the steam injections. The production of these partially oxidized compounds is consistent with the aqueous-phase HPO reactions of creosote. Additional changes in the groundwater in response to steam injection were also consistent with the groundwater HPO chemistry. A drop in dissolved oxygen was observed in the aquifer targeted for the steam injections, and isotope shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool reflected the input of oxidized carbon derived from the creosote carbon.

  3. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  4. [Fear of falling in a fall clinic for geriatric patients: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautzenberg, P.L.; Buurman, B.H.; Loonen, A.J.; Wouters, C.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study we want to determine how often fear of falling occurs in geriatric patients visiting a fall clinic and to study the characteristics of fear of falling and its consequences. DESIGN: Retrospective study of patient's records. METHOD: A random sample of 100 medical records

  5. Hydro-chemical assessment and groundwater recharge mechanism in the humid tropics: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, A Shahul; Prasad, N B Narasimha

    2008-10-01

    The study related to assessment of various chemical constituents in the groundwater, their origin and suitability for human use has been carried out in the Chaliyar river basin of Kerala (India). Groundwater samples were collected from 27 open dug wells and 7 bore wells, and analyzed. Piper tri-linear classification was followed in segregating the data with respect to source of dissolved constituents in groundwater. Most of the wells fall within the no dominant ion zone in the piper diagram, indicating the equal distribution of alkalis and alkaline earths. High level of dissolved solids, with the presence of chloride and sulphate, was observed in a few wells in the coastal region, which may be due to the salinity intrusion from the sea. The groundwater quality was found fairly good and potable in the lateritic midland region, except for a few wells, which were having significant level of nitrate and/or chloride. An attempt has been made to understand the source of groundwater recharge in the basin using environmental tritium as a tracer. It has been observed that the groundwater is predominantly recharged through rainfall, as evidenced from the level of tritium close to that of local precipitation.

  6. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Identifying Components of Groundwater Flow, Flux, and Storage in Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialpando, M., III; Lowry, C.; Visser, A.; Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    High elevation meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA represent mixing zones between surface water and groundwater. Quantifying the exchange between stream water and groundwater, and the residence time of water stored in meadow sediments will allow examination of the possible buffer effect that groundwater has on meadows and streams. This in turn has implications for the resilience of the ecosystem as well as the downstream communities that are dependent upon runoff for water supply. Stream flow was measured and water samples were collected along a 5 km reach of the Tuolumne River and adjacent wells during both spring runoff and baseflow. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved noble gases and anions, sulfur-35, tritium and radon to study surface water-groundwater interactions and residence times. Although lower than average because of the ongoing drought in California, discharge in early July 2015 was about 35 times that measured during the previous fall. During baseflow, a small component of fracture flow (2%) is identified using dissolved helium. Radon, anions and stream discharge identify reaches of groundwater discharge. Anions show a steady increase in the groundwater component over the western portion of the meadow during baseflow, and over 50% of stream water is exchanged with meadow groundwater, without a net gain or loss of stream flow. Sulfur-35 and tritium results indicated that groundwater contributing to stream flow has recharged within the previous two years. With the current drought, estimated as the most severe in 1200 years, accurate estimations of water availability are becoming increasingly important to water resource managers.

  8. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes of Waters in the Ordos Basin,China: Implications for Recharge of Groundwater in the North of Cretaceous Groundwater Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuncheng; SHEN Zhaoli; WENG Dongguang; HOU Guangcai; ZHAO Zhenhong; WANG Dong; PANG Zhonghe

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of precipitation samples collected from meteorological stations in the Ordos Basin from January 1988 to December 2005 were used to set up a local meteoric water line and to calculate weighted average isotopic compositions of modern precipitation.Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, with and gradually decrease in summer and fall,illustrating that the seasonal effect is considerable.They also show that the isotopic difference between south portion and north portion of the Ordos Basin are not obvious.and the isotope in the middle portion iS normally depleted.The isotope compositions of 32 samples collected from shallow groundwater(less than a depth of 150 m)in desert plateau range from for JD.Most of them are identical with modern precipitation.The isotope compositions of 22 middle and deep groundwaters(greater than a depth of 275 m)fall in ranges from-11.6‰to-8.8‰with an average of-10.2‰ for £18O and from-89‰ to-63‰ with an average of-76‰ for £D.The average values are significantly less than those of modern precipitation,illustrating that the middle and deep groundwaters were recharged at comparatively lower air temperatures.Primary analysis of 14C shows that the recharge of the middle and deep groundwaters started at late Pleistocene.The isotopes of 13 lake water samples collected from eight lakes define a local evaporation trend,with a relatively flat slope of 3.77,and show that the lake waters were mainly fed by modern precipitation and shallow groundwater.

  9. Risk of falling, fear of falling and functionality in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Tomás, Mª Teresa; Quirino, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Ageing among Portuguese population is leading to an increase in the proportion of elderly people. Age-related changes are responsible for high levels of disability, balance problems and high risk of falls, Physiotherapy can identify elderly in risk of falling and provide strategies to prevent falls in this population contributing to maintain functionality. The purpose of this study was to characterise the risk of falling in a sample of community-dwelling older adults and investigate the assoc...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SUNAMGANJ OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raihan, J. B. Alam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality in Sunamganj of Bangladesh was studied based on different indices for irrigation and drinking uses. Samples were investigated for sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, electrical conductance, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio, total hardness, permeability index, residual sodium bi-carbonate to investigate the ionic toxicity. From the analytical result, it was revealed that the values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that ground water of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there was neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, so that ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. Average Total Hardness of the samples in the study area was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. Average total hardness of the samples was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. It was shown based on GIS analysis that the groundwater quality in Zone-1 could be categorized of "excellent" class, supporting the high suitability for irrigation. In Zone-2 and Zone-3, the groundwater quality was categorized as "risky" and "poor" respectively. The study has also made clear that GIS-based methodology can be used effectively for ground water quality mapping even in small catchments.

  11. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  12. The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the

  13. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras, which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major water types in this area. It is inferred that, total hardness falls in hard to very hard category. The water quality index rated as poor to very poor quality except few samples. The study reveals that the concentration of major ions and chromium are exceeding the permissible limit. Groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption as it contains higher concentration of major ions and chromium. Tannery uses a large number of chemicals during the process of discharging toxic wastes into open drains and municipality solid waste dumpsite to the nearby land is the major reasons deterioration of water quality in this area. Contamination of groundwater causes water scarcity for domestic purpose of this study is to highlight the impact of tannery effluent on groundwater

  14. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  15. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone populations

  16. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  17. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-29

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0.

  18. Comparison of no-purge and pumped sampling methods for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related compounds in groundwater, Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2012-01-01

    Field tests were conducted near the Impact Area at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to determine the utility of no-purge groundwater sampling for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related explosive compounds and perchlorate in the sand and gravel aquifer. The no-purge methods included (1) a diffusion sampler constructed of rigid porous polyethylene, (2) a diffusion sampler constructed of regenerated-cellulose membrane, and (3) a tubular grab sampler (bailer) constructed of polyethylene film. In samples from 36 monitoring wells, concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4-), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the major contaminants of concern in the Impact Area, in the no-purge samples were compared to concentrations of these compounds in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling with dedicated bladder pumps. The monitoring wells are constructed of 2- and 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe and have approximately 5- to 10-foot-long slotted screens. The no-purge samplers were left in place for 13-64 days to ensure that ambient groundwater flow had flushed the well screen and concentrations in the screen represented water in the adjacent formation. The sampling methods were compared first in six monitoring wells. Concentrations of ClO4-, RDX, and HMX in water samples collected by the three no-purge sampling methods and low-flow pumped sampling were in close agreement for all six monitoring wells. There is no evidence of a systematic bias in the concentration differences among the methods on the basis of type of sampling device, type of contaminant, or order in which the no-purge samplers were tested. A subsequent examination of vertical variations in concentrations of ClO4- in the 10-foot-long screens of six wells by using rigid porous polyethylene diffusion samplers indicated that concentrations in a given well varied by less than 15 percent

  19. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  20. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

  2. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  3. Impacts of Sampling and Handling Procedures on DNA- and RNA-based Microbial Characterization and Quantification of Groundwater and Saturated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    and shipped on ice (Hendrickson et al., 2002; Major et al., 2002; Macbeth et al., 2004). Alternatively, groundwater is filtered and frozen...2002; Dennis et al., 2003; Macbeth et al., 2004; Freeborn et al., 2005; Grostern and Edwards, 2006; Rahm et al., 2006). PCR was performed using... Macbeth , T. W., D. E. Cummings, S. Spring, L. M. Petzke, and K. S. Sorenson. 2004. Molecular characterization of a dechlorinating community resulting

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period.

  6. Prospects and quality indices for groundwater development in Ibadan metropolis, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade, O.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical and hydrogeochemical studies were conducted in part of Ibadan metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the groundwater potential and quality for sustainable development. Interpreted results of vertical electrical sounding data revealed three to four geo-electric layers; top soil (22.1-441.4 Ωm, lateritic horizon (402.1-712.2 Ωm, clayey/sandyclay layer (2.95-66.0 Ωm and weathered/fractured bedrock (66.3-1056.7 Ωm. Stacked overburden isopach and basement isoresitivity maps revealed few areas with thick overburden and fractured basement, hence of apparently high groundwater prospect. Hydrogeochemical study indicates that groundwater in the study area is generally fresh, soft- moderately hard, slightly acidic and dominated by Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and HCO3 ions. The dominant hydrochemical facies is Na-Cl type with minor mixed Ca-Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Many of the analyzed parameters fall within recommended limits and thus, most of the groundwater in the study area are chemically suitable for drinking. A few however, recorded TDS, pH, NO3, Al, Mg and Cl concentrations above permissible levels, suggesting some concern in terms of potability. The groundwater quality for agricultural purposes was assessed using Sodium absorption ratio, permeability index and electrical conductivity values along with USSL and Wilcox diagrams, all indicating that most of the samples are excellent to good for irrigation.

  7. The Patient Who Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Mary E.; Kumar, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    Falls are common health events that cause discomfort and disability for older adults and stress for caregivers. Using the case of an older man who has experienced multiple falls and a hip fracture, this article, which focuses on community-living older adults, addresses the consequences and etiology of falls; summarizes the evidence on predisposing factors and effective interventions; and discusses how to translate this evidence into patient care. Previous falls; strength, gait, and balance impairments; and medications are the strongest risk factors for falling. Effective single interventions include exercise and physical therapy, cataract surgery, and medication reduction. Evidence suggests that the most effective strategy for reducing the rate of falling in community-living older adults may be intervening on multiple risk factors. Vitamin D has the strongest clinical trial evidence of benefit for preventing fractures among older men at risk. Issues involved in incorporating these evidence-based fall prevention interventions into outpatient practice are discussed, as are the trade-offs inherent in managing older patients at risk of falling. While challenges and barriers exist, fall prevention strategies can be incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:20085954

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong, Aliyu Haliru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration

  9. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  10. Screening of French groundwater for regulated and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Ollivier, Patrick; Togola, Anne; Baran, Nicole; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-15

    Nationwide screening of 411 emerging contaminants and other regulated compounds, including parent molecules and transformation products (TPs) having various uses and origins, was done at 494 groundwater sites throughout France during two sampling campaigns in the Spring and the Fall of 2011. One hundred and eighty substances (44% of the targeted compounds) were quantified in at least one sampling point. These included pharmaceuticals, industrial products, pesticides, their transformation products and other emerging compounds. Fifty-five compounds were quantified in more than 1% of the samples. Both regulated and emerging compounds were found. Among the unregulated compounds, acetaminophen, carbamazepine, perfluorinated compounds, dioxins/furans, tolyltriazole, bisphenol A, triazine transformation products, and caffeine were quantified in more than 10% of the samples analyzed. Concentrations exceeding the threshold of toxicological concern of 0.1 μg/L were found for tolyltriazole, bisphenol A and some of the triazine transformation products (DEDIA). These new results should help the water resource managers and environmental regulators develop sound policies regarding the occurrence and distribution of regulated and emerging contaminants in groundwater.

  11. Fall Leaf Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  12. Falls and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Sahlberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative....... CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the overall reduction in fractures can be explained by reduction in falls related comorbidity....

  13. INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Forbes

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes 2006 perched water and groundwater monitoring activities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During 2006, groundwater samples were collected from a total of 22 Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) monitoring wells, plus six aquifer wells sampled for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) monitoring program. In addition, perched water samples were collected from 21 perched wells and 19 suction lysimeters. Groundwater and perched water samples were analyzed for a suite of radionuclides and inorganic constituents. Laboratory results in this report are compared to drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Such comparison is for reference only and it should be noted that the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision does not require that perched water comply with drinking water standards.

  14. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)

    2010-06-17

    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  15. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

  16. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  17. Groundwater-surface water interactions in montane meadows of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R. G.; Conklin, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Meadows often lie in low gradient, groundwater fed terrain of the Sierra Nevada. These settings result in near saturated conditions for much of the year, shallow groundwater tables, and groundwater discharge to surface flow. Our hypothesis is that groundwater fluctuations integrate watershed processes rather than meadow specific processes. Meadow characteristics are in contrast to the adjacent forested landscapes, where soils go dry in the summer, groundwater tables are much deeper, and some fraction of soil water is lost to deeper percolation. We utilize a series water column data from monitoring wells and piezometers in two meadows, soil moisture and snow depth data from nodes in the associated catchment, located within the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, from water years 2008-2012. Water samples from wells and associated streams were analyzed for major ions and stable water isotopes. Results from the monitoring wells and piezometers show groundwater tables and pressure heads that are highest during snowmelt and decrease over the summer growing season; inter-annual variation is correlated to total accumulated precipitation for the given water year. Groundwater elevations exhibit diurnal fluctuations influenced by snowmelt and evapotranspiration (ET) processes in the spring, transitioning to an ET dominated signal during the summer growing season. These fluctuations are of greatest magnitude near the meadow-forest boundary and least near the center of the meadow. ET signals continue after the meadow vegetation senesces, suggesting influences from the adjacent forested landscape. Deep piezometers (>2.5 m depth) do not exhibit fluctuation at the daily time scale while shallower piezometers (edge and meadow center, groundwater discharge is strongest during snow melt with a decrease as the summer growing season progresses. The near edge pressure head data show that the direction of groundwater flux changes to indicate groundwater recharge by fall. The near

  18. Development and Testing of Active Groundwater Samplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Bertel; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Andersen, Lars Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Active groundwater sampling techniques are methods where the aquifer is flushed by pumping. The methods developed and tested represent non-dedicated methods for use in existing water wells. This paper describes two different sampling techniques: the Separation Pumping Technique (SP) and the Packer...... on numerical modelling and controlled laboratory experiments. Active groundwater sampling techniques can be used for remedial pumping optimization and in obtaining hydraulic data and represent a fast operational and reliable sampling tool, also under heterogeneous and low permeability conditions....

  19. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  20. Rock falls from Glacier Point above Camp Curry, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A series of rock falls from the north face of Glacier Point above Camp Curry, Yosemite National Park, California, have caused reexamination of the rock-fall hazard because beginning in June, 1999 a system of cracks propagated through a nearby rock mass outlining a future potential rock fall. If the estimated volume of the potential rock fall fails as a single piece, there could be a risk from rock-fall impact and airborne rock debris to cabins in Camp Curry. The role of joint plane orientation and groundwater pressure in the fractured rock mass are discussed in light of the pattern of developing cracks and potential modes of failure.

  1. Reverse ion exchange as a major process controlling the groundwater chemistry in an arid environment: a case study from northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal K; Nazzal, Yousef; Jafri, Muhammad Kamran; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmed, Izrar

    2015-10-01

    Assessment of groundwater quality is of utmost significance in arid regions like Saudi Arabia where the lack of present-day recharge and high evaporation rates coupled with increasing groundwater withdrawal may restrict its usage for domestic or agricultural purposes. In the present study, groundwater samples collected from agricultural farms in Hail (15 samples), Al Jawf (15 samples), and Tabuk (30 samples) regions were analyzed for their major ion concentration. The objective of the study was to determine the groundwater facies, the main hydrochemical process governing the groundwater chemistry, the saturation index with respect to the principal mineral phases, and the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational use. The groundwater samples fall within the Ca-Cl type, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl type, and Na-Cl type. Evaporation and reverse ion exchange appear to be the major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry though reverse ion exchange process is the more dominating factor. The various ionic relationships confirmed the reverse ion exchange process where the Ca and Mg in the aquifer matrix have been replaced by Na at favorable exchange sites. This phenomenon has accounted for the dominance of Ca and Mg ions over Na ion at all the sites. The process of reverse ion exchange was further substantiated by the use of modified Piper diagram (Chadha's classification) and the chloro-alkaline indices. Evaporation as a result of extreme aridity has resulted in the groundwater being oversaturated with aragonite/calcite and dolomite as revealed by the saturation indices. The groundwater samples were classified as safe (less than 10) in terms of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values, good (less than 1.25) in terms of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values, and safe to moderate (between 0 and 3) in terms of Mg hazard for irrigation purposes. Though the high salinity groundwater in the three regions coupled with low SAR values are good for the soil structure, it can have a

  2. Seneca Falls. Classroom Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson based on the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Provides lesson objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. Includes quoted sections of the Declaration of Sentiments. (CFR)

  3. How does interference fall?

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Patrick J; Modi, Kavan

    2016-01-01

    We study how single- and double-slit interference patterns fall in the presence of gravity. First, we demonstrate that universality of free fall still holds in this case, i.e., interference patterns fall just like classical objects. Next, we explore lowest order relativistic effects in the Newtonian regime by employing a recent quantum formalism which treats mass as an operator. This leads to interactions between non-degenerate internal degrees of freedom (like spin in an external magnetic field) and external degrees of freedom (like position). Based on these effects, we present an unusual phenomenon, in which a falling double slit interference pattern periodically decoheres and recoheres. The oscillations in the visibility of this interference occur due to correlations built up between spin and position. Finally, we connect the interference visibility revivals with non-Markovian quantum dynamics.

  4. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  5. Editors' Fall Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  6. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  7. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  8. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases.

  9. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  10. Identifying Groundwater Discharge in the Merced River Basin, California Using Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. D.; Hudson, G. B.; Moran, J.; Conklin, M.

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured granite of the Sierra Nevada is poorly characterized, in particular, contributions of mountain block recharge are not known. Using a combination of water quality and isotopic analyses, groundwater inputs to the Upper Merced River were characterized. Between November 2003 and July 2004, monthly water quality samples were taken from Happy Isles to the inlet of Lake McClure, a 75 km reach. These samples demonstrated the expected dilution due to snowmelt in the spring. In the fall, the spatial profile matched the geology with anion concentrations increasing downstream of the transition from the Sierra Nevada batholith to the country rock, suggesting significant groundwater inputs. From July 19 to 21, 2004, radon-222 and other noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe abundances and 3He/4He ratio) were measured along a 37 km reach of the Merced River, extending from the top of Yosemite Valley to the confluence of the South Fork of the Merced River. All radon samples were extracted into mineral oil immediately in the field and counted using liquid scintillation; noble gas samples were collected in copper tubes. Radon-222 activity varied from about 1 to 100 pCi/L (at collection time) indicating significant, spatially variable groundwater discharge into the Merced River. Two one-mile reaches of the Merced River were sampled for 222Rn on a fine scale. Large fracture sets in these two locations and previous temperature measurements suggested that groundwater discharge was higher relative to other locations along the river. Radon-222 activity was low upstream and downstream of large fractures observed in the bedrock; whereas, 222Rn activity was high at large fracture zones. Degassing is rapid downstream of fractures where no groundwater discharge is observed. For a representative groundwater end-member, radon-222 activity measured in Fern Spring, Yosemite Valley was about 1200 pCi/L. Excess 4He from U and Th decay is observed in samples with elevated

  11. Impact of oil on groundwater chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakorenko, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to characterize the chemical composition of groundwater samples from the monitoring wells drilled in the petrol station areas within the vicinity of Tomsk. The level of contamination has increased since many macro - and microcomponent concentrations (such as petroleum products, chlorine, sulphates, carbon dioxide and lead, etc.) in groundwater samples of the present study is higher than that in previous period samples.

  12. [Fear of falling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde Tirado, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Fear of falling (FF) can be considered as a protective response to a real threat, preventing the elderly from performing activities with high risk of falling, but can also lead to a restriction of the activities that will result in a long-term adverse effect on social, physical or cognitive functions. There is a prevalence of FF in 30% in the elderly who have no history of falls, and double that in those with a history of falling. Its prevalence is increased in women and with advanced age. Several scales have been developed to measure the psychological effects of FF, among which are noted are, the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), the Activities-specific Balance and Confidence Scale (ABC), and the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). It has negative consequences in the functionality, the subjective feeling of well-being, and in the consequent loss of independence. The functional and physical deterioration, or the quality of life is clearly related to the FF, although it has not been established if these factors are cause or effect. Multiple interventions have been recommended, bringing about changes that reinforce their confidence to carry out activities. Interventions and research should promote a realistic and appropriate approach to the risk of falls and teach the elderly to perform activities safely. The reduction in FF is an important goal in itself to improve the subjective feeling of well-being, and the benefits could be increased if this reduction was also accompanied by an increase in safe behaviour, social participation, and activities of the daily life.

  13. Effects of acidic recharge on groundwater at the St. Kevin Gulch site, Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, S.S.; Harrison, W.J.; Walton-Day, K.

    2001-01-01

    The acid rock drainage-affected stream of St. Kevin Gulch recharges the Quaternary sand and gravel aquifer of Tennessee Park, near Leadville, Colorado, lowering pH and contributing iron, cadmium, copper, zinc and sulphate to the ground-water system. Dissolved metal mobility is controlled by the seasonal spring runoff as well as oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions in the aquifer. Oxidizing conditions occur in the unconfined portions of the aquifer whilst sulphate-reducing conditions are found down gradient where semi-confined groundwater flow occurs beneath a natural wetland. Iron-reducing conditions occur in the transition from unconfined to semi-confined groundwater flow. Dissolved iron concentrations are low to not detectable in the alluvial fan recharge zone and increase in a down gradient direction. The effects of low-pH, metal-rich recharge are pronounced during low-flow in the fall when there is a defined area of low pH groundwater with elevated concentrations of dissolved zinc, cadmium, copper and sulphate adjacent to St. Kevin Gulch. Dissolved metal and sulphate concentrations in the recharge zone are diluted during spring runoff, although the maximum concentrations of dissolved zinc, cadmium, copper and sulphate occur at selected down gradient locations during high flow. Dissolved zinc, cadmium and copper concentrations are low to not detectable, whereas dissolved iron concentrations are greatest, in groundwater samples from the sulphate-reducing zone. Attenuation of zinc, cadmium and copper beneath the wetland suggests sulphide mineral precipitation is occurring in the semi-confined aquifer, in agreement with previous site investigations and saturation index calculations. Adsorption of dissolved zinc, cadmium and copper onto iron hydroxides is a minor attenuation process due to the low pH of the groundwater system.

  14. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  15. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  16. Prevalence of certain inorganic constituents in groundwater samples of Erode district, Tamilnadu, India, with special emphasis on fluoride, fluorosis and its remedial measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K; Nanthakumar, K; Velmurugan, P; Tamilarasi, S; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2010-01-01

    A total of 60 drinking water samples collected from Erode district, Tamilnadu, India were analysed for fluoride contamination, besides water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride, bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, sodium and potassium. The results obtained were found to exceed the permissible limits. The concentration of fluoride in the water samples ranged between 0.5 and 8.2 mg/l and revealed that 80% of the water samples contain fluoride above the maximum permissible limit. Similarly, the concentrations of nitrate, hardness, calcium and magnesium in some samples were also more than the permissible level. Pearson's correlation coefficient among the parameters showed a positive correlation of fluoride with total hardness and calcium. It is inferred from the study that these water sources can be used for potable purpose only after prior treatment.

  17. Shapefile of sampling sites for the assessment of groundwater quality at selected wells throughout Puerto Rico, December 2015 to November 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Santiago, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data release consists of  a point shapefile with the location of the sites used in a sampling program to assess the water quality at selected wells throughout Puerto Rico. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (PREQB) during December 2015 to November 2016.

  18. The News, Fall 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over…

  19. FHR Iowa Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This October 22, 2015, letter from EPA approves the petition from Flint Hills Resources, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through the FHR Iowa Falls Process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the R

  20. Modelling Urban diffuse pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jato, Musa; Smith, Martin; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse urban pollution of surface and ground waters is a growing concern in many cities and towns. Traffic-derived pollutants such as salts, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may wash off road surfaces in soluble or particulate forms which later drain through soils and drainage systems into surface waters and groundwater. In Brighton, about 90% of drinking water supply comes from groundwater (derived from the Brighton Chalk block). In common with many groundwater sources the Chalk aquifer has been relatively extensively monitored and assessed for diffuse rural contaminants such as nitrate, but knowledge on the extent of contamination from road run-off is currently lacking. This project examines the transfer of traffic-derived contaminants from the road surface to the Chalk aquifer, via urban drainage systems. A transect of five boreholes have been sampled on a monthly basis and groundwater samples analysed to examine the concentrations of key, mainly road run-off derived, hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminants in groundwater across the Brighton area. Trace concentrations of heavy metals and phenols have been observed in groundwater. Electrical conductivity changes in groundwater have also been used to assess local changes in ionic strength which may be associated with road-derived contaminants. This has been supplemented by systematic water and sediment sampling from urban gully pots, with further sampling planned from drainage and settlement ponds adjacent to major roads, to examine initial road to drainage system transport of major contaminants.

  1. Assessment of total PPCP Pollution in Water Samples Using a New Contamination Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, J. L.; Huang, W.; Sickman, J. O.; Gan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies document the presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment, specifically near treated wastewater effluent, septic discharge and large-scale agricultural operations. Additionally, managed aquifer recharge may be a source of these contaminants. Groundwater quality is a major concern in California, as ~40% of residents consume it domestically and some communities such as Beaumont, depend on it entirely. Groundwater in Beaumont is influenced by all of the PPCP sources mentioned above. In the Beaumont Groundwater Management Zone we observed four distinct regions of groundwater that could be described according to their levels of anthropogenic impacts. The groundwater regions heavily influenced by wastewater effluent, high densities of septic systems and managed aquifer recharge had the highest concentrations and detections of PPCPs. To better describe the total levels of pollution and place our findings in the context of the greater body of data on PPCPs in the aquatic environment, a PPCP contamination index was developed from the peer-reviewed literature. The index equation was developed and validated using 21 previously published studies (285 total samples) on PPCPs in the aquatic environment as well as through sensitivity analysis. From the published literature we determined index values that fall into three classes: light (4.1). PPCP contamination in Coopers Creek near the Beaumont WWTP discharge was at the upper end of the moderate range (3.6 to 3.8). The groundwater wells along the flow path of Coopers Creek were lightly contaminated (1.3 to 1.8) and groundwater wells influenced by septic waste and managed aquifer recharge were all values are typical for groundwater and wastewater effluent mixed with surface water found in the literature at PPCP contaminated sites. In addition to describing total PPCP contamination within a study, this index will also allow for researchers to compare contamination levels across

  2. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...

  3. Pushpoint sampling for defining spatial and temporal variations in contaminant concentrations in sediment pore water near the ground-water / surface-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Massey, Andrew J.; Campo, Kimberly W.

    2005-01-01

    During four periods from April 2002 to June 2003, pore-water samples were taken from river sediment within a gaining reach (Mill Pond) of the Sudbury River in Ashland, Massachusetts, with a temporary pushpoint sampler to determine whether this device is an effective tool for measuring small-scale spatial variations in concentrations of volatile organic compounds and selected field parameters (specific conductance and dissolved oxygen concentration). The pore waters sampled were within a subsurface plume of volatile organic compounds extending from the nearby Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund site to the river. Samples were collected from depths of 10, 30, and 60 centimeters below the sediment surface along two 10-meter-long, parallel transects extending into the river. Twenty-five volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from less than 1 microgram per liter to hundreds of micrograms per liter (for example, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 490 micrograms per liter; cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 290 micrograms per liter). The most frequently detected compounds were either chlorobenzenes or chlorinated ethenes. Many of the compounds were detected only infrequently. Quality-control sampling indicated a low incidence of trace concentrations of contaminants. Additional samples collected with passive-water-diffusion-bag samplers yielded results comparable to those collected with the pushpoint sampler and to samples collected in previous studies at the site. The results demonstrate that the pushpoint sampler can yield distinct samples from sites in close proximity; in this case, sampling sites were 1 meter apart horizontally and 20 or 30 centimeters apart vertically. Moreover, the pushpoint sampler was able to draw pore water when inserted to depths as shallow as 10 centimeters below the sediment surface without entraining surface water. The simplicity of collecting numerous samples in a short time period (routinely, 20 to 30 per day) validates the use of a

  4. Laboratory electrical resistivity analysis of geologic samples from Fort Irwin, California: Chapter E in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Correlating laboratory resistivity measurements with geophysical resistivity models helps constrain these models to the geology and lithology of an area. Throughout the Fort Irwin National Training Center area, 111 samples from both cored boreholes and surface outcrops were collected and processed for laboratory measurements. These samples represent various lithologic types that include plutonic and metamorphic (basement) rocks, lava flows, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that formed in a series of intermountain basins. Basement rocks, lava flows, and some lithified tuffs are generally resistive (≥100 ohm-meters [Ω·m]) when saturated. Saturated unconsolidated samples are moderately conductive to conductive, with resistivities generally less than 100 Ω·m, and many of these samples are less than 50 Ω·m. The unconsolidated samples can further be separated into two broad groups: (1) younger sediments that are moderately conductive, owing to their limited clay content, and (2) older, more conductive sediments with a higher clay content that reflects substantial amounts of originally glassy volcanic ash subsequently altered to clay. The older sediments are believed to be Tertiary. Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired near most of the boreholes, and, on the whole, close agreements between laboratory measurements and resistivity models were found. 

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-02-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, HCO3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and SO4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of

  7. Internship Progress Summary: Fall 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This fall I had the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Technology Applications engineering group. I assisted two main projects during my appointment, both related to the Lab’s mission statement: “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” My first project, a thermal source transfer unit, involved skills such as mechanical design, heat transfer simulation, and design analysis. The goal was to create a container that could protect a heat source and regulate its temperature during transit. I generated several designs, performed heat transfer simulations, and chose a design for prototyping. The second project was a soil drying unit for use in post blast sample analysis. To ensure fast and accurate sample processing, agents in the field wanted a system that could process wet dirt and turn it into dry powder. We designed a system of commercially available parts, and we tested the systems to determine the best methods and processes.

  8. Novel Hierarchical Fall Detection Algorithm Using a Multiphase Fall Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Yeh; Liu, Kai-Chun; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chu, Woei-Chyn; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2017-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents for the elderly in the living environment. Reducing hazards in the living environment and performing exercises for training balance and muscles are the common strategies for fall prevention. However, falls cannot be avoided completely; fall detection provides an alarm that can decrease injuries or death caused by the lack of rescue. The automatic fall detection system has opportunities to provide real-time emergency alarms for improving the safety and quality of home healthcare services. Two common technical challenges are also tackled in order to provide a reliable fall detection algorithm, including variability and ambiguity. We propose a novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm involving threshold-based and knowledge-based approaches to detect a fall event. The threshold-based approach efficiently supports the detection and identification of fall events from continuous sensor data. A multiphase fall model is utilized, including free fall, impact, and rest phases for the knowledge-based approach, which identifies fall events and has the potential to deal with the aforementioned technical challenges of a fall detection system. Seven kinds of falls and seven types of daily activities arranged in an experiment are used to explore the performance of the proposed fall detection algorithm. The overall performances of the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy using a knowledge-based algorithm are 99.79%, 98.74%, 99.05% and 99.33%, respectively. The results show that the proposed novel hierarchical fall detection algorithm can cope with the variability and ambiguity of the technical challenges and fulfill the reliability, adaptability, and flexibility requirements of an automatic fall detection system with respect to the individual differences. PMID:28208694

  9. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  10. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ{sup 37}Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water.

  11. Sustainable groundwater management——problems and scientific tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WolfgangKinzelbach; PeterBauer; TobiasSiegfried; PhilipBrunner

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater is a strategic resource due to its usually high quality and perennial availability. However, groundwater management all over the world often lacks sustainability as evidenced by falling water tables, drying wetlands, increasing sea-water intrusion and general deterioration of water quality. As groundwater cannot be renewed artificially on a large scale, sustainable management of this resource is vital. A number of scientific tools are available to assist in his task. Three items are discussed here. They include methods for the determination of groundwater recharge, groundwater modeling including the estimation of its uncertainty, and thenterfacing to the socio-economic field. Generally the quality of water management work can be largely enhanced with new tools available, including remote sensing, digital terrain models, differential GPS, environmental tracers, automatic data collection, modeling and the coupling of models from different disciplines

  12. Occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds and nutrients in source and finished water in the Sioux Falls area, South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in drinking-water sources commonly are derived from municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater sources, and are a concern for water-supply managers. A cooperative study between the city of Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2009 to (1) characterize the occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds in the source waters (groundwater and surface water) to water supplies in the Sioux Falls area, (2) determine if the compounds detected in the source waters also are present in the finished water, and (3) identify probable sources of nitrate in the Big Sioux River Basin and determine if sources change seasonally or under different hydrologic conditions. This report presents analytical results of water-quality samples collected from source waters and finished waters in the Sioux Falls area. The study approach included the collection of water samples from source and finished waters in the Sioux Falls area for the analyses of AOCs, nutrients, and nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate. Water-quality constituents monitored in this study were chosen to represent a variety of the contaminants known or suspected to occur within the Big Sioux River Basin, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, sterols, household and industrial products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, antibiotics, and hormones. A total of 184 AOCs were monitored, of which 40 AOCs had relevant human-health benchmarks. During 11 sampling visits, 45 AOCs (24 percent) were detected in at least one sample of source or finished water, and 13 AOCs were detected in at least 20 percent of all samples. Concentrations of detected AOCs were all less than 1 microgram per liter, except for two AOCs in multiple samples from the Big Sioux River, and one AOC in finished-water samples. Concentrations of AOCs were less than 0.1 microgram per liter in more than 75 percent of the detections. Nutrient concentrations varied seasonally in source

  13. The Resource. Fall 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Adams, Director of Scientific Visualization, initiated a Bring Your Own Data ( BYOD ) workshop for MSRC users. The first workshop was held June 25-26 in...leverage these assets in their future work. The first BYOD workshop was definitely a benefit to the users. Chris Stone, in particular was able to...publications 28 ERDC MSRC The Resource, Fall 2001 ac ro ny m s AG Access Grid AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement BYOD Bring Your Own Data CDC Control Data

  14. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja M. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  15. Modeling a falling slinky

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R C

    2012-01-01

    A slinky is an example of a tension spring: in an unstretched state a slinky is collapsed, with turns touching, and a finite tension is required to separate the turns from this state. If a slinky is suspended from its top and stretched under gravity and then released, the bottom of the slinky does not begin to fall until the top section of the slinky, which collapses turn by turn from the top, collides with the bottom. The total collapse time t_c (typically ~0.3 s for real slinkies) corresponds to the time required for a wave front to propagate down the slinky to communicate the release of the top end. We present a modification to an existing model for a falling tension spring (Calkin 1993) and apply it to data from filmed drops of two real slinkies. The modification of the model is the inclusion of a finite time for collapse of the turns of the slinky behind the collapse front propagating down the slinky during the fall. The new finite-collapse time model achieves a good qualitative fit to the observed posit...

  16. Modeling a falling slinky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, R. C.; Wheatland, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A slinky is an example of a tension spring: in an unstretched state a slinky is collapsed, with turns touching, and a finite tension is required to separate the turns from this state. If a slinky is suspended from its top and stretched under gravity and then released, the bottom of the slinky does not begin to fall until the top section of the slinky, which collapses turn by turn from the top, collides with the bottom. The total collapse time tc (typically ˜0.3 s for real slinkies) corresponds to the time required for a wave front to propagate down the slinky to communicate the release of the top end. We present a modification to an existing model for a falling tension spring [Calkin, Am. J. Phys. 61, 261-264 (1993)] and apply it to data from filmed drops of two real slinkies. The modification of the model is the inclusion of a finite time for collapse of the turns of the slinky behind the collapse front propagating down the slinky during the fall. The new finite-collapse time model achieves a good qualitative fit to the observed positions of the top of the real slinkies during the measured drops. The spring constant k for each slinky is taken to be a free parameter in the model. The best-fit model values for k for each slinky are approximately consistent with values obtained from measured periods of oscillation of the slinkies.

  17. DS-777 Spatial Location of Wells with Water-Level Measurements taken in the Spring and Fall from September 1940 to April 2009 for the Northern High Plains Groundwater-Flow Model in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is one of many developed in support of The High Plains Groundwater Availability Project and the U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report: Geodatabase...

  18. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    local palaeohydrogeological conditions. It is likely that inland areas have had longer durations of post-glacial fresh water infiltration than coastal areas, possibly causing greater degrees of dilution and dispersion of preexisting groundwaters and thus overprinting their hydrochemical and isotopic 'fingerprints'. Lower post-glacial hydraulic gradients relative to inland sites may account for the occurrence of more relict cold-climate water at coastal sites. Some general observations are based on rather thin evidence and therefore speculative. Firstly, it seems that glacial melt water penetrated many hundreds of metres and in some places to at least 1,000 m depth. However the low remaining proportions of melt water and of much older saline Shield water suggest that melt water flux did not fully displace pre-existing groundwaters at these depths. Secondly, where there has been post-glacial infiltration of palaeo-Baltic sea water, the density stratification or compartmentalisation effect coupled with low hydraulic gradient has reduced rates of subsequent fresh water circulation after shoreline recession. There are many uncertainties in interpreting these geochemical indicators in terms of the penetration depths of glacial melt waters and the degree to which they replace preexisting groundwaters, of other aspects of groundwater stability, and of comparisons between inland and coastal groundwater systems. Uncertainties derive partly from the reliability of groundwater samples as being representative of in situ conditions, and partly from the non-uniqueness of interpretative models. Future investigations using these approaches need to improve sampling, to make conjunctive use of geochemical and isotopic indicators which have varying timescales and sensitivities, and to integrate these indicators with palaeohydrogeological modelling to support the development of reliable groundwater flow and solute transport models for Performance Assessment.

  19. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  20. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  1. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  2. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  3. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  4. Falls in the audiology clinic: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criter, Robin E; Honaker, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a common and often preventable cause of injury and death among older adults. Hearing loss, vestibular disorders, dizziness, and imbalance are common risk factors for falls; however, the rate of falls among older audiology patients has never been assessed. To examine the fall history and risk factors of older adults seen in a university audiology clinic. A descriptive and correlational retrospective chart review of fall history and characteristics of patients seen in a university audiology clinic. 88 (51 women, 37 men) patients aged 60 yr and older seen in a university audiology clinic. At the time of hearing evaluation, clinic patients filled out the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, as well as a history form containing fall-related questions. These measures, as well as demographic information (gender and age) were retrieved during a retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed with independent-samples t-tests, Pearson correlations, and descriptive statistics. Fifty percent of the study sample reported falling within the preceding 12 mo, while 70% reported having fallen at some point in the past. ABC Scale score was negatively correlated with age and number of recent falls. There appears to be a higher prevalence of falls within a university audiology clinic relative to previously published fall rates in the general population. American Academy of Audiology.

  5. Falls in degenerative cerebellar ataxias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Steijns, Janneke A G; Munneke, Marten; Kremer, Berry P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively and prospectively assessed the frequency and characteristics of falls in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxias. The results show that falls occur very frequently in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxias and that these falls are serious and often lead to injuries or

  6. [Fall risk and fracture. Aging and fall/fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Fall deteriorates QOL and ADL of elderly people, especially when they suffer from hip and vertebral fractures. It is not easy to identify the cause of falling, because falling usually result from multiple factors. Among various potential causes, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, medication of hypnotic drugs, and environmental factors are important, because they are frequent and can be modifiable. When evaluating fall risks, grasping power, one-leg standing time, timed up&go test, are useful. On the other hand, fall risk index, 22-item self-assessment test, is easy and even better in predicting future falls. In the Cochrane systematic review article 2009, exercise such as Tai-Chi, withdrawal of hypnotic drugs, and vitamin D supplementation are shown to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly.

  7. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara (Geo Innova AB (Sweden)); Hahn, Hans Juergen (Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany))

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  8. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    in the United States. Previously published digital data relating to brackish groundwater resources were limited to a small number of State- and regional-level studies. Data sources for this assessment ranged from single publications to large datasets and from local studies to national assessments. Geochemical data included concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and radionuclides as well as physical properties of the water (pH, temperature, and specific conductance). Additionally, the database provides selected well information (location, yield, depth, and contributing aquifer) necessary for evaluating the water resource.The assessment was divided into national-, regional-, and aquifer-scale analyses. National-scale analyses included evaluation of the three-dimensional distribution of observed dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater, the three-dimensional probability of brackish groundwater occurrence, and the geochemical characteristics of saline (greater than or equal to 1,000 mg/L of dissolved solids) groundwater resources. Regional-scale analyses included a summary of the percentage of observed grid cell volume in the region that was occupied by brackish groundwater within the mixture of air, water, and rock for multiple depth intervals. Aquifer-scale analyses focused primarily on four regions that contained the largest amounts of observed brackish groundwater and included a generalized description of hydrogeologic characteristics from previously published work; the distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations; considerations for developing brackish groundwater resources, including a summary of other chemical characteristics that may limit the use of brackish groundwater and the ability of sampled wells producing brackish groundwater to yield useful amounts of water; and the amount of saline groundwater being used in 2010.

  9. Environmental monitoring final report: groundwater chemical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of groundwater qualtiy at the SRC-I Demonstration Plant site in Newman, Kentucky. Samples were obtained from a network of 23 groundwater observation wells installed during previous studies. The groundwater was well within US EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards for trace metals, radioactivity, and pesticides, but exceeded the standard for coliform bacteria. Several US EPA Secondary Drinking Water Standards were exceeded, namely, manganese, color, iron, and total dissolved solids. Based on the results, Dames and Moore recommend that all wells should be sterilized and those wells built in 1980 should be redeveloped. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  10. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  11. Why Rhodes must fall

    OpenAIRE

    Newsinger, J

    2016-01-01

    The international Rhodes Must Fall campaign has reinvigorated public interest in the legacy of Cecil Rhodes, Empire and the production of historical memory. But it has also been subject to a fierce backlash in the rightwing media, which has fought against the campaign at an Oxford college to remove a statue of Cecil Rhodes both on the grounds of free speech (and the right to offend) and on the grounds that Rhodes must be judged by the standards of his time. Here, the author revisits Rhodes’ l...

  12. `In free fall'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  13. Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

    2008-12-01

    Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

  14. Development and Testing of Active Groundwater Samplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Bertel; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Andersen, Lars Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    on numerical modelling and controlled laboratory experiments. Active groundwater sampling techniques can be used for remedial pumping optimization and in obtaining hydraulic data and represent a fast operational and reliable sampling tool, also under heterogeneous and low permeability conditions.......Active groundwater sampling techniques are methods where the aquifer is flushed by pumping. The methods developed and tested represent non-dedicated methods for use in existing water wells. This paper describes two different sampling techniques: the Separation Pumping Technique (SP) and the Packer...

  15. Coins falling in water

    CERN Document Server

    Heisinger, Luke; Kanso, Eva

    2013-01-01

    When a coin falls in water, its trajectory is one of four types determined by its dimensionless moment of inertia $I^\\ast$ and Reynolds number Re: (A) steady; (B) fluttering; (C) chaotic; or (D) tumbling. The dynamics induced by the interaction of the water with the surface of the coin, however, makes the exact landing site difficult to predict a priori. Here, we describe a carefully designed experiment in which a coin is dropped repeatedly in water, so that we can determine the probability density functions (pdf) associated with the landing positions for each of the four trajectory types, all of which are radially symmetric about the center-drop line. In the case of the steady mode, the pdf is approximately Gaussian distributed, with variances that are small, indicating that the coin is most likely to land at the center, right below the point it is dropped from. For the other falling modes, the center is one of the least likely landing sites. Indeed, the pdf's of the fluttering, chaotic and tumbling modes ar...

  16. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 - 40 years. Groundwater along the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges is significantly younger, typically groundwater recharge rates, as deduced from groundwater depth and MRT, are extremely low in the central coastal area, consistent with confined groundwater systems, or with upwelling of old groundwater close to the coast. Very low vertical recharge rates along the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge indicate upwelling groundwater conditions in this area, implying groundwater discharge into the river is more likely here than loss of river water into the groundwater system. High recharge rates observed at several wells in the Horowhenua area and in the area east of the Tararua and

  17. Groundwater dating for understanding nitrogen in groundwater systems - Time lag, fate, and detailed flow path ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Hadfield, John; Stenger, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is a problem world-wide. Nitrate from land use activities can leach out of the root zone of the crop into the deeper part of the unsaturated zone and ultimately contaminate the underlying groundwater resources. Nitrate travels with the groundwater and then discharges into surface water causing eutrophication of surface water bodies. To understand the source, fate, and future nitrogen loads to ground and surface water bodies, detailed knowledge of the groundwater flow dynamics is essential. Groundwater sampled at monitoring wells or discharges may not yet be in equilibrium with current land use intensity due to the time lag between leaching out of the root zone and arrival at the sampling location. Anoxic groundwater zones can act as nitrate sinks through microbial denitrification. However, the effect of denitrification on overall nitrate fluxes depends on the fraction of the groundwater flowing through such zones. We will show results from volcanic aquifers in the central North Island of New Zealand where age tracers clearly indicate that the groundwater discharges into large sensitive lakes like Lake Taupo and Lake Rotorua are not yet fully realising current land use intensity. The majority of the water discharging into these lakes is decades and up to over hundred years old. Therefore, increases in dairy farming over the last decades are not yet reflected in these old water discharges, but over time these increased nitrate inputs will eventually work their way through the large groundwater systems and increasing N loads to the lakes are to be expected. Anoxic zones are present in some of these aquifers, indicating some denitrification potential, however, age tracer results from nested piezo wells show young groundwater in oxic zones indicating active flow in these zones, while anoxic zones tend to have older water indicating poorer hydraulic conductivity in these zones. Consequently, to evaluate the effect of denitrification

  18. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  19. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  20. Groundwater quality and depletion in the Indo-Gangetic Basin mapped from in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Lark, R. M.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively. Here we report new evidence from high-resolution in situ records of groundwater levels, abstraction and groundwater quality, which reveal that sustainable groundwater supplies are constrained more by extensive contamination than depletion. We estimate the volume of groundwater to 200 m depth to be >20 times the combined annual flow of the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges, and show the water table has been stable or rising across 70% of the aquifer between 2000 and 2012. Groundwater levels are falling in the remaining 30%, amounting to a net annual depletion of 8.0 +/- 3.0 km3. Within 60% of the aquifer, access to potable groundwater is restricted by excessive salinity or arsenic. Recent groundwater depletion in northern India and Pakistan has occurred within a longer history of groundwater accumulation from extensive canal leakage. This basin-wide synthesis of in situ groundwater observations provides the spatial detail essential for policy development, and the historical context to help evaluate recent satellite gravity data.

  1. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  2. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    constituents in groundwater samples collected in fall 2005 or spring 2006 were compared to simulated groundwater-flow paths for the year 2005 to provide a qualitative assessment of model results. The observed spatial distribution of selected constituents, including TCE, CFC-11, and CFC-113 in groundwater in 2005 and the chloride/bromide mass ratios in 2006, generally were consistent with the model results of the simulated 2005 groundwater-flow paths at North Penn Area 7, indicating the presence of several separate sources of contaminants within North Penn Area 7.

  3. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  4. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  5. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  6. Potential corrosivity of untreated groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-07-12

    Corrosive groundwater, if untreated, can dissolve lead and other metals from pipes and other components in water distribution systems. Two indicators of potential corrosivity—the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and the Potential to Promote Galvanic Corrosion (PPGC)—were used to identify which areas in the United States might be more susceptible to elevated concentrations of metals in household drinking water and which areas might be less susceptible. On the basis of the LSI, about one-third of the samples collected from about 21,000 groundwater sites are classified as potentially corrosive. On the basis of the PPGC, about two-thirds of the samples collected from about 27,000 groundwater sites are classified as moderate PPGC, and about one-tenth as high PPGC. Potentially corrosive groundwater occurs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.National maps have been prepared to identify the occurrence of potentially corrosive groundwater in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Eleven states and the District of Columbia were classified as having a very high prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, 14 states as having a high prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, 19 states as having a moderate prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, and 6 states as having a low prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater. These findings have the greatest implication for people dependent on untreated groundwater for drinking water, such as the 44 million people that are self-supplied and depend on domestic wells or springs for their water supply.

  7. Radium isotopes in groundwater around Fuji Volcano, Japan -application for groundwater dating on volcanic area-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Young groundwater dating less than 100 years is possible to be obtained from environmental radioactivity with short half life, 3H+3He, 85Kr, or chemical material, CFC-12. The 3H+3He dating method is excellent method to estimate the residence time of shallow groundwater. The one of advantage of the method is small sample volume. The 3He in groundwater is originated by 3 sources, tritiogenic He, mantle He, radiogenic He produced in rock. Especially, as the contribution of the mantle He is greater than the radiogenic and triogenic, when 3H+3He dating apply for groundwater dating on volcanic area, we have to determine ratio of 3 sources. On the other hand, as 85Kr is only originated from atmosphere, it is excellent groundwater dating tracer on volcanic area. However, as 85Kr is ultra low concentration in groundwater, 85Kr is needed to separate from large amount of ground water about 10^5 L. Young groundwater dating by these methods has both advantages and disadvantages, but the disadvantages of the individual methods can be offset by using multiple tracers. Development of a lot of groundwater dating techniques is desired. Therefore, an application of radium isotopes which is simple origin to groundwater dating on volcanic area was tried. Ra-228 and Ra-226 are progenies of Th and U, respectively. The 228Ra/226Ra in ground waters depends on the Th/U in the relevant rocks. As the 228Ra and 226Ra in shallow groundwater on volcanic area are originated from only rock, and the collection of radium isotopes from groundwater is easier than that of 85Kr, implying that it is possible to be good tracer for volcanic area. We aim that groundwater age obtain from 228Ra/226Ra in groundwater and relevant rock on volcanic area. We determined that 228Ra/226Ra observed with river waters and the relevant rocks. The method applied for Kakitagawa around Fuji Volcano, Japan. The relevant rock of Kakitagawa is Mishima lava flow. Our method compared with 3H+3He dating. The residence time of

  8. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny

    2006-01-01

    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...

  9. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  10. The prevalence and correlates of fear of falling in elderly persons living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, C L; Lach, H W; Birge, S J; Miller, J P

    1994-04-01

    Fear of falling has been recognized as a potentially debilitating consequence of falling in elderly persons. However, the prevalence and the correlates of this fear are unknown. Prevalence of fear of falling was calculated from the 1-year follow-up of an age- and gender-stratified random sample of community-dwelling elderly persons. Cross-sectional associations of fear of falling with quality of life, frailty, and falling were assessed. The prevalence of fear increased with age and was greater in women. After adjustment for age and gender, being moderately fearful of falling was associated with decreased satisfaction with life, increased frailty and depressed mood, and recent experience with falls. Being very fearful of falling was associated with all of the above plus decreased mobility and social activities. Fear of falling is common in elderly persons and is associated with decreased quality of life, increased frailty, and recent experience with falls.

  11. Identification of groundwater nitrate sources in pre-alpine catchments: a multi-tracer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoewer, Myriam; Stumpp, Christine

    2014-05-01

    well as continuously release of nitrogen stored in agricultural soils due to mineralization processes. In all groundwater and river water samples a seasonal variation of nitrate sources and concentration is absent but nitrate in precipitation shows a clear seasonal variation with peaks in spring and fall according to agricultural activity. This points to dilution effects of high nitrate inputs due to the large groundwater volume and mean residence time and highlights the function of soil as initial sink for nitrogen compounds delivered by fertilizer. Even though nitrate contamination was low in the study area, the results emphasize the importance of reducing additional nitrate sources in pre-alpine oxic aquifers. This will maintain the good water quality status of the aquifers and enable its use for drinking water supply.

  12. Results of sampling and analysis of groundwater from multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 between spring 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program (OMO) during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1 (151.2-156.8 m, 311.2-336.8 m and 524.4-528.4 m), OL-KR3 (242.6-253.2 m), OL-KR5 (277.2-284.6 m and 457.2-476.2 m), OL-KR9 (468.2-482.2 m), OL-KR11 (597.5-628.1 m) and OLKR12 (363-368 m). The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's (1967) classification, the collected groundwater samples represent either the borehole water type Na-Cl (OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OLK-R1/ T/311.2-336.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.6 m, OL-KR11/ T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m) or Na-Ca-Cl (OL-KR1/T/524.4- 528.4 m, OL-KR5/T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m). The groundwater samples from OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6- 253.2 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.2 m, OL-KR11/T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m were brackish (1000 mg/L < TDS < 10000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples (OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m), were saline (TDS> 10000 mg/L). Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes were seen between samplings done at the different times. Only the groundwater sampled from OL-KR1/T/311.2-336.8 m had significant changes in its chemical composition during the reference period, but also in OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T

  13. Natural Biological Attenuation of Benzene in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Benzene has been found in subsurface unsaturated soil and groundwater beneath a petro-chemical plant. Although the groundwater contained several mg/L of benzene in the area immediately beneath the source, benzene was not detected in monitoring wells approximately 800m down stream. All kinds of physical processes such as adsorption and advection/dispersion are considered to account for the observed attenuation. The results indicated that the attenuation was primarily due to natural biological processes occurring within the aquifer. The evidence for the natural bioremediation of benzene from the groundwater included: (1) analysis of groundwater chemistry, (2) laboratory studies demonstrating benzene biodegradation in aquifer samples, and (3) computer simulations examining benzene transport. Laboratory experiments indicated that for conditions similar to those in the plume, the aerobic degradation of benzene by the naturally occurring microorganisms in the polluted groundwater samples was quite rapid with a half-life time of from 5 to 15 days. In situ analyses indicated the level of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater was over 2mg/L. Thus, oxygen should not limit the biodegradation. In fact, the benzene was also shown to degrade under anaerobic conditions. The results from the modeling simulations indicate that biodegradation is the dominant process influencing attenuation of the benzene.

  14. Falls and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Sosnoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the association between fall history and physical activity using an objective measure of physical activity (i.e., accelerometry in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design. A community-based sample of 75 ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis volunteered for the investigation. Participants self-reported fall history in the last year, underwent a neurological exam to determine Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and wore an accelerometer around the waist for 7 consecutive days to determine physical activity. Results. Overall, 37 persons (49.3% of the sample reported falling in the last year with 28 of the 37 falling more than once. Persons who fell in the last year had a significantly lower number of steps/day than nonfallers (3510 versus 4940 steps/day; P.05. Conclusions. Collectively, the findings suggest that fall history may have little impact on current physical activity levels in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  15. Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, M.; van der Raaij, R.; Morgenstern, U.; Jackson, B.

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to their dynamics, i.e. direction and timescale of groundwater flow and recharge, contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However, ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and their individual restricted application ranges. For more robust groundwater dating multiple tracers need to be applied complementarily (or other characterisation methods need to be used to complement tracer information). It is important that additional, groundwater age tracers are found to ensure robust groundwater dating in future. We have recently suggested that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate, but its behaviour in water and suitability as a groundwater age tracer had not yet been assessed in detail. In this study, we determined Halon-1301 and inferred age information in 17 New Zealand groundwater samples and various modern (river) water samples. The samples were simultaneously analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6, which allowed for identification of issues such as contamination of the water with modern air during sampling. All analysed groundwater sites had also been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6, and exhibited mean residence times ranging from modern (close to 0 years) to over 100 years. The investigated groundwater samples ranged from oxic to highly anoxic. All samples with available CFC data were degraded and/or contaminated in one or both of CFC-11 and CFC-12. This allowed us to make a first attempt of assessing the conservativeness of Halon-1301 in water, in terms of presence of local sources and its sensitivity towards degradation, which could affect the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer. Overall we found Halon-1301

  16. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  17. Evaluation of Groundwater Renewability in the Henan Plains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Shi, X.

    2011-12-01

    The sustainability of groundwater resources in the Henan Plains, located in the eastern portion of central China, has been threatened by both increasing industrial and agricultural pumping and periods of drought occurring since the 1990s. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve water resources management in the Henan Plains. However, the recharge and annual renewal rate are very difficult to calculate when based only on traditional hydrogeological methods because of inadequate hydrometeorologic data. In this study, tritium concentrations in groundwater and reconstructed 3H concentration time series from 1953~2009 in precipitation were used to determine the annual groundwater renewal rate. The 3H concentrations mostly range from 2.91 to 40.30 TU in the shallow groundwater with a mean 3H concentration of 19.13TU, which suggests that the shallow groundwater is recharged from modern precipitation after 1953 in the study area. Three exceptionally low 3H concentration(less than 1TU) wells were sampled in Xinxiang, Puyang and Zhengyang which indicates that those wells contain deep old groundwater recharge before 1953 as a result of over-pumping. High renewal rates (more than 4%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the recharge area such as along the Yellow River and in the pediments of Taihang Mountain, Songqi Mountain, Funiu Mountain, Dabie Mountain, where the groundwater extraction volume could be increased. Moderate renewal rates (2%/a~3%/a) of groundwater are mainly in the runoff area where the groundwater extraction volume can be kept at current levels. Low renewal rates (1%/a~2%/a) of groundwater are located mainly in the discharge areas in the eastern regions of Nanle, Puyang, Shangqiu, Luyi where the groundwater extraction volume should be reduced. The lowest renewal rates of (less than 1%/a) groundwater are in Puyang, Xinxiang, Zhengyang and Xixian, where the groundwater extraction volume should be restricted.

  18. Salt overload: How quickly does road salt move from road to groundwater to stream in Baltimore County, MD and what are the effects on soil, groundwater, and stream chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Sandosky, B.; McGuire, M.; Casey, R.; Snodgrass, J.; Lev, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The portion of the landscape covered by roads and other impervious surfaces has increased over the last 50 years. Concurrently, application of road salt, primarily sodium chloride (NaCl), as a de-icer has increased in areas of North America with regular ice and snowfall events. Over the last 10 - 15 years, numerous investigators reported that decades of road salt application has resulted in growing concentrations of sodium and chloride in groundwater and surface water. These road salt-derived elements are present at elevated levels in the surface and groundwaters of impacted watersheds year round. An understudied aspect of road salt impacts has been the role that stormwater management basins (SMBs) play in altering the timing and location of road salt loading to urban and suburban groundwater-surface water systems. SMBs have become common in construction and development over the last 15-20 years. One of the major goals of SMBs is to decrease direct runoff from impervious surfaces to streams by redirecting that runoff into shallow groundwater and thus reducing the flashiness of streams in urban and suburban areas. An unintended consequence of SMBs is that road salt runoff from impervious surfaces is focused into the SMBs and loaded into the vadose zone and shallow groundwater in the winter and then exported to surface water throughout the year. As part of an onging project in a suburb northwest of Baltimore, MD, water samples were collected several times a year from groundwater below two SMBs, a shallow groundwater aquifer downgradient of the SMBs, and a second-order stream for which the aquifer provides baseflow. The major elemental chemistry of the samples was measured. Conductivity and water level loggers were installed to collect data in wells and surface water between grab sampling events. The logger records will be analyzed using spatio-temporal data mining techniques to extract important patterns in the data and to highlight and understand seasonal trends and

  19. Falling for Fall Reading Games: Great Stories for the Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    Literacy games are just another strategy in the ultimate goal to increase reading and overall student academic performance. Activities such as the Fall reading game, which focuses on the Fall season, which encourage reluctant readers to take the beginning steps toward developing the skills they would need to become accomplished readers are…

  20. SEAMAP Fall 2014 Plankton Survey (GU1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2014 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  1. Fall 2011 Small Pelagics Survey (PC1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the Fall 2011 Small Pelagics Survey were to sample the waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico less than 500 meters deep with 90-ft high opening fish...

  2. SEAMAP 2015 Fall Plankton Survey (PC1504, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2015 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  3. SEAMAP 2013 Fall Plankton Survey (PC1305, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2013 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  4. Fall 2010 Small Pelagics Survey (PC1006, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the Fall 2010 Small Pelagics Survey were to sample the waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico less than 500 meters deep with 90-ft high opening fish...

  5. SEAMAP 2013 Fall Plankton Survey (PC1305, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the 2013 Fall Plankton Survey, plankton samples were collected from a systematic grid of stations to assess distribution, occurrence and abundance of the...

  6. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  7. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  8. Erratum to "Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2009-04-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl- concentration and delta18O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3--N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  9. Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2008-10-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl(-) concentration and delta(18)O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3(-)-N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  10. Neighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily Joy; Lohman, Matthew C; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-02-10

    Background: Falls present a major challenge to active aging, but the relationship between neighborhood factors and falls is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between fall events and neighborhood factors, including neighborhood social cohesion (sense of belonging, trust, friendliness, and helpfulness) and physical environment (vandalism/graffiti, rubbish, vacant/deserted houses, and perceived safety walking home at night). Methods: Data were analyzed from 9259 participants over four biennial waves (2006-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Results: In models adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates, a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (odds ratio (OR): 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.99) and 6% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98). A one-unit increase in the physical environment scale was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and with 5% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) in adjusted models. Conclusions: The physical and social neighborhood environment may affect fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Findings support the ongoing need for evidence-based fall prevention programming in community and clinical settings.

  11. Nitrate in groundwater of the United States, 1991-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Rupert, Michael G.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States indicates that concentrations are highest in shallow, oxic groundwater beneath areas with high N inputs. During 1991-2003, 5101 wells were sampled in 51 study areas throughout the U.S. as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The well networks reflect the existing used resource represented by domestic wells in major aquifers (major aquifer studies), and recently recharged groundwater beneath dominant land-surface activities (land-use studies). Nitrate concentrations were highest in shallow groundwater beneath agricultural land use in areas with well-drained soils and oxic geochemical conditions. Nitrate concentrations were lowest in deep groundwater where groundwater is reduced, or where groundwater is older and hence concentrations reflect historically low N application rates. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the relative importance of N inputs, biogeochemical processes, and physical aquifer properties in explaining nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Factors ranked by reduction in sum of squares indicate that dissolved iron concentrations explained most of the variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, followed by manganese, calcium, farm N fertilizer inputs, percent well-drained soils, and dissolved oxygen. Overall, nitrate concentrations in groundwater are most significantly affected by redox conditions, followed by nonpoint-source N inputs. Other water-quality indicators and physical variables had a secondary influence on nitrate concentrations.

  12. The risk of supply of Surface/groundwater in the Laja River Basin in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Knappett, Peter; Giardino, John Rick; Horacio Hernandez, Jesus; Aviles, Manuel; Rodriguez, Rodrigo Mauricio; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Water supply in Laja River Basin, located in an arid, semi-arid area of Central Mexico, is dependent primarily on groundwater. Although multiple users depend on this groundwater, the majority of the groundwater is used for commercial irrigation. The water table is swiftly being lowered, as the result of a rapidly growing population, expanding industries and increased commercial agriculture production in the State of Guanajuato. The average historic drawdown rate, measured in various wells across the aquifer, is ~1 m/yr; some wells approach 4 m/yr. Hydraulic heads are lower in wells in the central, low-lying areas of the basin, near the main branch of Laja River, than in wells located along the outer edges of the basin. The resulting water depth ranges from 70-130 m in most of the area. As wells are drilled deeper, at increased costs, to access the falling groundwater table, toxic levels of fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) are being reported for these wells. These increases in toxicity are possibly caused by induced upwelling of deeper groundwater. Based on analysis of the water, we suggest that the groundwater is fresh and suggest that the reservoir rock is not very reactive or the groundwater is young. Unfortunately, F and As were found to exceed Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) in several wells. Concentrations of F and As were correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) suggesting a mixing with older, deeper groundwater. Mapping of the watershed and channel geomorphology indicates that the Laja River tends to be gravel bedded in some locations and sand-bedded in other locations with highly erodible banks. At multiple sample locations, as many as four terraces were present, suggesting an actively down-cutting channel. Geophysical measurements suggest the river is well connected to the alluvial aquifer. Thus, prior to intensive pumping in the 1950's the Laja River may have been recharged by aquifers. Whereas the discharge in the Laja River is decreasing yearly, a

  13. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  14. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  15. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  16. Integrated monitoring plan for the Hanford groundwater monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Mercer, R.B.; Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.

    1998-09-01

    Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project (groundwater project), which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project does not include all of the monitoring to assess performance of groundwater remediation or all monitoring associated with active facilities. This document is the first integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.

  17. Interaction between river water and groundwater: Geochemical and anthropogenic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2011-12-01

    River water generally controls the quality and quantity of groundwater in its vicinity. Contribution by the rivers to groundwater is significant if there is over extraction. This is common in large cities where dependence on groundwater is high due to limited piped water supply. Chennai, India is one such large city where the river flowing is contaminated and the people in the near locality depend on groundwater for domestic use (Figure). The objective of this study is to understand the linkage between the river water and groundwater, and to assess the role played by the geochemical processes and anthropogenic influence. This study was carried out in and around Adyar River basin, Chennai by the collection of surface water and groundwater samples. Rainfall, lake water level and groundwater level from January 2005 to December 2009 was compared to understand their relationship. The concentration of major ion concentration vary widely in groundwater and surface water with respect to space and time. Na-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl were the dominant groundwater and surface water type. Seawater intrusion may also be one of the reasons for Na-Cl dominant nature. In general, the ionic concentration of surface water increases towards the eastern part as in the case of groundwater. Evaporation and ion exchange were the major processes controlling groundwater chemistry in this area. Groundwater chemistry is similar to that of surface water. The surface water is contaminated due to discharge of industrial effluents and domestic sewage into the Adyar River by partly or untreated domestic sewage. Ecological restoration of Adyar River is planned and to be implemented shortly by the Government agencies which is expected to improve the river water quality. Systematic monitoring of water quality in this area will help to assess the improvement in surface water quality during the restoration process as well as its impact on groundwater.

  18. Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to their dynamics, i.e. direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge, to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However, ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and their individual restricted application ranges. For more robust groundwater dating multiple tracers need to be applied complementarily and it is vital that additional, groundwater age tracers are found to ensure robust groundwater dating in future. We recently suggested that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate, but its behaviour in water and suitability as a groundwater age tracer had not yet been assessed in detail. In this study, we determine Halon-1301 and infer age information in 17 New Zealand groundwaters and various modern (river water samples. The samples are simultaneously analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6, which allows identification of issues such as contamination of the water with modern air during sampling. Water at all analysed groundwater sites have also been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6, and exhibit mean residence times ranging from modern (close to 0 years to over 100 years. The investigated groundwater ranged from oxic to highly anoxic, and some showed evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allowed us to make a first attempt of assessing the conservativeness of Halon-1301 in water, in terms of presence of local sources and its sensitivity towards degradation etc., which could affect the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer. Overall we found Halon-1301 reliably inferred the mean residence time of groundwater recharged between 1980 and 2014. Where direct age comparison

  19. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  20. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  1. Falls in elderly hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, E M; Turgut, F; Turkmen, K; Balogun, R A

    2011-10-01

    The elderly, (age ≥ 65 years) hemodialysis (HD) patient population is growing rapidly across the world. The risk of accidental falls is very high in this patient population due to multiple factors which include aging, underlying renal disease and adverse events associated with HD treatments. Falls, the most common cause of fatal injury among elderly, not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also increase costs to the health system. Prediction of falls and interventions to prevent or minimize fall risk and associated complications will be a major step in helping these patients as well as decreasing financial and social burdens. Thus, it is vital to learn how to approach this important problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology and complications of falls in elderly HD patients. We will also focus on available methods to assess and predict the patients at higher risk of falling and will provide recommendations for interventions to reduce the occurrence of falls in this population.

  2. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  3. The role of culture and diversity in the prevention of falls among older Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Khim; Dickinson, Angela

    2011-03-01

    This grounded-theory study explored the perceptions of Chinese older people, living in England, on falls and fear of falling, and identified facilitators and barriers to fall prevention interventions. With a sample of 30 Chinese older people, we conducted two focus groups and 10 in-depth interviews in Mandarin or Cantonese. Interview transcripts, back translated, were analyzed using N6. Constant comparative analysis highlighted a range of health-seeking behaviors after a fall: Chinese older people were reluctant to use formal health services; talking about falls was avoided; older people hid falls from their adult children to avoid worrying them; and fatalistic views about falls and poor knowledge about availability and content of interventions were prevalent. Cost of interventions was important. Chinese older adults valued their independence, and cultural intergenerational relations had an impact on taking action to prevent falls. Cultural diversity affects older adults' acceptance of fall prevention interventions.

  4. SisFall: A Fall and Movement Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucerquia, Angela; López, José David; Vargas-Bonilla, Jesús Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Research on fall and movement detection with wearable devices has witnessed promising growth. However, there are few publicly available datasets, all recorded with smartphones, which are insufficient for testing new proposals due to their absence of objective population, lack of performed activities, and limited information. Here, we present a dataset of falls and activities of daily living (ADLs) acquired with a self-developed device composed of two types of accelerometer and one gyroscope. It consists of 19 ADLs and 15 fall types performed by 23 young adults, 15 ADL types performed by 14 healthy and independent participants over 62 years old, and data from one participant of 60 years old that performed all ADLs and falls. These activities were selected based on a survey and a literature analysis. We test the dataset with widely used feature extraction and a simple to implement threshold based classification, achieving up to 96% of accuracy in fall detection. An individual activity analysis demonstrates that most errors coincide in a few number of activities where new approaches could be focused. Finally, validation tests with elderly people significantly reduced the fall detection performance of the tested features. This validates findings of other authors and encourages developing new strategies with this new dataset as the benchmark. PMID:28117691

  5. Ground-water conditions and studies in Georgia, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeth, David C.; Clarke, John S.; Craigg, Steven D.; Wipperfurth, Caryl J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, to better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply and water quality. Data collected as part of ground-water studies include geologic, geophysical, hydraulic property, water level, and water quality. A ground-water-level network has been established throughout most of the State of Georgia, and ground-water-quality networks have been established in the cities of Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick and in Camden County, Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored continuously in a network of wells completed in major aquifers of the State. This network includes 17 wells in the surficial aquifer, 12 wells in the upper and lower Brunswick aquifers, 73 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 10 wells in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 12 wells in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 well in the Gordon aquifer, 11 wells in the Clayton aquifer, 11 wells in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 wells in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 wells in crystalline-rock aquifers. In this report, data from these 156 wells were evaluated to determine whether mean-annual ground-water levels were within, below, or above the normal range during 2001, based on summary statistics for the period of record. Information from these summaries indicates that water levels during 2001 were below normal in almost all aquifers monitored, largely reflecting climatic effects from drought and pumping. In addition, water-level hydrographs for selected wells indicate that water levels have declined during the past 5 years (since 1997) in almost all aquifers monitored, with water levels in some wells falling below historical lows. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic measurements taken in 52 wells in the Camden County-Charlton County area, and 65 wells in the city of Albany-Dougherty County area were used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for

  6. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  7. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  8. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  9. Hydrogeology, groundwater seepage, nitrate distribution, and flux at the Raleigh hydrologic research station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    rom 2005 to 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, conducted a study to describe the geologic framework, measure groundwater quality, characterize the groundwater-flow system, and describe the groundwater/surface-water interaction at the 60-acre Raleigh hydrogeologic research station (RHRS) located at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant in eastern Wake County, North Carolina. Previous studies have shown that the local groundwater quality of the surficial and bedrock aquifers at the RHRS had been affected by high levels of nutrients. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from 3 coreholes, 12 wells, and 4 piezometers at 3 well clusters, as well as from 2 surface-water sites, 2 multiport piezometers, and 80 discrete locations in the streambed of the Neuse River. Data collected were used to evaluate the three primary zones of the Piedmont aquifer (regolith, transition zone, and fractured bedrock) and characterize the interaction of groundwater and surface water as a mechanism of nutrient transport to the Neuse River. A conceptual hydrogeologic cross section across the RHRS was constructed using new and existing data. Two previously unmapped north striking, nearly vertical diabase dikes intrude the granite beneath the site. Groundwater within the diabase dike appeared to be hydraulically isolated from the surrounding granite bedrock and regolith. A correlation exists between foliation and fracture orientation, with most fractures striking parallel to foliation. Flowmeter logging in two of the bedrock wells indicated that not all of the water-bearing fractures labeled as water bearing were hydraulically active, even when stressed by pumping. Groundwater levels measured in wells at the RHRS displayed climatic and seasonal trends, with elevated groundwater levels occurring during the late spring and declining to a low in the late fall. Vertical

  10. Comparison of Simple Versus Performance-Based Fall Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar K. Gadkaree BS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the predictive ability of standard falls prediction models based on physical performance assessments with more parsimonious prediction models based on self-reported data. Design: We developed a series of fall prediction models progressing in complexity and compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC across models. Setting: National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees (age ≥65 at baseline (Round 1: 2011-2012 and 1-year follow-up (Round 2: 2012-2013. Participants: In all, 6,056 community-dwelling individuals participated in Rounds 1 and 2 of NHATS. Measurements: Primary outcomes were 1-year incidence of “ any fall ” and “ recurrent falls .” Prediction models were compared and validated in development and validation sets, respectively. Results: A prediction model that included demographic information, self-reported problems with balance and coordination, and previous fall history was the most parsimonious model that optimized AUC for both any fall (AUC = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.67, 0.71] and recurrent falls (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.79] in the development set. Physical performance testing provided a marginal additional predictive value. Conclusion: A simple clinical prediction model that does not include physical performance testing could facilitate routine, widespread falls risk screening in the ambulatory care setting.

  11. Analysis of patient falls among hospitalised patients in Makkah region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flimban, Mohammed Abdulwahab; Abduljabar, Dalal Fouad; Dhafar, Khalid Obaid; Deiab, Basma Abdulhameed; Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil; Bansuan, Abasra Usman; Balbed, Abeer Ahmad; Al-Shaikhi, Ahmad Mohammed; Al-Motari, Sultan Saad; Suliman, Muhammad Imran

    2016-08-01

    To assess the frequency and its correlation of patient fall with preventing or precipitating factors among inpatients. The observational study was conducted in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia from October 15 2012 to November 4, 2013. Data was collected using a questionnaire from 16 hospitals in four districts of Makkah province. The material was sampled through systematic randomisation from inpatient files and data was collected for those who had fallen inside the hospital. The questionnaire, validated through a pilot study run under the Directorate of Quality and Patient Safety in Makkah, was used to see whether the hospitals had adopted and applied international standards for assessment of adult and paediatric patients for falls as well as effectiveness of these applications. Of 4,799 beds, occupancy rates ranged from 1680(35%) to 4,799(100%). Out of 291 falls in all, 144(49.48%) were in Jeddah. Besides, 116(40%) of the falls occurred in the last quarter of the Islamic calendar. Statistically significant difference was found in fall episodes in different months (p=0.007). Statistical analysis indicated that the factors that significantly raised the number of patient falls were increase in hospital beds and their occupancy rate (Spearman's correlation: 0.621 and 0.579 respectively). The frequency of falls varied from hospital to hospital and factors like higher number of bed capacity and occupancy rate increased the falls.

  12. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  13. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  15. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse...... intensive diffuse sources (clean keeping of farm yards). It is important to determine the source type in order to make correct management decisions. This project aimed to identify and develop a set of indicators that can be used to determine whether pesticides detected in a groundwater sample (e...... differ. Therefore, a useful indicator for point sources was defined: if a groundwater sample has findings of ≥4 compounds, and/or at ≥ 2 compounds above 0.1g/l. Model results show that the breakthrough curves from point and diffuse sources differ, with diffuse sources resulting in flat breakthrough...

  16. Use of major ions to evaluate the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion, West Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom El-Said; Osman, Osman M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the groundwater geochemistry in western Nile Delta area as an example of an aquifer influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion. To conduct this study, 63 groundwater samples and one surface water sample from El Nubaria Canal were collected. To estimate the origin of dissolved ions and the geochemical processes influencing this groundwater, integration between land use change, pedological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and statistical approaches was considered. Results suggest that the groundwater flow regime changed from northeast and southwest directions around El Nubaria canal before 1966 to northern and northeastern directions due to newly constructed channel network. Soil salinity and mineral contents, seepage from irrigation canal, and seawater intrusion are the main factors controlling the groundwater chemistry. Statistically, the groundwater samples were classified into eight groups, one to four for the deep groundwater and five to eight for the shallow groundwater. The deep groundwater is characterized by two groups of chemicals (SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca-K and Cl-Na), while the shallow groundwater groups of chemicals are Na-Cl-SO4 and K-HCO3-Ca-Mg. Both shallow groundwater and deep groundwater are mostly saturated with respect to carbonate minerals and undersaturated with respect to chloride minerals. Sulfate minerals are above the saturation limit in the shallow groundwater, but in the deep samples, these minerals are under the saturation limit. Ion exchange, carbonate production, mineral precipitation, and seawater intrusion are the geochemical processes governing the groundwater chemistry in the study area.

  17. Delineating groundwater/surface water interaction in a karst watershed: Lower Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rugel

    2016-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Prior water resource studies in the LFRB were based on regional modeling that neglected local heterogeneities in groundwater/surface water connectivity. Our results demonstrated groundwater inputs were concentrated around five of fifty sampled reaches, evidenced by increases in multiple groundwater indicators at these sites. These five reaches contributed up to 42% of the groundwater detected along the entire 50-km sampling section, with ∼24% entering through one groundwater-dominated tributary, Chickasawhatchee Creek. Intermittent flows occurred in two of these upstream reaches during extreme drought and heavy groundwater pumping, suggesting reach-scale behaviors should be considered in resource management and policy.

  18. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your doctor about whether you have osteoporosis. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements ...

  19. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  20. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care providers. Learn More Important Facts about Falls Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Each year, ... once doubles your chances of falling again. 2 Falls Are Serious and Costly One out of five ...

  1. Canada's groundwater resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for life in arid and semiarid region. It is also important in humid regions, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of natural landscapes and aquatic ecosystem...

  2. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  3. Environmental isotopes investigation in groundwater of Challaghatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    water. Further, from the results of 14C it is inferred that some groundwater samples in Challaghatta valley belongs ... Bangalore, known, as the Silicon Valley of Asia, is one of the major class ... Considering the climatic water balance, soil characteristics ..... basin (central Tunisia) during Holocene period using pluridisplinary.

  4. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  5. Sampling and analyses report for postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.

    1989-06-01

    Between June 22, 1989 and June 26, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the second quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification (RM1 UCG) site groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the third sampling since the completion of the RM1 groundwater restoration. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with this task are described in the `Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan`, prepared by the U.S. DOE.

  6. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  7. Map of Arsenic concentrations in groundwater of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map graphic image at http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/arsenic_map.png illustrates arsenic values, in micrograms per liter, for groundwater samples from about...

  8. Investigation of Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics of Groundwater In Port Harcourt City, ... Constituents of the heavy metals as shown in this study reveal that, in some ... Microbial analysis of the water samples to determine the presumptive ...

  9. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  10. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Coastal Region of Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengshan Ma; Aihua Wei; Qinghai Deng; Haijun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting groundwater samples from the coastal region of Tangshan, China, the hydrochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the quality of resources were analyzed. Chemical constituents, factor analysis, and a graphic method were em-ployed in this research. The results show that human activities obviously affect fresh groundwater. The deep groundwater distributed in the southern part of the region is severely affected by saliniza-tion, and the shallow groundwater in the north is also beginning to show the same deterioration. The chemical concentrations of the deep groundwater depend largely upon the water-rock interaction, the mixing of saline water and the ion exchange processes. With the exception of sample C-33, all the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking. Tests show that roughly half of the deep groundwater samples have at least one water quality index indicating that it is chemically doubtful or unsuitable for irrigation. Therefore, it is concluded that deep groundwater is becoming an unacceptable resource to irrigate areas located near the coastline because the groundwater quality in the study area is exhibiting signs of degradation. This study’s findings contribute to a better under-standing of groundwater resources in order to support regional management and protection.

  12. Volcanic Ash fall Impact on Vegetation, Colima 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. G.; Martin, A.; Fonseca, R.; Nieto, A.; Radillo, R.; Armienta, M.

    2007-05-01

    An ash sampling network was established arround Colima Volcano in 2005. Ash fall was sampled on the North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest and West of the volcano. Samples were analyzed for ash components, geochemistry and leachates. Ash fall ocurred on April (12), May (10, 23), June (2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 14), July (27), September (27), October (23) and November (24). Most of the ash is made of andesitic dome-lithics but shows diferences in crystal, juvenile material and lithic content. In May, some samples contained grey and dark pumice (scoria). Texture varies from phi >4 to phi 0. Leachate concentration were low: SO4 (7.33-54.19) Cl- (2.29-4.97) and F- (0.16-0.37). During 2005, Colima Volcano's ash fall rotted some of the guava and peach fruits and had a drying effect on spearment and epazote plants. Even these small ash amounts could have hindered sugar cane and agave growth.

  13. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used.

  14. Groundwater - surface water interactions in the Ayeyarwady river delta, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, K.; Haruyama, S.; Kuzuha, Y.; Kay, T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is widely used as a water resource in the Ayeyarwady River delta. But, Groundwater has some chemical problem in part of the area. To use safety groundwater for health, it is important to make clear the actual conditions of physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater in this delta. Besides, Ayeyarwady River delta has remarkable wet and dry season. Surface water - groundwater interaction is also different in each season, and it is concerned that physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater is affected by the flood and high waves through cyclone or monsoon. So, it is necessary to research a good aquifer distribution for sustainable groundwater resource supply. The purposes of this study are evaluate to seasonal change of groundwater - surface water interactions, and to investigate the more safety aquifer to reduce the healthy risk. Water samples are collected at 49 measurement points of river and groundwater, and are analyzed dissolved major ions and oxygen and hydro-stable isotope compositions. There are some groundwater flow systems and these water qualities are different in each depth. These showed that physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater are closely related to climatological, geomorphogical, geological and land use conditions. At the upper Alluvium, groundwater quality changes to lower concentration in wet season, so Ayeyarwady River water is main recharge water at this layer in the wet season. Besides, in the dry season, water quality is high concentration by artificial activities. Shallower groundwater is affected by land surface conditions such as the river water and land use in this layer. At lower Alluvium, Arakan and Pegu mountains are main recharge area of good water quality aquifers. Oxygen18 value showed a little affected by river water infiltration in the wet season, but keep stable good water quality through the both seasons. In the wet season, the same groundwater exists and water quality changes through

  15. Hydrogeologic setting and simulation of groundwater flow near the Canterbury and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnels, Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Minsley, Burke; Dupree, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The Leadville mining district is historically one of the most heavily mined regions in the world producing large quantities of gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and manganese since the 1860s. A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, to characterize large-scale groundwater flow in a 13 square-kilometer region encompassing the Canterbury Tunnel and the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel near Leadville, Colorado. The primary objective of the investigation was to evaluate whether a substantial hydraulic connection is present between the Canterbury Tunnel and Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel for current (2008) hydrologic conditions. Altitude in the Leadville area ranges from about 3,018 m (9,900 ft) along the Arkansas River valley to about 4,270 m (14,000 ft) along the Continental Divide east of Leadville, and the high altitude of the area results in a moderate subpolar climate. Winter precipitation as snow was about three times greater than summer precipitation as rain, and in general, both winter and summer precipitation were greatest at higher altitudes. Winter and summer precipitation have increased since 2002 coinciding with the observed water-level rise near the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel that began in 2003. The weather patterns and hydrology exhibit strong seasonality with an annual cycle of cold winters with large snowfall, followed by spring snowmelt, runoff, and recharge (high-flow) conditions, and then base-flow (low-flow) conditions in the fall prior to the next winter. Groundwater occurs in the Paleozoic and Precambrian fractured-rock aquifers and in a Quaternary alluvial aquifer along the East Fork Arkansas River, and groundwater levels also exhibit seasonal, although delayed, patterns in response to the annual hydrologic cycle. A three-dimensional digital representation of the extensively faulted bedrock was developed and a geophysical direct

  16. Catching a Falling Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  17. Risk for falls among community-dwelling older people: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Luís Manuel Mota; Marques-Vieira, Cristina Maria Alves; Caldevilla, Maria Nilza Guimarães Nogueira de; Henriques, Cristina Maria Alves Dias; Severino, Sandy Silva Pedro; Caldeira, Sílvia Maria Alves

    2017-02-23

    To identify the risk factors for falls of the community-dwelling elderly in order to update the Taxonomy II of NANDA International. A systematic literature review based on research using the following platforms: EBSCOHost®, CINAHL and MEDLINE, from December 2010 to December 2014. The descriptors used were (Fall* OR Accidental Fall) AND (Community Dwelling OR Community Health Services OR Primary health care) AND (Risk OR Risk Assessment OR Fall Risk Factors) AND (Fall* OR Accidental Fall) AND (Community Dwelling OR older) AND Nurs* AND Fall Risk Factors. The sample comprised 62 studies and 50 risk factors have been identified. Of these risk factors, only 38 are already listed in the classification. Two new categories of risk factors are proposed: psychological and socio-economical. New fall risk factors for the community-dwelling elderly have been identified, which can contribute to the updating of this nursing diagnosis of the Taxonomy II of NANDA International.

  18. Dizziness and Falls in Obese Inpatients Undergoing Metabolic Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corna, Stefano; Aspesi, Valentina; Cau, Nicola; Scarpina, Federica; Gattini Valdés, Natalia; Brugliera, Luigia; Cimolin, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Aim The relationship between dizziness and falls in the obese population is a relatively unexplored issue. The aims of the present study were to define the 1-year prevalence of dizziness in an obese inpatient population undergoing metabolic rehabilitation and to investigate possible correlations with fall events. Materials and Methods We recruited 329 obese subjects: 203 female (BMI 43,74 kg/m2 ± 0.5 SE; age 17–83 years, 58.33 ± 0.9 SE) and 126 male (BMI 44,27kg/m2 ± 0.7 DE age 27–79 years, 58.84 ± 1 SE). To assess dizziness we used the validated Italian version (38) of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Results Out of the experimental sample, 100 subjects did not complain of dizziness and felt confident about their balance control, while 69.6% reported some degree of dizziness. Their mean DHI score was 22.3, which corresponds to mild dizziness. Twenty-one percent reported more severe dizziness (DHI score > 40). The majority of our sample reported minor dizziness and its perception appears to be independent from BMI: DHI scores were consistent across classes of obesity. Discussion The rate of dizziness and falls (30.1%) in an this obese population was higher than that previously reported in a general matched population. However, obese subjects, in our sample, seem to underestimate their risk of fall and DHI score does not appear a reliable predictor of falls. Since complications associated with falls in obese persons generally require longer treatments than in lean individuals, our findings should be taken into account in order to identify other predictors, including cognitive and perceptual, of risk of fall and to implement fall prevention programs. PMID:28076370

  19. Streamflow, groundwater hydrology, and water quality in the upper Coleto Creek watershed in southeast Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2011-01-01

    another reach immediately downstream from Audilet Spring. Water levels in the aquifer at this time declined to the point that the aquifer could no longer provide sufficient water to the streams to sustain flow. Groundwater-level altitudes were measured at as many as 33 different wells in the upper Coleto Creek watershed during three different survey events: August 4–7 and 12, 2009; January 12–14 and 22, 2010; and June 21–24, 2010. These data were used in conjunction with groundwater-level altitudes from three continuously monitored wells to generate potentiometric surface maps for each of the three sampling events to help characterize the groundwater hydrology of the Evangeline aquifer. The altitudes of potentiometric surface contours from all three sampling events are highest in the northeast part of the study area and lowest in the southwest part of the study area. Groundwater flow direction shifts from southeast to east across the watershed, roughly coinciding with the general flow direction of the main stem of Coleto Creek. Groundwater-level altitudes increased an average of 2.35 inches between the first and third sampling events as drought conditions in summer 2009 were followed by consistent rains the subsequent fall and winter, an indication that the aquifer responds relatively quickly to both the absence and relative abundance of precipitation. A total of 44 water-quality samples were collected at 21 different sites over the course of the three sampling events (August 4–7, 2009, January 12–14, 2010, and June 21–24, 2010). In most cases, samples from each site were analyzed for the following constituents: dissolved solids, major ions, alkalinity, nutrients, trace elements, and stable isotopes (hydrogen, oxygen, and strontium). Major-ion compositions were relatively consistent among most of the samples from the upper Coleto Creek watershed (generally calcium bicarbonate waters, with chloride often making a major contribution). Of the 23 trace elements

  20. [Accidental falls in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

    2014-06-18

    Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%).

  1. Comparison of Simple Versus Performance-Based Fall Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar K. Gadkaree BS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the predictive ability of standard falls prediction models based on physical performance assessments with more parsimonious prediction models based on self-reported data. Design: We developed a series of fall prediction models progressing in complexity and compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC across models. Setting: National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees (age ≥65 at baseline (Round 1: 2011-2012 and 1-year follow-up (Round 2: 2012-2013. Participants: In all, 6,056 community-dwelling individuals participated in Rounds 1 and 2 of NHATS. Measurements: Primary outcomes were 1-year incidence of “any fall” and “recurrent falls.” Prediction models were compared and validated in development and validation sets, respectively. Results: A prediction model that included demographic information, self-reported problems with balance and coordination, and previous fall history was the most parsimonious model that optimized AUC for both any fall (AUC = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.67, 0.71] and recurrent falls (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.79] in the development set. Physical performance testing provided a marginal additional predictive value. Conclusion: A simple clinical prediction model that does not include physical performance testing could facilitate routine, widespread falls risk screening in the ambulatory care setting.

  2. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization.

  3. Accidental falls involving medical implant re-operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Moore, Tara; Heller, Michelle F

    2009-10-01

    Implantation of medical devices is becoming more prevalent, and as a result, a greater number of patients who fall accidentally are expected to have a medical implant. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to evaluate hospital admissions following accidental falls involving re-operation of existing medical implants (hip, knee, spine, and fracture fixation) from 1990 to 2005. From 1990 to 2005, hospitalisations due to accidental falls on level surfaces increased by 306%, and hospitalisations due to falls from stairs increased by 310%. Falls involving orthopaedic revision surgery (re-operation) are relatively rare, but the incidence has increased by approximately 35%. Hospital stays after falls on level surfaces involving re-operation were 1.0 day (median) longer and cost 50% (median) more than those that did not involve re-operation in 2005. After staircase falls, hospital stays for patients undergoing re-operations were 2.0 days (median) longer and cost 108% (median) more. The greater hospital costs and hospital stay for patients needing re-operations indicate that additional medical treatment was required.

  4. Groundwater Sustainability through a Novel Dewatering Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Holzbecher, E.; Ebneth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem balances. Over the past decades, groundwater is intensively extracted in order to keep construction or mining sites dry. For the latter purpose the pumped water is usually discharged into a nearby surface water body or injected into an aquifer distant from the abstraction sites. As a result, aquifers are depleted and the local eco-system is disrupted as a consequence of falling groundwater tables. Given ongoing pressure on aquifer from abstraction sites, it is vital to bring up adequate attention on groundwater conservation. We demonstrate a novel technique, Düsensauginfiltration (DSI, translated as 'nozzel-suction-infiltration'), which avoids water conveyance but still lowers the groundwater table locally. The method combines abstraction of groundwater at the upper part of the aquifer with injection in the same borehole, but at a greater depth. Hence no water is withdrawn from the system. The method is already used practically in Germany, Netherlands, and China, however, it is not yet fully scientifically understood and evaluated. Currently, two tests sites in Germany, for single and multi well respectively, are selected, at which the DSI technology is currently examined. The project is cooperated with a leading dewatering company (Hoelscher Wasserbau GmbH) and funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). To provide the basic principle of the method, we present numerical models solving the differential equation, which is derived from Darcy's Law and mass conservation, describing groundwater flow. We set up stationary numerical models in 2D (vertical cross section for single well case) and 3D (multi well case and/or when ambient groundwater flow is considered) using COMSOL Multiphysics. Since our model region only involves the saturated part of the unconfined aquifer, the numerical model solves a free boundary problem using hydraulic pressure as unknown variable. Two physical modes are included

  5. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  6. Groundwater quality and hydrogeological characteristics of Malacca state in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi Sharif Moniruzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and aquifer productivity of Malacca catchment in Peninsular Malaysia are presented in this article. Pumping test data were collected from 210 shallow and 17 deep boreholes to get well inventory information. Data analysis confirmed that the aquifers consisting of schist, sand, limestone and volcanic rocks were the most productive aquifers for groundwater in Malacca state. GIS-based aquifer productivity map was generated based on bedrock and discharge capacity of the aquifers. Aquifer productivity map is classified into three classes, namely high, moderate and low based on discharge capacity. Groundwater potential of the study area is 35, 57 and 8% of low, moderate and high class respectively. Fifty two shallow and 14 deep aquifer groundwater samples were analyzed for water quality. In some cases, groundwater quality analysis indicated that the turbidity, total dissolved solids, iron, chloride and cadmium concentrations exceeded the limit of drinking water quality standards.

  7. Anomalous fluoride concentration in groundwater - is it natural or pollution? A stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula Casagrande; Knöller, Kay; Roisenberg, Ari

    2007-06-01

    Fluoride anomalies (up to 11 mg/l) have been detected in groundwater of the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, in an area where fluorosis is endemic. Two hypotheses are investigated concerning the fluoride origin: lithochemical affiliation from regional rock or contamination by fertilisers application. These hypotheses are discussed based on the stable isotope data of water, nitrate, and sulphate, which indicates that the local precipitation is the main groundwater recharge source. The isotopic composition of groundwater sulphate is similar to that of fertiliser sulphate. However, a conclusive assignment of groundwater sulphate to fertiliser origin is not indicated because further possible sulphate sources fall into the same isotopic range. In contrast, the isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate suggests that there is no direct relationship to the use of NPK fertilisers. Hence, an origin of the high fluoride content in groundwater related to long-term rock-water interactions seems likely.

  8. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  9. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  10. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    occasions (spring, summer, fall, and winter). All samples were analyzed for electrical conductivity, major ions, and metals. Groundwater levels, in situ measurements of physicochemical parameters, and borehole logs of electrical conductivity and temperature were conducted for around 80 wells. Hydraulic head, electrical conductivity, and temperature were monitored continuously at 10 locations. Further, an online survey was distributed regarding water quantity, quality, and usage in different periods of the year, before a detailed GIS analysis was carried out to support the water balance calculations and groundwater recharge estimations. The case is interesting as studies dealing with saltwater intrusion in fractured (bedrock) aquifers are rare, thus offering the possibility to connect state of the art research with practical management questions at the science-society interface. For example, a new method for low cost strontium isotope analysis on an ICP-MS to analyze the origin and contact time of saltwater was used in parallel to interviews with individual well owners. Here, we present monitoring results over an entire hydrological year and how these can better inform the municipalities' decision-making process.

  11. Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes in Madhuranthakam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brindha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical study was carried out in Madhuranthakam located near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. Twenty groundwater samples were collected in February 2002 and analysed for physical and chemical parameters. Groundwater in this area was found to be within the desirable Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organisation limits for drinking water. Ca-HCO3 was the dominant groundwater type. Groundwater in this area was assessed for irrigation purposes on the basis of sodium percentage (Na%, magnesium hazard (MH, residual sodium carbonate (RSC, sodium absorption ratio (SAR, permeability index (PI and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA classification. Most of the groundwater samples were suitable for irrigation, except in a few locations (15% based on MH. Overall the groundwater quality was suitable for drinking and domestic purposes and permissible for irrigation activities.

  12. Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Amarnath; Mishra, Ashok K.; Verma, Geetanjali

    2016-07-01

    Indian states like Punjab and Haryana, epicenters of the Green Revolution, are facing severe groundwater shortages and falling water tables. Recognizing it as a serious concern, the Government of Punjab enacted the Punjab Preservation of Subsoil Water Act in 2009 (or the 2009 act) to slow groundwater depletion. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of this policy on groundwater depletion, using panel data from 1985 to 2011. Results from this study find a robust effect of the 2009 act on reducing groundwater depletion. Our models for pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and overall periods of analysis find that since implementation of the 2009 act, groundwater tables have improved significantly. Second, our study reveals that higher shares of tube wells per total cropped area and increased population density have led to a significant decline in the groundwater tables. On the other hand, rainfall and the share of area irrigated by surface water have had an augmenting effect on groundwater resources. In the two models, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, this study shows that seasonality plays a key role in determining the groundwater table in Punjab. Specifically, monsoon rainfall has a very prominent impact on groundwater.

  13. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  14. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  15. Groundwater characterisation and modelling: problems, facts and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [INTERA KB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    For the last 10 years, the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden has been the main test site for the development of suitable methods for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Major achievements have been made in the development of new groundwater sampling and modelling techniques. The natural condition of the groundwater is easily disturbed by drilling and sampling. The effects from borehole activities which may bias the real character of the groundwater have been identified. The development of new sampling techniques has improved the representativeness of the groundwater samples. In addition, methods to judge the representativeness better have been developed. For modelling of the Aespoe site, standard groundwater modelling codes based on thermodynamic laws have been applied. The many limitations of existing geochemical models used at the Aespoe site and the need to decode the complex groundwater information in terms of origin, mixing and reactions at site scale necessitated the development of a new modelling tool. This new modelling concept was named M3. In M3 modelling the assumption is that the groundwater chemistry is a result of mixing as well as water/rock reactions. The M3 model compares the groundwater compositions from a site. The similarities and differences of the groundwater compositions are used to quantify the contribution from mixing and reactions on the measured data. In order to construct a reliable model the major components, stable isotopes and tritium are used. Initially, the method quantifies the contribution from the flow system. Subsequently, contributions from reactions are calculated. The model differs from many other standard models which primarily use reactions rather than mixing to determine the groundwater evolution. The M3 code has been used for the following type of modelling: calculate the mixing portions at Aespoe, quantify the contribution from inorganic and organic reactions such as biogenic decomposition and sulphate

  16. Falls in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Yvette Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Falls in Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are common. 50 % of moderately affected PD patients sustained two or more falls during a prospective follow-up of 6 months. During a 3 month period 40 % of HD patients reported one or more fall. Many falls resulted in minor injuries and 42 % of

  17. Falling: should one blame the heart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30% of people aged 65 and older suffer a fall each year; one in five of these falls will lead to significant injury. As the world’s ageing population increases, healthcare costs associated with falls are only expected to rise. It is estimated that over a third of falls may be preventab

  18. Pollutant plume delineation from tree core sampling using standardized ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahyudi, Agung; Bogaert, Patrick; Trapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech R...... groundwater and tree core measurements. Nonetheless, tree core sampling and analysis proved to be a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative method and a useful tool.......There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech...

  19. Investigating the relationship between reduced self-awareness of falls risk, rehabilitation engagement and falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljcic, Tijana; Haines, Terry P; Ponsford, Jennie L; Stolwyk, Renerus J

    The present study aimed to investigate whether self-awareness of falls risk is associated with rehabilitation engagement, motivation for rehabilitation, and number of falls after hospital discharge. The sample comprised 91 older adults (Mage=77.97, SD=8.04) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. The Self-Awareness of Falls Risk Measure (SAFRM) was used to measure different aspects of self-awareness. The treating physiotherapist and occupational therapist rated the patient's engagement in rehabilitation and the patient reported his/her motivation for treatment. Falls information was collected from the patient and significant other once a month for three months following hospital discharge. Significant correlations were found between physiotherapist-rated engagement and intellectual (rs=-0.22, pself-awareness (rs=-0.31 and -0.26, pself-awareness provided a unique contribution to occupational therapist-rated engagement when controlling for age, gender, cognition and functional ability. Falls were reported by 29.9% of participants, however, self-awareness did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. The findings suggest that self-awareness of falls risk is associated with rehabilitation engagement and motivation. Therefore, improving patient self-awareness of falls risk may increase engagement in therapy leading to better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Falls prevention for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention. The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years), living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed. Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their

  1. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  2. The development of the RISK tool for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brians, L K; Alexander, K; Grota, P; Chen, R W; Dumas, V

    1991-01-01

    The authors tailored a 26-item risk assessment tool (RAT) for falls based on a literature review and an analysis of causative factors of falls that had occurred over a 3-month period at the Olin E. Teague VA Medical Center, an 1,100-bed acute medical-surgical, psychiatric, and extended care facility in Temple, TX. The RAT was completed by nursing staff on 10 patient units (four medical, four surgical, and two nursing home units) for all admissions during the period. A 25% sample of the completed RATs was randomly selected (n = 208). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to identify factors that would most likely predict falls from the RATs of the randomly selected group and of the patients who fell (n = 78). Only 4 of the 26 items were statistically related to falls. Based on findings from this study, the RAT was shortened to the four items and called the RISK (Reassessment Is Safe "Kare") tool.

  3. Occurrence and Predictors of Falls in People With Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Lisbeth Rosenbek; Peterson, Elizabeth; Koch, Lena von

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate the occurrence of self-reported falls in people with stroke at 3, 6, and 12 months and 6 years post stroke and predictors for falls during 6 years. METHODS: A prospective study involving 121 people with stroke. Data were obtained through...... structured interviews and assessments. Generalized estimating equation modeling using proportional odds was used to explore the predictive value of fall history, functioning/disability, and personal factors during 6 years. RESULTS: The proportion of fallers constituted of 35%, 26%, 33%, and 35% of the sample...... at 3, 6, and 12 months and 6 years of follow-up, respectively. Higher perceived effect of stroke on activities of daily living (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.80), falls at 3 months (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.94), and no gait/balance disability at baseline...

  4. A Second H Chondrite Stream of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S. F.; Wang, M.-S.; Dodd, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Earlier, Dodd et al. [1] described a statistically significant concentration of 17 H4-6 chondrite falls in May between 1855 and 1895, that clustered on a year-day plot, indicating a coorbital meteoroid stream or two closely-related ones. Contents of 10 thermally labile trace elements (Rb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te,Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, In) determined by RNAA demonstrated that 13 of these H Cluster 1 (hereafter HC1) falls are compositionally distinguishable from another 45 non-H Cluster 1 (non-HC1) falls [1] (as are Antarctic samples with nominal terrestrial ages >50 ky [2,3]). This compositional distinguishability is demonstrable using two standard, model-dependent multivariate statistical tests (linear discriminant analysis LDA or logistic regression LR) or the model-independent, randomization-simulation (R-S) methods of Lipschutz and Samuels [4]. Despite petrographic and cosmic ray exposure age variabilities, like Antarctic suites [2] HC1 meteorites seemingly derive from coorbital meteoroids (from their circumstances of fall) and apparently have a common thermal history (reflected in contents of thermally labile trace elements) distinguishable from those of other H4-6 chondrite falls [1]. Other explanations seem inviable [5]. During days 220-300 when streams of large fireballs [6] and near-Earth asteroids [7] occur several H chondrite concentrations are evident (Fig. 1), particularly if petrographic type becomes a criterion [1]. Here, we focus on H Clusters 2 through 4 (HC2-4) containing, respectively, 10 H4-6, 5 H5 and 12 H6 chondrite members, for which full data sets exist because of the generosity of many colleagues/institutions. H chondrite clusters in the same time-span might include samples derived from related parent regions. Hence, we changed our comparison-base to approximate a random background of falls by including only the 34 non-Cluster H chondrites, HC0; this also simplified our calculations. To establish whether this choice impacts our observations, we compared 13

  5. A Successful ED Fall Risk Program Using the KINDER 1 Fall RiskAssessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls.

  6. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes – a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreya Das; S K Nag

    2015-07-01

    plot which helps in identification of the water ‘type’ which can render a particular taste or odour to water, indicates that groundwater in the study area is majorly of CaMgHCO3 and NaHCO3 type (fresh type) during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions barring a couple of samples which are of CaMgSO4/CaMgClSO4 type in pre-monsoon. Water quality index study reveals that close to 90% of the water samples are suitable for drinking during post-monsoon compared to pre-monsoon during which period only 60% of water samples fall under the suitable drinking water category. Gibbs’ diagrams, which help in identification of natural processes controlling hydrogeochemistry of groundwater indicates that for both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions, the overall hydrogeochemistry of the study area is dominated by rock–water interaction processes.

  7. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    which helps in identification of the water `type' which can render a particular taste or odour to water, indicates that groundwater in the study area is majorly of CaMgHCO 3 and NaHCO 3 type (fresh type) during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions barring a couple of samples which are of CaMgSO 4/CaMgClSO 4 type in pre-monsoon. Water quality index study reveals that close to 90% of the water samples are suitable for drinking during post-monsoon compared to pre-monsoon during which period only 60% of water samples fall under the suitable drinking water category. Gibbs' diagrams, which help in identification of natural processes controlling hydrogeochemistry of groundwater indicates that for both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions, the overall hydrogeochemistry of the study area is dominated by rock-water interaction processes.

  8. Distribution and potential health risk of groundwater uranium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woosik; Oh, Jungsun; Choung, Sungwook; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Yun, Uk; Woo, Nam-Chil; Kim, Hyun Koo

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure even to extremely low specific radioactivity of natural uranium in groundwater results in kidney problems and potential toxicity in bones. This study was conducted to assess the potential health risk via intake of the groundwater containing uranium, based on the determination of the uranium occurrence in groundwater. The groundwater was investigated from a total of 4140 wells in Korea. Most of the groundwater samples showed neutral pH and (sub-)oxic condition that was influenced by the mixing with shallow groundwater due to long-screened (open) wells. High uranium contents exceeding the WHO guideline level of 30 μg L(-1) were observed in the 160 wells located mainly in the plutonic bedrock regions. The statistical analysis suggested that the uranium component was present in groundwater by desorption and re-dissolution processes. Predominant uranium phases were estimated to uranyl carbonates under the Korean groundwater circumstances. These mobile forms of uranium and oxic condition facilitate the increase of potential health risk downgradient. In particular, long-term intake of groundwater containing >200 μg U L(-1) may induce internal exposure to radiation as well as the effects of chemical toxicity. These high uranium concentrations were found in twenty four sampling wells of rural areas in this study, and they were mainly used for drinking. Therefore, the high-level uranium wells and neighboring areas must be properly managed and monitored to reduce the exposure risk for the residents by drinking groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period April 1, 1993 through June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungers, D.K.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between May 24 and August 20, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from samples collected during the April through June quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  10. A fuzzy-logic based decision-making approach for identification of groundwater quality based on groundwater quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiati, M; Asghari-Moghaddam, A; Nakhaei, M; Adamowski, J; Akbarzadeh, A H

    2016-12-15

    Due to inherent uncertainties in measurement and analysis, groundwater quality assessment is a difficult task. Artificial intelligence techniques, specifically fuzzy inference systems, have proven useful in evaluating groundwater quality in uncertain and complex hydrogeological systems. In the present study, a Mamdani fuzzy-logic-based decision-making approach was developed to assess groundwater quality based on relevant indices. In an effort to develop a set of new hybrid fuzzy indices for groundwater quality assessment, a Mamdani fuzzy inference model was developed with widely-accepted groundwater quality indices: the Groundwater Quality Index (GQI), the Water Quality Index (WQI), and the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI). In an effort to present generalized hybrid fuzzy indices a significant effort was made to employ well-known groundwater quality index acceptability ranges as fuzzy model output ranges rather than employing expert knowledge in the fuzzification of output parameters. The proposed approach was evaluated for its ability to assess the drinking water quality of 49 samples collected seasonally from groundwater resources in Iran's Sarab Plain during 2013-2014. Input membership functions were defined as "desirable", "acceptable" and "unacceptable" based on expert knowledge and the standard and permissible limits prescribed by the World Health Organization. Output data were categorized into multiple categories based on the GQI (5 categories), WQI (5 categories), and GWQI (3 categories). Given the potential of fuzzy models to minimize uncertainties, hybrid fuzzy-based indices produce significantly more accurate assessments of groundwater quality than traditional indices. The developed models' accuracy was assessed and a comparison of the performance indices demonstrated the Fuzzy Groundwater Quality Index model to be more accurate than both the Fuzzy Water Quality Index and Fuzzy Ground Water Quality Index models. This suggests that the new hybrid fuzzy

  11. Groundwater Recharge and Hydrogeochemical Evolution in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the stable isotopes and the major ions in the surface water and groundwater in the Leizhou Peninsula was performed to identify the sources and recharge mechanisms of the groundwater. In this study, 70 water samples were collected from rivers, a lake, and pumping wells. The surface water was considered to have a lower salinity than the groundwater in the region of study. The regression equations for δD and δ18O for the surface water and the groundwater are similar to those for precipitation, indicating meteoric origins. The δD and δ18O levels in the groundwater ranged from −60‰; to −25‰; and −8.6‰; to −2.5‰, respectively, and were lower than the stable isotope levels from the winter and spring precipitation. The groundwater in the southern area was classified as the Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--type, whereas the groundwater in the northern area included three types (Na+-Cl−-type, Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--type, and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl−-type, indicating rapid and frequent water-rock exchange in the region. A reasonable conclusion is that the groundwater chemistry is dominated by rock weathering and rainwater of local origin, which are influenced by seawater carried by the Asian monsoon.

  12. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  13. Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinua Achebe's famous novel, Things Fall Apart (TFA), is an extended reductio ad .... Okonkwo's “whole life was dominated by fear, the fear of failure and of weakness. ..... tural ideals and values characteristic of civilized societies on common ...

  14. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  15. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    Comprised primarily of data matrices, this report provides information on students transferring from Oklahoma public and private post-secondary institutions to other public and private post-secondary institutions in the state in fall 1992. The report consists of nine sections. Section I provides an aggregate flow of all students in the state,…

  16. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  17. [Violence Profiles for Fall Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This document presented by the National Citizens' Committee for Broadcasting at a 1976 press conference provides an assortment of materials concerned with violence in television. Among the materials included are "Who Sponsors the New Fall Violence?" by Nicholas Johnson, a description of and rationale for the study of advertisers who sponsor…

  18. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  19. Validity of the “Fall Back” Test for Boldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Veličković

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Synonyms for the word boldness include courage, fearlessness, heroism and bravery. The best examples of courage in sport are athletes who, despite difficult situations, conditions and strong competition, perform very risky elements, break records, etc. The “Fall back” measurement instrument has been used in the selection process for artistic gymnastics. Bearing in mind that this test requires a drop back down an inclined plane, it requires a degree of courage in the realization of this motor task. The aim of this research is to determine the validity of the “fall back” test and to answer the question: Is the “Fall back” test actually a measure of courage among beginners in the sport? In this study, the research sample consisted of 16 boys and 33 girls, third graders from the Jovan Cvijic elementary school in Kostolac, aged nine years (+/- 6 months. The sample of variables represented the results written using two measurement instruments: 1. Psychological survey -test of boldness and courage–PSBC (a test modeled after the–Erikson`s theory of Psyhosocial Development test–About.com Psyhology; 2. Situational motor measuring instrument–Fall back–MFIB. The resulting measurements were analyzed by the appropriate statistical methods, which are congruent with the set objective and task ofthe study. The validity of the “Fall back” situational-motor test is determined by calculating the coefficient of correlation (r between said composite test and a psychological test of courage. The very high coefficients of correlation that resulted in all three cases (total sample r = .846, sample of boys r = .873, a sample of girls r = .845 indicate a high validity level for the test, “Fall back”, that is, the subject of measurement in the test, largely corresponds with the subject of measurement in the PSBC psychological test. The height of the correlation coefficient also justifies the use of the “Fall back” test as a composite test

  20. Perennial filter strips reduce nitrate levels in soil and shallow groundwater after grassland-to-cropland conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Many croplands planted to perennial grasses under the Conservation Reserve Program are being returned to crop production, and with potential consequences for water quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of grassland-to-cropland conversion on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations in soil and shallow groundwater and to assess the potential for perennial filter strips (PFS) to mitigate increases in NO3-N levels. The study, conducted at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR) in central Iowa, consisted of a balanced incomplete block design with 12 watersheds and four watershed-scale treatments having different proportions and topographic positions of PFS planted in native prairie grasses: 100% rowcrop, 10% PFS (toeslope position), 10% PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips), and 20 PFS (distributed on toe and as contour strips). All treatments were established in fall 2006 on watersheds that were under bromegrass (Bromus L.) cover for at least 10 yr. Nonperennial areas were maintained under a no-till 2-yr corn (Zea mays L.)--soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation since spring 2007. Suction lysimeter and shallow groundwater wells located at upslope and toeslope positions were sampled monthly during the growing season to determine NO3-N concentration from 2005 to 2008. The results indicated significant increases in NO3-N concentration in soil and groundwater following grassland-to-cropland conversion. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in the vadose zone and groundwater under PFS were lower compared with 100% cropland, with the most significant differences occurring at the toeslope position. During the years following conversion, PFS mitigated increases in subsurface nitrate, but long-term monitoring is needed to observe and understand the full response to land-use conversion.

  1. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sobhan Ardakani; M. Maanijou; Asadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were ...

  2. Summary of New Los Alamos National Laboratory Groundwater Data Loaded in July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Steven M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides information concerning groundwater monitoring data obtained by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under its interim monitoring plan and contains results for chemical constituents that meet seven screening criteria laid out in the Compliance Order on Consent. Tables are included in the report to organize the findings from the samples. The report covers groundwater samples taken from wells or springs that provide surveillance of the groundwater zones indicated in the table.

  3. Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions

  4. Monsoonal influence on variation of hydrochemistry and isotopic signatures: Implications for associated arsenic release in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Datta, Saugata; Nath, Bibhash; Neidhardt, Harald; Sarkar, Simita; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Berner, Zsolt; Hidalgo, Manuela; Chatterjee, Debankur; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines the groundwater and surface water geochemistry of two different geomorphic domains within the Chakdaha block, West Bengal, in an attempt to decipher potential influences of groundwater abstraction on the hydrochemical evolution of the aquifer, the effect of different water inputs (monsoon rain, irrigation and downward percolation from surface water impoundments) to the groundwater system and concomitant As release. A low-land flood plain and a natural levee have been selected for this purpose. Although the stable isotopic signatures of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) are largely controlled by local precipitation, the isotopic composition falls sub-parallel to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). The Cl/Br molar ratio indicates vertical recharge into the wells within the flood plain area, especially during the post-monsoon season, while influences of both evaporation and vertical mixing are visible within the natural levee wells. Increase in mean DOC concentrations (from 1.33 to 6.29 mg/L), from pre- to post-monsoon season, indicates possible inflow of organic carbon to the aquifer during the monsoonal recharge. Concomitant increase in AsT, Fe(II) and HCO3- highlights a possible initial episode of reductive dissolution of As-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides. The subsequent sharp increase in the mean As(III) proportions (by 223%), particularly in the flood plain samples during the post-monsoon season, which is accompanied by a slight increase in mean AsT (7%) may refer to anaerobic microbial degradation of DOC coupled with the reduction of As(V) to As(III) without triggering additional As release from the aquifer sediments.

  5. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  6. Falling sand tests on various coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, M.; Zonfrillo, G.; Pratesi, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali; Giovannetti, I. [GE Oil and Gas - Nuovo Pilnone, Florence (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Abrasive wear is responsible for severe machine parts and in particular of compressor impellers. Methods of increasing service lifetime are based on employment of abrasion resistant materials or more frequently of the creation of hard, wear-resistant surface layers. In this work a bare aluminium alloy and the same alloy with four different coatings have been tested at room temperature, in order to verify their resistance to falling abrasive. Following standard ASTM D968-93, tests have been performed using a precise quantity of sand as abrasive and letting it fall on the sample with a standard apparatus: two different kinds of sand have been used, in order to obtain also information on the influence of composition and Grain size of the abrasive on material resistance. Determinations of hardness, roughness, weight loss, and morphology of the eroded surface have also been carried out. The comparison between the coatings in vestilated has been performed on the basis of the thickness decrease of the samples. (orig.)

  7. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  8. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  9. The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (δ(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and δ(18)O in groundwater.

  10. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  11. Person-Centered Fall Risk Awareness Perspectives: Clinical Correlates and Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-12-01

    To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  13. Watch Out for Falling Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The path taken by the falling fragment in the June 2011 event. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]Sometimes plasma emitted from the Sun doesnt escape into space, but instead comes crashing back down to the solar surface. What can observations and models of this process tell us about how the plasma falls and the local conditions on the Sun?Fallback from a FlareOn 7 June 2011, an M-class flare erupted from the solar surface. As the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly looked on, plasma fragments from the flare arced away from the Sun and then fell back to the surface.Some fragments fell back where the Suns magnetic field was weak, returning directly to the surface. But others fell within active regions, where they crashed into the Suns magnetic field lines, brightening the channels and funneling along them through the dense corona and back to the Suns surface.The authors model of the falling blobs at several different times in their simulation. The blobs get disrupted when they encounter the field lines, and are then funneled along the channels to the solar surface. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]This sort of flare and fall-back event is a common occurrence with the Sun, and SDOs observations of the June 2011 event present an excellent opportunity to understand the process better. A team of scientists led by Antonino Petralia (University of Palermo, Italy and INAF-OAPA) modeled this event in an effort to learn more about how the falling plasma interacts with strong magnetic fields above the solar surface.Magnetic Fields as GuidesPetralia and collaborators used three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical modeling to attempt to reproduce the observations of this event. They simulated blobs of plasma as they fall back to the solar surface and interact with magnetic field lines over a range of different conditions.The team found that only simulations that assume a relatively strong magnetic field resulted in the blobs funneling along a channel to the

  14. The burden of falling on the quality of life of adults with Medicare supplement insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kevin; Musich, Shirley; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Bai, Ming; Migliori, Richard J; Yeh, Charlotte S

    2011-08-01

    To study the impact of falling or risk of falling on quality of life (QOL) outcomes, a survey was mailed to a random sample of 15,000 adults with an AARP® Medicare Supplement plan insured by UnitedHealthcare from 10 states in 2008. Approximately 21% had fallen in the past year; 17% did not fall but reported balance or walking problems (i.e., at high risk of falling); and 62% were in the low-risk, no-falls comparison group. Multiple regression analyses showed the strongest predictors of falling or being at high risk of falling were advancing age, female gender, heart conditions, stroke, digestive disorders, arthritis, sciatica, diabetes, and hearing problems. Average physical and mental component scores were significantly lower for both those who fell and those at risk of falling than the comparison group, indicating that falling or being at risk of falling had a stronger negative influence on QOL than most of the comorbidities measured. Clinicians, patients, and families should be aware of the potential negative impact of falling and fear of falling on the QOL of older adults.

  15. Analysis of Public Datasets for Wearable Fall Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Casilari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the boom of wireless handheld devices such as smartwatches and smartphones, wearable Fall Detection Systems (FDSs have become a major focus of attention among the research community during the last years. The effectiveness of a wearable FDS must be contrasted against a wide variety of measurements obtained from inertial sensors during the occurrence of falls and Activities of Daily Living (ADLs. In this regard, the access to public databases constitutes the basis for an open and systematic assessment of fall detection techniques. This paper reviews and appraises twelve existing available data repositories containing measurements of ADLs and emulated falls envisaged for the evaluation of fall detection algorithms in wearable FDSs. The analysis of the found datasets is performed in a comprehensive way, taking into account the multiple factors involved in the definition of the testbeds deployed for the generation of the mobility samples. The study of the traces brings to light the lack of a common experimental benchmarking procedure and, consequently, the large heterogeneity of the datasets from a number of perspectives (length and number of samples, typology of the emulated falls and ADLs, characteristics of the test subjects, features and positions of the sensors, etc.. Concerning this, the statistical analysis of the samples reveals the impact of the sensor range on the reliability of the traces. In addition, the study evidences the importance of the selection of the ADLs and the need of categorizing the ADLs depending on the intensity of the movements in order to evaluate the capability of a certain detection algorithm to discriminate falls from ADLs.

  16. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Saeid; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hassan; Bijani, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on `sustainable behavior' among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner's comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users (n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of "groundwater sustainable behavior". Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users' attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

  17. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  18. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  19. GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND CHEMICAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cyc

  20. Regulating groundwater use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    Around the world it has proven very difficult to develop policies and interventions that ensure socio-environmentally sustainable groundwater use and exploitation. In the state of Guanajuato, Central Mexico, both the national government and the decentralized state government have pursued to regulate

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  3. Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration.

  4. The Association Between Anxiety and Falls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, David John; Nicholson, Geoff; Sanders, Kerrie; McCabe, Marita P

    2017-09-01

    Falls occur frequently among older adults and can lead to a range of adverse and debilitating outcomes. Although symptoms of clinical anxiety have been implicated as risk factors for falls, there is no current consensus on the empirical association between anxiety and falls. The current study aimed to address this gap in the literature by conducting a quantitative, meta-analytic review of findings from previous studies. A systematic literature search of bibliographic databases was conducted, yielding 18 studies that fit the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A random-effects model of all 18 studies showed a significant overall odds ratio of 1.53 (95% CI 1.28-1.83, p anxiety were associated with a 53% increased likelihood of falls. A high amount of variance among effect sizes was observed. Only age was identified as a moderator of this relationship in a subgroup of the samples. Clinical anxiety is associated with falls, however, further research is required to elucidate the factors that might moderate or mediate this relationship, the casual pathways through which they are related, and the associations between different types of anxiety and falls.

  5. Fall scenarios In causing older women's hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägvide, Mona-Lisa; Larsson, Tore J; Borell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries among older women constitute a major public health problem with huge costs for the society and personal suffering. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how a number of circumstances, conceptualized as a scenario, that were related to the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation contributed to a fall that led to a hip fracture among women. The sample included 48 women over 55 years old. Interviews were conducted during home visits and the analysis provided a descriptive picture of circumstances in the shape of a scenario related to the risk of falling. A number of scenarios were developed based on the data and named to provide an understanding of the interplay between the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation at the time of the fall. By applying the concept of a scenario, occupational therapists can increase the awareness of fall risks among older people, and are relevant also for interior designers, architects, and town planners to consider when designing the local environment as well as furniture and other objects.

  6. Osteoarthritis and falls in the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Maw Pin

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis and falls are common conditions affecting older individuals which are associated with disability and escalating health expenditure. It has been widely assumed that osteoarthritis is an established risk factor for falls in older people. The relationship between osteoarthritis and falls has, quite surprisingly, not been adequately elucidated, and published reports have been conflicting. Our review of the existing literature has found limited evidence supporting the current assumption that the presence of osteoarthritis is associated with increased risk of falls with suggestions that osteoarthritis may actually be protective against falls related fractures. In addition, joint arthroplasty appears to increase the risk of falls in individuals with osteoarthritis.

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  8. What Are Ways to Prevent Falls and Related Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Preventing Falls and Fractures Osteoporosis and Falls Osteoporosis and Falls (繁體中文) Partner Resources Falls and Fractures (NIA) Falls and Older Adults (NIH Senior Health) Caídas y fracturas (NIA) Director’s ...

  9. Dynamics of turbulent falling films

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Naraigh, Lennon; Matar, Omar

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics of laminar falling films have received considerable attention over the past several decades. In contrast, turbulent falling films have been the subject of far fewer studies. We seek to redress this balance by studying the stability of falling films which have already undergone a transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow regime. We derive a uniform-film base-state for this flow by assuming the averaged turbulent velocity field to be steady and fully-developed, and by employing a modified version of mixing-length theory. The latter features an interpolation function for the eddy viscosity, and van Driest-type functions for turbulence-damping near the wall and interface regions. The predicted base-state streamwise velocity component is in good agreement with experimental data. A linear stability analysis of this base-state is then carried out by solving a modified version of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Our results suggest that the unstable mode is a long-wave one. This provides motivation for the derivation of long-wave equations for the nonlinear evolution of the film.

  10. Regional distribution of microbes in groundwater from Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, S.A.; Nilsson, E.L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater was sampled with the PAVE groundwater sampling system from eight boreholes at Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland, in 1998 and 1999, for investigation of microbial populations. The groundwater samples had a wide range of salinity and chemistry and contained 104-105 cells per ml, which is typical for subsurface groundwater. In preparing culture media, two approaches were used and compared. Natural, groundwater-based media were prepared from groundwater from the same section of each borehole tested, and synthetic media were prepared based on groundwater chemistry data. No significant difference was observed between the two types of media for brackish and saline groundwater. The groundwater to a depth of 750 m contained mainly sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), ironreducing bacteria (IRB) and heterotrophic acetogenic (HA) bacteria. Autotrophic acetogenic (AA) bacteria and methanogenic archaea were found in some samples. Iron-reducing and HA bacteria predominated in brackish groundwater from Haestholmen, with SRB present in smaller numbers. A different microbial population was found in deep saline groundwater from Haestholmen and Olkiluoto that consists of a large proportion of a saline or brine end member. No SRB or AA bacteria were cultured; instead, the microbial population consisted of HA bacteria and either IRB or methanogens. In Olkiluoto, SRB predominated in the brackish and saline groundwater at depths to about 500 m, while methanogens were found in deeper saline groundwater. Stable isotope data (C-13) indicated that the methanogens are part of an autotrophic population consuming dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and hydrogen and producing methane and organic carbon. This deep ecosystem may be independent of surface life processes. A high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at 500 m depth in the Fennoscandian Shield will be inhabited by SRB, IRB and acetogens. Methanogens may also be present. These anaerobic micro

  11. Fear of falling and depressive symptoms in Chinese elderly living in nursing homes: fall efficacy and activity level as mediator or moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K-L; Yeung, F K C; Wong, E C H

    2005-05-01

    Depression is a common problem for many Hong Kong Chinese elderly, especially those living in nursing homes. This study examines the relationship between fear of falling and depressive symptoms as well as the role of participation in physical activity and fall efficacy in the linkage between the fear of falling and depression. A sample of 100 residents living in nursing homes were interviewed. Using multiple regression models, we found that elderly persons who had greater fear of falling tended to report depressive symptoms more frequently after controlling socio-demographic and physical health status variables. In addition, activity involvement and fall efficacy acted as mediators and moderators in the link between the fear of falling and depression. Policy makers and aged care professional practitioners should find these findings valuable in promoting activity to aid in the prevention of depression amongst the elderly population.

  12. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  13. Associated Factors for Falls, Recurrent Falls, and Injurious Falls in Aged Men Living in Taiwan Veterans Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chiou Ku

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the advanced age, depression status, stroke, gouty arthritis, and cataract are independent variables for predicting falls; depression is the only clinical factor capable of predicting the recurrent falls. These variables were potential targets for effective prevention of falls.

  14. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  15. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  16. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use.

  17. Nitrate levels and the age of groundwater from the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer in Fife, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, G W; Anderson, J; Elliot, T

    2003-03-01

    The tritium concentrations in 13 groundwater samples from boreholes throughout the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer of Fife have been measured. Due to atmospheric variations in tritium concentrations over the last century, this radioactive tracer can be used as a groundwater age indicator. In this study, the groundwater tritium concentrations have allowed for the area to be divided into three zones, and the variable chemistry of the groundwater samples, including the problem of recent elevated nitrate levels in the Fife Aquifer, has been interpreted in terms of their relative ages.

  18. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  19. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  20. Research on flow characteristics of deep groundwater by environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Jun; Miyaoka, Kunihide [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki; Senoo, Muneaki; Kumata, Masahiro; Mukai, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Ouchi, Misao

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as the technique for grasping the behavior of groundwater in deep rock bed which is important as the factor of disturbing the natural barrier in the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste, the method of utilizing the environmental isotopes contained in groundwater as natural tracer was taken up, and by setting up the concrete field of investigation, through the forecast of flow by the two or three dimensional groundwater flow analysis using a computer, the planning and execution of water sampling, the analysis of various environmental isotopes, the interpretation based on those results of measurement and so on, the effectiveness of the investigation technique used was verified, and the real state of the behavior of deep groundwater in the district being studied was clarified. In this research, Imaichi alluvial fan located in northern Kanto plain was taken as the object. In fiscal year 1996, three-dimensional steady state groundwater flow simulation was carried out based on the data related to shallow groundwater and surface water systems, and the places where active groundwater flow is expected were selected, and boring will be carried out there. The analysis model and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  1. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  2. [Prevalence and associated factors of falls in community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavedán Santamaría, Ana; Jürschik Giménez, Pilar; Botigué Satorra, Teresa; Nuin Orrio, Carmen; Viladrosa Montoy, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of falls and to identify their associated factors in community-dwelling elderly. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Primary Health Care, Lleida. Six hundred and forty people aged 75 and older were included, in possession of a health card and living in single-family houses, through random sampling. Main measurements Data source comes from the survey of frailty in Lleida (FRALLE Survey). The variables used were the occurrence of falls, sociodemographic factors, health status, quality of life related to health and fear of falling. The prevalence of falls was 25.0% (95% CI 24.8-25.1). After multivariate analysis, basic disability (OR=2.17; 95% CI 1.32-3.58), depressive symptoms (OR=1.67; 95% CI 1.07-2.59) and fear of falling (OR=2.53; 95% CI 1.63-3.94) were the only factors independently associated with falls in the last year. One out of 4 older people reported at least a fall in the last year. This study demonstrates that fear of falling, depressive symptoms and basic disability are independent variables associated with previous falls. These 3 factors can lead to a flattering spiral of falling and may be potential targets for effective functioning in the context of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving nursing students' assessment of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Susan K

    2016-12-09

    Nationally, approximately one third of older adults fall each year. Falls and resulting injury result in decreased mobility, functional impairment, loss of independence, and increased mortality. Utilization of evidence-based protocols by health care providers to identify older adults at risk of falling is limited, and rates of participation by older adults in prevention activities is low. Because of nursing's increasing role in caring for older adults, development of fall prevention education for nursing students would result in increased awareness of the need for fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults and increased access of older adults to falls risk assessment. There is a need to extend research to inform teaching and learning strategies for fall prevention. After pretesting, a convenience sample of 52 undergraduate nursing students and 22 graduate nursing students completed an online education program and performed a falls risk assessment on an older adult. After completing the clinical assignment, students completed a posttest and self-efficacy survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical tests. Results revealed an increase in knowledge and student self-reporting of efficacy of fall risk assessment skills for the older adult population. This study suggests that nursing students acquired the necessary knowledge and self-efficacy for assessing fall risk of older adults through the combination of an online learning module and participating in actual fall risk assessment of an older adult.

  4. Insights about Fall Prevention of Older Adults in the State of Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Cullen T; Yontz, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    The senior population in Hawai‘i is growing at a dramatic pace. In the older population, falls and fall-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the health care costs for falls are very high. The State of Hawai‘i has taken measures to prevent falls through the promotion of medication reviews, vision checks, home assessments, and exercise. However, current published examinations of fall preventive measures have been insufficient, and more research is needed to confirm risk factors, effectiveness of preventive measures, and to explore future objectives. This paper examined the validity of fall risk factors and fall preventive measures for Hawai‘i's seniors by conducting mail questionnaire surveys to a sample of seniors using medical alert services from one company in Hawai‘i. The results of chi-square analysis suggest that having reduced ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and reduced Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) were associated with a greater risk of falls (P IADL. Furthermore, the results suggest that seniors do not accept that they are at risk of falling before they actually fall. Public health providers should consider how they approach seniors, and how they inform them of the importance of fall prevention across the life span. PMID:28090397

  5. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  6. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  7. Calibration of Models Using Groundwater Age (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water-resource managers are frequently concerned with the long-term ability of a groundwater system to deliver volumes of water for both humans and ecosystems under natural and anthropogenic stresses. Analysis of how a groundwater system responds to such stresses usually involves the construction and calibration of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The calibration procedure usually involves the use of both groundwater-level and flux observations. Water-level data are often more abundant, and thus the availability of flux data can be critical, with well discharge and base flow to streams being most often available. Lack of good flux data however is a common occurrence, especially in more arid climates where the sustainability of the water supply may be even more in question. Environmental tracers are frequently being used to estimate the “age” of a water sample, which represents the time the water has been in the subsurface since its arrival at the water table. Groundwater ages provide flux-related information and can be used successfully to help calibrate groundwater models if porosity is well constrained, especially when there is a paucity of other flux data. As several different methods of simulating groundwater age and tracer movement are possible, a review is presented here of the advantages, disadvantages, and potential pitfalls of the various numerical and tracer methods used in model calibration. The usefulness of groundwater ages for model calibration depends on the ability both to interpret a tracer so as to obtain an apparent observed age, and to use a numerical model to obtain an equivalent simulated age observation. Different levels of simplicity and assumptions accompany different methods for calculating the equivalent simulated age observation. The advantages of computational efficiency in certain methods can be offset by error associated with the underlying assumptions. Advective travel-time calculation using path-line tracking in finite

  8. Application of vector autoregressive model for rainfall and groundwater level analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Chai Yoke; Shan, Fam Pei; Shimizu, Kunio; Imoto, Tomoaki; Lateh, Habibah; Peng, Koay Swee

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater is a crucial water supply for industrial, agricultural and residential use, hence it is important to understand groundwater system. Groundwater is a dynamic natural resource and can be recharged. The amount of recharge depends on the rate and duration of rainfall, as rainfall comprises an important component of the water cycle and is the prime source of groundwater recharge. This study applies Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model in the analysis of rainfall and groundwater level. The study area that is focused in the study is along the East-West Highway, Gerik-Jeli, Malaysia. The VAR model with optimum lag length 8, VAR(8) is selected to model the rainfall and groundwater level in the study area. Result of Granger causality test shows significant influence of rainfall to groundwater level. Impulse Response Function reveals that changes in rainfall significantly affect changes in groundwater level after some time lags. Moreover, Variance Decomposition reported that rainfall contributed to the forecast of the groundwater level. The VAR(8) model is validated by comparing the actual value with the in-sample forecasted value and the result is satisfied with all forecasted groundwater level values lies inside the confidence interval which indicate that the model is reliable. Furthermore, the closeness of both actual and forecasted groundwater level time series plots implies the high degree of accurateness of the estimated model.

  9. A comparison of groundwater dating with 81Kr, 36Cl and 4He in four wells of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, B. E.; Love, A.; Purtschert, R.; Collon, P.; Loosli, H. H.; Kutschera, W.; Beyerle, U.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Kipfer, R.; Frape, S. K.; Herczeg, A.; Moran, J.; Tolstikhin, I. N.; Gröning, M.

    2003-06-01

    reasonable initial 36Cl/Cl ratio of 125×10 -15, which is consistent with other studies in this part of the GAB, it is then possible to determine ( Ci, Ca) parameter sets for all four samples and consequently to simulate the Cl and the 36Cl evolution with time. Strong evidence that the whole procedure is adequate comes from: (i) a comparison of Ci with the calculated noble gas recharge temperatures (NGRT) indicating that a higher NGRT is related to higher input chloride concentrations Ci (because of higher evapotranspiration) and (ii) a comparison of Ca with the measured 4He concentration confirming the idea that both chloride and helium are added to the groundwater in parallel. It turns out that the four samples fall into two groups: (i) for two of the samples (Raspberry Creek and Oodnadatta) initial 36Cl concentrations are high and 36Cl dating based on radioactive decay is possible. The 4He accumulation rate for these two samples is low (0.2×10 -10 cm 3 STP 4He/(cm 3 water yr)); (ii) for the other two samples (Duck Hole and Watson Creek) the initial 36Cl concentration is low and therefore subsurface processes dominate resulting in almost constant 36Cl concentrations with time; 36Cl groundwater dating is not possible. The 4He accumulation rate for these two samples is about 10 times higher (1.9×10 -10 cm 3 STP 4He/(cm 3 water yr)). 129I concentrations are interpreted as a simple mixing between an atmospheric and a subsurface source.

  10. Hormones, sterols, and fecal indicator bacteria in groundwater, soil, and subsurface drainage following a high single application of municipal biosolids to a field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Russell, P; Lapen, D R

    2013-04-01

    A land application of dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) was conducted on an agricultural field in fall 2008 at a rate of 22Mg dry weight (dw) ha(-1). Pre- and post- application, hormone, sterol and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were measured in tile drainage water, groundwater (2, 4, 6m depth), surface soil cores, and DMB aggregates incorporated in the soil (∼0.2m depth) for a period of roughly 1year post-application. Hormones and sterols were detected up to 1year post-application in soil and in DMB aggregates. Hormone (androsterone, desogestrel, estrone) contamination was detected briefly in tile water samples (22d and ∼2months post-app), at lowngL(-1) concentrations (2-34ngL(-1)). Hormones were not detected in groundwater. Sterols were detected in tile water throughout the study period post-application, and multiple fecal sterol ratios suggested biosolids as the source. Coprostanol concentrations in tile water peaked at >1000ngL(-1) (22d post-app) and were still >100ngL(-1) at 6months post-application. Fecal indicator bacteria were detected throughout the study period in tile water, groundwater (⩽2m depth), soil and DMB aggregate samples. These bacteria were strongly linearly related to coprostanol in tile water (R(2)>0.92, psterols to tile drainage networks may be attributed to a combination of the hydrophobicity of these compounds and limited macroporosity of the field soil. This transitory contamination from hormones and sterols is unlikely to result in any significant pulse exposure risk in subsurface drainage and groundwater. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti,Thiago Tadashi; Bispo,Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira,Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr.,Rubens Alexandre da

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform t...

  12. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  13. Falls, faints, fits and funny turns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, R.D.; Bloem, B.R.; Dijk, J.G. van

    2009-01-01

    In this practically oriented review, we will outline the clinical approach of patients with falls due to an impairment or loss of consciousness. Following a set of definitions, we describe the salient clinical features of disorders leading to such falls. Among falls caused by true loss of consciousn

  14. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  15. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  16. Groundwater hydrology instructional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald G.

    Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is preparing for its third cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology, beginning January 15, 1986. The first cycle finished with an impressive completion ratio for registered participants, and the second cycle has currently been underway since July. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the Soil Conservation Service (of the U.S. Department of Agriculture) to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. Since its evolution into IRIS, an 80% participant completion rate has been recorded for the first cycle, which is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by correspondence courses. This excellent rate of success is the result of 2 years of refinement and demonstrates the progressive nature of the program. IRIS has met the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  17. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  18. The variability of meteoroid falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  19. Contain contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  20. Groundwater ages from the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer, Uvalde County, Texas—Insights into groundwater flow and recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Landis, Gary P.; Faith, Jason R.

    2016-02-23

    Tritium–helium-3 groundwater ages of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas were determined as part of a long-term study of groundwater flow and recharge in the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. These ages help to define groundwater residence times and to provide constraints for calibration of groundwater flow models. A suite of 17 samples from public and private supply wells within Uvalde County were collected for active and noble gases, and for tritium–helium-3 analyses from the confined and unconfined parts of the Edwards aquifer. Samples were collected from monitoring wells at discrete depths in open boreholes as well as from integrated pumped well-head samples. The data indicate a fairly uniform groundwater flow system within an otherwise structurally complex geologic environment comprised of regionally and locally faulted rock units, igneous intrusions, and karst features within carbonate rocks. Apparent ages show moderate, downward average, linear velocities in the Uvalde area with increasing age to the east along a regional groundwater flow path. Though the apparent age data show a fairly consistent distribution across the study area, many apparent ages indicate mixing of both modern (less than 60 years) and premodern (greater than 60 years) waters. This mixing is most evident along the “bad water” line, an arbitrary delineation of 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids that separates the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer from the downdip saline water zone. Mixing of modern and premodern waters also is indicated within the unconfined zone of the aquifer by high excess helium concentrations in young waters. Excess helium anomalies in the unconfined aquifer are consistent with possible subsurface discharge of premodern groundwater from the underlying Trinity aquifer into the younger groundwater of the Edwards aquifer.