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Sample records for groundwater samples contained

  1. Health risk assessment of drinking arsenic-containing groundwater in Hasilpur, Pakistan: effect of sampling area, depth, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Riaz Ahmad; Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Khalid, Sana; Shah, Noor Samad; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Samina

    2018-02-10

    Currently, several news channels and research publications have highlighted the dilemma of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater in Pakistan. However, there is lack of data regarding groundwater As content of various areas in Pakistan. The present study evaluated As contamination and associated health risks in previously unexplored groundwater of Hasilpur-Pakistan. Total of 61 groundwater samples were collected from different areas (rural and urban), sources (electric pump, hand pump, and tubewell) and depths (35-430 ft or 11-131 m). The water samples were analyzed for As level and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, cations, and anions. It was found that 41% (25 out of 61) water samples contained As (≥ 5 μg/L). Out of 25 As-contaminated water samples, 13 water samples exceeded the permissible level of WHO (10 μg/L). High As contents have been found in tubewell samples and at high sampling depths (> 300 ft). The major As-contaminated groundwater in Hasilpur is found in urban areas. Furthermore, health risk and cancer risk due to As contamination were also assessed with respect to average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR). The values of HQ and CR of As in Hasilpur were up to 58 and 0.00231, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between groundwater As contents, pH, and depth in Hasilpur. The current study proposed the proper monitoring and management of well water in Hasilpur to minimize the As-associated health hazards.

  2. Groundwater sampling in uranium reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.

    1977-03-01

    The groundwater sampling program is based on the premise that ground water geochemistry reflects the chemical composition of, and geochemical processes active in the strata from which the sample is obtained. Pilot surveys have shown that wells are the best source of groundwater, although springs are sampled on occasion. The procedures followed in selecting a sampling site, the sampling itself, and the field measurements, as well as the site records made, are described

  3. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  4. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  5. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  6. Groundwater sampling with well-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubacher, R.C.; Bailey, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that BP Oil Company and Engineering-Science (ES) conducted a groundwater investigation at a BP Oil Distribution facility in the coastal plain of south central Alabama. The predominant lithologies include unconsolidated Quaternary-aged gravels, sands, silts and clay. Wellpoints were used to determine the vertical and horizontal extent of volatile hydrocarbons in the water table aquifer. To determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration, the hollow-stem augers were advanced approximately 10 feet into the aquifer near a suspected source. The drill stem and bit were removed very slowly to prevent sand heaving. The well-point was again driven ahead of the augers and four volumes (18 liters) of groundwater were purged. A sample was collected and the headspace vapor was analyzed as before. Groundwater from a total of seven borings was analyzed using these techniques. Permanent monitoring wells were installed at four boring locations which had volatile concentrations less than 1 part per million. Later groundwater sampling and laboratory analysis confirmed the wells had been installed near or beyond both the horizontal and vertical plume boundaries

  7. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  8. A Preliminary Assessment of Groundwater Samples around a Filling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling station in Diobu area of Port Harcourt for four years at intervals of two years with a view to determine the level of groundwater pollution. It examines the physiochemical, major ions and heavy metal aspect of groundwater quality around the study ...

  9. Chemistry of groundwater discharge inferred from longitudinal river sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Harrington, G. A.; Leblanc, M.; Welch, C.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-02-01

    We present an approach for identifying groundwater discharge chemistry and quantifying spatially distributed groundwater discharge into rivers based on longitudinal synoptic sampling and flow gauging of a river. The method is demonstrated using a 450 km reach of a tropical river in Australia. Results obtained from sampling for environmental tracers, major ions, and selected trace element chemistry were used to calibrate a steady state one-dimensional advective transport model of tracer distribution along the river. The model closely reproduced river discharge and environmental tracer and chemistry composition along the study length. It provided a detailed longitudinal profile of groundwater inflow chemistry and discharge rates, revealing that regional fractured mudstones in the central part of the catchment contributed up to 40% of all groundwater discharge. Detailed analysis of model calibration errors and modeled/measured groundwater ion ratios elucidated that groundwater discharging in the top of the catchment is a mixture of local groundwater and bank storage return flow, making the method potentially useful to differentiate between local and regional sourced groundwater discharge. As the error in tracer concentration induced by a flow event applies equally to any conservative tracer, we show that major ion ratios can still be resolved with minimal error when river samples are collected during transient flow conditions. The ability of the method to infer groundwater inflow chemistry from longitudinal river sampling is particularly attractive in remote areas where access to groundwater is limited or not possible, and for identification of actual fluxes of salts and/or specific contaminant sources.

  10. Sampling of dissolved gases in deep groundwater pumped to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, J.

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop method for sampling dissolved gases in groundwater pumped out from borehole. In this report the developed method called Simple gas collector (YKK) and the first results gained are described. Samples were collected from five sampling sections. First test samplings were made from multipackered deep borehole (OL-KR1/523,2-528,2 m). The rest of samples were sampled during prepumping of PAVE-samplings. All samples were analysed with mass spectrometer. Gas composition results were very reproducible but gas concentration results varied in some sampling sections. Achieved results were compared with gas results of groundwater samples taken with PAVE-equipment. YKK-results were mainly comparable to PAVE-results, although differences were observed in both gas composition and concentration results. When gas concentration is small ( 2 O) gas compositions are very comparable and when concentration is high compositions differs between YKK- and PAVE-results. Gas concentration values were very comparable when the groundwater samples contained gases a lot, but the differences were relatively higher, when the gas amount in the groundwater sample was small. According to the survey you can get comparable information of dissolved gases in groundwater with YKK-method. The limit of using this method is that pumped groundwater must be oversaturated with gases in sampling conditions. (orig.)

  11. Sample container for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lersmacher, B.; Verheijke, M.L.; Jaspers, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sample container avoids contaminating the sample substance by diffusion of foreign matter from the wall of the sample container into the sample. It cannot be activated, so that the results of measurements are not falsified by a radioactive container wall. It consists of solid carbon. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Groundwater sampling from shallow boreholes (PP and PR) and groundwater observation tubes (PVP) at Olkiluoto in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Groundwater sampling from the shallow boreholes and groundwater observation tubes was performed in summer 2004 (PP2, PP3, PP7, PP8, PRl, PVPl, PVP3A, PVP3B, PVP4A and PVP4B) and in autumn 2004 (PP2, PP3, PP5, PP7, PP8, PP9, PP36, PP37, PP39, PR1, PR2, PVP1, PVP3A, PVP3B, PVP4A, PVP8A, PVP9A, PVP9B, PVP10B, PVP11, PVP12, PVP13, PVP14 and PVP20). The results from previous samplings have been used in the hydrogeochemical baseline characterization at Olkiluoto and some of the latest results have also been part of the ONKALO monitoring program. This study contains data on preliminary pumping of the sampling points and pumping for groundwater sampling and chemical analyses in the laboratory. This study also includes comparison with analytical results obtained between 1995-2004. The total dissolved solids (TDS) of groundwater samples were mainly below 1000 mg/L. According to Davis's TDS classification, these waters were fresh waters. The only exception was the water sample from shallow borehole PP7 (1400mg/L and 1450mg/L), which was brackish. Several different groundwater types were observed, but the most common water type was Ca-HCO{sub 3} (five samples). Analytical results from 1995-2003 were compared. During 2001-2003 in groundwater samples from sampling points PVP1, PVP9A and PP7 all measured main parameters changed considerably, but from summer 2003 to autumn 2004 the greatest alterations occurred in PR2, PVP1, PVP3A and PVP3B waters. These changes can be seen in almost all parameters. For other samples only minor changes in results were observed during the reference period. (orig.)

  13. New Zealand guidelines for the collection of groundwater samples for chemical and isotopic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.R.; Cameron, S.G.; Reeves, R.R.; Taylor, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater are important tools for differentiating between the natural composition and human-induced contaminants of groundwater. A comprehensive suite of inorganic water chemical analyses is necessary to characterise waters. The geology of New Zealand is diverse, so it is impractical to characterise a ''typical'' groundwater chemical composition. Each aquifer system should be evaluated individually because the major dissolved species contain useful information about the pathways of water through the soil zone into the aquifer. Analyses of major ions such as chloride, nitrate, potassium and sulphate often give indication of septic systems and agricultural contamination. The minor ions, while most are not considered contaminants, are often indicators of human activity. Iron and manganese are good indicators of Eh potential, which is an important control on the mobility of many heavy metals. The inexpensive inorganic chemical analytical suite should be used as a guide to advisability of more expensive contaminant testing. The purpose of this manual is to provide consistent groundwater sampling guidelines for use throughout New Zealand. Sinton's (1998) guide to groundwater sampling techniques provided a sound basis for the accurate collection of groundwater samples. However Sinton did not address sampling materials and techniques for the collection of samples for ultra trace component analysis or the collection of environmental isotope samples. These important aspects of groundwater sampling have been included in this updated manual. (author). 30 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix

  14. a preliminary assessment of groundwater samples around a filling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    considerably degraded by physical, chemical and bacterial ... chemical and bacterial constituents of groundwater is ... Samples were collected in clean 1 liter plastic bottle from each borehole. ... bottles were kept on ice pack and the unstable.

  15. Sampling and chemical analysis of groundwaters from the exploratory boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittwer, C.

    1986-10-01

    As a part of the Nagra geological investigation programme in northern Switzerland, numerous water samples were taken in the Boettstein, Weiach, Riniken, Schafisheim, Kaisten and Leuggern boreholes to obtain information on the chemistry and residence times of deep groundwaters. This report contains a compilation of hydrochemical data, comments on the individual water sampling actions and an evaluation of sample quality with respect to admixing of drilling fluids. The samples were taken from separate test intervals in the sediments and the crystalline rock. After removal of various types of drilling fluids such as mud as well as fresh water or deionised water during a cleaning phase, the samples were taken at the surface or at depth using pressure vessels. The tracers added to the drilling fluids (uranine, m-TFMBA) as well as the tritium content were used for a quantiative estimation of the content of drilling fluid in the samples (contamination). With a view fo further geochemical modelling, the samples were assessed with reference to the effect of contamination on the results of the chemical analyses. A total of 68 water samples were taken from 53 different intervals: - 27 samples had problem-free cleaning phases and were taken with negligible contamination. - 23 samples were taken under difficult conditions. Problems with hydraulic communication around packers, uncertain origin, inaccuracy as to extent of contamination, presence of cement, possible traces of salt from drilling fluid etc. meant that the analyses could only be used with extreme caution or after additional data-processing. - The analysis results from 18 samples will be disregarded due to significant drilling fluid content or because more reliable data are available for the same test interval. (author)

  16. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-11-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests with methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater have shown that in the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane has little influence on the glass dissolution rate. Gamma radiolysis tests at fluxes of 5.5 x 10 5 and 4.4 x 10 4 R/hr showed that methane-saturated groundwater was more reducing than identical experiments where Ar was substituted for CH 4 . Dissolved methane, therefore, may be beneficial to the waste package in limiting the solubility of redox sensitive radionuclides such a 99 Tc. Hydrocarbon polymers known to form under the irradiation conditions of these tests were not produced. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers, however, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  17. Influence of thermal treatments on radiocarbon dating of groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Iuliana Madalina; Sava, Tiberiu Bogdan; Pacesila, Doru Gheorghe; Gaza, Oana; Simion, Corina Anca; Stefan, Bianca Maria; Sava, Gabriela Odilia; Ghita, Dan Gabriel; Mosu, Vasile

    2017-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water provides information about the formation of oceanic circulation of the water volumes, the hydrogeological systems, and also valuable information can be gained about the aquifer storage and the degree of containment relative to the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating refers to the determination of small quantities of the naturally occurring carbon 14 in the water, which can be integrated in the groundwater mass through the gaseous CO2, carbonaceous deposits dissolved by water and organic remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the temperature and pressure over the amount of each isotope of carbon during the sample preparation stage. The first step was to evaporate several underground water samples at 65°C under different conditions until the carbonates were obtained, then the CO2 was extracted with orto-phosphoric acid and transformed to graphite. The second step was to obtain graphite from an untreated water sample. Finally, the samples were measured with the 1MV Cockcroft-Walton Tandetron Accelerator by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

  18. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  19. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests were conducted with a mixture of crushed glass, basalt, and steel in methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater. In the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane was found to have little influence on the corrosion behavior of the waste package constituents. Under gamma radiolysis, methane was found to significantly lower the solution oxidation potential when compared to identical tests without methane. In addition, colloidal hydrocarbon polymers that have been produced under the irradiation conditions of these experiments were not formed. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers. However, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  20. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons. Historically, the monitoring activities have been very 'people intensive'. Field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from two official electronic databases: the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers traditionally used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information. In Automating Groundwater Sampling at Hanford (HNF-38542-FP Revision 0, Presented at Waste Management 2009 Conference, March 1 - March 5, 2009, Phoenix, AZ), we described the methods, tools, and techniques that would be used in automating the activities associated with measuring water levels. The Field Logging and Electronic Data Gathering (FLEDG) application/database that automates collecting the water-level measurement data has now been implemented at Hanford. In addition to eliminating the need to print out

  1. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Brown, W.L. [Lockheed Martin Systems Information, P.O. Box 950, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hildebrand, R. Douglas [Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, 825 Jadwin Ave., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons. Historically, the monitoring activities have been very 'people intensive'. Field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from two official electronic databases: the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers traditionally used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information. In Automating Groundwater Sampling at Hanford (HNF-38542-FP Revision 0, Presented at Waste Management 2009 Conference, March 1 - March 5, 2009, Phoenix, AZ), we described the methods, tools, and techniques that would be used in automating the activities associated with measuring water levels. The Field Logging and Electronic Data Gathering (FLEDG) application/database that automates collecting the water-level measurement data has now been implemented at Hanford. In addition to

  2. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas; Schatz, Aaron L.; Conley, S. F.; Brown, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons

  3. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  4. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  5. Design of a groundwater sampling network for Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanivetsky, R.

    1977-01-01

    This folio was compiled to facilitate the use of groundwater as a sampling medium to aid in exploration for hitherto undiscovered deposits of uranium in the subsurface rocks of Minnesota. The report consists of the following sheets of the hydrogeologic map of Minnesota: (1) map of bedrock hydrogeology, (2) generalized cross sections of the hydrogeologic map of Minnesota, showing both Quaternary deposits and bedrock, (3) map of waterwells that penetrate Precambrian rocks in Minnesota. A list of these wells, showing locations, names of owners, type of Precambrian aquifers penetrated, lithologic material of the aquifers, and well depths is provided in the appendix to this report. Structural settings, locations, and composition of the bedrock aquifers, movement of groundwater, and preliminary suggestions for a sampling program are discussed below under the heading Bedrock Hydrogeology of Minnesota. The map sheet showing Quaternary hydrogeology is not included in this report because the chemistry of groundwater in these deposits is not directly related to bedrock mineralization

  6. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Sample size reduction in groundwater surveys via sparse data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Z.; Muhammad, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on sparse signal recovery methods for data assimilation in groundwater models. The objective of this work is to exploit the commonly understood spatial sparsity in hydrodynamic models and thereby reduce the number of measurements to image a dynamic groundwater profile. To achieve this we employ a Bayesian compressive sensing framework that lets us adaptively select the next measurement to reduce the estimation error. An extension to the Bayesian compressive sensing framework is also proposed which incorporates the additional model information to estimate system states from even lesser measurements. Instead of using cumulative imaging-like measurements, such as those used in standard compressive sensing, we use sparse binary matrices. This choice of measurements can be interpreted as randomly sampling only a small subset of dug wells at each time step, instead of sampling the entire grid. Therefore, this framework offers groundwater surveyors a significant reduction in surveying effort without compromising the quality of the survey. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  9. A tracking system for groundwater sampling and data transfer schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.

    1990-12-01

    Since groundwater monitoring programs at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have become more complex and varied and as the occasions to respond to internal and external reporting requirements have become more frequent and time constrained, the need to track groundwater sampling activities and data transfer from the analytical laboratories has become imperative. If backlogs can be caught early, resources can be added or reallocated in the field and in the laboratory in a timely manner to ensure reporting deadlines are met. The tracking system discussed in this paper starts with clear definition of the groundwater monitoring program at the facility. This information is input into base datasets at the beginning of the sampling cycle. As the sampling program progresses, information about well sampling dates and data transfer dates is input into the base datasets. From the base program data and the update data, a status report is periodically generated by a computer program which identifies the type and nature of bottle necks encountered during the implementation of the groundwater monitoring program

  10. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  11. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  12. Groundwater monitoring programme. A guide for groundwater sampling and analysis. 2. ed.; Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm. Leitfaden fuer Probenahme und Analytik von Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Quality assurance guidelines have been developed and introduced in Baden-Wuerttemberg for groundwater monitoring. The contribution contains the fundamentals and technical guides for sampling and measurement of the Baden-Wuerttemberg groundwater monitoring programme, as well as parameter groups and a preliminary assessment of the methods. [German] Bei der Gewinnung von Umweltdaten sind hohe Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der erhobenen Daten zu stellen. Dies trifft in besonderem Masse gerade auch fuer Grundwasseruntersuchungen zu, da hier haeufig Konzentrationen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze auftreten. Fuer das Grundwassermessnetz Baden-Wuerttemberg sind qualitaetssichernde Regelungen entwickelt und eingefuehrt worden. In der vorliegenden Zusammenstellung sind die Grundsatzpapiere, bzw. Technischen Anleitungen aus dem Grundwasserueberwachungsprogramm Baden-Wuerttemberg fuer die Grundwasserprobennahme sowie zu Messverfahren, Parametergruppen und zur ersten Beurteilung der Messergebnisse enthalten. (orig.)

  13. Sampling and analysis of groundwater colloids. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this literature study was to give basic information of colloids: their formation, colloid material, sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids. Colloids are commonly refereed to as particles in the size range of 1 nm to 1000 nm. They are defined as a suspension of solid material in a liquid that does not appear to separate even after a long period of time. Colloids can be formed from a variety of inorganic or organic material. Inorganic colloids in natural groundwaters are formed by physical fragmentation of the host rock or by precipitation. The water chemistry strongly controls the stability of colloids. The amount of colloid particles in a solution tends to decrease with the increasing ionic strength of the solution. Increases in pH and organic material tend to increase the stability of colloids. The mobility of colloids in a porous medium is controlled mainly by groundwater movement, sedimentation, diffusion and interception. Factors controlling sampling artefacts are oxygen diffusion: leads to e.g. calcite precipitation, pumping rates and filtering techniques. Efforts to minimise artefact formation should be taken if the scope of the sampling programme is to study the colloid particles. The colloid phase size distribution can be determined by light scattering systems, laser induced break down or by single particle analysis using SEM micrographs. Elemental compositions can be analysed with EDS spectrometry from single colloid particles. Bulk compositions of the colloid phase can be analysed with e.g. ICP-MS analyser. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for groundwater colloid samplings. Recommendations for future work are listed in the conclusions of this report. (orig.)

  14. Atmospheric Gas Tracers in Groundwater: Theory, Sampling. Measurement and Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayari, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the atmospheric gasses posses features that are sought in an environmental tracer of hydrogeologic interest. Among these, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hegzafluoride, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, krypton-85 etc. have found increasing use in groundwater age dating studies during the last ten years. This paper explains the theory of their use as tracer and discusses the major concerns as related to their sampling and analyses. Factors affecting their applicability and the approach to interpret tracer gas data is briefly outlined

  15. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, T.; Hebert, D.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of stable and radioactive isotopes is essential as a complement to geochemistry and geohydraulic investigations on groundwater regimes and their genesis. This is widely acknowledged also for the determination of the specific activity of 85 Kr in groundwater. The geochemical inertness and well-defined input function of 85 Kr allow estimates of groundwater age and enhance characterization of groundwater flow and components in many aquifer systems. A new site for measurement of the 85 Kr specific activity has been established at the Institute of Applied Physics at the Freiberg University, Saxony. Under normal conditions ca. 80 μl krypton are dissolved in 1 m 3 of water in contact with air. Therefore gas extraction has to be most effectively. A modified CO 2 extractor of 45 cm x 10 cm was chosen. The water is continuously pumped under pressure (3 - 4 bar) passing a Venturi-type nozzle, which simultaneously operates as a water-jet pump. The extracted gas flows through a CO 2 trap (NaOH 10 %), a H 2 O cold trap, through molecular sieves (5, 3 A) and a charcoal column, cooled by liquid nitrogen, where krypton, nitrogene and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases re-enter the extractor at the Venturi-type nozzle. A small membrane pump supports the circulation. Due to the special design of the water outlet, contamination of the sample is avoided. Optional a compact stove heats the water to improve the extraction efficiency. If pressure supply is high enough, additional extractors can be run simultaneously. In a test run the recovery for radon was around 65 to 70 %. Further preparation steps of the raw krypton sample is performed in the laboratory. To obtain a good first enrichment a tube furnace filled with chrome powder is used to separate nitrogen and oxygen from the sample at 900 deg C. The following enrichment steps are performed by a preparation setup developed at GSF-Institute for Hydrology, Neuherberg. (author)

  16. Sampling and treatment of rock cores and groundwater under reducing environments of deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao

    2005-01-01

    A method of sampling and treatment of undisturbed rock cores and groundwater under maintained reducing environments of deep underground was developed and demonstrated in a Neogene's sandy mudstone layer at depth of GL-100 to -200 m. Undisturbed rock cores and groundwater were sampled and transferred into an Ar gas atmospheric glove box with minimized exposure to the atmosphere. The reducing conditions of the sampled groundwater and rock cores were examined in the Ar atmospheric glove box by measuring pH and Eh of the sampled groundwater and sampled groundwater contacting with disk type rock samples, respectively. (author)

  17. Automating Groundwater Sampling At Hanford, The Next Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, C.W.; Conley, S.F.; Hildebrand, R.D.; Cunningham, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the groundwater monitoring activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State have been very 'people intensive.' Approximately 1500 wells are sampled each year by field personnel or 'samplers.' These individuals have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from 2 official electronic databases: the Hanford Well information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. A pilot project for automating this extremely tedious process was lauched in 2008. Initially, the automation was focused on water-level measurements. Now, the effort is being extended to automate the meta-data associated with collecting groundwater samples. The project allowed electronic forms produced in the field by samplers to be used in a work flow process where the data is transferred to the database and electronic form is filed in managed records - thus eliminating manually completed forms. Elimating the manual forms and streamlining the data entry not only improved the accuracy of the information recorded, but also enhanced the efficiency and sampling capacity of field office personnel.

  18. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene

    2018-03-01

    The purpose is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the DOE/EM Nevada Program’s UGTA Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) (NNSA/NFO, 2015); Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended); and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (DOE, 2013). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing both the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing and impact of testing on water quality in downgradient communities. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by CAU and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well purging, detection levels, and accuracy requirements/recommendations; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling analytes of interest to UGTA. Information used in the Plan development—including the rationale for selection of wells, sampling frequency, and the analytical suite—is discussed under separate cover (N-I, 2014) and is not reproduced herein. This Plan does not address compliance for those wells involved in a permitted activity. Sampling and analysis requirements associated with these wells are described in their respective permits and are discussed in NNSS environmental reports (see Section 5.2). In addition, sampling for UGTA CAUs that are in the Closure Report (CR) stage are not included in this Plan. Sampling requirements for these CAUs are described in the CR

  19. Carbon-14 dating of groundwater under Christchurch, 1976 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Brown, L.J.

    1986-06-01

    Four samples of groundwater from deep aquifers under Christchurch have been analysed for carbon-14, tritium, oxygen-18 and chemical contents. Interpretation of the carbon-14 results requires two steps, (1) correction of the measured 14 C values for input of dead ( 14 C-free) carbon underground (indicating that the measured values of 80 PMC* should be increased to about 120 PMC), and (2) determination of water residence times for given flow models of the groundwater system. Interpretation of tritium results involves step 2 only. Three models are considered, of which the third is considered most appropriate to Christchurch. In this model, the 14 C and T results indicate that a small proportion of young water (post-1954) mixes with a larger proportion of older water (probably at least several hundred years). The oxygen-18 content indicates that recharge is mainly from the Waimakariri River and possibly from rainfall and streams near the foothills of the Canterbury Plains. Other aspect of the groundwater flow under Christchurch are discussed

  20. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    trends to the present time. The latter line of evidence is considered to be the most powerful in demonstrating that representative samples are being acquired by the PWMS because it is highly unlikely that previously existing concentration trends would continue if resampling had occurred.Standard procedure for obtaining protocol groundwater monitoring samples at the Savannah River Site (SRS) calls for extracting or ''purging'' sufficient quantities of groundwater to allow removal of stagnant water and to allow certain key indicator parameters to stabilize prior to collection of samples. The water extracted from a well prior to sample collection is termed ''purge water'' and must be managed in an approved fashion if it contains hazardous and/or radiological constituents that exceed specified health-based limits described in the Investigation Derived Waste Management Plan (WSRC, 1994). Typical management practices include containerization, transportation, treatment, and disposal via Clean Water Act -permitted facilities.A technology for handling purge water that eliminates the need to containerize and transport this water to a disposal facility has been developed. This technology, termed the Purge Water Management System (PWMS), is currently under pilot stage deployment at SRS. The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without significantly altering the water quality. A schematic drawing of the PWMS is in Figure 1. The system has been successfully demonstrated at both a ''clean'' well, P-26D, and a ''contaminated'' well, MCB-5, by comparing chemical concentration data obtained by PWMS sampling against the historical data record for each of these wells (Hiergesell et al., 1996). In both cases the PWMS was found to yield sample results that were indistinguishable from the results of the historical protocol sampling conducted at those same wells.For any method used to

  1. Determination of heavy metals in groundwater samples - ICP-MS analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiterer, M.; Muench, U.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical programme which permits the direct, simultaneous determination of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in groundwater samples was developed for ICP-MS. Spectral mass interferences, attributable to great differences in groundwater matrices, precision and accuracy have been discussed. The evaluation of analytical results was demonstrated for selected sampling points of the groundwater observation network of Thuringia. (orig.)

  2. Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both 99 Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators

  3. Can groundwater sampling techniques used in monitoring wells influence methane concentrations and isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christine; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Lavoie, Denis; Lefebvre, René; Malet, Xavier

    2018-03-06

    Methane concentrations and isotopic composition in groundwater are the focus of a growing number of studies. However, concerns are often expressed regarding the integrity of samples, as methane is very volatile and may partially exsolve during sample lifting in the well and transfer to sampling containers. While issues concerning bottle-filling techniques have already been documented, this paper documents a comparison of methane concentration and isotopic composition obtained with three devices commonly used to retrieve water samples from dedicated observation wells. This work lies within the framework of a larger project carried out in the Saint-Édouard area (southern Québec, Canada), whose objective was to assess the risk to shallow groundwater quality related to potential shale gas exploitation. The selected sampling devices, which were tested on ten wells during three sampling campaigns, consist of an impeller pump, a bladder pump, and disposable sampling bags (HydraSleeve). The sampling bags were used both before and after pumping, to verify the appropriateness of a no-purge approach, compared to the low-flow approach involving pumping until stabilization of field physicochemical parameters. Results show that methane concentrations obtained with the selected sampling techniques are usually similar and that there is no systematic bias related to a specific technique. Nonetheless, concentrations can sometimes vary quite significantly (up to 3.5 times) for a given well and sampling event. Methane isotopic composition obtained with all sampling techniques is very similar, except in some cases where sampling bags were used before pumping (no-purge approach), in wells where multiple groundwater sources enter the borehole.

  4. Groundwater sampling and chemical characterisation of the Laxemar deep borehole KLX02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Skaarman, C.; Smellie, J.; Nilsson, A.C.

    1995-02-01

    The Laxemar deep borehole, KLX02 (1705 m depth), located close to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), has been investigated. Groundwater sampling was conducted on two occasions and using different methods. The first sampling was taken in the open borehole using the so-called Tube sampler; the second sampling carried out using the SKB-packer equipment to isolate pre-determined borehole sections. Groundwater compositions consist of two distinct groupings; one shallow to intermediate Sodium-Bicarbonate type (Na(Ca,K):HC 3 Cl(SO 4 )) to a depth of 1000 m, and the other of deep origin, a calcium-chloride type (Ca-Na(K):Cl-SO 4 (Br)), occurring below 1000 m. The deep brines contain up to 46000 mg of Cl per litre. The influence of borehole activities are seen in the tritium data which record significant tritium down to 1000 m, and even to 1420 m. Mixing modelling shows that water from the 1960's is the main source for this tritium. The high tritium values in the 1090-1096.2 m section are due to contamination of 1% shallow water from 1960 and 2% of modern shallow water. The upper 800 m of bedrock at Laxemar lies within a groundwater recharge area; the sub-vertical to moderate angled fracture zones facilitate groundwater circulation to considerable depths, at least to 800 m, thus accounting for some of the low saline brackish groundwaters in these conducting fracture zones. Below 1000 m the system is hydraulically and geochemically 'closed' such that highly saline brines exist in a near-stagnant environment. 30 refs, 22 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura , Piracicaba, SP . Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear.; Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 μg.L -1 were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  7. Characterization of natural colloids sampled from a fractured granite groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Keum, Dong Kwon; Hahn, Pil Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Vilks, Peter [AECL Whiteshell Laboratories (Canada)

    2000-02-01

    This study was carried out as a part of international joint study of KAERI with AECL. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and sorption properties of natural colloids sampled from the deep fractured granite groundwater located in the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) of AECL. Physicochemical characteristics such as composition, size distribution, and concentrations of natural colloids was analyzed. This study will be basic data for the analysis of the effect of colloids on the radionuclide migration in a geological medium. This study may provide information for the evaluation of the roles and effects of colloids in the safety and performance assessment of a possible future radioactive waste repository. 20 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 {mu}g.L{sup -1} were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  9. Description of work for routine groundwater sampling at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, B.H.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a description of work and field implementation guidance for routine (post-baseline) groundwater monitoring sampling program at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The purpose of this program is to (1) meet the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements; (2) document baseline groundwater conditions; (3) monitor those conditions for change; and (4) allow for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program

  10. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.

    2008-08-01

    Colloid samples were collected from ONKALO groundwater station ONK-PVA1 in October 2007 and an additional sample was taken from groundwater station ONK-PVA3 in November 2007. The colloids were collected by filtering the groundwater on site with an Anopore 0.02 μm aluminium oxide filter. In the sampling in October, water samples were also collected to analyse the differences in the water chemistry before and after filtration. The water samples were freeze-dried so that the elements would be concentrated in the water. The colloid concentrations were determined by counting the particles from the SEM micrographs and by calculating the concentration using the micrograph area, the filter area and the filtered volume. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA1 was very low. The particle concentration within the size range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm was 1.6 x 10 4 pt/L and the mass concentration within the same size range 0.001 μg/L. Owing to the very low concentration, an additional colloid sample was taken from ONK-PVA3. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA3 within the size range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm was 8.2 x 10 7 pt/L and the mass concentration 0.013 mg/L. When studying the ONKALO groundwater monitoring data it was noticed that in the samples where the colloid concentration was elevated also the sodium fluorescein concentration was probably elevated. This indicated that process water (e.g. drilling water) was present in the water samples. The ONK-PVA1 water probably also contained process water during the colloid sampling performed in 2006. The composition of the colloid phase could not be determined by analysing the differences in the filtered and unfiltered water owing to the low colloid concentration. Furthermore, the aluminium oxide filter caused aluminium contamination. (orig.)

  11. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids at ONKALO, Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this sampling campaign was to test different filtering methods and filter membranes, to determine the colloid concentration and to characterise the composition of the colloid phase at ONKALO groundwater station ONK-PVA1 at Olkiluoto. The sampling was done on 18 to 19 April 2006. The filtering methods tested were downhole in-situ filtration and in-line syringe filtration. The membranes tested were Anopore 0.2-μm membrane and Nuclepore 0.05 -μm membrane. The Anopore filter was designed to be 0.02 -μm, but according to the SEM micrograph the nominal pore size of the membranes was 0.2 -μm. The size distributions were determined by single particle analysis of the SEM micrographs taken from the used filter membranes. The size distribution can be expressed as a function of the Pareto power law (Buffle, 1988). Parameters A and b of the Pareto power law distribution were determined by using the least square sum method. The particle and mass concentrations were then calculated using the Pareto power law. The size distribution varied between the filtering methods, so that the syringe filtered samples indicated less aggregation than the downhole filtered samples. The colloid concentrations were higher in the Nuclepore filter membranes. This is probably due to the shorter settling time prior to the sampling or differences in the membrane pore size and material. The concentration of the colloid phase determined from the anopore membranes (0.05-1 -μm) was 0.2-0.4 mg/L. The water samples were analysed at the accredited laboratory of Consulting Engineers Paavo Ristola Ltd. The differences in the element concentrations were not detectable between the filtered and unfiltered samples. Contamination with, e.g., nickel, aluminium and organic carbon was evident. The valves, fittings and filter membranes probably caused the contamination. An EDS spectrum was taken from the downhole filtered Nuclepore membrane. The filter cake showed traces of aluminium, silicon and

  12. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  13. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dick; Tsosie, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  14. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services (NNES), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  15. Attempt of groundwater dating using the drilled rock core. 1. Development of the rock sampling method for measurement of noble gases dissolved in interstitial water in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater dating in low permeable rock is very difficult and impracticable, because we take a very long time to collect groundwater sample in a borehole and have to invest much fund in production of the in-situ groundwater sampler and in operation of it. If we can directly measure noble gases dissolved in interstitial groundwater in rock core, we have a big merit to estimate groundwater resident time easy. In this study, we designed and produced a high vacuum container to let dissolved noble gases diffuse until reaching in equilibrium, and we made a handling manual of the rock core into the container and a procedure to vacuum out air from the sealed container. We compared data sets of noble gas concentration obtained from rock cores and groundwater sample collected from boreholes in-situ. The measured rocks are pumice-tuff rock, mud rock and hornfels, which have their permeabilities of 10 -6 cm/s, 10 -9 cm/s and 10 -11 cm/s, respectively. Consequently, we evaluated the rock core method is better than the in-situ groundwater sampling method for low permeable rock. (author)

  16. Container for gaseous samples for irradiation at accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsch, H.; Riemenschneider, J.; Leonhardt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a container for gaseous samples for the irradiation at accelerators especially to generate short-lived radioisotopes. The container is also suitable for storage and transport of the target gas and can be multiply reused

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DR Newcomer

    1999-01-01

    This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from 1995 through 1999. Following the 5-year review period, groundwater-monitoring data will be reviewed by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the progress of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene. Monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater use at the inactive Horn Rapids Landfill was the selected remedy specified in the Record of Decision

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  19. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  20. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, V.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.

    2016-01-01

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  1. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters

  2. Data validation summary report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, A.T.

    1996-03-01

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes data from the chemical analyses of samples from the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. All of the data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that the reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry and radiochemistry

  3. Binary Mixtures of Permanganate and Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater Samples: Sample Preservation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water samples collected at sites where in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been deployed may contain binary mixtures of ground water contaminants and permanganate (MnO4-), an oxidant injected into the subsurface to destroy the contaminant. Commingling of the oxidant and ...

  4. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program: Groundwater and surface water sampling and analysis plan for Calendar Year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1998 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These monitoring activities are managed by the Y-12 Plant Environmental Compliance Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed during CY 1998 to comply with: (1) requirements specified in Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) post-closure permits regarding RCRA corrective action monitoring and RCRA detection monitoring; (2) Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste management facilities; and (3) DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway monitoring. Data from some of the sampling locations in each regime will be used to meet the requirements of more than one of the monitoring drivers listed above. Modifications to the CY 1998 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  5. January 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 19, 2011, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1.Water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  6. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully

  7. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  8. Procedures for the collection and preservation of groundwater and surface water samples and for the installation of monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Kearl, P.

    1984-01-01

    Proper sampling procedures are essential for a successful water-quality monitoring program. It must be emphasized, however, that it is impossible to maintain absolutely in-situ conditions when collecting and preserving a water sample, whether from a flowing stream or an aquifer. Consequently, the most that can reasonably be expected is to collect a best possible sample with minimal disturbance. This document describes procedures for installing monitoring wells and for collecting samples of surface water and groundwater. The discussion of monitoring wells includes mention of multilevel sampling and a general overview of vadose-zone monitoring. Guidelines for well installation are presented in detail. The discussion of water-sample collection contains evaluations of sampling pumps, filtration equipment, and sample containers. Sample-preservation techniques, as published by several government and private sources, are reviewed. Finally, step-by-step procedures for collection of water samples are provided; these procedures address such considerations as necessary equipment, field operations, and written documentation. Separate procedures are also included for the collection of samples for determination of sulfide and for reactive aluminum. The report concludes with a brief discussion of adverse sampling, conditions that may significantly affect the quality of the data. Appendix A presents a rationale for the development and use of statistical considerations in water sampling to ensure a more complete water quality monitoring program. 51 references, 9 figures, 4 tables

  9. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, Adrian H., E-mail: adgallardo@geowater.com.au [CONICET (Argentina National Scientific and Technical Research Council), San Luis National University, FCFMyN, Department of Geology, San Luis 5700 (Argentina); Marui, Atsunao [AIST Geological Survey of Japan, Geo-Resources and Environment Institute, Groundwater Research Group, Ibaraki-ken, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. - Highlights: • Measures are being undertaken to manage groundwater contamination in Fukushima. • Methods focus on isolating the source and controlling the radionuclides migration. • Wastewater is being temporarily held in tanks for treatment. • Impervious walls inhibit the transport of contaminants toward the ocean. • Paving and pumping further mitigate the dispersion of pollutants by water.

  10. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  11. Passive sampling and analyses of common dissolved fixed gases in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, Brian Patrick; Watson, David B.

    2008-01-01

    An in situ passive sampler and gas chromatographic protocol for analysis of the major and several minor fixed gases in groundwater was developed. A gas-tight syringe, mated to a short length of silicone tubing, was equilibrated with dissolved gases in groundwater by immersing in monitoring wells and was used to transport and to inject a 0.5 mL gas sample into a gas chromatograph. Using Ar carrier gas, a HaySep DB porous polymer phase, and sequential thermal conductivity and reductive gas detectors allowed good sensitivity for He, Ne, H2, N2, O2, CO, CH4, CO2, and N2O. Within 4 days of immersion in groundwater, samplers initially filled with either He or air attained the same and constant gas composition at an Oak Ridge, Tennessee, site heavily impacted by uranium, acidity, and nitrate. Between June 2006 and July 2007, 12 permanent groundwater wells were used to test the passive samplers in groundwater contaminated by a group of four closed radioactive wastewater seepage ponds; over a thousand passive gas samples from these wells averaged 56% CO2, 32.4% N2, 2.5% O2, 2.5% N2O, 0.20% CH4, 0.096% H2, and 0.023% CO with an average recovery of 95 14% of the injected gas volume

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Carpenter, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the biodegradation of 14 C-labeled vinyl chloride in samples taken from a shallow aquifer. Under aerobic conditions, vinyl chloride was readily degraded, with greater than 99% of the labeled material being degraded after 108 days and approximately 65% being mineralized to 14 CO 2

  13. Reducing the sampling frequency of groundwater monitoring wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.M.; Ridley, M.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Tuckfield, R.C.; Anderson, R.A. [Westinghouse, Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    As part of a joint LLNL/SRTC project, a methodology for selecting sampling frequencies is evolving that introduces statistical thinking and cost effectiveness into the sampling schedule selection practices now commonly employed on environmental projects. Our current emphasis is on descriptive rather than inferential statistics. Environmental monitoring data are inherently messy, being plagued by such problems as extremely high variability and left-censoring. As a result, real data often fail to meet the assumptions required for the appropriate application of many statistical methods. Rather than abandon the quantitative approach in these cases, however, the methodology employs simple statistical techniques to bring a measure of objectivity and reproducibility to the process. The techniques are applied within the framework of decision logic, which inrerprets the numerical results from the standpoint of chemistry-related professional judgment and the regulatory context. This paper presents the methodology`s basic concepts together with early implementation results, showing the estimated cost savings. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Radiocarbon dating of archaeological geological and groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinh, N.K.; Dung, H.H.; Quan, H.M.; Thuy, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    In the context of the project VIE/8/003 sponsored by the IAEA, a regular and complete C 1 4 laboratory was installed at the Centre of the Nuclear Techniques in 1986. In this paper the authors present the procedure of sample treatment and saple activity measurement of the radiocarbon method and some preliminary results obtained after more than one year of operation of the laboratory

  15. Thermal expansion of ceramic samples containing natural zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitrová, Ivana; Trník, Anton

    2017-07-01

    In this study the thermal expansion of ceramic samples made from natural zeolite is investigated. Samples are prepared from the two most commonly used materials in ceramic industry (kaolin and illite). The first material is Sedlec kaolin from Czech Republic, which contains more than 90 mass% of mineral kaolinite. The second one is an illitic clay from Tokaj area in Hungary, which contains about 80 mass% of mineral illite. Varying amount of the clay (0 % - 50 %) by a natural zeolite from Nižný Hrabovec (Slovak Republic), containing clinoptilolite as major mineral phase is replaced. The measurements are performed on cylindrical samples with a diameter 14 mm and a length about 35 mm by a horizontal push - rod dilatometer. Samples made from pure kaolin, illite and zeolite are also subjected to this analysis. The temperature regime consists from linear heating rate of 5 °C/min from 30 °C to 1100 °C. The results show that the relative shrinkage of ceramic samples increases with amount of zeolite in samples.

  16. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  17. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  18. Technical studies on a composite groundwater sample from F- and H-Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    A composite sample of groundwater from F- and H-Areas was collected by Waste Management Tech and delivered to the Savannah River Laboratory to use in preliminary experiments that would test three remediation technologies under consideration. The three technologies are pH adjustment and filtration, decontamination with a strong acid ion exchange resin, and decontamination with a chelating ion exchange resin

  19. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This biennial event includes sampling five groundwater locations (four monitoring wells and one domestic well) at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site. For this event, the domestic well (location 0543) could not be sampled because no one was in residence during the sampling event (Note: notification was provided to the resident prior to the event). Per Appendix A of the Groundwater Compliance Action Plan, sampling is conducted to monitor groundwater quality on a voluntary basis. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). One duplicate sample was collected from location 0505. Water levels were measured at each sampled monitoring well. The constituents monitored at the Lakeview site are manganese and sulfate. Monitoring locations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for these constituents are listed in Table 1. Review of time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that manganese and sulfate concentrations are consistent with historical measurements.

  20. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  1. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, T.; Hebert, D.

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a new 85 Kr laboratory, which is currently being established at the Institute of Applied Physics in Freiberg, Germany, a modified CO 2 extractor for krypton sampling is used. The operation principle is simple and contamination-safe with a reasonable effort. Continuously pumped under pressure, the water passes a Venturi-type nozzle and degasses due to relaxing. The extracted gas mixture then enters a recirculation system flowing through a CO 2 trap (NaOH), molecular sieves and a cooled charcoal trap, where krypton and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases reenter the system at the Venturi-type nozzle. To keep the circulation alive an additional helium support is needed. In a simple field experiment, extraction efficiencies up to 0.8 for 222 Rn have been measured.

  2. A new site for 85Kr measurements on groundwater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T.; Hebert, D.

    2001-06-01

    As a part of a new 85Kr laboratory, which is currently being established at the Institute of Applied Physics in Freiberg, Germany, a modified CO 2 extractor for krypton sampling is used. The operation principle is simple and contamination-safe with a reasonable effort. Continuously pumped under pressure, the water passes a Venturi-type nozzle and degasses due to relaxing. The extracted gas mixture then enters a recirculation system flowing through a CO 2 trap (NaOH), molecular sieves and a cooled charcoal trap, where krypton and other components are adsorbed. Remaining gases reenter the system at the Venturi-type nozzle. To keep the circulation alive an additional helium support is needed. In a simple field experiment, extraction efficiencies up to 0.8 for 222Rn have been measured.

  3. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  4. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Richard C. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  5. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  6. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Johnson, Richard [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location HMC-951. Alluvium wells are completed in the alluvial sediments in the former channel of the Rio San Jose, which was covered by basalt lava flows known as the El Malpais, and are identified by the suffix (M). Bedrock wells are completed in the San Andres Limestone/Glorieta Sandstone hydrologic unit (San Andres aquifer) and are identified by the suffix (SG). Wells HMC-951 and OBS-3 are also completed in the San Andres aquifer. The LTSP requires monitoring for molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); PCB monitoring occurs only during November sampling events. This event included sampling for an expanded list of analytes to characterize the site aquifers and to support a regional groundwater investigation being conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department.

  7. The installation of a multiport ground-water sampling system in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    In 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport groundwater sampling system in well 399-1-20, drilled north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in southwestern Washington State. The purpose of installing the multiport system is to evaluate methods of determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. Well 399-1-20 is adjacent to a cluster of four Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells. This proximity makes it possible to compare sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Drilling and installation of the multiport system took 42 working days. Six sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer at depths of approximately 120, 103, 86, 74, 56, and 44 feet. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. The system was installed by backfilling sand around the sampling ports and isolating the ports with bentonite seals. The method proved adequate. For future installation, however, development and evaluation of an alternative method is recommended. In the alternative method suggested, the multiport system would be placed inside a cased and screened well, using packers to isolate the sampling zones. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. The development of a Type B sample container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a package to support chemical agent sampling for the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention. The package is designed to prevent the release of lethal chemical agents during international transport of chemical agents. The package is being designed to meet the IAEA requirements for Type B container. The configuration of the packaging working from the exterior to the interior is as follows. The outer shell provides a sacrificial boundary which will provide protection against the thermal and structural assaults of the hypothetical accident sequence. This shell provides all of the lifting and tie-down attachments. The closure is provided with a v-clamp. The cylindrical shell is austenitic stainless steel with standard pressure vessel heads. Internal to this shell is approximately 7 cm of ceramic fiber insulation to provide protection for the containment boundary against the all-engulfing fire. The containment vessel consists of a stainless steel cylindrical shell with pressure vessel heads at each end. The closure includes an o-ring test port to sample between an elastomeric double o-ring seal. The interior of the package can hold various teflon inserts which are machined to accept samples. The package has a mass of 35 kg and external dimension of 33 cm in length and 30 cm in diameter. The internal cavity is 10 cm in length and 10 cm in diameter. An insert can be machined to accept multiple samples of any configuration within that envelope. This paper describes the design and testing of the Type B sample container. (author)

  9. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, Reika

    2016-09-01

    Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters. Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr (81 Kr and 85 Kr) possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled determination of ultra-trace noble gas radioisotope abundances using 5-10 μ L of pure Kr. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries. Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled (138 K) activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. This simple process uses a single adsorbent and separates 99% of the bulk atmospheric gases from Kr without significant loss. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas. Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The presented Kr separation system has a demonstrated capability of extracting Kr with > 90% yield and 99% purity within 75 min from 1.2 to 26.8 L STP of atmospheric air with various concentrations of CH4. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples.

  10. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  12. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-24

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne.

  13. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne

  14. Recent Research Status on the Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal and Identification of Aerobic Microbes in a Groundwater Sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel(KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Cho, Won Jin

    2006-11-01

    In this report, a comprehensive review on the research results and status for the various effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal including definition and classification of microbes, and researches related with the waste containers, engineered barriers, natural barriers, natural analogue studies, and radionuclide migration and retardation. Cultivation, isolation, and classification of aerobic microbes found in a groundwater sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the KAERI site have carried out and over 20 microbes were found to be present in the groundwater. Microbial identification by a 16S rDNA genetic analysis of the selected major 10 aerobic microbes was performed and the identified microbes were characterized

  15. Improvement of colloid sampling techniques in groundwater and actinide characterisation of the groundwater systems at Gorleben (FRG) and El Berrocal (E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearlove, J.P.L.; Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-08-01

    Two sites, the Gorleben site (FRG) and the El Berrocal Experimental station (E) have been studied to evaluate different sampling and analytical techniques for the characterisation of particulates (> 1000 nm size), colloids (1-1000 nm size) and the solution phase (<1 nm) in groundwaters in terms of their physical, chemical and actinide composition. The uptake characteristics of the field ultrafiltration system used to separate the colloid fraction from the solution phase in the groundwater have also been studied. (Author)

  16. Data Validation Package, June 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Hallam, Nebraska, Decommissioned Reactor Site, August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan [LTSP] for the Decommissioned Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska (http://www.lm.doe.gov/Hallam/Documents.aspx) requires groundwater monitoring once every 2 years. Seventeen monitoring wells at the Hallam site were sampled during this event as specified in the plan. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and at two additional wells (6A and 6B) prior to the start of sampling. Additionally, water levels of each sampled well were measured at the beginning of sampling. See Attachment 2, Trip Report, for additional details. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Gross alpha and gross beta are the only parameters that were detected at statistically significant concentrations. Time/concentration graphs of the gross alpha and gross beta data are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations observed are consistent with values previously observed and are attributed to naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium and uranium decay chain products) in the groundwater.

  17. Groundwater sampling at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from the borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, H.; Hatanpaeae, E.; Ahokas, H.

    2007-05-01

    A long-term pumping test at borehole OL-KR6 at Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2006, four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken in stages using PAVE equipment. The water types found in the groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from depths of 98.5-100.5 m and 125-130 m) and Na-Cl (for samples from depths of 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000 mg/l), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/l). This study presents the sampling methods and analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6, and draws a comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained from the long-term pumping test conducted between 2001-2006. In situ EC results and EC results measured in laboratory are in quite good agreement. At sampling depth, 422-425 m, EC increased between 2004-2006. At a depth of 423 m, much variation in situ EC-values indicates that routes of groundwater may change during long-term pumping due to the limited storages of different aquifers or the heterogeneity of the content of groundwater in different locations in the bedrock. The minor systematic difference between in situ and sampling EC at a depth of 136 m was probably due to the different flow fields during flow logging and water sampling. The dominant gas in the groundwater samples was nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was the second dominant gas, except for the

  18. Data Validation Package: April 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso, Tashina [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Widdop, Michael [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site as specified in the March 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the US Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas (DOE-LM/1602-2008). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The wells sampled included the cell performance monitoring wells (0709, 0858, 0880, 0906, and 0921) and the groundwater monitoring wells (0862, 0886, 0891, 0924, and 0963). A duplicate sample was collected from location 0891. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. Historically, cell performance monitoring wells 0908 and 0916 have not produced water and were confirmed as dry during this sampling event. These wells are completed above the saturated interval in the formation. Notable observations for time-concentration graphs in this report include: (1) uranium concentrations in well 0891 continue to increase; (2) the uranium concentration in well 0880 is higher than the 2015 value and lower than the 2014 value, and it remains within the range of historical values; and (3) uranium concentrations in the other sampled wells are below 2 mg/L and consistent with previous results.

  19. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  1. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  2. Determination of uranium in samples containing bulk aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kannan, R.; Dhami, P.S.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of uranium is of great importance in PUREX process and need to be analyzed at different concentration ranges depending on the stage of reprocessing. Various techniques like volumetry, spectrophotometry, ICP-OES, fluorimetry, mass spectrometry etc. are used for the measurement of uranium in these samples. Fast and sensitive methods suitable for low level detection of uranium are desirable to cater the process needs. Microgram quantities of uranium are analyzed by spectrophotometric method using 2-(5- bromo-2-pyridylazo-5-diethylaminophenol) (Br-PADAP) as the complexing agent. But, the presence of some of the metal ions viz. Al, Pu, Zr etc. interferes in its analysis. Therefore, separation of uranium from such interfering metal ions is required prior to its analysis. This paper describes the analysis of uranium in samples containing aluminium as major matrix

  3. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  4. Field note: irrigation of tree stands with groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Tammi, Carl E

    2009-07-01

    Coniferous and deciduous tree stands totaling 14 ha were recently planted on a closed landfill, and when mature, the stands are expected to be part of a natural treatment system for recovered groundwater. The trees would be irrigated at the rate of 189 L/min year-round with water containing 1,4-dioxane (trees. The water is moderately saline and contains elevated levels of manganese. This paper describes a concurrent series of preliminary studies, performed prior to the full-scale planting, to assess the feasibility of the phytoremediation system. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to identify tree species that can take up 1,4-dioxane and are tolerant of the water. Estimates were made of the area of the tree stand necessary to transpire the irrigation water plus precipitation. The landfill matrix was characterized in terms of its percolation rate and water holding capacity and based on those results salinity-modeling studies were carried out to estimate the fate and leaching potential of the various inorganic species that would accumulate in the root-zone of the trees. A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage.

  5. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  6. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  7. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the 237 Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating 241 Pu and 233 Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within ± 10% for samples containing 3 μg Pu, while being within ± 20% for 0.4 μg Pu. (authors)

  8. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S. [IAEA, Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, Wagramer Str. 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the {sup 237}Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating {sup 241}Pu and {sup 233}Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within {+-} 10% for samples containing 3 {mu}g Pu, while being within {+-} 20% for 0.4 {mu}g Pu. (authors)

  9. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  10. A comprehensive summary of the ORNL Groundwater Compliance and Surveillance Sampling Results Software System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffman, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater compliance and surveillance activities are conducted at ORNL to fulfill federal and state requirements for environmental monitoring. Information management is an important aspect of this and encompasses many activities which usually have spcific time frames and schedules. In addition to fulfilling these immediate requirements, the results for the monitoring activities are also used to determine the need for environmental remediation. ORNL performs this groundwater results data management and reporting utilizing a group of SAS reg-sign applications and tools which provide the ability to track samples, capture field measurements, verify and validate result data, manage data, and report results in a variety of ways and in a timely manner. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of these applications and tools

  11. Dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for groundwater contaminant plume delineation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.; Morti, E.E.; Zutman, J.L.; Pickering, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Dual wall reverse circulation (DWRC) drilling was used to drill 48 borings during a groundwater contaminant investigation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. This method was selected as an alternative to conventional hollow stem auger drilling for a number of reasons, including the expectation of minimizing waste, increasing the drilling rate, and reducing the potential for cross contamination of aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from several water-bearing zones during drilling of each borehole. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds using a field gas chromatograph. This approach allowed the investigation to be directed using near-real-time data. Use of downhole geophysical logging, in conjunction with lithologic descriptions of borehole cuttings, resulted in excellent correlation of the geology in the vicinity of the contaminant plume. The total volume of cuttings generated using the DWRC drilling method was less than half of what would have been produced by hollow stem augering; however, the cuttings were recovered in slurry form and had to be dewatered prior to disposal. The drilling rate was very rapid, often approaching 10 ft/min; however, frequent breaks to perform groundwater sampling resulted in an average drilling rate of < 1 ft/min. The time required for groundwater sampling could be shortened by changing the sampling methodology. Analytical results indicated that the drilling method successfully isolated the various water bearing zones and no cross contamination resulted from the investigation

  12. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Sherwood, Washington, Disposal Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-04

    The 2001 Long-Term Surveillance Plan (LTSP) for the US. Department of Energy Sherwood Project (UMI'RCA Title II) Reclamation Cell, Wellpinit, Washington, does not require groundwater compliance monitoring at the Sherwood site. However, the LTSP stipulates limited groundwater monitoring for chloride and sulfate (designated indicator parameters) and total dissolved solids (TDS) as a best management practice. Samples were collected from the background well, MW-2B, and the two downgradient wells, MW-4 and MW-10, in accordance with the LTSP. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Water levels were measured in all wells prior to sampling and in four piezometers completed in the tailings dam. Time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that the chloride, sulfate, and TDS concentrations are consistent with historical measurements. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate are well below the State of Washington water quality criteria value of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for both parameters.

  13. Detection of Waterborne Protozoa, Viruses, and Bacteria in Groundwater and Other Water Samples in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the prevalence of various waterborne pathogens in water samples collected in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and the applicability of Escherichia coli as an indicator of pathogen contamination in groundwater were assessed. Fifty-three water samples, including shallow groundwater and river water, were analyzed to examine the presence of protozoan (oo)cysts via fluorescence microscopy and that of viral and bacterial genomes via quantitative PCR. At least one of the seven types of pathogens tested (i.e., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, and Vibrio cholerae) was detected in 68% (15/22) of the shallow dug well water samples; groundwater in the shallow dug wells was more contaminated compared with that in shallow tube wells (8/15, 53%). River water and sewage samples were contaminated with extremely high concentrations of multiple pathogens, whereas a tap water sample supplied by a water tanker tested positive for human adenoviruses and V. cholerae. The detection of host-specific Bacteroidales genetic markers revealed the effects of human and animal feces on groundwater contamination. The tested pathogens were sometimes detected even in E. coli-negative groundwater samples, indicative of the limitations of using E. coli as an indicator for waterborne pathogens in groundwater.

  14. Comparative evaluation of prokaryotic 16S rDNA clone libraries and SSCP in groundwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentis, Michael; Alfreider, Albin

    2011-06-01

    A comparison of ribosomal RNA sequence analysis methods based on clone libraries and single-strand conformational polymorphism technique (SSCP) was performed with groundwater samples obtained between 523-555 meters below surface. The coverage of analyzed clones by phylotype-richness estimates was between 88-100%, confirming that the clone libraries were adequately examined. Analysis of individual bands retrieved from SSCP gels identified 1-6 different taxonomic units per band, suggesting that a single SSCP band does often represent more than one single prokaryotic species. The prokaryotic diversity obtained by both methods showed an overall difference of 42-80%. In comparison to SSCP, clone libraries underestimated the phylogenetic diversity and only 36-66% of the phylotypes observed with SSCP were also detected with the clone libraries. An exception was a sample where the SSCP analysis of Archaea identified only half of the phylotypes retrieved by the clone library. Overall, this study suggests that the clone library and the SSCP approach do not provide an identical picture of the prokaryotic diversity in groundwater samples. The results clearly show that the SSCP method, although this approach is prone to generate methodological artifacts, was able to detect significantly more phylotypes than microbial community analysis based on clone libraries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  16. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  17. Data Validation Package - July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Groundwater sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site is conducted every 5 years to monitor disposal cell performance. During this event, samples were collected from eight monitoring wells as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0723. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled and seven additional wells. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that require additional action or follow-up.

  18. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries

  19. External quality control in ground-water sampling and analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.; Juracich, S.P.

    1991-11-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, external Quality Control (QC) for ground-water monitoring is extensive and has included routine submittal of intra- and interlaboratory duplicate samples, blind samples, and several kinds of blank samples. Examination of the resulting QC data for nine of the constituents found in ground water at the Hanford Site shows that the quality of analysis has generally been within the expectations of precision and accuracy that have been established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The constituents subjected to review were nitrate, chromium, sodium, fluoride, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, ammonium, trichloroethylene, and cyanide. Of these, the fluoride measurements were notable exceptions and were poor by EPA standards. The review has shown that interlaboratory analysis of duplicate samples yields the most useful QC data for evaluating laboratory performance in determining commonly encountered constituents. For rarely encountered constituents, interlaboratory comparisons may be augmented with blind samples (synthetic samples of known composition). Intralaboratory comparisons, blanks, and spikes should be generally restricted to studies of suspected or known sample contamination and to studies of the adequacy of sampling and analytical procedures

  20. A tube seepage meter for in situ measurement of seepage rate and groundwater sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Gilmore, Troy E.; Genereux, David P.; Solomon, D. Kip

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a “tube seepage meter” for point measurements of vertical seepage rates (q), collecting groundwater samples, and estimating vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) in streambeds. Laboratory testing in artificial streambeds show that seepage rates from the tube seepage meter agreed well with expected values. Results of field testing of the tube seepage meter in a sandy-bottom stream with a mean seepage rate of about 0.5 m/day agreed well with Darcian estimates (vertical hydraulic conductivity times head gradient) when averaged over multiple measurements. The uncertainties in q and K were evaluated with a Monte Carlo method and are typically 20% and 60%, respectively, for field data, and depend on the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient and the uncertainty in head measurements. The primary advantages of the tube seepage meter are its small footprint, concurrent and colocated assessments of q and K, and that it can also be configured as a self-purging groundwater-sampling device.

  1. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  2. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  3. Estimating the tritium input to groundwater from wine samples: Groundwater and direct run-off contribution to Central European surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roether, W.

    1967-01-01

    A model is derived which allows a quantitative evaluation of wine tritium data. It is shown that the tritium content of a wine sample is not determined exclusively by water taken up by the roots, but is also influenced to a large extent by direct exchange with atmospheric moisture. The soil-water fraction amounts normally to not more than 40%. Thus, wine is a sample partly of atmospheric moisture at ground level, partly of soil moisture, integrated over a period around three weeks before vintage. The tritium content of two sets of wine samples originating from two selected sites in the Federal Republic of Germany and dating back to 1949 is reported. For the period since records of the tritium content of rain in Europe have become available comparisons of wine tritium with reported tritium activities of rain are in favour of the model outlined. The first distinguishable influence of bomb tritium shows up in the 1953 wine, whilst no detectable response to Castle tritium is found in 1954. By comparison with recorded rain activities at Ottawa, Canada, it is concluded that Castle influenced the tritium fall-out in Central Europe much less than it did at Ottawa. For the period before 1955 the tritium activity of the annual groundwater recharge, including pre-thermonuclear recharge in Central Europe, is estimated from the wine data. An estimation of the total assimilation of pre-thermonuclear tritium into the ocean at 50 degrees N is also given, which points to a value of 1-1.5 atoms/cm 2 s. It is shown that in further uses of pre-thermonuclear wines the possibility that samples have been contaminated by penetration of thermonuclear tritium through the bottle seals must be considered. The estimates of the tritium activities of groundwater recharge are based on the fact that in our climate the main contribution to groundwater is made up by autumn and winter precipitation. Because of this correlation with season the groundwater recharge is much lower in tritium than the

  4. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  5. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  6. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site (Shoal) in May 2015. Groundwater samples were collected from wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, H-3, HC-1, HC-2d, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1. Sampling was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites: LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites. Monitoring wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, HC-2d, HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1 were purged prior to sampling using dedicated submersible pumps. At least one well casing volume was removed, and field parameters (temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were allowed to stabilize before samples were collected. Samples were collected from wells H-3, HC-1, HC-3, and HC-6 using a depth-specific bailer because these wells are not completed with dedicated submersible pumps. Samples were submitted under Requisition Index Number (RIN) 15057042 to ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, for the determination of bromide, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium isotopes, and total uranium (by mass); and under RIN 15057043 to the University of Arizona for the determination of carbon-14 and iodine-129. A duplicate sample from location MV-2 was included with RIN 15057042. The laboratory results from the 2015 sampling event are consistent with those of previous years with the exception of sample results from well HC-4. This well continues to be the only well with tritium concentrations above the laboratory's minimum detectable concentration which is attributed to the wells proximity to the nuclear detonation. The tritium concentration (731 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]) is consistent with past results and is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20,000 p

  7. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site (Shoal) in May 2015. Groundwater samples were collected from wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, H-3, HC-1, HC-2d, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1. Sampling was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department-energy­ office-legacy-management-sites). Monitoring wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, HC-2d, HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1 were purged prior to sampling using dedicated submersible pumps. At least one well casing volume was removed, and field parameters (temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were allowed to stabilize before samples were collected. Samples were collected from wells H-3, HC-1, HC-3, and HC-6 using a depth-specific bailer because these wells are not completed with dedicated submersible pumps. Samples were submitted under Requisition Index Number (RIN) 15057042 to ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, for the determination of bromide, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium isotopes, and total uranium (by mass); and under RIN 15057043 to the University of Arizona for the determination of carbon-14 and iodine-129. A duplicate sample from location MV-2 was included with RIN 15057042. The laboratory results from the 2015 sampling event are consistent with those of previous years with the exception of sample results from well HC-4. This well continues to be the only well with tritium concentrations above the laboratory’s minimum detectable concentration which is attributed to the wells proximity to the nuclear detonation. The tritium concentration (731 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]) is consistent with past results and is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20,000 p

  8. Radiological and hydrochemical study of thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea and Sperchios areas, Greece: insights into groundwater natural radioactivity and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, C; Mitropoulos, P; Argyraki, A

    2018-04-04

    A radiological and hydrochemical study has been conducted on thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea Island and eastern central Greece. Both areas are characterized by complex geology and are renowned since antiquity for their hot springs, that are exploited for therapeutic spa purposes until today. The aim of the study was to combine radiological and hydrochemical data in order to achieve a holistic water quality assessment with insights into the geology of the study areas. All samples were characterized with respect to their major and trace ion and element composition, as well as activity concentrations of 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K. The samples demonstrated elevated natural radioactivity and U concentrations, especially in some locations of the Kamena Vourla area, reaching 179 Bq/L 222 Rn, 2.2 Bq/L 226 Ra, 2.9 Bq/L 228 Ra, and 17 μg/L U. The estimated circulation depth of thermal groundwater ranges between 250 m in central Greece and 1240 m in north Euboea study area, whereas the calculated water residence times range between 27 and 555 years. Our data suggest the possible presence of an unknown until know U-rich plutonic rock formation in Kamena Vourla area and immiscibility of the fresh and thermal groundwaters in the studied areas.

  9. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, M.; Ojala, S.; Jarvinen, E.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of colloids and composition of the colloid phase on the basis of the water chemistry results of filtered and unfiltered water samples and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1 and ONK-PVA3 in October 2011. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters. The change in the water chemistry due to filtration was also analysed. The decrease of element concentrations due to filtration would possibly reflect the composition of the colloid phase. Because the concentration of the colloids is very low, two parallel water samples were analysed five times with an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyser so that the chemical differences between the filtered and unfiltered water could be evaluated. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA1, determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs, was 6 {mu}g/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA3 was 7 {mu}g/l. The colloid phase composition could not be reliably determined due to the low colloid concentration. (orig.)

  10. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland 2009-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, E.; Manninen, P.; Takala, M.; Vilhunen, S.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of colloids and composition of the colloid phase on the basis of the water chemistry results of filtered and unfiltered water samples and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1 in December 2009 and ONKPVA5 in June 2010. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters. The change in the water chemistry due to filtration was also analysed. The decrease of element concentrations due to filtration would possibly reflect the composition of the colloid phase. Because the concentration of the colloids is very low, three parallel water samples were analysed three times with an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyser so that the chemical differences between the filtered and unfiltered water could be evaluated. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA1, determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs, was 0.5 μg/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA5 was 0.15 μg/l. The colloid phase composition could not be reliably determined due to the low colloid concentration. (orig.)

  11. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  12. Grain Growth in Samples of Aluminum Containing Alumina Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C. J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional grain size distributions before and after grain growth treatments has been made in samples having a range of oxide contents. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer was used and the resulting data w...

  13. Determination of 90Sr and Pu isotopes in contaminated groundwater samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoriy, Miroslav V.; Ostapczuk, Peter; Halicz, Ludwik; Hille, Ralf; Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    A sensitive analytical method for determining the artificial radionuclides 90Sr, 239Pu and 240Pu at the ultratrace level in groundwater samples from the Semipalatinsk Test Site area in Kazakhstan by double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) was developed. In order to avoid possible isobaric interferences at m/z 90 for 90Sr determination (e.g. 90Zr+, 40Ar50Cr+, 36Ar54Fe+, 58Ni16O2+, 180Hf2+, etc.), the measurements were performed at medium mass resolution under cold plasma conditions. Pu was separated from uranium by means of extraction chromatography using Eichrom TEVA resin with a recovery of 83%. The limits of detection for 90Sr, 239Pu and 240Pu in water samples were determined as 11, 0.12 and 0.1 fg ml-1, respectively. Concentrations of 90Sr and 239Pu in contaminated groundwater samples ranged from 18 to 32 and from 28 to 856 fg ml-1, respectively. The 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratio in groundwater samples was measured as 0.17. This isotope ratio indicates that the most probable source of contamination of the investigated groundwater samples was the nuclear weapons tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site conducted by the USSR in the 1960s.

  14. Noise events in the contained event sample of Soudan 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, A.E.; Goodman, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Various types of noise have been found during the scanning of contained events from the Soudan 2 detector. Although most of the noise have been given names, the causes of only certain classes of noise have been identified. From the noise mentioned here, zens and end wire noise are probably understood, but the explanations of three others - ''breakdown gemini'', ''67 noise'', and ''split zens'' - have yet to be found. Despite lack of explanations for some noise, there are still a number of ways to recognize them either by appearance or position in the detector, both of which are being used to further assist in their identification

  15. Solubility and sorption characteristics of uranium(VI) associated with rock samples and brines/groundwaters from WIPP and NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solubility measurements for U(VI) in WIPP-related brines/groundwaters were made using initial U(VI) concentrations in the range of 1 to 50 μg/ml. Distribution coefficients (Kd) for U(VI) were determined for Culebra and Magenta dolomites using four different brine/groundwater compositions and for argillaceous shale and hornfels samples from the Eleana and Calico Hills Formation on NTS using a groundwater simulant typical of that area. The Kd's were evaluated as functions of: (1) U(VI) concentration (1.4 x 10 -4 to 1.4 μg/ml); (2) solution volume-to-rock mass ratios used in the measurements (5 to 100 ml/g), and for WIPP material only; (3) water composition (0 to 100% brine in groundwater); and (4) sample location in the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler Formation. The results indicate that if groundwater intrudes into a repository and leaches a waste form, significant concentrations of dissolved or colloidal U(VI) could be maintained in the liquid phase. Should these solutions enter an aquifer system, there are reasonable sets of conditions which could lead to subsequent migration of U(VI) away from the repository site

  16. Field data analysis of active chlorine-containing stormwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianyi; Gaafar, Mohamed; Yang, Rong-Cai; Ding, Chen; Davies, Evan G R; Bolton, James R; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-15

    Many municipalities in Canada and all over the world use chloramination for drinking water secondary disinfection to avoid DBPs formation from conventional chlorination. However, the long-lasting monochloramine (NH 2 Cl) disinfectant can pose a significant risk to aquatic life through its introduction into municipal storm sewer systems and thus fresh water sources by residential, commercial, and industrial water uses. To establish general total active chlorine (TAC) concentrations in discharges from storm sewers, the TAC concentration was measured in stormwater samples in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, during the summers of 2015 and 2016 under both dry and wet weather conditions. The field-sampling results showed TAC concentration variations from 0.02 to 0.77 mg/L in summer 2015, which exceeds the discharge effluent limit of 0.02 mg/L. As compared to 2015, the TAC concentrations were significantly lower during the summer 2016 (0-0.24 mg/L), for which it is believed that the higher precipitation during summer 2016 reduced outdoor tap water uses. Since many other cities also use chloramines as disinfectants for drinking water disinfection, the TAC analysis from Edmonton may prove useful for other regions as well. Other physicochemical and biological characteristics of stormwater and storm sewer biofilm samples were also analyzed, and no significant difference was found during these two years. Higher density of AOB and NOB detected in the storm sewer biofilm of residential areas - as compared with other areas - generally correlated to high concentrations of ammonium and nitrite in this region in both of the two years, and they may have contributed to the TAC decay in the storm sewers. The NH 2 Cl decay laboratory experiments illustrate that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration is the dominant factor in determining the NH 2 Cl decay rate in stormwater samples. The high DOC concentrations detected from a downstream industrial sampling location may contribute to a

  17. Program GWPROB: Calculation of inflow to groundwater measuring points during sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleris, V.

    1990-01-01

    The program GWPROB was developed by the DFG task group for modelling of large-area heat and pollutant transport in groundwater at the Institute of Hydrological Engineering, Hydraulics and Groundwater Department. The project was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. (BBR) [de

  18. Data Validation Package December 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site does not require groundwater monitoring because groundwater in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and supplemental standards have been applied to the aquifer. However, at the request of the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy conducts annual monitoring at three locations: monitoring wells 0409, 0675, and 0678. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Monitoring Well 0409 was not sampled during this event because it was dry. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. One duplicate sample was collected from location 0675. Groundwater samples from the two sampled wells were analyzed for the constituents listed in Table 1. Time-concentration graphs for selected analytes are included in this report. At well 0675, the duplicate results for total dissolved solids and for most metals (magnesium, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, and uranium) were outside acceptance criteria, which may indicate non-homogeneous conditions at this location. November 2014 results for molybdenum and uranium at well 0675 also were outside acceptance criteria. The well condition will be evaluated prior to the next sampling event.

  19. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  20. A containment and disposition strategy for tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, Daniel; Barton, Christopher D.; Rebel, Karin T.; Singer, Julian; Seaman, John C.; Strawbridge, Dan; Riha, Susan J.; Blake, John I.

    2005-01-01

    A containment and disposition water management strategy has been implemented at the Savannah River Site to minimize the discharge of tritiated groundwater from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground to Four Mile Branch, a tributary of the Savannah River. This paper presents a general overview of the water management strategy, which includes a two-component (pond and irrigation) system, and a summary of operations and effectiveness for the first 3 yr of operations. Tritiated groundwater seep discharge was impounded by a dam and distributed via irrigation to a 22-ac (8.9-ha) upland forested area comprised of mixed pines (loblolly and slash) and hardwoods(primarily sweetgum and laurel oak). As of March 2004, the system has irrigated approximately 133.2 million L (35.2 million gal) and prevented approximately 1880 Ci of tritium from entering Four Mile Branch via forest evapotranspiration, as well as via pond storage and evaporation. Prior to installation of the containment and disposition strategy, tritium activity in Four Mile Branch downstream of the seep averaged approximately 500 pCi mL -1 . Six months after installation, tritium activity averaged approximately 200 pCi mL -1 in Fourmile Branch. After 1 yr of operations, tritium activity averaged below 100 pCi mL -1 in Fourmile Branch, and a range of 100-200 pCi mL -1 tritium activity has been maintained as of March 2004. Complex hydrological factors and operational strategies influence remediation system success. Analyses may assist in developing groundwater management and remediation strategies for future projects at the Savannah River Site and other facilities located on similar landscapes.

  1. Data Validation Package, July 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Shirley Basin South, Wyoming, Disposal Site November 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sampling Period: July 14-15, 2016 The 2004 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Shirley Basin South (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site, Carbon County, Wyoming, requires annual monitoring to verify continued compliance with the pertinent alternate concentration limits (ACLs) and Wyoming Class III (livestock use) groundwater protection standards. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Point-of-compliance (POC) wells 19-DC, 5-DC, and 5-SC, and monitoring wells 10-DC, 110-DC, 112-DC, 113-DC, 40-SC, 54-SC, 100-SC, 102-SC, and K.G.S.#3 were sampled. POC well 51-SC and downgradient well 101-SC were dry at the time of sampling. The water level was measured at each sampled well. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). ACLs are approved for cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, radium-226, radium-228, selenium, thorium-230, and uranium in site groundwater. Time-concentration graphs of the contaminants of concern in POC wells are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The only ACL exceedance in a POC well was radium-228 in well 5-DC where the concentration was 30.7 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), exceeding the ACL of 25.7 pCi/L. Concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids continue to exceed their respective Wyoming Class III groundwater protection standards for livestock use in wells 5-DC, 5-SC, and 54-SC as they have done throughout the sampling history; however, there is no livestock use of the water from these aquifers at the site, and no constituent concentrations exceed groundwater protection standards at the wells near the site boundary.

  2. Data Validation Package October 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Sampling Period: October 10–12, 2016. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Samples were collected from 54 of 64 planned locations (16 of 17 former mill site wells, 15 of 18 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 3 of 3 bedrock wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations).

  3. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  4. Data Validation Package February 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  5. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The groundwater compliance strategy for the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site is defined in the 1999 Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site. Samples are collected and analyzed on a semiannual basis to evaluate the performance of the Phase I remediation system. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards were exceeded in samples collected from monitoring wells and extraction wells as listed in Table 1. The data from this sampling event are generally consistent with previously obtained values and are acceptable for general use as qualified. Data anomalies are not significant with respect to the known nature and extent of contamination and progress of remedial action at the site. The data from this sampling event will be incorporated into the annual performance evaluation report that will present a comprehensive hydrologic summary and evaluation of groundwater remedial action performance at the Tuba City site through March 2016.

  6. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  7. Data validation summary report for the 100-HR-3 Round 8, Phases 1 and 2 groundwater sampling task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a summary of data validation results on groundwater samples collected for the 100-HR-3 Round 8 Groundwater Sampling task. The analyses performed for this project consisted of: metals, general chemistry, and radiochemistry. The laboratories conducting the analyses were Quanterra Environmental Services (QES) and Lockheed Analytical Services. As required by the contract and the WHC statement of work (WHC 1994), data validation was conducted using the Westinghouse data validation procedures for chemical and radiochemical analyses (WHC 1993a and 1993b). Sample results were validated to levels A and D as described in the data validation procedures. At the completion of validation and verification of each data package, a data validation summary was prepared and transmitted with the original documentation to Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC) for inclusion in the project QA record

  8. Data validation summary report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 9 Groundwater Sampling. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, A.T.

    1996-03-01

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes chemical analyses of samples from 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 9 Groundwater sampling data. Data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance (QA) samples were reviewed and validated in accordance with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) guidelines at the requested level. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry, and radiochemistry. Sixty metals samples were analyzed by Quanterra Environmental Services (QES) and Lockheed Analytical Services (LAS). The metals samples were validated using WHC protocols specified in Data Validation Procedures for Chemical Analyses. All qualifiers assigned to the metals data were based on this guidance. The Table 1.1 lists the metals sample delivery group (SDG) that were validated for this sampling event

  9. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  10. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel

  11. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Neto Schneider; André Nadvorny; Verônica Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of res...

  12. Atmospheric Gas Tracers in Groundwater: Theory, Sampling. Measurement and Interpretation; Yeraltisuyunda Atmosferik Gaz Izleyiciler: Kuram, Oernekleme, Oelcuem ve Yorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayari, C S [Hacettepe University, Ankara(Turkey)

    2002-07-01

    Some of the atmospheric gasses posses features that are sought in an environmental tracer of hydrogeologic interest. Among these, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hegzafluoride, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, krypton-85 etc. have found increasing use in groundwater age dating studies during the last ten years. This paper explains the theory of their use as tracer and discusses the major concerns as related to their sampling and analyses. Factors affecting their applicability and the approach to interpret tracer gas data is briefly outlined.

  13. Influence of acid mine drainage on microbial communities in stream and groundwater samples at Guryong Mine, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaisoo; Koo, So-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Don; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ko, Dong-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-10-01

    The effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a stream and groundwater near an abandoned copper mine were characterized by physicochemical properties, bacterial community structure using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), and microbial activity/diversity using Ecoplate technique. Based on DGGE fingerprints, the eubacterial community structures grouped into the stream water (GRS1, GRS2 and GRS3) and groundwater samples (GW1 and GW2), apparently based on differences in water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrate and sulfate. The most highly AMD-contaminated sample (GRS1) had additional α-Proteobacteria whereas the groundwater samples included additional β-Proteobacteria, suggesting the development of populations resistant to AMD toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Community level physiological activities on the 31 Ecoplate substrates suggested that the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals derived from AMD. The Shannon index showed that microbial diversity was greatest in GRS2, and lowest in GRS1, and was probably related to the level of AMD.

  14. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  15. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  16. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field

  17. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  18. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    -nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), and naturally-occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements). Naturally-occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) also were measured to help identify processes affecting groundwater quality and the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. Nearly 300 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at 24 percent of the 55 status wells resampled for trends, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were mostly within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability in analytical results. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for 75 percent of the compounds for which matrix spikes were collected. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. The benchmarks used in this report apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. To provide some context for the results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in these groundwater samples were compared with benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. Most constituents that

  19. Estimation of polonium concentration in groundwater samples from the Peddagattu/Nambapur and Seripalli regions using alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, T.; Srilatha, K.; Mahender, C.; Elender; Vijaya Lakshmi, T.; Himabindu, V.; Vishwa Prasad; Padma Savithri, P.; Datta, D.; Arunachalam, J.

    2013-01-01

    The decay of uranium series in the earth crust remains the final and long lived radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in the environment. Their presence in the atmosphere is due to the decay of 222 Rn diffusing from the ground. This study was carried out with an objective of estimation of polonium concentration in a uranium mineralized zone in Peddagattu and Seripalli areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater samples were collected from 12 wells, and frequency of these collections was once in a quarter from May 2010 to Dec 2011. The alpha-spectrometry has been applied to analyze these samples. Observation reveals that the activity concentration of Polonium in the water samples of Peddagattu and Seripally regions range from 0.3 mBq/l to 2.80 mBq/l with Geometric mean of 0.89 mBq/l and Geometric Standard deviation of 2.72 and from 0.3 mBq/l to 4.68 mBq/l with a Geometric mean of 0.91 and Geometric standard deviation of 3.22 respectively. As per WHO standards, the maximum permissible limit in drinking water for Polonium is 0.55 Bq/l. Hence all the 12 samples are falling well under the permissible limit. This paper presents the analytical details for estimating polonium as a natural radioactive element in groundwater as well as surface water samples collected from the Nambapur/Peddagattu and Seripalli regions. (author)

  20. Sampling and decontamination plan for the Transuranic Storage Area--1/-R container storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the sampling and decontamination of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-l/-R container storage area and the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 container storage unit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Stored containers from the earthen-covered asphalt pads will be retrieved from the TSA-l/-R and TSA-2 container storage units. Container retrieval will be conducted under the TSA retrieval enclosure, a fabricated steel building to be constructed over the earthen-covered pad to provide containment and weather protection. Following container retrieval, the TSA retrieval enclosure will be decontaminated to remove radioactive and hazardous contamination. The underlying soils will be sampled and analyzed to determine whether any contaminated soils require removal

  1. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  2. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater sampling: Experience derived from radioactive waste disposal programmes in Sweden and Finland during 1980-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.A.T.; Laaksoharju, M.; Snellman, M.V.; Ruotsalainen, P.H.

    1999-09-01

    Existing Finnish and Swedish hydrogeochemical field data from the 1980s and the early 1990s have been closely examined in the light of other influencing activities, such as geology and hydrology, which form an integral part of site-specific investigations. The report has considered data relating to the monitoring of groundwater chemical trends and groundwater sampling and analysis. These data have been used to simulate the effects of important parameters on groundwater quality and representativeness, to generate recommendations to improve the standard of hydrogeochemical sampling and analyses, and to discuss these results in the broader context of future site-specific investigations. (orig.)

  3. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and surface water monitoring at the Y-12 Plant during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1995 at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. Included in this plan are the monitoring activities managed by the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Other groundwater and surface water monitoring activities (e.g. selected Environmental Restoration Program activities, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) monitoring) not managed through the Y-12 Plant GWPP are not addressed in this report. Several monitoring programs will be implemented in three hydrogeologic regimes: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. For various reasons, modifications to the 1995 monitoring programs may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected wells, or wells could be added to or deleted from the monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring programs will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  5. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  6. Data Validation Package October 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Sampling Period: October 12–14, 2015. This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the 2004 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Post-Record of Decision Monitoring Plan, Draft Final and Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Samples were collected from 52 of 61 planned locations (15 of 17 former mill site wells, 17 of 18 downgradient wells, 9 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 2 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Locations MW00-07, Seep 1, Seep 2, Seep 3, Seep 5, Seep 6, SW00-01, T01-13, and T01-19 were not sampled because of insufficient water availability. All samples were filtered as specified in the monitoring plan. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location W3-04 and from monitoring wells 82-08, 92-09, and 92-10. Water levels were measured at all but one sampled well and an additional set of wells. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate + nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in this report. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed.

  7. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  8. Analysis of s-triazine herbicides in model systems and samples of groundwater by gas and liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, residues of s-triazine herbicides (Simazine, Atrazine, Amethrine, Promethrine and Azyprothrine have been determined in samples of model systems and real groundwater samples by gas-chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. S-triazine herbicides were isolated from water samples by chloroform-methanol mixture (1:1, followed by purification of extract on the Al2O3 column. Gas-chromatographic determination the residues of s-triazines is performed on parallel capilar columns ULTRA I and ULTRA II, using specific NP detector. Liquid-chromatographic determination the s-triazines was performed on the column TSK ODS-120 A 5 mm 'LKB', using the mobile phase methanol-water (60:40. Total concentration of s-triazines in samples of Danube water was 3.54 mg dm-3. .

  9. Sampling history and 2009--2010 results for pesticides and inorganic constituents monitored by the Lake Wales Ridge Groundwater Network, central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.; Freiwald, R. Scott; Kraft, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Wales Ridge Monitoring (LWRM) Network was established to provide a long-term record of water quality of the surficial aquifer in one of the principal citrus-production areas of Florida. This region is underlain by sandy soils that contain minimal organic matter and are highly vulnerable to leaching of chemicals into the subsurface. This report documents the 1989 through May 2010 sampling history of the LWRM Network and summarizes monitoring results for 38 Network wells that were sampled during the period January 2009 through May 2010. During 1989 through May 2010, the Network’s citrus land-use wells were sampled intermittently to 1999, quarterly from April 1999 to October 2009, and thereafter quarterly to semiannually. The water-quality summaries in this report focus on the period January 2009 through May 2010, during which the Network’s citrus land-use wells were sampled six times and the non-citrus land-use wells were sampled two times. Within the citrus land-use wells sampled, a total of 13 pesticide compounds (8 parent pesticides and 5 degradates) were detected of the 37 pesticide compounds analyzed during this period. The most frequently detected compounds included demethyl norflurazon (83 percent of wells), norflurazon (79 percent), aldicarb sulfoxide (41 percent), aldicarb sulfone (38 percent), imidacloprid (38 percent), and diuron (28 percent). Agrichemical concentrations in samples from the citrus land-use wells during the 2009 through May 2010 period exceeded Federal drinking-water standards (maximum contaminant levels, MCLs) in 1.5 to 24 percent of samples for aldicarb and its degradates (sulfone and sulfoxide), and in 68 percent of the samples for nitrate. Florida statutes restrict the distance of aldicarb applications to drinking-water wells; however, these statutes do not apply to monitoring wells. Health-screening benchmark levels that identify unregulated chemicals of potential concern were exceeded for norflurazon and diuron in 29 and

  10. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  11. Groundwater Quality Sampling and Analysis Plan for Environmental Monitoring Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling

  12. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling

  13. Improved Procedure for Transport of Dental Plaque Samples and Other Clinical Specimens Containing Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carol A.; Minah, Glenn E.; Krywolap, George N.

    1979-01-01

    An improved transport system for samples containing anaerobic bacteria was developed. This system increased the recovery rate of anaerobic bacteria up to 28.8% as compared to a commonly used method. PMID:39087

  14. Data Validation Package May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dick; Tsosie, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations 14(SG) and 21(M). Sampling originally scheduled for the week of May 11, 2015 was interrupted by heavy rainfall and later completed in June.

  15. Data Validation Package May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, August 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations 14(SG) and 21(M). Sampling originally scheduled for the week of May 11, 2015 was interrupted by heavy rainfall and later completed in June.

  16. Summary of the results and interpretation of tritium and noble gas measurements on groundwater samples from the Perch Lake Basin Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    1999-02-01

    Along the west-central margin of the Lower Perch Lake Basin, a limited number of groundwaters have been sampled from piezometers at depths of between 8 and 17 m and distances of between 100 and 900 m downgradient from their recharge location near Area A. Concentrations of tritium in these groundwaters varied between approximately 100 and 2800 TU. Measurements of dissolved gases in these groundwaters indicate concentrations of 4 He and neon approximating those in recently recharged groundwaters; however, the concentrations of 3 He are as much as 100 times higher, indicating the waters have accumulated tritiogenic 3 He. Using the 3 H/ 3 He dating technique, groundwater residence times on the order of 29 ± 8 years and groundwater velocities on the order of 0.1 m/day have been calculated for the flow system in the middle sand unit between Area A recharge and Perch Lake. These results, although based on a very small number of groundwater analyses, are comparable to earlier estimates of groundwater residence times and velocities obtained using Darcy calculations, borehole dilution experiments and tracer-test results from previous hydrogeologic studies in the area. (author)

  17. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Ams, David A.; Norden, Diana; Simmons, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  18. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  19. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  20. Use of individual containers for prostate biopsy samples: Do we gain diagnostic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; García-Morata, F; Valls-González, L; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cores from transrectal biopsies are usually sent in separate vials for pathological processing. Although this is a common practice, there are controversial studies on its usefulness. We wanted to compare the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis between processing samples in 2 containers and processing them in individual containers to see if there are differences. Our secondary objective was to check the rate of diagnosis of various tumour subtypes in each of the 2 groups. A retrospective observational study was conducted of 2,601 cases of prostate biopsies. Ten cores were extracted in each biopsy. We divided the sample into 2 groups: biopsies sent in 2 containers to the department of pathology (left and right lobes) or sent in 10 (one for each cylinder), according to the different criteria used in our centre in the past. We then classified the cases according to the absence of neoplasia, insignificant tumour (involvement of just 1 cylinder, container group, and 824 were included in the 10-container group. We diagnosed a rate of 32.4% of cancers in the 2-container group and 40% in the 10-container group, a difference that was statistically significant (Pcontainer group than in the 10-container group (6.4% vs. 4.3%, respectively; P=.03). Samples with a Gleason score of 6 were diagnosed more often in the 10-container group than in the 2-container group (11.9% vs. 8.1%, respectively; P=.002). The same occurred with the Gleason score≥7 (23.8% in the 10-container group vs. 17.9% in the 2-container group; Pcontainers. Once the procedure was conducted, we also observed in our series a reduction in the diagnoses of insignificant carcinoma to the detriment of an increased diagnosis of not insignificant carcinomas. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The shielding properties of the newly developed container for transport of samples contaminated with CBRN substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Kares, J.

    2014-01-01

    A container for transport of environmental samples to the analytical laboratory is being developed as part of the development of system for collection and transport of samples contaminated with chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear (CBRN) substances after CBRN incidents. The proposed system corresponds with current requirements of NATO publication AEP-66. The proposed container will meet the requirements of mechanical stability and tightness for the packaging of the chemical, biological and radioactive substances. Verification of shielding properties and satisfaction of requirements of radiation protection during transport of potentially relatively high active samples was the aim of this part of research. The results, together with a wall thickness of the inner steel container, the inner lining and the outer transport package, give excellent assumption that the radiation protection requirements for the proposed container and transport package will be satisfied. (authors)

  2. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  3. Groundwater Study of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Some Surrounding Area, 1974 - 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Table 3. From the sampling, Lake F was found to contain a l~er concentration of OCPD than that found in the groundwaters. In addition, very high copper...be the influent area to Lake F. (3) Reclamation of the groundwater for DIMP Is reco..ended. (4) Reclmatlon of OCPD frca, tli, groundwater appears

  4. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  5. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Kentaro, E-mail: ueken@spring8.or.jp; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan synchrotron radiation research institute, JASRI/SPring-8 Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 Japan (Japan); Uesugi, Masayuki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hamada, Hiroshi [NTT Advanced technology Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0124 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  6. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prime, Michael Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeWald, Adrian T. [Hill Engineering, LLC, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2015-12-08

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  7. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Prime, Michael Bruce; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.; Clausen, Bjorn; Worl, Laura Ann; DeWald, Adrian T.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  8. Standard practice for sampling special nuclear materials in multi-container lots

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides an aid in designing a sampling and analysis plan for the purpose of minimizing random error in the measurement of the amount of nuclear material in a lot consisting of several containers. The problem addressed is the selection of the number of containers to be sampled, the number of samples to be taken from each sampled container, and the number of aliquot analyses to be performed on each sample. 1.2 This practice provides examples for application as well as the necessary development for understanding the statistics involved. The uniqueness of most situations does not allow presentation of step-by-step procedures for designing sampling plans. It is recommended that a statistician experienced in materials sampling be consulted when developing such plans. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standar...

  9. Liquid scintillation measurements of aqueous 14C or 3H containing samples in a toluene cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, A.; Reinhard, G.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of investigations of the ternary system toluene/methanol/water that composition of toluene/methanol scintillation cocktails has been determined, which allows liquid scintillation measurements of 14 C or 3 H containing samples in homogeneous distribution. Because of more pronounced quenching the optimum sample quantity was less for blood solutions extracted with a HClO 4 /H 2 O 2 mixture than for water. The effect of beta radiation energy has to be taken into account. (author)

  10. Production of vegetation samples containing radionuclides gamma emitters to attend the interlaboratory programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de

    2016-01-01

    The production of environmental samples such as soil, sediment, water and vegetation with radionuclides for intercomparison tests is a very important contribution to environmental monitoring. Laboratories that carry out such monitoring need to demonstrate that their results are reliable. The IRD National Intercomparison Program (PNI) produces and distributes environmental samples containing radionuclides used to check the laboratories performance. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing vegetation (grass) samples containing 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs by the spike sample method for the PNI. The preparation and the statistical tests followed the ISO guides 34 and 35 recommendations. The grass samples were dried, ground and passed through a sieve of 250 μm. 500 g of vegetation was treated in each procedure. Samples were treated by two different procedures:1) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing vegetation by hand and drying in an oven and 2) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing the vegetation in a rotatory evaporator and drying in an oven. The theoretical activity concentration of the radionuclides in the grass had a range of 593 Bq/kg to 683 Bq/kg. After gamma spectrometry analysis the results of both procedures were compared as accuracy, precision, homogeneity and stability. The accuracy, precision and short time stability from both methods were similar but the homogeneity test of the evaporation method was not approved for the radionuclides 60 Co and 134 Cs. Based on comparisons between procedures was chosen the manual agitation procedure for the grass sample for the PNI. The accuracy of the procedure, represented by the uncertainty and based on theoretical value had a range between -1.1 and 5.1% and the precision between 0.6 a 6.5 %. This result show is the procedure chosen for the production of grass samples for PNI. (author)

  11. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  12. Evaluation of groundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of water samples in Kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Mostafa; Rasa, Iraj; Amiri, Vahab; Yazdi, Mohammad; Pazand, Kaveh

    2015-02-01

    The chemical analysis of 129 groundwater samples in the Kadkan area, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, NE of Iran was evaluated to determine the hydrochemical processes, assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes, corrosiveness, and scaling potential of the groundwater. Accordingly, the suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard, and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram. Based on the electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio, the dominant classes are C3-S1, C3-S2, C2-S1, and C4-S2. According to the Wilcox plot, about 50 % of the samples fall in the "Excellent to Good" and "Good to Permissible" classes. Besides, the Langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index (RSI), Larson-Skold index, and Puckorius scaling index were evaluated for assessing the corrosiveness and scaling potential of the groundwater. Corrosiveness and scaling indices stated that the majority of samples are classified into "Aggressive" and "Very Aggressive" category. In addition, chloride and sulfate interfere in 90 % of the samples. Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics indicates Na-Mg-Cl as the predominant hydrochemical type. Spatial distribution of hydrochemical parameters indicates that hydrochemical processes are influenced by geology and hydrogeology of Kadkan aquifer. The Gibbs plots gave an indication that groundwater chemistry in this area may have acquired the chemistry mainly from evaporation and mineral precipitation. Grouping the samples based on Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis helped to more separation of similar samples. The R-mode HCA grouped analyzed parameters into two groups based on similarity of hydrochemical characteristics. As a result, the samples collected in northern and southern parts of the study area show the best quality (i.e., lowest salinity) for some purposes such as irrigation and drinking.

  13. High pressure sample container for thermal neutron spectroscopy and diffraction on strongly scattering fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, P.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of the construction and performance of a container for thermal neutron scattering on a fluid sample with about 1.5 cm -1 macroscopic cross section (neglecting absorption). The maximum pressure is about 900 bar. The container is made of 5052 aluminium capillary with inner diameter 0.75 mm and wall thickness 0.25 mm; it covers a neutron beam with a cross section of 9 X 2.5 cm 2 . The container has been successfully used in neutron diffraction and time-of-flight experiments on argon-36 at 120 K and several pressures up to 850 bar. It is shown that during these measurements the temperature gradient over the sample as well as the error in the absolute temperature were both less than 0.05 K. Subtraction of the Bragg peaks due to container scattering in diffraction experiments may be dfficult, but seems feasible because of the small amount of aluminium in the neutron beam. Correction for container scattering and multiple scattering in time-of-flight experiments may be difficult only in the case of coherently scattering samples and small scattering angles. (Auth.)

  14. Grimsel colloid exercise, an international intercomparison exercise on the sampling and characterization of groundwater colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Grimsel colloid exercise was an intercomparison exercise which consisted of an in situ sampling phase followed by a colloid characterization step. The goal of this benchmark exercise, which involved 12 laboratories, was to evaluate both sampling and characterization techniques with emphasis on the colloid specific size distribution. The sampling phase took place at the Grimsel test site between 1 and 13 February 1988 and the participating groups produced colloid samples using various methods. This work was carried out within the Community COCO Club, as a component of the Mirage project (second phase)

  15. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Sample collection; (2) Sample preservation and shipment; (3) Analytical procedures; (4) Chain of... theory test, then the data should be transformed or a distribution-free theory test should be used. If... chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment. The...

  16. Ground-water sampling of the NNWSI (Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation) water table test wells surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) study of the water table in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, completed 16 test holes on the Nevada Test Site and Bureau of Land Management-administered lands surrounding Yucca Mountain. These 16 wells are monitored by the USGS for water-level data; however, they had not been sampled for ground-water chemistry or isotropic composition. As part of the review of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) sampled six of these wells. The goal of this sampling program was to measure field-dependent parameters of the water such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, and to collect samples for major and minor element chemistry and isotopic analysis. This information will be used as part of a program to geochemically model the flow direction between the volcanic tuff aquifers and the underlying regional carbonate aquifer

  17. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  18. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated)

  19. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  20. Treatment of groundwater containing Mn(II), Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) by bioaugmented quartz-sand filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Chang, Yangyang; Liang, Jinsong; Chen, Chen; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-12-01

    High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) often occur simultaneously in groundwater. Previously, we demonstrated that Fe(II) and Mn(II) could be oxidized to biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO) via aeration and microbial oxidation, and the formed BFMO could further oxidize and adsorb other pollutants (e.g., arsenic (As(III)) and antimony (Sb(III))). To apply this finding to groundwater remediation, we established four quartz-sand columns for treating groundwater containing Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and Sb(III). A Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) was inoculated into two parallel bioaugmented columns. Long-term treatment (120 d) showed that bioaugmentation accelerated the formation of Fe-Mn oxides, resulting in an increase in As and Sb removal. The bioaugmented columns also exhibited higher overall treatment effect and anti-shock load capacity than that of the non-bioaugmented columns. To clarify the causal relationship between the microbial community and treatment effect, we compared the biomass of active bacteria (reverse-transcribed real-time PCR), bacterial community composition (Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing) and community function (metagenomic sequencing) between the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented columns. Results indicated that the QJX1 strain grew steadily and attached onto the filter material surface in the bioaugmented columns. In general, the inoculated strain did not significantly alter the composition of the indigenous bacterial community, but did improve the relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes and Mn oxidation gene. Thus, bioaugmentation intensified microbial degradation/utilization for the direct removal of pollutants and increased the formation of Fe-Mn oxides for the indirect removal of pollutants. Our study provides an alternative method for the treatment of groundwater containing high Fe(II), Mn(II) and As/Sb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suitability of selected free-gas and dissolved-gas sampling containers for carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, P; Gibson, J J; Yi, Y

    2015-07-15

    Storage trials were conducted for 2 to 3 months using a hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide gas mixture with known carbon isotopic composition to simulate typical hold times for gas samples prior to isotopic analysis. A range of containers (both pierced and unpierced) was periodically sampled to test for δ(13)C isotopic fractionation. Seventeen containers were tested for free-gas storage (20°C, 1 atm pressure) and 7 containers were tested for dissolved-gas storage, the latter prepared by bubbling free gas through tap water until saturated (20°C, 1 atm) and then preserved to avoid biological activity by acidifying to pH 2 with phosphoric acid and stored in the dark at 5°C. Samples were extracted using valves or by piercing septa, and then introduced into an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for compound-specific δ(13)C measurements. For free gas, stainless steel canisters and crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were most effective at preventing isotopic fractionation (pierced and unpierced), whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl septa allowed significant isotopic fractionation. FlexFoil and Tedlar bags were found to be effective only for storage of up to 1 month. For dissolved gas, crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were again effective, whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl were not. FlexFoil bags were reliable for up to 2 months. Our results suggest a range of preferred containers as well as several that did not perform very well for isotopic analysis. Overall, the results help establish better QA/QC procedures to avoid isotopic fractionation when storing environmental gas samples. Recommended containers for air transportation include steel canisters and glass serum bottles with butyl septa (pierced and unpierced). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit

  3. Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Soliven, P.P.; Werner, S.L.; Vaught, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples has been developed. Caffeine is extracted from a 1 L water sample with a 0.5 g graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted with methylene chloride-methanol (80 + 20, v/v), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The single-operator method detection limit for organic-free water samples was 0.02 ??g/L. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations were 93 ?? 13% for organicfree water samples fortified at 0.04 ??g/L and 84 ?? 4% for laboratory reagent spikes fortified at 0.5 ??g/L. Environmental concentrations of caffeine ranged from 0.003 to 1.44 ??g/L in surface water samples and from 0.01 to 0.08 ??g/L in groundwater samples.

  4. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  5. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period April 1, 1993 through June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungers, D.K.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between May 24 and August 20, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from samples collected during the April through June quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  6. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHEONIS, NITROPHENOIS AND METHYLPHENOIS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  7. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS, NITROPHENOLS, AND METHYLPHENOLS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  8. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  9. MUSIC ALGORITHM FOR LOCATING POINT-LIKE SCATTERERS CONTAINED IN A SAMPLE ON FLAT SUBSTRATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Heping; Ma Fuming; Zhang Deyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a MUSIC algorithm for locating point-like scatterers contained in a sample on flat substrate.Based on an asymptotic expansion of the scattering amplitude proposed by Ammari et al.,the reconstruction problem can be reduced to a calculation of Green function corresponding to the background medium.In addition,we use an explicit formulation of Green function in the MUSIC algorithm to simplify the calculation when the cross-section of sample is a half-disc.Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.

  10. Study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2002 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water). Finished water is the water that is treated, which typically involves, in part, the addition of chlorine or other disinfection chemicals to remove pathogens, and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before the water enters the distribution system. This report describes the study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. The percent recoveries were determined by using analytical results from a laboratory study conducted in 2004 by the USGS's National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and from data collected during 2004-06 for a field study currently (2008) being conducted by the USGS's NAWQA Program. The laboratory study was designed to determine if preserving samples with ascorbic acid (quenching samples) adversely affects analytical performance under controlled conditions. During the laboratory study, eight samples of reagent water were spiked for each of five analytical schedules evaluated. Percent recoveries from these samples were then compared in two ways: (1) four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0 were compared with four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 7 or 14, and (2) the combined eight quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0, 7, or 14 were compared with eight laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs). Percent

  11. A hydrogen leak-tight, transparent cryogenic sample container for ultracold-neutron transmission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Stefan; Hingerl, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the number of extractable ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from converters based on solid deuterium (sD2) crystals requires a good understanding of the UCN transport and how the crystal's morphology influences its transparency to the UCNs. Measurements of the UCN transmission through cryogenic liquids and solids of interest, such as hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2), require sample containers with thin, highly polished and optically transparent windows and a well defined sample thickness. One of the most difficult sealing problems is that of light gases like hydrogen and helium at low temperatures against high vacuum. Here we report on the design of a sample container with two 1 mm thin amorphous silica windows cold-welded to aluminum clamps using indium wire gaskets, in order to form a simple, reusable, and hydrogen-tight cryogenic seal. The container meets the above-mentioned requirements and withstands up to 2 bar hydrogen gas pressure against isolation vacuum in the range of 10-5 to 10-7 mbar at temperatures down to 4.5 K. Additionally, photographs of the crystallization process are shown and discussed.

  12. A hydrogen leak-tight, transparent cryogenic sample container for ultracold-neutron transmission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Stefan; Hingerl, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the number of extractable ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from converters based on solid deuterium (sD 2 ) crystals requires a good understanding of the UCN transport and how the crystal's morphology influences its transparency to the UCNs. Measurements of the UCN transmission through cryogenic liquids and solids of interest, such as hydrogen (H 2 ) and deuterium (D 2 ), require sample containers with thin, highly polished and optically transparent windows and a well defined sample thickness. One of the most difficult sealing problems is that of light gases like hydrogen and helium at low temperatures against high vacuum. Here we report on the design of a sample container with two 1 mm thin amorphous silica windows cold-welded to aluminum clamps using indium wire gaskets, in order to form a simple, reusable, and hydrogen-tight cryogenic seal. The container meets the above-mentioned requirements and withstands up to 2 bar hydrogen gas pressure against isolation vacuum in the range of 10 -5 to 10 -7 mbar at temperatures down to 4.5 K. Additionally, photographs of the crystallization process are shown and discussed.

  13. Groundwater Molybdenum from Emerging Industries in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the influence of emerging industries development on molybdenum (Mo) groundwater contamination. A total of 537 groundwater samples were collected for Mo determination, including 295 samples from potentially contaminated areas of 3 industrial parks in Taiwan and 242 samples from non-potentially contaminated areas during 2008-2014. Most of the high Mo samples are located downstream from a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel factory. Mean groundwater Mo concentrations from potentially contaminated areas (0.0058 mg/L) were significantly higher (p industry and following wastewater batch treatment were 0.788 and 0.0326 mg/L, respectively. This indicates that wastewater containing Mo is a possible source of both groundwater and surface water contamination. Nine samples of groundwater exceed the World Health Organization's suggested drinking water guideline of 0.07 mg/L. A non-carcinogenic risk assessment for Mo in adults and children using the Mo concentration of 0.07 mg/L yielded risks of 0.546 and 0.215, respectively. These results indicate the importance of the development of a national drinking water quality standard for Mo in Taiwan to ensure safe groundwater for use. According to the human health risk calculation, the groundwater Mo standard is suggested as 0.07 mg/L. Reduction the discharge of Mo-contaminated wastewater from factories in the industrial parks is also the important task in the future.

  14. Improved Understanding of Sources of Variability in Groundwater Sampling for Long-Term Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    contents be construed as reflecting the official policy or position of the Department of Defense. Reference herein to any specific commercial product ... Ethylbenzene , and Vinyl Chloride. One pair of sample and duplicate results was reported as non-detect for Ethylbenzene and were not included in the RPD...by TestAmerica for 1,1-Dichloroethane, Benzene, Chlorobenzene, Ethylbenzene , and Vinyl Chloride resulted in all RPD values meeting the RDP criteria

  15. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  16. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  17. Remediation of groundwater containing radionuclides and heavy metals using ion exchange and the AlgaSORB reg-sign biosorbent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiler, H.D.; Darnall, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. (BRS) studied the application of an immobilized algal biomass, termed AlgaSORB reg-sign, which has high affinity for heavy metal ions to DOE-contaminated groundwaters. The material can be packed into columns similar to commercial ion exchange resins. Dilute solutions containing heavy metals are passed through columns where metals are absorbed by the AlgaSORB reg-sign resins. Once saturated, metal ions can be stripped from the resin biomass in a highly concentrated solution. Groundwaters contaminated with heavy metal ions from three different Department of Energy (DOE) sites: Savannah River, Hanford and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant were studied. The objective was to perform bench-scale treatability studies to establish treatment protocols and to optimize an AlgaSORB reg-sign/ion exchange technology system to remove and recover toxic metal ions from these contaminated groundwaters. The specialty ion exchange/AlgaSORB reg-sign resins tested in these studies show promise for selectively removing chromium, mercury and uranium from contaminated groundwater at DOE sites. The data show that effluents which satisfy the allowable metal ion limits are possible and most likely achievable. The use of these highly selective resins also offer advantages in terms of cost/benefit, risk and scheduling. Their high selectivity allows for high capacity and opportunities for recovery of removed constituents due to high pollutant concentration possible (3 to 4 orders of magnitude). Ion exchange is a proven technology which is easily automated and can be cost-effective, depending on the application

  18. Determination of radiocaesium in agriculture-related water samples containing suspended solids using gelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Shin, Moono; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Shinano, Takuro; Kitajima, Shiori; Tsuchiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, the radiocaesium, which flowed into the paddy fields via irrigation water, have been widely investigated. When the concentration of radiocaesium in the water samples containing suspended solids were directly measured using a high purity germanium detector with a 2 L marinelli beaker, the radiocaesium concentration might be overestimated due to the sedimentation of the suspended solids during the measurement time. In fact, the values obtained by the direct method were higher than those obtained by the filtering method and/or the gelling method in most of the agriculture-related water samples. We concluded that the gelling method using sodium polyacrylate can be widely adapted for the analysis of the total radiocaesium in the agriculture-related water samples because of its many advantage such as simple preparation procedure, accurate analysis values, excellent long-term stability of geometry and low operating cost. (author)

  19. Influences of groundwater extraction on flow dynamics and arsenic levels in the western Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Huaming; Zhao, Weiguang; Liu, Shuai; Cao, Yongsheng; Jia, Yongfeng

    2018-04-01

    Data on spatiotemporal variations in groundwater levels are crucial for understanding arsenic (As) behavior and dynamics in groundwater systems. Little is known about the influences of groundwater extraction on the transport and mobilization of As in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia (China), so groundwater levels were recorded in five monitoring wells from 2011 to 2016 and in 57 irrigation wells and two multilevel wells in 2016. Results showed that groundwater level in the groundwater irrigation area had two troughs each year, induced by extensive groundwater extraction, while groundwater levels in the river-diverted (Yellow River) water irrigation area had two peaks each year, resulting from surface-water irrigation. From 2011 to 2016, groundwater levels in the groundwater irrigation area presented a decreasing trend due to the overextraction. Groundwater samples were taken for geochemical analysis each year in July from 2011 to 2016. Increasing trends were observed in groundwater total dissolved solids (TDS) and As. Owing to the reverse groundwater flow direction, the Shahai Lake acts as a new groundwater recharge source. Lake water had flushed the near-surface sediments, which contain abundant soluble components, and increased groundwater salinity. In addition, groundwater extraction induced strong downward hydraulic gradients, which led to leakage recharge from shallow high-TDS groundwater to the deep semiconfined aquifer. The most plausible explanation for similar variations among As, Fe(II) and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations is the expected dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides.

  20. Cone penetrometer testing and discrete-depth groundwater sampling techniques: A cost-effective method of site characterization in a multiple-aquifer setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemo, D.A.; Pierce, Y.G.; Gallinatti, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Cone penetrometer testing (CPT), combined with discrete-depth groundwater sampling methods, can reduce significantly the time and expense required to characterize large sites that have multiple aquifers. Results from the screening site characterization can be used to design and install a cost-effective monitoring well network. At a site in northern California, it was necessary to characterize the stratigraphy and the distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to a depth of 80 feet within a 1/2 mile-by-1/4-mile residential and commercial area in a complex alluvial fan setting. To expedite site characterization, a five-week field screening program was implemented that consisted of a shallow groundwater survey, CPT soundings, and discrete-depth groundwater sampling. Based on continuous lithologic information provided by the CPT soundings, four coarse-grained water-yielding sedimentary packages were identified. Eighty-three discrete-depth groundwater samples were collected using shallow groundwater survey techniques, the BAT Enviroprobe, or the QED HydroPunch 1, depending on subsurface conditions. A 20-well monitoring network was designed and installed to monitor critical points within each sedimentary package. Understanding the vertical VOC distribution and concentrations produced substantial cost savings by minimizing the number of permanent monitoring wells and reducing the number of costly conductor casings to be installed. Significant long-term cost savings will result from reduced sampling costs. Where total VOC concentrations exceeded 20 φg/l in the screening samples, a good correlation was found between the discrete-depth screening data and data from monitoring wells. Using a screening program to characterize the site before installing monitoring wells resulted in an estimated 50-percent reduction in costs for site characterization, 65-percent reduction in time for site characterization, and 50-percent reduction in long-term monitoring costs

  1. Uncertainty Analysis Based on Sparse Grid Collocation and Quasi-Monte Carlo Sampling with Application in Groundwater Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Lu, D.; Ye, M.; Gunzburger, M.

    2011-12-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been widely used in many fields of uncertainty analysis to estimate the posterior distributions of parameters and credible intervals of predictions in the Bayesian framework. However, in practice, MCMC may be computationally unaffordable due to slow convergence and the excessive number of forward model executions required, especially when the forward model is expensive to compute. Both disadvantages arise from the curse of dimensionality, i.e., the posterior distribution is usually a multivariate function of parameters. Recently, sparse grid method has been demonstrated to be an effective technique for coping with high-dimensional interpolation or integration problems. Thus, in order to accelerate the forward model and avoid the slow convergence of MCMC, we propose a new method for uncertainty analysis based on sparse grid interpolation and quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. First, we construct a polynomial approximation of the forward model in the parameter space by using the sparse grid interpolation. This approximation then defines an accurate surrogate posterior distribution that can be evaluated repeatedly at minimal computational cost. Second, instead of using MCMC, a quasi-Monte Carlo method is applied to draw samples in the parameter space. Then, the desired probability density function of each prediction is approximated by accumulating the posterior density values of all the samples according to the prediction values. Our method has the following advantages: (1) the polynomial approximation of the forward model on the sparse grid provides a very efficient evaluation of the surrogate posterior distribution; (2) the quasi-Monte Carlo method retains the same accuracy in approximating the PDF of predictions but avoids all disadvantages of MCMC. The proposed method is applied to a controlled numerical experiment of groundwater flow modeling. The results show that our method attains the same accuracy much more efficiently

  2. Hayabusa2 Sample Catcher and Container: Metal-Seal System for Vacuum Encapsulation of Returned Samples with Volatiles and Organic Compounds Recovered from C-Type Asteroid Ryugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Sawada, Hirotaka; Yamanouchi, Shinji; Tachibana, Shogo; Miura, Yayoi N.; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Abe, Masanao; Itoh, Shoichi; Yamada, Keita; Yabuta, Hikaru; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Noguchi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The spacecraft Hayabusa2 was launched on December 3, 2014, to collect and return samples from a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (provisional designation, 1999 JU3). It is expected that the samples collected contain organic matter and water-bearing minerals and have key information to elucidate the origin and history of the Solar System and the evolution of bio-related organics prior to delivery to the early Earth. In order to obtain samples with volatile species without terrestrial contamination, based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa mission, the sample catcher and container of Hayabusa2 were refined from those used in Hayabusa. The improvements include (1) a mirror finish of the inner wall surface of the sample catcher and the container, (2) adoption of an aluminum metal sealing system, and (3) addition of a gas-sampling interface for gas collection and evacuation. The former two improvements were made to limit contamination of the samples by terrestrial atmosphere below 1 Pa after the container is sealed. The gas-sampling interface will be used to promptly collect volatile species released from the samples in the sample container after sealing of the container. These improvements maintain the value of the returned samples.

  3. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (ed.); Berg, Cecilia; Harrstroem, Johan; Joensson, Stig; Thur, Pernilla (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  4. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters. Results from water sampling in the Forsmark area, January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Borgiel, Micke; Qvarfordt, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    The fifth year (2009) of hydrochemical monitoring of groundwaters, surface waters and precipitation in Forsmark is documented in the report. The hydrochemical monitoring programme 2009 included water sampling from: - percussion- and core boreholes equipped with installations for long-term pressure monitoring, tracer tests and water sampling in packed off borehole sections, sampling and analysis performed twice (spring and autumn), - near surface groundwaters (sampling four times a year), - private wells (once per year in October), - surface waters (eleven sampling occasions per year). Due to the somewhat different performance of the hydrogeochemical monitoring of the deep groundwaters during the autumn 2009 compared to previous years, some new findings and knowledge were obtained: 1) Removal of water volumes corresponding to three to five times the volume of the borehole section (the routine procedure) is seldom enough to obtain a complete exchange of the water present in the borehole section when the pumping starts. 2) It is likely that the elevated sulphide concentrations observed in the monitoring programme /1/ is due to contamination from initial water present in the borehole sections when the pumping starts. This water may have a very high sulphide concentration. Dirty water in tubes and in stand pipes may also contribute to the enhanced sulphide concentration. 3) Plug flow calculations will be introduced in the future as a new routine procedure to estimate the water volumes to be removed, in order to exchange the section water volume, prior to groundwater sampling in delimited borehole sections. During the autumn sampling, sample series of five samples per sampling location were collected during continuous pumping in thirteen selected borehole sections. Furthermore, special efforts were put on cleaning of stand pipes and exchange of water prior to sampling. The analytical protocol was rather extensive and included sulphide and uranium analyses for each sample

  5. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  6. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. In 1996 SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include requirements for groundwater monitoring. The major elements of those regulations and their application at Z-Area are discussed. These are a point of compliance, groundwater protection standards, the groundwater monitoring system, sampling and analysis, and data evaluation and reporting

  7. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  8. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Mahu Ştefania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.

  9. Serum sample containing endogenous antibodies interfering with multiple hormone immunoassays. Laboratory strategies to detect interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endogenous antibodies (EA may interfere with immunoassays, causing erroneous results for hormone analyses. As (in most cases this interference arises from the assay format and most immunoassays, even from different manufacturers, are constructed in a similar way, it is possible for a single type of EA to interfere with different immunoassays. Here we describe the case of a patient whose serum sample contains EA that interfere several hormones tests. We also discuss the strategies deployed to detect interference. Subjects and methods: Over a period of four years, a 30-year-old man was subjected to a plethora of laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures as a consequence of elevated hormone results, mainly of pituitary origin, which did not correlate with the overall clinical picture. Results: Once analytical interference was suspected, the best laboratory approaches to investigate it were sample reanalysis on an alternative platform and sample incubation with antibody blocking tubes. Construction of an in-house ‘nonsense’ sandwich assay was also a valuable strategy to confirm interference. In contrast, serial sample dilutions were of no value in our case, while polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation gave inconclusive results, probably due to the use of inappropriate PEG concentrations for several of the tests assayed. Conclusions: Clinicians and laboratorians must be aware of the drawbacks of immunometric assays, and alert to the possibility of EA interference when results do not fit the clinical pattern. Keywords: Endogenous antibodies, Immunoassay, Interference, Pituitary hormones, Case report

  10. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  11. Summary of New Los Alamos National Laboratory Groundwater Data Loaded in July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Steven M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides information concerning groundwater monitoring data obtained by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under its interim monitoring plan and contains results for chemical constituents that meet seven screening criteria laid out in the Compliance Order on Consent. Tables are included in the report to organize the findings from the samples. The report covers groundwater samples taken from wells or springs that provide surveillance of the groundwater zones indicated in the table.

  12. Evaluation of environmental samples containing heavy hydrocarbon components in environmental forensic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raia, J.C.; Blakley, C.R.; Fuex, A.N.; Villalanti, D.C.; Fahrenthold, P.D. [Triton Anal Corp, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This article presents a procedure to evaluate and characterize environmental samples containing mixtures of hydrocarbons over a wide boiling range of materials that include fuels and other products used in commerce. The range of the method extends to the higher boiling and heavier molecular weight hydrocarbon products in the range of motor oil, bunker fuel, and heavier residue materials. The procedure uses the analytical laboratory technique of high-temperature simulated distillation along with mathematical regression of the analytical data to estimate the relative contribution of individual products in mixtures of hydrocarbons present in environmental samples. An analytical technique to determine hydrocarbon-type distributions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with nitric oxide ionization spectrometry evaluation is also presented. This type of analysis allows complex hydrocarbon mixtures to be classified by their chemical composition, or types of hydrocarbons that include paraffins, cycloparaffins, monoaromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characteristic hydrocarbon patterns for example, in the relative distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are valuable for determining the potential origin of materials present in environmental samples. These methods provide quantitative data for hydrocarbon components in mixtures as a function of boiling range and 'hydrocarbon fingerprints' of the types of materials present. This information is valuable in assessing environmental impacts of hydrocarbons at contaminated sites and establishing the liabilities and cost allocations for responsible parties.

  13. Corrosion Testing of 304L SS 3013 Inner Container and Teardrop Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokash, Justin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lillard, Scott [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Joyce, Stephen Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tegtmeier, Eric Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) 3013 Standard specifies a minimum of two containers to be used for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials containing at least 30 wt.% plutonium and uranium. Three nested containers are typically used, the outer, inner, and convenience containers, shown in Figure 1. Both the outer and inner containers are sealed with a weld while the innermost convenience container must not be sealed. Lifetime of the containers is expected to be fifty years. The containers are fabricated of austenitic stainless steels (SS) due to their high corrosion resistance. Potential failure mechanisms of the storage containers have been examined by Kolman and Lillard et al.

  14. Novel sample preparation method for surfactant containing suppositories: effect of micelle formation on drug recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Éva; Ueno, Konomi; Forgó, Péter; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György

    2013-09-01

    Rectal drug delivery is currently at the focus of attention. Surfactants promote drug release from the suppository bases and enhance the formulation properties. The aim of our work was to develop a sample preparation method for HPLC analysis for a suppository base containing 95% hard fat, 2.5% Tween 20 and 2.5% Tween 60. A conventional sample preparation method did not provide successful results as the recovery of the drug failed to fulfil the validation criterion 95-105%. This was caused by the non-ionic surfactants in the suppository base incorporating some of the drug, preventing its release. As guidance for the formulation from an analytical aspect, we suggest a well defined surfactant content based on the turbidimetric determination of the CMC (critical micelle formation concentration) in the applied methanol-water solvent. Our CMC data correlate well with the results of previous studies. As regards the sample preparation procedure, a study was performed of the effects of ionic strength and pH on the drug recovery with the avoidance of degradation of the drug during the procedure. Aminophenazone and paracetamol were used as model drugs. The optimum conditions for drug release from the molten suppository base were found to be 100 mM NaCl, 20-40 mM NaOH and a 30 min ultrasonic treatment of the final sample solution. As these conditions could cause the degradation of the drugs in the solution, this was followed by NMR spectroscopy, and the results indicated that degradation did not take place. The determined CMCs were 0.08 mM for Tween 20, 0.06 mM for Tween 60 and 0.04 mM for a combined Tween 20, Tween 60 system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociation behavior of pellet shaped mixed gas hydrate samples that contain propane as a guest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Taro; Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Komai, Takeshi; Haneda, Hironori; Yoon, Ji-Ho; Ohga, Kotaro

    2006-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of mixed gas hydrates that contain propane as a guest molecule have been investigated. The mixed gas hydrates used in this work were artificially prepared using the binary gas mixture of methane-propane and the ternary gas mixture of methane-ethane-propane. The crystal structures and the guest compositions of the mixed hydrates were clearly identified by using Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The dissociation rates of the gas hydrates observed under several isothermal and isobaric conditions were discussed with an analytical model. The isobaric conditions were achieved by pressurizing with mixed gases using buffer cylinders, which had similar compositions to those of the initial gases used for synthesizing each hydrate sample. Interestingly, the calculated result agreed well with the experimentally observed results only when the composition of the vapor phase was assumed to be identical with that of the hydrate phase instead of the bulk (equilibrium) gas composition

  16. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222 Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali’ Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l −1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l −1 . 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l −1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l −1 . The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222 Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222 Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222 Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water. - Highlights: • The highest concentration of U and 222 Rn was found to be in the basement aquifer. • A 57% of the groundwater samples were above the USEPA recommended value. • Mean annual effective dose for ingestion was 24 times the world average. • Mean annual effective dose for inhalation was 23 times the world. • Strong relationship between 222 Rn with concentration of U in the basement aquifer.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of groundwater in tertiary sediments of the eastern Murray Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.W.; Calf, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tertiary sediments located in the eastern part of the Murray Basin contain one of the most important low salinity groundwater resources in New South Wales. It is imperative that the hydrogeological environment in which the groundwater occurs be thoroughly understood to allow adequate management of the resource. A radiocarbon dating project was carried out on 37 groundwater samples from bores screened in these unconsolidated sediments. The results indicate water ages in the range 'modern' to 15 800 years. Groundwater recharge areas are indicated and rates of groundwater recharge and movement determined. The latter shows close correlation with velocity values quantitatively determined by Darcy's law

  18. Radiocarbon dating of groundwater in Tertiary sediments of the eastern Murray Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.W. (Water Resources Commission of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)); Calf, G.E. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights. Isotope Div.); Dharmasiri, J.K. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka))

    1984-01-01

    The Tertiary sediments located in the eastern part of the Murray Basin contain one of the most important low salinity groundwater resources in New South Wales. It is imperative that the hydrogeological environment in which the groundwater occurs be thoroughly understood to allow adequate management of the resource. A radiocarbon dating project was carried out on 37 groundwater samples from bores screened in these unconsolidated sediments. The results indicate water ages in the range 'modern' to 15 800 years. Groundwater recharge areas are indicated and rates of groundwater recharge and movement determined. The latter shows close correlation with velocity values quantitatively determined by Darcy's law.

  19. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30 µg l −1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60 µg l −1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60 µg l −1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3–4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. - Highlights: • Uranium level in groundwater samples have been assessed in different regions of Punjab. • Comparative study of carcinogenic and non carcinogenic effects of uranium has been done. • Wide variation has been found for different geological regions. • It has been found that South west Punjab is worst affected by uranium contamination in its water. • For west and north east regions of Punjab, uranium levels in groundwater laid under recommended safe limits.

  20. Epoxyalkane:Coenzyme M Transferase Gene Diversity and Distribution in Groundwater Samples from Chlorinated-Ethene-Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xikun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epoxyalkane:coenzyme M transferase (EaCoMT) plays a critical role in the aerobic biodegradation and assimilation of alkenes, including ethene, propene, and the toxic chloroethene vinyl chloride (VC). To improve our understanding of the diversity and distribution of EaCoMT genes in the environment, novel EaCoMT-specific terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and nested-PCR methods were developed and applied to groundwater samples from six different contaminated sites. T-RFLP analysis revealed 192 different EaCoMT T-RFs. Using clone libraries, we retrieved 139 EaCoMT gene sequences from these samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that a majority of the sequences (78.4%) grouped with EaCoMT genes found in VC- and ethene-assimilating Mycobacterium strains and Nocardioides sp. strain JS614. The four most-abundant T-RFs were also matched with EaCoMT clone sequences related to Mycobacterium and Nocardioides strains. The remaining EaCoMT sequences clustered within two emergent EaCoMT gene subgroups represented by sequences found in propene-assimilating Gordonia rubripertincta strain B-276 and Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2. EaCoMT gene abundance was positively correlated with VC and ethene concentrations at the sites studied. IMPORTANCE The EaCoMT gene plays a critical role in assimilation of short-chain alkenes, such as ethene, VC, and propene. An improved understanding of EaCoMT gene diversity and distribution is significant to the field of bioremediation in several ways. The expansion of the EaCoMT gene database and identification of incorrectly annotated EaCoMT genes currently in the database will facilitate improved design of environmental molecular diagnostic tools and high-throughput sequencing approaches for future bioremediation studies. Our results further suggest that potentially significant aerobic VC degraders in the environment are not well represented in pure culture. Future research should aim to isolate and

  1. Separation and recovery of Cm from Cm-Pu mixed oxide samples containing Am impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokazu Hayashi; Hiromichi Hagiya; Mitsuo Akabori; Yasuji Morita; Kazuo Minato

    2013-01-01

    Curium was separated and recovered as an oxalate from a Cm-Pu mixed oxide which had been a 244 Cm oxide sample prepared more than 40 years ago and the ratio of 244 Cm to 240 Pu was estimated to 0.2:0.8. Radiochemical analyses of the solution prepared by dissolving the Cm-Pu mixed oxide in nitric acid revealed that the oxide contained about 1 at% of 243 Am impurity. To obtain high purity curium solution, plutonium and americium were removed from the solution by an anion exchange method and by chromatographic separation using tertiary pyridine resin embedded in silica beads with nitric acid/methanol mixed solution, respectively. Curium oxalate, a precursor compound of curium oxide, was prepared from the purified curium solution. 11.9 mg of Cm oxalate having some amounts of impurities, which are 243 Am (5.4 at%) and 240 Pu (0.3 at%) was obtained without Am removal procedure. Meanwhile, 12.0 mg of Cm oxalate (99.8 at% over actinides) was obtained with the procedure including Am removals. Both of the obtained Cm oxalate sample were supplied for the syntheses and measurements of the thermochemical properties of curium compounds. (author)

  2. Trace Metals in Groundwater and the Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment and Stabilization of Strontium-90 and Other Divalent Metals and Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption)

  3. Tree Sampling as a Method to Assess Vapor Intrusion Potential at a Site Characterized by VOC-Contaminated Groundwater and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Limmer, Matthew A; Samaranayake, V A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-09-19

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the "sampler' and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700-1600 m 2 , the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  4. Tree sampling as a method to assess vapor intrusion potential at a site characterized by VOC-contaminated groundwater and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Samaranayake, V. A.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the “sampler’ and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700–1600 m2, the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  5. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    in the United States. Previously published digital data relating to brackish groundwater resources were limited to a small number of State- and regional-level studies. Data sources for this assessment ranged from single publications to large datasets and from local studies to national assessments. Geochemical data included concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and radionuclides as well as physical properties of the water (pH, temperature, and specific conductance). Additionally, the database provides selected well information (location, yield, depth, and contributing aquifer) necessary for evaluating the water resource.The assessment was divided into national-, regional-, and aquifer-scale analyses. National-scale analyses included evaluation of the three-dimensional distribution of observed dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater, the three-dimensional probability of brackish groundwater occurrence, and the geochemical characteristics of saline (greater than or equal to 1,000 mg/L of dissolved solids) groundwater resources. Regional-scale analyses included a summary of the percentage of observed grid cell volume in the region that was occupied by brackish groundwater within the mixture of air, water, and rock for multiple depth intervals. Aquifer-scale analyses focused primarily on four regions that contained the largest amounts of observed brackish groundwater and included a generalized description of hydrogeologic characteristics from previously published work; the distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations; considerations for developing brackish groundwater resources, including a summary of other chemical characteristics that may limit the use of brackish groundwater and the ability of sampled wells producing brackish groundwater to yield useful amounts of water; and the amount of saline groundwater being used in 2010.

  6. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  7. Sampling and Analysis of the Headspace Gas in 3013 Type Plutonium Storage Containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jay M.; Berg, John M.; Hill, Dallas D.; Worl, Laura A.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites have packaged approximately 5200 3013 containers to date. One of the requirements specified in DOESTD-3013, which specifies requirements for packaging plutonium bearing materials, is that the material be no greater than 0.5 weight percent moisture. The containers are robust, nested, welded vessels. A shelf life surveillance program was established to monitor these cans over their 50 year design life. In the event pressurization is detected by radiography, it will be necessary to obtain a head space gas sample from the pressurized container. This technique is also useful to study the head space gas in cans selected for random destructive evaluation. The atmosphere is sampled and the hydrogen to oxygen ratio is measured to determine the effects of radiolysis on the moisture in the container. A system capable of penetrating all layers of a 3013 container assembly and obtaining a viable sample of the enclosed gas and an estimate of internal pressure was designed.

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the real-time analysis of mixed waste samples containing Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, J.E. II; Koskelo, A.C.; Multari, R.A.; Cremers, D.A.; Gamble, T.K.; Han, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    In this report, the use of Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze mixed waste samples containing Sr is discussed. The mixed waste samples investigated include vitrified waste glass and contaminated soil. Compared to traditional analysis techniques, the laser-based method is fast (i.e., analysis times on the order of minutes) and essentially waste free since little or no sample preparation is required. Detection limits on the order of pmm Sr were determined. Detection limits obtained using a fiber optic cable to deliver laser pulses to soil samples containing Cr, Zr, Pb, Be, Cu, and Ni will also be discussed

  9. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  10. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  11. Geochemical and Pb isotopic characterization of soil, groundwater, human hair, and corn samples from the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2018-01-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out to investigate metal contamination in the Domizio Littoral and Agro Aversano area (Southern Italy) by means of soil, groundwater, human hair and corn samples. Pb isotope ratios were also determined to identify the sources of metals. Specifically, the investigation focused on topsoils (n = 1064), groundwater (n = 26), 25 human hair (n = 24) and corn samples (n = 13). Topsoils have been sampled and analysed in a previous study for 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), and determined by ICP-MS after dissolving with aqua regia. Groundwater was analysed for 72 elements by ICP-MS and by ICP-ES. Samples of human hair were prepared and analysed for 16 elements by ICP-MS. Dried corn collected at several farms were also analysed for 53 elements by ICP-MS. The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb in selected topsoil (n = 24), groundwater (n = 9), human hair (n = 9) and corn (n = 4) samples were analysed from both eluates and residues to investigate possible anthropogenic contamination and geogenic contributions. All data were processed and mapped by ArcGis software to produce interpolated maps and contamination factor maps of potentially harmful elements, in accordance with Italian Environmental Law (Legislative Decree 152/06). Results show that soil sampling sites are characterized by As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn contents exceeding the action limits established for residential land use (RAL) and, in some cases, also the action limits for industrial land use (IAL) as established by Legislative Decree 152/06. A map of contamination factors and a map showing the degrees of contamination indicate that the areas in the municipalities of Acerra, Casoria and Giugliano have been affected by considerable anthropogenic-related pollution. To interpret the isotopic data and roughly estimate proportion of Pb from an anthropogenic source we broadly defined possible natural and anthropogenic Pb end

  12. Processes to Open the Container and the Sample Catcher of the Hayabusa Returned Capsule in the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility of JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okada, T.; Yano, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, which returned from near-Earth-asteroid Itokawa, successfully returned its reentry capsule to the Earth, the Woomera Prohibited Area in Australia in Jun 13th, 2010, as detailed in another paper [1]. The capsule introduced into the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility in the Sagamihara campus of JAXA in the early morning of June 18th. Hereafter, we describe a series of processes for the returned capsule and the container to recover gas and materials in there. A transportation box of the recovered capsule was cleaned up on its outer surface beforehand and introduced into the class 10,000 clean room of the facility. Then, the capsule was extracted from the box and its plastic bag was opened and checked and photographed the outer surface of the capsule. The capsule was composed of the container, a backside ablator, a side ablator, an electronic box and a supporting frame. The container consists of an outer lid, an inner lid, a frame for latches, a container and a sample catcher, which is composed of room A and B and a rotational cylinder. After the first check, the capsule was packed in a plastic bag with N2 again, and transferred to the Chofu campus in JAXA, where the X-ray CT instrument is situated. The first X-ray CT analysis was performed on the whole returned capsule for confirming the conditions of latches and O-ring seal of the container. The analysis showed that the latches of the container should have worked normally, and that the double Orings of the container seemed to be sealed its sample catcher with no problem. After the first X-ray CT, the capsule was sent back to Sagamihara and introduced in the clean room to exclude the electronic box and the side ablator from the container by hand tools. Then the container with the backside ablator was set firmly to special jigs to fix the lid of container tightly to the container and set to a milling machine. The backside ablator was drilled by the machine to expose heads of bolts

  13. Data Validation Package November 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0659 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0304. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920), with one exception: New Rifle location 0635 could not be sampled because it was inaccessible; a fence installed by the Colorado Department of Transportation prevents access to this location. DOE is currently negotiating access with the Colorado Department of Transportation. Analytes measured at the New Rifle site included contaminants of concern (COCs) (arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate + nitrite as nitrogen, selenium, uranium, and vanadium) ammonia as nitrogen, major cations, and major anions. Field measurements of total alkalinity, oxidation- reduction potential, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, and temperature were made at each location, and the water level was measured at each sampled well. A proposed alternate concentration limit (ACL) for vanadium of 50 milligrams per liter (mg/L), specific to the compliance (POC) wells (RFN-0217, -0659, -0664, and -0669) is included in the New Rifle GCAP. Vanadium concentrations in the POC wells were below the proposed ACL as shown in the time-concentration graphs in the Data Presentation section (Attachment 2). Time-concentration graphs from all other locations sampled are also included in Attachment 2. Sampling location RFN-0195 was misidentified for the June/August 2014

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality and evaluation of scaling and corrosiveness potential of drinking water samples in villages of Chabahr city, Sistan and Baluchistan province in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnia, Abbas; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Pasalari, Hassan; Mirzabeigi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess and analysis of drinking water quality of Chabahar villages in Sistan and Baluchistan province by water quality index (WQI) and to investigate the water stability in subjected area. The results illustrated that the average values of LSI, RSI, PSI, LS, and AI was 0.5 (±0.34), 6.76 (±0.6), 6.50 (±0.99), 2.71 (±1.59), and 12.63 (±0.34), respectively. The calculation of WQI for groundwater samples indicated that 25% of the samples could be considered as excellent water, 50% of the samples were classified as good water category and 25% of the samples showed poor water category.

  15. Evaluation of five sampling methods for Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) and L. decolor (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of five sampling methods for studying psocid population levels was conducted in two steel bins containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat in Manhattan, KS. Psocids were sampled using a 1.2-m open-ended trier, corrugated cardboard refuges placed on the underside of the bin hatch or the surf...

  16. A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal/patent medicines collected from New York City's Chinatown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard

    2007-09-01

    In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

  17. Containing arsenic-enriched groundwater tracing lead isotopic compositions of common arsenical pesticides in a coastal Maine watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.; Robinson, Glipin R.; Colvin, A.S.; Lipfert, G.; Reeve, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenical pesticides and herbicides were extensively used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops in New England during the first half of the twentieth century. Lead arsenate was the most heavily used arsenical pesticide until it was officially banned. Lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and sodium arsenate have similar Pb isotope compositions: 208Pb207Pb = 2.3839-2.4722, and 206Pb207Pb = 1.1035-1.2010. Other arsenical pesticides such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris green), methyl arsonic acid and methane arsonic acid, as well as arsanilic acid are widely variable in isotope composition. Although a complete understanding of the effects of historical use of arsenical pesticides is not available, initial studies indicate that arsenic and lead concentrations in stream sediments in New England are higher in agricultural areas that intensely used arsenical pesticides than in other areas. The Pb isotope compositions of pesticides partially overlap values of stream sediments from areas with the most extensive agricultural use. The lingering effects of arsenical pesticide use were tested in a detailed geochemical and isotopic study of soil profiles from a watershed containing arsenic-enriched ground water in coastal Maine. Acid-leach compositions of the soils represent lead adsorbed to mineral surfaces or held in soluble minerals (Fe- and Mn-hydroxides, carbonate, and some micaceous minerals), whereas residue compositions likely reflect bedrock compositions. The soil profiles contain labile Pb (acid-leach) showing a moderate range in 206Pb 207Pb (1.1870-1.2069), and 208Pb207Pb (2.4519-2.4876). Isotope values vary as a function of depth: the lowest Pb isotope ratios (e.g.,208Pb206Pb) representing labile lead are in the uppermost soil horizons. Lead contents decrease with depth in the soil profiles. Arsenic contents show no clear trend with depth. A multi-component mixing scheme that included lead from the local parent rock (Penobscot Formation), lead derived from combustion of

  18. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  19. Modeling of the removal of arsenic species from simulated groundwater containing As, Fe, and Mn: a neural network based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Prasenjit; Mohanty, Bikash; Balomajumder, Chandrajit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttrakhand (India); Saraswati, Samir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Motital Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2012-03-15

    The present paper deals with the modeling of the removal of total arsenic As(T), trivalent arsenic As(III), and pentavalent arsenic As(V) from synthetic solutions containing total arsenic (0.167-2.0 mg/L), Fe (0.9-2.7 mg/L), and Mn (0.2-0.6 mg/L) in a batch reactor using Fe impregnated granular activated charcoal (GAC-Fe). Mass ratio of As(III) and As(V) in the solution was 1:1. Multi-layer neural network (MLNN) has been used and full factorial design technique has been applied for the selection of input data set. The developed models are able to predict the adsorption of arsenic species with an error limit of -0.3 to +1.7%. Combination of MLNN with design of experiment has been able to generalize the MLNN with less number of experimental points. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. A large-scale investigation of the quality of groundwater in six major districts of Central India during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Peeyush

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the groundwater quality in six major districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India, namely, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, and Seoni during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign, and discusses improvements made in the supplied water quality between the years 2011 and 2017. Groundwater is the main source of water for a combined rural population of over 7 million in these districts. Its contamination could have a huge impact on public health. We analyzed the data collected from a large-scale water sampling campaign carried out by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Government of Madhya Pradesh between 2010 and 2011 during which all rural tube wells and dug wells were sampled in these six districts. Eight hundred thirty-one dug wells and 47,606 tube wells were sampled in total and were analyzed for turbidity, hardness, iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulfate ion concentrations. Our study found water in 21 out of the 228 dug wells in Chhindwara district unfit for drinking due to fluoride contamination while all dug wells in Balaghat had fluoride within the permissible limit. Twenty-six of the 56 dug wells and 4825 of the 9390 tube wells in Dhar district exceeded the permissible limit for nitrate while 100% dug wells in Balaghat, Seoni, and Chhindwara had low levels of nitrate. Twenty-four of the 228 dug wells and 1669 of 6790 tube wells in Chhindwara had high iron concentration. The median pH value in both dug wells and tube wells varied between 6 and 8 in all six districts. Still, a significant number of tube wells exceeded a pH of 8.5 especially in Mandla and Seoni districts. In conclusion, this study shows that parts of inhabited rural Madhya Pradesh were potentially exposed to contaminated subsurface water during 2010-2011. The analysis has been correlated with rural health survey results wherever available to estimate the visible impact. We next highlight that the quality of drinking water has enormously improved

  1. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestà, Marina; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cossu, Claudia; Sabatini, Federica; Dagnino, Monica; Romantsik, Olga; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Frassoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups. Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8) vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23) p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8) and 0.36% (0.15-3.2) respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term) and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP) did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL) resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004) and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017). The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168). We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144)The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  2. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  3. Regional distribution of microbes in groundwater from Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, S.A.; Nilsson, E.L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater was sampled with the PAVE groundwater sampling system from eight boreholes at Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland, in 1998 and 1999, for investigation of microbial populations. The groundwater samples had a wide range of salinity and chemistry and contained 104-105 cells per ml, which is typical for subsurface groundwater. In preparing culture media, two approaches were used and compared. Natural, groundwater-based media were prepared from groundwater from the same section of each borehole tested, and synthetic media were prepared based on groundwater chemistry data. No significant difference was observed between the two types of media for brackish and saline groundwater. The groundwater to a depth of 750 m contained mainly sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), ironreducing bacteria (IRB) and heterotrophic acetogenic (HA) bacteria. Autotrophic acetogenic (AA) bacteria and methanogenic archaea were found in some samples. Iron-reducing and HA bacteria predominated in brackish groundwater from Haestholmen, with SRB present in smaller numbers. A different microbial population was found in deep saline groundwater from Haestholmen and Olkiluoto that consists of a large proportion of a saline or brine end member. No SRB or AA bacteria were cultured; instead, the microbial population consisted of HA bacteria and either IRB or methanogens. In Olkiluoto, SRB predominated in the brackish and saline groundwater at depths to about 500 m, while methanogens were found in deeper saline groundwater. Stable isotope data (C-13) indicated that the methanogens are part of an autotrophic population consuming dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and hydrogen and producing methane and organic carbon. This deep ecosystem may be independent of surface life processes. A high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at 500 m depth in the Fennoscandian Shield will be inhabited by SRB, IRB and acetogens. Methanogens may also be present. These anaerobic micro

  4. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  5. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports

  6. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  7. System for sampling active solutions in transport container; Systeme de prelevements de solutions actives sur les recipients de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.

    1958-12-03

    This report presents a system aimed at sampling active solution from a specific transport container (SCRGR model) while transferring this solution with a maximum safety. The sampling principle is described (a flexible tube connected to the receiving container, with a needle at the other end which goes through a rubber membrane and enters a plunger tube). Its benefits are outlined (operator protection, reduction of contamination risk; only the rubber membrane is removed and replaced). Some manufacturing details are described concerning the membrane and the cover.

  8. Data Validation Package June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Old and New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Sites September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Richard [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Lemke, Peter [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Sampling Period: June 14–17 and July 7, 2016. Water samples were collected from 36 locations at New Rifle and Old Rifle, Colorado, Disposal/Processing Sites. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Duplicate samples were collected from New Rifle locations 0216 and 0855, and Old Rifle location 0655. One equipment blank was collected after decontamination of non-dedicated equipment used to collect one surface water sample. See Attachment 2, Trip Report for additional details. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). New Rifle Site Samples were collected at the New Rifle site from 16 monitoring wells and 7 surface locations in compliance with the December 2008 Groundwater Compliance Action Plan [GCAP] for the New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site (LMS/RFN/S01920). Monitoring well 0216 could not be sampled in June because it was surrounded by standing water due to the high river stage from spring runoff, it was later sampled in July. Monitoring well 0635 and surface location 0322 could not be sampled because access through the elk fence along Interstate 70 has not been completed at this time. Old Rifle Site Samples were collected at the Old Rifle site from eight monitoring wells and five surface locations in compliance with the December 2001 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site (GJ0-2000-177-TAR).

  9. The Trembling Earth Before Wenchuan Earthquake: Recognition of Precursory Anomalies through High Frequency Sampling Data of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    With a magnitude of MS8.0, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is classified as one of the "great earthquakes", which are potentially the most destructive, since it occurred at shallow depth close to a highly populated area without prediction, due to no confirmative precursors which were detected from a large amount of newly carried out digital observation data. Scientists who specilize in prediction routine work had been condemned and self-condemned for a long time then. After the pain of defeat passed, scientists have been some thinking to analyze the old observation data in new perspectives from longer temporal process, multiple-disciplinaries, and in different frequency. This presentation will show the preliminary results from groundwater level and temperature observed in 3 wells which distribute along the boundaries of tectonic blocks nearby and far from Wenchuan earthquake rupture.

  10. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-12-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30µgl -1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60µgl -1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60µgl -1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3-4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient...... in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  12. Role of americium interference in analysis of samples containing rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Adya, V.C.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Godbole, S.V.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control of nuclear fuel samples requires precise estimation of rare earths which have high neutron absorption cross sections and act as neutron poisons. Am is generated by nuclear decay where as lanthanides may be present as impurities picked up during reprocessing/fuel fabrication. Precise estimation of the rare earths by ICP-AES method in presence of 241 Am is a challenging task due to the likelihood of spectral interference of the latter. Rare earths impurities in the purified Am sample were estimated by ICP-AES method. Known amounts of the rare earths viz. Sm, Eu, Dy and Gd were used as synthetic sample and the interference due to Am was investigated. (author)

  13. Uranium and plutonium containing particles in a sea sediment sample from Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, M.; Ikäheimonen, T.K.; Pöllänen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particles composed of radioactive materials and probably originating from US nuclear weapons were identified in sea sediment samples collected from Thule, Greenland in 1997. The weapons were destroyed close to the Thule Air Base in 1968 in an aeroplane crash, which dispersed radioactive materials...

  14. Neutron activation analysis in geological samples containing rare earths, uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Berretta, J.R.; Soares, J.C.A.C.R.; Fratin, L.; Goncales, O.L.; Botelho, S.

    1990-01-01

    The neutron activation analysis method was used for determination of rare earths, uranium, thorium and other tracks in geological samples, under the geological standard JB-1 (Geological Survey of Japan) and S-8 and S-13 (IAEA). (L.C.J.A.)

  15. [New container of sample: role in the reduction of bacterial contamination of standard platelet units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehri, S; Tazi, I; Loukhmass, L; Benchemsi, N

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of unstable blood products constitutes today the most frequent infectious risk transmitted by blood transfusion. Platelet concentrates are often incrimineted. As responsible germs are in general of cutaneous origin, a sample procedure with diversion of the first 20 ml during blood donation is studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of this technique on bacterial contamination rate of standard platelet units prepared at the regional blood transfusion center in Casablanca. A comparative study of two types of sample pockets is made: 500 Standard Platelet concentrates (CPS) are prepared after collection using standard triple bags (Baxter) (group 1) and 560 pockets of CPS were prepared after collection using triple bags with Sample Diversion Pouch sampling system for elimination of the first 20 ml of donation (Macopharma and Terumo) (group 2). The skin was disinfected in two times with alcohol 70%. The bacteriological study was made in the two groups at the third day of conservation. Six CPS of group 1 were contaminated, of which five were staphylococci coagulase negative and one bacillus sp. Six CPS of group 2 were contaminated, of which five were staphylococci coagulase negative and one staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria isolated were those of cutaneous flora at 100%. Diversion of first 20 ml of blood donation results in a 16.6% reduction in bacterial contamination of CPS (P>0.05). The non-significant reduction in the prevalence of the bacterial infection of CP formulates the problem of the indication of the sampling devices with derivation of first 20 ml during blood collection.

  16. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period October 1 through December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and open-quotes Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilitiesclose quotes (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 265), as amended. Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. The location of each facility is shown. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Performing project management, preparing groundwater monitoring plans, well network design and installation, specifying groundwater data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, data management, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between October and December 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the October through December quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of channeling spectra recorded for samples containing complex defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Turos, Prof. Andrzej [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Nowicki, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Jozwik, P. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Sathish, N. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Thome, Lionel [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Stonert, A. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Jozwik-Biala, Iwona [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the current status of the development of McChasy, a Monte Carlo simulation code, to make it suitable for the analysis of dislocations and dislocation loops in crystals. Such factors like the shape of the bent channel and geometrical distortions of the crystalline structure in the vicinity of dislocation has been discussed. The results obtained demonstrate that the new procedure applied to the spectra recorded on crystals containing dislocation yields damage profiles which are independent of the energy of the analyzing beam.

  18. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  19. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  20. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6

  1. ICP Mass and Optical Emission Spectrometry of Ore Samples Containing Rare Earth Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.E.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-OES and ICPMS) are widely accepted as a rapid and sensitive techniques for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) analysis of geological samples. However, the achievable accuracy of these techniques are seriously limited by the problem of matrix interferences. In this study, matrix effects in ICP-AES were addressed using two approaches. In the first approach, the mechanisms of matrix interferences and analyte excitation were elucidated fundamentally. First, matrix effects from a comprehensive list of thirty-nine elements were investigated. It was confirmed that matrix elements with low second (instead of the widely reported first) ionization potentials (IP) produce a stronger matrix effect in all cases. Another critical parameter defining the severity of the matrix effect was found to be the availability of low-lying energy levels in the doubly charged matrix ion. Penning ionization followed by ion electron recombination through successive cycles is proposed as the mechanism for the more severe matrix effects caused by low second-IP matrices. In the second approach ICP-OES and ICP-MS are applied in this study for the analysis of Rare Earth Elements of two selected standard reference samples namely AGV-2 and BCR-2 beside a fluorspar geological sample (G-9 sample). Effective procedures are developed to avoid the spectral interference from matrix elements by using ion exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 before determination of REEs using ICP-OES and ICPMS. The potential of the method is evaluated by analysis of Certified Reference Materials (AGV-2 and BCR-2). Results obtained by ICP-MS show that experimental data are in agreement with the certified values and their values could be used as a quantitative data. The results obtained using ICP-OES were compared and discussed.

  2. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Chemical Analyses of Pre-drill Groundwater Samples within the Marcellus Formation Shale Play in Bradford County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, T.; Niu, X.; Gonzales, M. S.; Li, Z.; Brantley, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater samples are collected for chemical analyses by shale gas industry consultants in the vicinity of proposed gas wells in Pennsylvania. These data sets are archived so that the chemistry of water from homeowner wells can be compared to chemistry after gas-well drilling. Improved public awareness of groundwater quality issues will contribute to designing strategies for both water resource management and hydrocarbon exploration. We have received water analyses for 11,000 groundwater samples from PA Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) in the Marcellus Shale footprint in Bradford County, PA for the years ranging from 2010 to 2016. The PA DEP has investigated these analyses to determine whether gas well drilling or other activities affected water quality. We are currently investigating these analyses to look for patterns in chemistry throughout the study area (related or unrelated to gas drilling activities) and to look for evidence of analytes that may be present at concentrations higher than the advised standards for drinking water. Our preliminary results reveal that dissolved methane concentrations tend to be higher along fault lines in Bradford County [1]. Lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and barium (Ba) are sometimes present at levels above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL). Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) more frequently violate the EPA standard. We find that concentrations of some chemical analytes (e.g., Ba and Mn) are dependent on bedrock formations (i.e., Catskill vs. Lock Haven) while concentrations of other analytes (e.g., Pb) are not statistically significantly distinct between different bedrock formations. Our investigations are also focused on looking for correlations that might explain water quality patterns with respect to human activities such as gas drilling. However, percentages of water samples failing EPA MCL with respect to Pb, As, and Ba have decreased from previous USGS and PSU studies in the 1990s and 2000s. Public access to

  3. A report on isotope hydrology of groundwater in Bangladesh: implications for characterization and mitigation of arsenic in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, P K; Froehlich, K [International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria); Basu, A R; Poreda, R J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Rochester Rochester, New York (United States); Kulkarni, K M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Isotope Hydrology Section, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Tarafdar, S A; Ali, Mohamed; Ahmed, Nasir [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hussain, Alamgir; Rahman, Mizanur; Ahmed, Syed Reazuddin [Bangladesh Water Development Board, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-12-01

    An investigation of the source and dynamics of groundwater in Bangladesh has been conducted with environmental isotope tracers. The primary objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for developing mitigation strategies by characterizing the mechanism of arsenic mobilization in groundwater and the present and future status of arsenic contamination in deeper aquifers. About 55 shallow and deep groundwater samples ranging in depth from 10 to 335 m were collected and analyzed for their chemical and isotopic compositions. Distinct patterns of isotope compositions are found in shallow and deep groundwaters. Arsenic contamination is found to be present mostly in shallow groundwater to depths of less than 70 m. Groundwater samples from deep wells containing elevated arsenic concentrations are found to contain water mostly from shallow aquifers and do not indicate arsenic contamination of deeper aquifers. However, depth in itself is not a criterion that can be reliably or easily used to find arsenic-free, safe drinking water. Water with high arsenic concentrations sampled from 'deep' wells may not be representative of deep aquifers, and presently uncontaminated water from somewhat deeper wells ({approx}100 m) may not remain so over a long period of time. Increased exploitation of deep groundwater ({approx}300 m) such as in the Barisal area appears to be possible without fear of arsenic contamination from shallow aquifers. However, the potential for groundwater mining is clearly evident and the sustainability of this resource needs to be evaluated. The exponential increase in groundwater exploitation between 1979 and 1999 does not appear to have affected the overall hydrodynamics of shallow and deep aquifers and, by implication, the arsenic mobilization processes. Currently favored mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are found to be inconsistent with isotope data. The most likely process of arsenic mobilization may involve desorption from the sediments as a

  4. A report on isotope hydrology of groundwater in Bangladesh: implications for characterization and mitigation of arsenic in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Froehlich, K.; Basu, A.R.; Poreda, R.J.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Mohamed Ali; Nasir Ahmed; Alamgir Hussain; Mizanur Rahman; Syed Reazuddin Ahmed

    2000-12-01

    An investigation of the source and dynamics of groundwater in Bangladesh has been conducted with environmental isotope tracers. The primary objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for developing mitigation strategies by characterizing the mechanism of arsenic mobilization in groundwater and the present and future status of arsenic contamination in deeper aquifers. About 55 shallow and deep groundwater samples ranging in depth from 10 to 335 m were collected and analyzed for their chemical and isotopic compositions. Distinct patterns of isotope compositions are found in shallow and deep groundwaters. Arsenic contamination is found to be present mostly in shallow groundwater to depths of less than 70 m. Groundwater samples from deep wells containing elevated arsenic concentrations are found to contain water mostly from shallow aquifers and do not indicate arsenic contamination of deeper aquifers. However, depth in itself is not a criterion that can be reliably or easily used to find arsenic-free, safe drinking water. Water with high arsenic concentrations sampled from 'deep' wells may not be representative of deep aquifers, and presently uncontaminated water from somewhat deeper wells (∼100 m) may not remain so over a long period of time. Increased exploitation of deep groundwater (∼300 m) such as in the Barisal area appears to be possible without fear of arsenic contamination from shallow aquifers. However, the potential for groundwater mining is clearly evident and the sustainability of this resource needs to be evaluated. The exponential increase in groundwater exploitation between 1979 and 1999 does not appear to have affected the overall hydrodynamics of shallow and deep aquifers and, by implication, the arsenic mobilization processes. Currently favored mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are found to be inconsistent with isotope data. The most likely process of arsenic mobilization may involve desorption from the sediments as a result of

  5. Groundwater Interim Measures Work Plan for the Former Chemical Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    May 2012 Groundwater IMWP, revised per EPA's approval, focuses on the installation of a groundwater containment system to mitigate groundwater migration from the former plant. A prior 2002 work plan is included in its entirety in Appendix B.

  6. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  7. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  8. Recommended Immunological Strategies to Screen for Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs cause the life-threatening neurological illness botulism in humans and animals and are divided into seven serotypes (BoNT/A–G, of which serotypes A, B, E, and F cause the disease in humans. BoNTs are classified as “category A” bioterrorism threat agents and are relevant in the context of the Biological Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection, quantification and discrimination capabilities of 23 expert laboratories from the health, food and security areas. Here we describe three immunological strategies that proved to be successful for the detection and quantification of BoNT/A, B, and E considering the restricted sample volume (1 mL distributed. To analyze the samples qualitatively and quantitatively, the first strategy was based on sensitive immunoenzymatic and immunochromatographic assays for fast qualitative and quantitative analyses. In the second approach, a bead-based suspension array was used for screening followed by conventional ELISA for quantification. In the third approach, an ELISA plate format assay was used for serotype specific immunodetection of BoNT-cleaved substrates, detecting the activity of the light chain, rather than the toxin protein. The results provide guidance for further steps in quality assurance and highlight problems to address in the future.

  9. Recommended Immunological Strategies to Screen for Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphanie; Fiebig, Uwe; Liu, Yvonne; Tierney, Rob; Dano, Julie; Worbs, Sylvia; Endermann, Tanja; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Volland, Hervé; Sesardic, Dorothea; Dorner, Martin B

    2015-11-26

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the life-threatening neurological illness botulism in humans and animals and are divided into seven serotypes (BoNT/A-G), of which serotypes A, B, E, and F cause the disease in humans. BoNTs are classified as "category A" bioterrorism threat agents and are relevant in the context of the Biological Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT) was conducted to evaluate detection, quantification and discrimination capabilities of 23 expert laboratories from the health, food and security areas. Here we describe three immunological strategies that proved to be successful for the detection and quantification of BoNT/A, B, and E considering the restricted sample volume (1 mL) distributed. To analyze the samples qualitatively and quantitatively, the first strategy was based on sensitive immunoenzymatic and immunochromatographic assays for fast qualitative and quantitative analyses. In the second approach, a bead-based suspension array was used for screening followed by conventional ELISA for quantification. In the third approach, an ELISA plate format assay was used for serotype specific immunodetection of BoNT-cleaved substrates, detecting the activity of the light chain, rather than the toxin protein. The results provide guidance for further steps in quality assurance and highlight problems to address in the future.

  10. Activation product analysis in a mixed sample containing both fission and neutron activation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Eggemeyer, Tere A.; Finn, Erin C.; Hines, C. Corey; King, Mathew D.; Metz, Lori A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Snow, Mathew S.; Wall, Donald E.; Seiner, Brienne N.

    2017-11-02

    Activation analysis of gold (Au) is used to estimate neutron fluence resulting from a criticality event; however, such analyses are complicated by simultaneous production of other gamma-emitting fission products. Confidence in neutron fluence estimates can be increased by quantifying additional activation products such as platinum (Pt), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W). This work describes a radiochemical separation procedure for the determination of these activation products. Anion exchange chromatography is used to separate anionic forms of these metals in a nitric acid matrix; thiourea is used to isolate the Au and Pt fraction, followed by removal of the Ta fraction using hydrogen peroxide. W, which is not retained on the first anion exchange column, is transposed to an HCl/HF matrix to enhance retention on a second anion exchange column and finally eluted using HNO3/HF. Chemical separations result in a reduction in the minimum detectable activity by a factor of 287, 207, 141, and 471 for 182Ta, 187W, 197Pt, and 198Au respectively, with greater than 90% recovery for all elements. These results represent the highest recoveries and lowest minimum detectable activities for 182Ta, 187W, 197Pt, and 198Au from mixed fission-activation product samples to date, enabling considerable refinement in the measurement uncertainties for neutron fluences in highly complex sample matrices.

  11. Monitoring Well Installation and Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Plan at the USARC Training Reserve, 84th Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    paint chips at the sampling site. 0 Clean water tanks, pumps, mud pans, hoses, including hoses and tanks used to transfer water from source to drill rig...TO’ LCA , Filll I F’APCr,;I~- € C/ " rKL2PIrlA , ATTFNrIGN TO SMOKING. ALCOHOLF MFDrICATIONP AND FXPOSI.RE TO CARCINOGENS.1 ENERAL MEDICAl. HISTORY...A. General: 1. Place samples in core trough for visual inspection. After logging, place selected samples in sample jars or wood core boxes. 2. Seal

  12. Effect of sample container morphology on agglomeration dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Dae Seong; Kim, Hack Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been used extensively in medical and biological applications, and agglomeration of magnetic nanoparticles is employed in the purification of water and proteins. The magnetic weight can be measured with a conventional electronic balance. Details of the experimental setup have been previously reported. That is, complex energy landscape involved in the agglomeration is changing with progress. Simulation of colloidal magnetic particles under magnetic field shows that the chain of particles is energetically more favorable than the ring and that the transition barrier between the chain and the ring is very low. The energy barriers among entangled nanoparticles of the agglomerate seem to be much more complicated than those among colloidal particles. The energy barrier distributions at 1000 min are similar for the two containers; however, the trend of blue shift and broadening is much more evident in the case of conical tube. These results indicate that the potential energy surface for agglomeration is modified more significantly in the conical tube which makes the agglomerate denser.

  13. Application of extraction paper chromatography in the analysis of Pu in aqueous samples containing 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagasia, Poonam; Dhami, P.S.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Closing the fuel cycle is an inevitable option for sustained growth and is hallmark of Indian Atomic Energy Programme. Analysis of fissile component especially plutonium is very important for almost all the process streams at the back end of the fuel cycle. Among the various Isotopes of plutonium, 241 Pu is β emitter and decays to 241 Am (T 1/2 of ∼432 y) which is an α emitter and having γ energy of ∼60 keV. Its specific activity is about 56 times higher than that Pu. Therefore, Pu stream is always associated with 241 Am and its activity increases with time needing its separation prior to radiometric assay. Among the various separation techniques, solvent extraction method employing thenoytrifluoroacetone (TTA) is commonly employed for its selective separation under particular experimental conditions. In an alternate approach, 2-ethyl hexyl 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17) based extraction paper chromatography (EPC) was attempted for separation of 241 Am from plutonium prior to radiometry. Pu 4+ forms strong complex with KSM-17 and is held at the point of application whereas 241 Am migrates towards the solvent front under the experimental conditions. During migration clear separation is observed in ∼15 minutes using 0.5 M HNO 3 as developing reagent. After separation is achieved, 1 cm 2 spot area containing Pu is desorbed in 1 mL xylene phase and used for radiometric counting

  14. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Venedam

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analyticalsensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expandedin this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene inmonitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2. The platform was interfacedwith chromium (VI and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installedadjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. Agroundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River throughthe gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployedfor the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations atmore frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methodsemployed a the Site.

  15. Enteric Viruses in Raw Vegetables and Groundwater Used for Irrigation in South Korea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sooryun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Song, Sung Won; Choi, Weon Cheon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Raw vegetables irrigated with groundwater that may contain enteric viruses can be associated with food-borne viral disease outbreaks. In this study, we performed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cell culture-PCR to monitor the occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater samples and in raw vegetables that were cultivated using that groundwater in South Korea. Samples were collected 10 times from three farms located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. RT-PCR and cell culture-PCR were performed to detect adenoviruses (AdVs), enteroviruses (EVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and rotaviruses, followed by sequence analyses of the detected strains. Of the 29 groundwater samples and the 30 vegetable samples, five (17%) and three (10%) were positive for enteric viruses, respectively. AdVs were the most frequently detected viruses in four groundwater and three vegetable samples. EVs and NoVs were detected in only one groundwater sample and one spinach sample, respectively. The occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater and vegetable samples was not correlated with the water temperature and the levels of indicator bacteria, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the detected AdVs were temporally distributed, irrespective of sample type. Our results indicate that raw vegetables may be contaminated with a broad range of enteric viruses, which may originate from virus-infected farmers and virus-contaminated irrigation water, and these vegetables may act as a potential vector of food-borne viral transmission. PMID:19854919

  16. Investigation of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory. Analysis of samples and pressurization experiment/analysis of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the cause of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory of the Tokai Research Establishment on November 20, 1997, samples of uranium metal waste and scattered residues were analyzed. At the same time the container lid that had been blown off was closely inspected, and the pressurization effects of the container were tested and analyzed. It was found that 1) the uranium metal waste mainly consisted of uranium metal, carbides and oxides, whose relative amounts were dependent on the particle size, 2) the uranium metal waste hydrolyzed to produce combustible gases such as methane and hydrogen, and 3) the lid of the outer container could be blown off by an explosive rise of the inner pressure caused by combustion of inflammable gas mixture. (author)

  17. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@ch.pw.edu.pl; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  18. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  19. Data Validation Package September 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nguyen, Jason [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites are referred to as the Slick Rock West Processing Site (SRK05) and the Slick Rock East Processing Site (SRK06). This annual event involved sampling both sites for a total of 16 monitoring wells and 6 surface water locations as required by the 2006 Draft Final Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites (GCAP). A domestic well was also sampled at a property adjacent to the Slick Rock East site at the request of the landowner.

  20. INFLUENCE OF GROUNDWATER GEOCHEMISTRY ON THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONTAINING ZERO-VALENT IRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive barriers that couple subsurface fluid flow with a passive chemical treatment zone are emerging, cost effective approaches for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. Factors such as the build-up of surface precipitates, bio-fouling, and changes in subsurface tr...

  1. Dissolution rate of alpha-doped UO2 in natural groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, Kaija; Myllykylä, Emmi; Tanhua-Tyrkkö, Merja; Lavonen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine whether the presence of trace elements in natural groundwaters affects the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide in the presence of alpha radiation that causes radiolysis of water. The study is a part of the project Reducing Uncertainty in Performance Prediction (REDUPP) under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The project aims to reduce uncertainties related to the extrapolation of the results of laboratory experiments to the conditions expected under geologic disposal. Thus far, synthetic groundwater has been normally used in the experiments. The synthetic groundwaters used do not contain all of the chemical elements that occur in natural groundwaters. Three natural groundwaters were chosen for the dissolution experiments with 0%, 5%, and 10% 233 U-doped UO 2 samples. These include a brackish groundwater, a saline groundwater and a low ionic strength groundwater. At the time of writing this paper, the dissolution experiments have been finished in the first groundwater, which was a moderately saline, brackish groundwater. The groundwater samples for the experiments were taken from a borehole in the Olkiluoto site in Finland. The measurements for dissolution rates were conducted under reducing conditions established using metallic iron in solution and an argon atmosphere in the glove box. The isotope dilution method was used to decrease uncertainties due to precipitation and sorption effects. The resulting dissolution rates in OL-KR6 natural groundwater were generally somewhat higher than the rates measured previously in synthetic groundwaters under similar redox conditions. No clear effect of alpha radiolysis could be seen for tests with lower SA/V, while those for higher SA/V indicated that the dissolution rate was higher for the 10% 233 U-doped UO 2 , suggesting the effect of alpha radiolysis under these conditions

  2. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  3. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  4. Recharge Area of Groundwater of Jakarta Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo; Abidin, Zainal; Alip; Djiono

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater inside the earth contained in a porous and permeable layers called aquifers. Depend on the hydrogeological structure, the aquifers may be composed of independent layers separated each other by impermeable boundaries. Such a condition may effect the location of recharge where water is able to infiltrate and goes to the aquifers. The objective of this research is to find out and to locate the recharge area of Jakarta basin by utilizing stable isotopes 2H and 18O . The work was done by collecting shallow and deep groundwater samples throughout Jabotabek area and precipitations from different altitudes. Since the stable isotopes composition of precipitation is subject to the altitude, the recharge area would be able to be identified by assessing the correlation of stable isotopes composition of precipitation and corresponding groundwater population. The data obtained from this study suggested that shallow groundwater is originated from local recharge while deep groundwater is recharged from the area having altitude of 125 -230 meters, it correspond to the area between Depok and Bogor

  5. Sample application of sensitivity/uncertainty analysis techniques to a groundwater transport problem. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Rood, A.S.; Harris, G.A.; Maheras, S.J.; Kotecki, M.

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of this document is to provide sample applications of selected sensitivity and uncertainty analysis techniques within the context of the radiological performance assessment process. These applications were drawn from the companion document Guidelines for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment Computer Codes (S. Maheras and M. Kotecki, DOE/LLW-100, 1990). Three techniques are illustrated in this document: one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) analysis, fractional factorial design, and Latin hypercube sampling. The report also illustrates the differences in sensitivity and uncertainty analysis at the early and latter stages of the performance assessment process, and potential pitfalls that can be encountered when applying the techniques. The emphasis is on application of the techniques as opposed to the actual results, since the results are hypothetical and are not based on site-specific conditions

  6. Demonstration of the AGI Universal Samplers (F.K.A. the GORE Modules) for Passive Sampling of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    and lower Hen- ry’s Law constants are biased low (Anderson 2013). In this instance, me- thyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is lost entirely and 1,2...coolers full of ice or blue ice to transport samples to the laboratory. One limitation associated with using the GORE Module is that, like all no- purge...was taken from Dunbar et al. (2001). A regional geologic and geomorphic model was developed for the Aberdeen Prov- ing Ground (APG). Regional

  7. Demonstration of the AGI Universal Samplers (F.K.A. the GORE (registered trademark) Modules) for Passive Sampling of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    and lower Hen- ry’s Law constants are biased low (Anderson 2013). In this instance, me- thyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is lost entirely and 1,2...coolers full of ice or blue ice to transport samples to the laboratory. One limitation associated with using the GORE Module is that, like all no- purge...was taken from Dunbar et al. (2001). A regional geologic and geomorphic model was developed for the Aberdeen Prov- ing Ground (APG). Regional

  8. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recoil Reactions in Neutron-Activation Analysis. The Szilard-Chalmers Effect Applied in the Analysis of Biological Samples; II. Transfer of Activities from Container Material to Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1965-01-15

    The present investigation consists of two parts. The one part concerns the application of the Szilard-Chalmers effect in the separation of activities from neutron-irradiated biological material. The nuclides As-76, Au-198, Br-82, Ca-47, Cd-115, Cl-38, Co-60, Cr-51, Cs-134, Cu-64, Fe-59, Mg-27, Mo-99, Na-24, P-32, Rb-86, Se-75 and Zn-65 were extracted from either liver tissue, whole blood or muscle tissue. The extractions were made in water, 0.1 N HCl, 1 N HCl or conc. HCl respectively. The nuclides belonging to the alkali metals together with Br and Cl, were found present in the water and hydrochloric extracts to 96 per cent or more. In the conc. HCl extracts, the greater part of the nuclides were recovered to 90 per cent or more. The enrichment of the different nuclides obtained in the Szilard-Chalmers process was investigated as follows. After extraction of the nuclides from the irradiated material the solution obtained was divided into two parts, one of which was reactivated. The specific activities of the nuclides in the two solutions were then compared, thus giving the enrichment factor In one case, the residue of organic material after extraction was reactivated and the activity compared to the initial one. The effect of dilution together with the application of short irradiation periods favouring higher yield was investigated in the separation of Fe-59 from whole blood samples irradiated in frozen conditions. The other part of the investigation concerns an estimation of the amounts of the activities originating from polyethylene and quartz containers transferred to container surface due to the recoil effect in the thermal neutron-capture process, thus causing contamination of the sample. The universal range-energy relationship given by Lindhard and Scharff has been applied in these calculations. As regards containers with impurities in the ppm region, the amounts of activities transferred owing to this effect were found to be quite negligible. However, when

  10. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid-containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA A. KRATASYUK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reshetilov AN, Kitova AE, Arkhipova AV, Kratasyuk VA, Rai MK. 2012. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 97-100. A biosensor based on Gluconobacter oxydans VKM B-1280 bacteria was used for detection of ethanol in the presence of acetic acid. It was assumed that this assay could be useful for controlling acetic acid production from ethanol and determining the final stage of the fermentation process. Measurements were made using a Clark electrode-based amperometric biosensor. The effect of pH of the medium on the sensor signal and the analytical parameters of the sensor (detection range, sensitivity were investigated. The residual content of ethanol in acetic acid samples was analyzed. The results of the study are important for monitoring the acetic acid production process, as they represent a method of tracking its stages

  11. Identification of heparin samples that contain impurities or contaminants by chemometric pattern recognition analysis of proton NMR spectral data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Qingda [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Snowdon, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Health Informatics, School of Health Related Professions, Newark, NJ (United States); Keire, David A.; Buhse, Lucinda F.; Trehy, Michael L. [Food and Drug Administration, CDER, Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Wood, Richard D. [Snowdon, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States); Mital, Dinesh P.; Haque, Syed; Srinivasan, Shankar [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Health Informatics, School of Health Related Professions, Newark, NJ (United States); Moore, Christine M.V.; Nasr, Moheb; Al-Hakim, Ali [Food and Drug Administration, CDER, Office of New Drug Quality Assessment, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Welsh, William J. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Chemometric analysis of a set of one-dimensional (1D) {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data for heparin sodium active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) samples was employed to distinguish USP-grade heparin samples from those containing oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) contaminant and/or unacceptable levels of dermatan sulfate (DS) impurity. Three chemometric pattern recognition approaches were implemented: classification and regression tree (CART), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM). Heparin sodium samples from various manufacturers were analyzed in 2008 and 2009 by 1D {sup 1}H NMR, strong anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and percent galactosamine in total hexosamine tests. Based on these data, the samples were divided into three groups: Heparin, DS {<=} 1.0% and OSCS = 0%; DS, DS > 1.0% and OSCS = 0%; and OSCS, OSCS > 0% with any content of DS. Three data sets corresponding to different chemical shift regions (1.95-2.20, 3.10-5.70, and 1.95-5.70 ppm) were evaluated. While all three chemometric approaches were able to effectively model the data in the 1.95-2.20 ppm region, SVM was found to substantially outperform CART and ANN for data in the 3.10-5.70 ppm region in terms of classification success rate. A 100% prediction rate was frequently achieved for discrimination between heparin and OSCS samples. The majority of classification errors between heparin and DS involved cases where the DS content was close to the 1.0% DS borderline between the two classes. When these borderline samples were removed, nearly perfect classification results were attained. Satisfactory results were achieved when the resulting models were challenged by test samples containing blends of heparin APIs spiked with non-, partially, or fully oversulfated chondroitin sulfate A, heparan sulfate, or DS at the 1.0%, 5.0%, and 10.0% (w/w) levels. This study demonstrated that the combination of 1D {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy

  12. Research on flow characteristics of deep groundwater by environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Jun; Miyaoka, Kunihide [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki; Senoo, Muneaki; Kumata, Masahiro; Mukai, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Ouchi, Misao

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as the technique for grasping the behavior of groundwater in deep rock bed which is important as the factor of disturbing the natural barrier in the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste, the method of utilizing the environmental isotopes contained in groundwater as natural tracer was taken up, and by setting up the concrete field of investigation, through the forecast of flow by the two or three dimensional groundwater flow analysis using a computer, the planning and execution of water sampling, the analysis of various environmental isotopes, the interpretation based on those results of measurement and so on, the effectiveness of the investigation technique used was verified, and the real state of the behavior of deep groundwater in the district being studied was clarified. In this research, Imaichi alluvial fan located in northern Kanto plain was taken as the object. In fiscal year 1996, three-dimensional steady state groundwater flow simulation was carried out based on the data related to shallow groundwater and surface water systems, and the places where active groundwater flow is expected were selected, and boring will be carried out there. The analysis model and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Isotopic Survey of Lake Davis and the Local Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridley, M N; Moran, J E; Singleton, M J

    2007-08-21

    In September 2007, California Fish and Game (CAFG) plans to eradicate the northern pike from Lake Davis. As a result of the eradication treatment, local residents have concerns that the treatment might impact the local groundwater quality. To address the concerns of the residents, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recommended measuring the naturally occurring stable oxygen isotopes in local groundwater wells, Lake Davis, and the Lake Davis tributaries. The purpose of these measurements is to determine if the source of the local groundwater is either rain/snowmelt, Lake Davis/Big Grizzly Creek water or a mixture of Lake Davis/Big Grizzly Creek and rain/snowmelt. As a result of natural evaporation, Lake Davis and the water flowing into Big Grizzly Creek are naturally enriched in {sup 18}oxygen ({sup 18}O), and if a source of a well's water is Lake Davis or Big Grizzly Creek, the well water will contain a much higher concentration of {sup 18}O. This survey will allow for the identification of groundwater wells whose water source is Lake Davis or Big Grizzly Creek. The results of this survey will be useful in the development of a water-quality monitoring program for the upcoming Lake Davis treatment. LLNL analyzed 167 groundwater wells (Table 1), 12 monthly samples from Lake Davis (Table 2), 3 samples from Lake Davis tributaries (Table 2), and 8 Big Grizzly Creek samples (Table 2). Of the 167 groundwater wells sampled and analyzed, only 2 wells contained a significant component of evaporated water, with an isotope composition similar to Lake Davis water. The other 163 groundwater wells have isotope compositions which indicate that their water source is rain/snowmelt.

  14. A hydrochemical investigation using 36Cl/Cl in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Richard

    2003-03-01

    residence time. An analysis of a groundwater sample from the lower sedimentary rocks is similar to analyses in the granite, in spite of the fact that wireline gamma data imply higher 36 Cl production in the lower Toki Lignite-bearing Formation. This may indicate upward movement of Cl from the granite. The wireline data from the MSB-boreholes suggest that there could be significant contrasts in in-situ 36 Cl production between different locations. This suggests the possibility that the 36 Cl data to be obtained for groundwater sampled from these boreholes, may be useful for evaluating groundwater flow. In MSB-2, the groundwater Cl appears to be well-mixed over the sampled interval, between 79 m to 176 m depth. In this borehole, the groundwater Cl cannot have equilibrated with the in-situ 36 Cl production above 120 m depth. Instead, the Cl probably originated at greater depths. If water containing Cl equilibrated with the mean in-situ neutron flux in the granite moved upwards into the lower sedimentary rocks in MSB-2, the water would subsequently need to remain stationary for several tens of thousands of years to produce observable spatial variations in 36 Cl/Cl ratios. Some of the groudwater sampling intervals are wide compared to the spatial scale of variability in in-situ production and therefore variations in natural 36 Cl/Cl may not be resolved. Future sampling should focus on obtaining groundwater samples from intervals smaller than the spatial scale over which in-situ 36 Cl production varies. A possible complimentary approach to sampling groundwaters would be to analyse 36 Cl in leachates and squeezed porewaters obtained from core samples. (author)

  15. Factor analytical approaches for evaluating groundwater trace element chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Hodge, V.F.; Stetzenbach, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis (QFA), and correspondence analysis (CA) were applied to a dataset containing trace element concentrations in groundwater samples collected from a number of wells located downgradient from the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. PCA results reflect the similarities in the concentrations of trace elements in the water samples resulting from different geochemical processes. QFA results reflect similarities in the trace element compositions, whereas CA reflects similarities in the trace elements that are dominant in the waters relative to all other groundwater samples included in the dataset. These differences are mainly due to the ways in which data are preprocessed by each of the three methods. The highly concentrated, and thus possibly more mature (i.e. older), groundwaters are separated from the more dilute waters using principal component 1 (PC 1). PC 2, as well as dimension 1 of the CA results, describe differences in the trace element chemistry of the groundwaters resulting from the different aquifer materials through which they have flowed. Groundwaters thought to be representative of those flowing through an aquifer composed dominantly of volcanic rocks are characterized by elevated concentrations of Li, Be, Ge, Rb, Cs, and Ba, whereas those associated with an aquifer dominated by carbonate rocks exhibit greater concentrations of Ti, Ni, Sr, Rh, and Bi. PC 3, and to a lesser extent dimension 2 of the CA results, show a strong monotonic relationship with the percentage of As(III) in the groundwater suggesting that these multivariate statistical results reflect, in a qualitative sense, the oxidizing/reducing conditions within the groundwater. Groundwaters that are relatively more reducing exhibit greater concentrations of Mn, Cs, Co, Ba, Rb, and Be, and those that are more oxidizing are characterized by greater concentrations of V, Cr, Ga

  16. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  17. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  18. Presence of Antibiotics in Shallow Groundwater in the Northern and Southwestern Regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lang, Hang; Liu, Fei; Jin, Song; Yan, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotics are widely used, and there is a serious concern about its adverse impacts on the environment and human health. To our knowledge, prior to this work, there was no evidence of the potential presence of antibiotics in groundwater in China, despite populous speculations. This study reported the detection of 35 target antibiotics of 6 groups (chloramphenicois, lincosamides, marcrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines), in shallow groundwater samples collected in northern and southwestern China. Thirty-four of thirty-five target antibiotics were detected in the groundwater samples; 73 of 74 monitoring wells contained at least one antibiotic; and at least two antibiotics were detected in 72 of the 74 wells. Ofloxacin (1199.7 ng/L), lincomycin (860.7 ng/L), and norfloxacin (441.9 ng/L) as well as antibiotics with the highest detection frequency such as sulfapyridine (70%), norfloxacin (69%), and lincomycin (64%) were detected at elevated concentrations. The highest detection frequency and concentration of lincosamides were observed in those groundwater samples, but no clear distribution patterns were observed for the six antibiotic groups. Moreover, shallow groundwater in southwestern China seemed to contain most antibiotics, likely due to the high antibiotics discharge and frequent exchange of groundwater with surface matrices. The findings from this work suggest that groundwater in China has been widely contaminated by antibiotics, and presumably other pharmaceutical compounds that have not been investigated to date. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  20. Feasibility Study of Neutron Multiplicity Assay for a Heterogeneous Sludge Sample containing Na, Pu and other Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Nakamichi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Yoshimoto, K.; Beddingfield, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce radioactivity of liquid waste generated at PCDF, a neutralization precipitation processes of radioactive nuclides by sodium hydroxide is used. We call the precipitate a 'sludge' after calcination. Pu mass in the sludge is normally determined by sampling and DA within the required uncertainty on DIQ. Annual yield of the mass is small but it accumulates and reaches to a few kilograms, so it is declared as retained waste and verified at PIV. A HM-5-based verification is applied for sludge verification. The sludge contains many chemical components. For example, Pu (-10wt%), U, Am, SUS components, halogens, NaNO 3 (main component), residual NaOH, and moisture. They are mixed together as an impure heterogeneous sludge sample. As a result, there is a large uncertainty in the sampling and DA that is currently used at PCDF. In order to improve the material accounting, we performed a feasibility study using neutron multiplicity assay for impure sludge samples. We have measured selected sludge samples using a multiplicity counter which is called FCAS (Fast Carton Assay System) which was designed by JAEA and Canberra. The PCDF sludge materials fall into the category of 'difficult to measure' because of the high levels of impurities, high alpha values and somewhat small Pu mass. For the sludge measurements, it was confirmed that good consistency between Pu mass in a pure sludge standard (PuO 2 -Na 2 U 2 O 7 , alpha=7) and the DA could be obtained. For unknown samples, using 14-hour measurements, we could obtain quite low statistical uncertainty on Doubles (-1%) and Triples (-10%) count rate although the alpha value was extremely high (15-25) and FCAS efficiency was relatively low (40%) for typical multiplicity counters. Despite the detector efficiency challenges and the material challenges (high alpha, low Pu mass, heterogeneous matrix), we have been able to obtain assay results that greatly exceed the accountancy requirements for retained waste materials. We have

  1. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  2. AMCO Scribe Sampling Data Map Service, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service contains a single layer: Groundwater Samples. The layer draws at all scales. Full FGDC metadata for the layer may be found by clicking the layer...

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  5. Multilinear analysis of Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of U(VI) containing natural water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višňák, Jakub; Steudtner, Robin; Kassahun, Andrea; Hoth, Nils

    2017-09-01

    Natural waters' uranium level monitoring is of great importance for health and environmental protection. One possible detection method is the Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS), which offers the possibility to distinguish different uranium species. The analytical identification of aqueous uranium species in natural water samples is of distinct importance since individual species differ significantly in sorption properties and mobility in the environment. Samples originate from former uranium mine sites and have been provided by Wismut GmbH, Germany. They have been characterized by total elemental concentrations and TRLFS spectra. Uranium in the samples is supposed to be in form of uranyl(VI) complexes mostly with carbonate (CO32- ) and bicarbonate (HCO3- ) and to lesser extend with sulphate (SO42- ), arsenate (AsO43- ), hydroxo (OH- ), nitrate (NO3- ) and other ligands. Presence of alkaline earth metal dications (M = Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Sr2+ ) will cause most of uranyl to prefer ternary complex species, e.g. Mn(UO2)(CO3)32n-4 (n ɛ {1; 2}). From species quenching the luminescence, Cl- and Fe2+ should be mentioned. Measurement has been done under cryogenic conditions to increase the luminescence signal. Data analysis has been based on Singular Value Decomposition and monoexponential fit of corresponding loadings (for separate TRLFS spectra, the "Factor analysis of Time Series" (FATS) method) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC, all data analysed simultaneously). From individual component spectra, excitation energies T00, uranyl symmetric mode vibrational frequencies ωgs and excitation driven U-Oyl bond elongation ΔR have been determined and compared with quasirelativistic (TD)DFT/B3LYP theoretical predictions to cross -check experimental data interpretation. Note to the reader: Several errors have been produced in the initial version of this article. This new version published on 23 October 2017 contains all the corrections.

  6. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Grabo (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  7. Site investigation SFR. Fracture mineralogy and geochemistry of borehole sections sampled for groundwater chemistry and Eh. Results from boreholes KFR01, KFR08, KFR10, KFR19, KFR7A and KFR105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2011-01-01

    This report is part of the complementary site investigations for the future expansion of SFR. The report presents the results obtained during a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of fracture minerals in drill cores from borehole section sampled for groundwater chemistry and where downhole Eh measurements have been performed. The groundwater redox system comprises not only the water, but also the bedrock/fracture mineral system in contact with this water. It is thus important to gain knowledge of the solid phases in contact with the groundwater, i.e. the fracture minerals. The samples studied for mineralogy and geochemistry, here reported, were selected to represent the fracture surfaces in contact with the groundwater in the sampled borehole sections and will give input to the hydrogeochemical model (SFR SDM). The mineralogy was determined using SEM-EDS and XRD and the geochemistry of fracture filling material was analysed by ICP-AES and ICP-QMS. The most common fracture minerals in the samples are mixed layer clay (smectite-illite), illite, chlorite, calcite, quartz, adularia and albite. Other minerals identified in the borehole sections include laumontite, pyrite, barite, chalcopyrite, hematite, Fe-oxyhydroxide, muscovite, REE-carbonate, allanite, biotite, asphaltite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, uranium phosphate, uranium silicate, Y-Ca silicate, monazite, xenotime, harmotome and fluorite. There are no major differences between the fracture mineralogy of the investigated borehole sections from SFR and the fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site investigation area. The four fracture mineral generations distinguished within the Forsmark site investigation are also found at SFR. However, some differences have been observed: 1) Barite and uranium minerals are more common in the SFR fractures, 2) clay minerals like mixed layer illite-smectite and illite dominates in contrast to Forsmark where corrensite is by far the most common clay mineral and, 3

  8. Evaluating the effect of sampling and spatial correlation on ground-water travel time uncertainty coupling geostatistical, stochastic, and first order, second moment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; LaVenue, A.M.; McNeish, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Ground-water travel time predictions at potential high-level waste repositories are subject to a degree of uncertainty due to the scale of averaging incorporated in conceptual models of the ground-water flow regime as well as the lack of data on the spatial variability of the hydrogeologic parameters. The present study describes the effect of limited observations of a spatially correlated permeability field on the predicted ground-water travel time uncertainty. Varying permeability correlation lengths have been used to investigate the importance of this geostatistical property on the tails of the travel time distribution. This study uses both geostatistical and differential analysis techniques. Following the generation of a spatially correlated permeability field which is considered reality, semivariogram analyses are performed upon small random subsets of the generated field to determine the geostatistical properties of the field represented by the observations. Kriging is then employed to generate a kriged permeability field and the corresponding standard deviation of the estimated field conditioned by the limited observations. Using both the real and kriged fields, the ground-water flow regime is simulated and ground-water travel paths and travel times are determined for various starting points. These results are used to define the ground-water travel time uncertainty due to path variability. The variance of the ground-water travel time along particular paths due to the variance of the permeability field estimated using kriging is then calculated using the first order, second moment method. The uncertainties in predicted travel time due to path and parameter uncertainties are then combined into a single distribution

  9. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A.; Ikem, Abua

    2015-01-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  10. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  11. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  12. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-1 through 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  14. Modelling and numerical simulation of the gasoline containing alcohol spilling in the groundwaters; Modelagem e simulacao numerica do derramamento de gasolina acrescida de alcool em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordazzo, Jonas; Maliska, Clovis R. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: jonas@sinmec.ufsc.br; maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental]. E-mail: corseuil@ens.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a model and the respective two-dimensional numerical solution for the problem of pollutant spilling on the soil saturated region,in finite volumes, with first order biodegradation model. The model is adapted to the brazilian gasoline considering the ethanol influence on the biodegradation of the BTEX constituents and on the ethanol co-solvence in the gasoline phenomenon.The gasoline sorption effect is taken into consideration, when considering linear sorption. The numerically solved transport equation take into consideration the dispersion, advection, sorption and the biodegradation of the MTEX compounds and the ethanol, as well. The groundwater velocity field is numerically solved by using the Darcy equations, allowing the regions with different permeabilities to be considered.

  15. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  16. In Situ Treatment of Chlorinated Ethene-Contaminated Groundwater Using horizontal Flow Treatment Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferland, Derek

    2000-01-01

    The limitations of conventional containment technologies for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents have motivated development of innovative technologies to achieve national groundwater...

  17. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  18. Optical transmission testing based on asynchronous sampling techniques: images analysis containing chromatic dispersion using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, T.; Perlicki, K.; Tajmajer, T.; Wasilewski, P.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents an image analysis method, obtained from an asynchronous delay tap sampling (ADTS) technique, which is used for simultaneous monitoring of various impairments occurring in the physical layer of the optical network. The ADTS method enables the visualization of the optical signal in the form of characteristics (so called phase portraits) that change their shape under the influence of impairments such as chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and ASE noise. Using this method, a simulation model was built with OptSim 4.0. After the simulation study, data were obtained in the form of images that were further analyzed using the convolutional neural network algorithm. The main goal of the study was to train a convolutional neural network to recognize the selected impairment (distortion); then to test its accuracy and estimate the impairment for the selected set of test images. The input data consisted of processed binary images in the form of two-dimensional matrices, with the position of the pixel. This article focuses only on the analysis of images containing chromatic dispersion.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  20. Molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwaters from the Aespoe Underground Research Laboratory (Sweden)): A novel 'finger printing' tool for palaeo-hydrological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C. H.; Kim, A. W.; Milodowski, A. E.; Smellie, J.; Tullborg, E. L.; West, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular signature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwaters can be used as a tool when investigating the palaeo-hydrological response of groundwater systems in relation to changes in recharge environment, and also for examining groundwater compartmentalisation, mixing and transport at underground repositories for radioactive waste. The DOM in groundwaters from two compartmentalised bodies of groundwater of distinctly different origin within the Aespoe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) (Sweden)) and in Baltic seawater has been isolated using tangential flow ultrafiltration (TUF) and dia-filtration. Recoveries of DOM ranged from 34.7 to 0.1 mg/L with substantial differences in the concentrations of the groundwaters collected only 120 m apart. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) of the isolated DOM revealed that the groundwaters contained abundant alkylphenols which may represent heavily decomposed proteins or lignins originating from biopolymers contained within soils. The difference in the distribution and relative abundance of major pyrolysis products groups such as alkylphenols confirmed that the groundwater and Baltic seawater DOM samples were chemically distinct indicating minimal infiltration of marine groundwater derived by recharge from the Baltic or earlier Littorina Sea within the two compartmentalised groundwater bodies. (authors)

  1. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  2. A Multi-Methodology for improving Adelaide's Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Okke; Banks, Eddie; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Breciani, Etienne; Cook, Peter; Cranswick, Roger; Smith, Stan; Turnadge, Chris; Partington, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Pool Ramirez, Maria; Werner, Adrian; Xie, Yueqing; Yang, Yuting

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a strategic and vital resource in South Australia playing a crucial role in sustaining a healthy environment, as well as supporting industries and economic development. In the Adelaide metropolitan region ten different aquifer units have been identified, extending to more than 500 m below sea level. Although salinity within most of these aquifers is variable, water suitable for commercial, irrigation and/or potable use is predominantly found in the deeper Tertiary aquifers. Groundwater currently contributes only 9000 ML/yr of Adelaide's total water consumption of 216,000 ML, while in the Northern Adelaide Plains 17000 ML/yr is used. However, major industries, market gardeners, golf courses, and local councils are highly dependent on this resource. Despite recent rapid expansion in managed aquifer recharge, and the potential for increased extraction of groundwater, particularly for the commercial and irrigation supplies, little is known about the sources and ages of Adelaide's groundwater. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a robust conceptualisation of Adelaide's groundwater system. The study focuses on three important knowledge gaps: 1. Does groundwater flow from the Adelaide Hills into the sedimentary aquifers on the plains? 2. What is the potential for encroachment of seawater if groundwater extraction increases? 3. How isolated are the different aquifers, or does water leak from one to the other? A multi-tool approach has been used to improve the conceptual understanding of groundwater flow processes; including the installation of new groundwater monitoring wells from the hills to the coast, an extensive groundwater sampling campaign of new and existing groundwater wells for chemistry and environmental tracers analysis, and development of a regional scale numerical model rigorously tested under different scenario conditions. The model allows quantification of otherwise hardly quantifiable quantities such as flow across fault zones and

  3. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  4. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system.

  5. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  7. Toxic fluoride and arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Lahore and Kasur districts, Punjab, Pakistan and possible contaminant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Abida; Masuda, Harue; Firdous, Nousheen

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible sources of As, F - and SO 4 2- contaminated groundwater in the Kalalanwala area, Punjab, Pakistan. Five rainwater and 24 groundwater samples from three different depths were analyzed. Shallow groundwater from 24 to 27 m depth contained high F - (2.47-21.1 mg/L), while the groundwater samples from the deeper depth were free from fluoride contamination. All groundwater samples contained high As (32-1900 μg/L), in excess of WHO drinking water standards. The SO 4 2- ranges from 110 to 1550 mg/L. δ 34 S data indicate three sources for SO 4 2- air pollutants (5.5-5.7 per mille ), fertilizers (4.8 per mille ), and household waste (7.0 per mille ). Our important finding is the presence of SO 4 2- , As and F - in rainwater, indicating the contribution of these elements from air pollution. We propose that pollutants originate, in part, from coal combusted at brick factories and were mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the local groundwater. - Simultaneous As and F - contamination of groundwater and possible pollutant sources are discussed

  8. Groundwater monitoring in the area of open cast Belchatow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimnicki, R.; Soltyk, W.; Derda, M.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Owczarczyk, A.

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater analyses in the area of the open cast lignite mine Belchatow and Szczercow have been continued since 2000. The field work contains analyses of macro- and microion concentrations as well as measurements of tritium, 222 Rn and mean radioactivity ( 40 K). Complementary to these analyses, isotope ratios of δ 34 S/ 32 S and δ 18 O/ 16 O in SO 4 2- ion and δD in water have been investigated. In 2005 samples of water from boreholes and drains in the area of Szczercow open cast were taken and analyzed. It was found that the groundwater was not polluted, its quality and purity being in agreement with the approved groundwater purity standards

  9. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2017-03-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  10. Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu

    2013-02-01

    To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin.

  11. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured

  12. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF; Bruchert, V; Molinero, J

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured during

  13. Characterization of natural groundwater colloids at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater colloids (size range from 2 nm to 500 nm) in the Palmottu natural analogue (for radioactive waste disposal in Finland) area was continued by sampling another drill hole, 346, at three depths. Results evaluated so far indicate the presence of both organic and inorganic colloids. In terms of chemical composition and morphology, the inorganic colloids differ from those found in previous studies. According to SEM/EDS and STEM/EDS they mostly contain Ca and are spherical in shape. At this stage further characterization and evaluation of results is provisional and does not allow very accurate conclusions to be drawn

  14. Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Négrel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents strontium isotope and major ion data of shallow groundwater and river water from the Ile du Chambon catchment, located on the Allier river in the Massif Central (France. There are large variations in the major-element contents in the surface- and groundwater. Plotting of Na vs. Cl contents and Ca, Mg, NO3, K, SO4, HCO3, Sr concentrations reflect water–rock interaction (carbonate dissolution for Ca, Mg, HCO3 and Sr because the bedrock contains marly limestones, agricultural input (farming and fertilising and sewage effluents (for NO3, K, SO4, although some water samples are unpolluted. Sr contents and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70892 to 0.71180 along the hydrological cycle in the groundwater agree with previous work on groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Loire catchment. The data plot along three directions in a 87Sr/86Sr v. 1/Sr diagram as a result of mixing, involving at least three geochemical signatures–Allier river water, and two distinct signatures that might be related to different water-rock interactions in the catchment. Mixing proportions are calculated and discussed. The alluvial aquifer of the Ile du Chambon catchment is considered, within the Sr isotope systematic, in a larger scheme that includes several alluvial aquifers of the Loire Allier catchment. Keywords: : Loire river, major and trace elements, Sr isotopic ratio, alluvial aquifer, hydrology

  15. TIE for cyanides in groundwater at a former coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeay, M.; Cameron, M. [Hemmeram, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elphick, J. [Nautilus Environmental Co., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Groundwater remediation efforts are underway at a former coal gasification plant site in British Columbia because the concentrations of cyanide and other substances were found to exceed aquatic life guidelines. Hemmera and Nautilus Environmental examined whether that groundwater was toxic to a variety of sensitive marine aquatic life species, and whether cyanide was the primary toxicant. Untreated groundwater containing cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide and free cyanide was tested for toxicity on bivalve larval survival, kelp zoospore germination, sea urchin gamete fertilization, and larval topsmelt survival and growth. The untreated groundwater was found to be toxic to kelp zoospores and sea urchin gametes, but relatively non-toxic to bivalve larvae and topsmelt. The following 4 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) treatments were conducted on site groundwater: (1) acidification/aeration of the sample, (2) filtration of the sample through anion exchange media, (3) filtration of the sample through activated carbon, and (4) exposure of the sample to UV light. Both the cyanide concentration and the toxicity to kelp decreased considerably when the anion exchange treatment was applied. The results suggest that the toxicity may be attributed to cyanides in the groundwater. The information obtained from this study will be used to plan excavation water treatment strategies during site remediation as part of an ecological risk assessment for the site.

  16. TIE for cyanides in groundwater at a former coal gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeay, M.; Cameron, M.; Elphick, J.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater remediation efforts are underway at a former coal gasification plant site in British Columbia because the concentrations of cyanide and other substances were found to exceed aquatic life guidelines. Hemmera and Nautilus Environmental examined whether that groundwater was toxic to a variety of sensitive marine aquatic life species, and whether cyanide was the primary toxicant. Untreated groundwater containing cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide and free cyanide was tested for toxicity on bivalve larval survival, kelp zoospore germination, sea urchin gamete fertilization, and larval topsmelt survival and growth. The untreated groundwater was found to be toxic to kelp zoospores and sea urchin gametes, but relatively non-toxic to bivalve larvae and topsmelt. The following 4 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) treatments were conducted on site groundwater: (1) acidification/aeration of the sample, (2) filtration of the sample through anion exchange media, (3) filtration of the sample through activated carbon, and (4) exposure of the sample to UV light. Both the cyanide concentration and the toxicity to kelp decreased considerably when the anion exchange treatment was applied. The results suggest that the toxicity may be attributed to cyanides in the groundwater. The information obtained from this study will be used to plan excavation water treatment strategies during site remediation as part of an ecological risk assessment for the site.

  17. Bentonite as a colloid source in groundwaters at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Hirvonen, H.

    2005-02-01

    In this work bentonite was studied as a potential source of colloids in Olkiluoto groundwaters. Samples were collected at two groundwater stations, PVA1 at 37.5 m dept and PVA3 at 95.6 m depth, in the VLJ-tunnel. The deeper groundwater at PVA3 was more saline (2.6g/L of Cl-) than the shallow at PVA1 (0.8g/L of Cl-). A bentonite source had been assembled at each groundwater station so that two sample lines were available for water samples; one for collecting a sample before and the other for collecting a sample after interaction with bentonite. Before starting the actual colloid sampling groundwaters from both sample lines at both stations were analysed. Only minor alterations, mostly within the uncertainty limits of the analysis methods, were brought about in the water chemistries after interaction with the bentonite sources. The only clear changes were seen in the concentration of iron which decreased after interaction with bentonite in the groundwaters at both stations. After groundwater sampling the actual colloid sampling was performed. The water samples were collected and treated inside a movable nitrogen filled glove-box. The samples could be collected from each sampling line directly in the glove-box via two quick-couplings that had been assembled on the front face of the box. The sample lines had been assembled with 0.45 μm filters before entering the glove-box, because only colloids smaller than 0.45 μm were of interest, as they are not prone to sedimentation in slow groundwater flows and therefore could act as potential radionuclide carriers. Colloid samples were collected and treated similarly from both sampling lines at both groundwater stations. For estimating the colloid content the groundwater samples were filtered with centrifugal ultrafiltration tubes of different cut-off values (0.3 μm, 300kD and 10kD). The ultrafiltrations produced the colloid-containing concentrate fractions and the soluble substances-containing filtrate fractions. In

  18. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

  19. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year

  20. Preliminary study on arsenic concentration in groundwater in usual exploited aquifer in Ho Chi Minh City (pleistocene aquifer QIm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Thanh Tong; Nguyen Kien Chinh; Tran Thi Bich Lien; Nguyen Van Suc; Le Danh Chuan; Huynh Le Khoa

    2004-01-01

    Recent days, As in groundwater is a hot spot in some countries in Asia (e.g India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand) that was revealed through Executive Meetings of RAS/8/084. In Vietnam, some reports on groundwater quality in Red River Delta and Mekong Delta (with few random groundwater samples selected to analyse randomly) brought an opinion that groundwater in some region in Vietnam contains a quantity of As is over WHO Limit to As concentration in drinking water. This project hat been carrying out in Ho Chi Minh City in order to survey and make a preliminary assessment on As content in groundwater in shallow aquifer which is usual exploited in one of important social-economic centers of Vietnam. (author)

  1. Automated Groundwater Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard B.

    2005-01-01

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  4. The Analysis of Sulfur-35 as a Young Groundwater Tracer at E-Tunnel, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinhart, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tompson, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Analysis of the relatively short-lived radionuclide sulfur-35 (t1/2 = 87 days) provides useful insight into groundwater discharge from E-Tunnel at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Discharge rates at E-Tunnel vary with precipitation, potentially as the result of short or fast flowpaths between recharge and discharge. The presence of sulfur-35 in groundwater would indicate a significant component of young (< 2-year-old) groundwater. We collected two large volume (20 L) samples of discharge water in November 2016. The samples were sent to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where they were processed and analyzed by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). Sulfur-35 was not detected in either the sample or field duplicate, a finding consistent with E-Tunnel discharge containing no significant component of groundwater with age less than six months.

  5. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.

    1987-07-01

    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am 3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe 3+ , REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  6. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Palas Roy; Naba Kumar Mondal; Biswajit Das; Kousik Das

    2013-01-01

    High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India) has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Mul...

  7. Impact of collection container material and holding times on sample integrity for mercury and methylmercury in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riscassi, Ami L [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in streamwater can vary on short timescales (hourly or less) during storm flow and on a diel cycle; the frequency and timing of sampling required to accurately characterize these dynamics may be difficult to accomplish manually. Automated sampling can assist in sample collection; however use has been limited for Hg and MeHg analysis due to stability concerns of trace concentrations during extended storage times. We examined the viability of using automated samplers with disposable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample bags to collect industrially contaminated streamwater for unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg analysis. Specifically we investigated the effect of holding times ranging from hours to days on streamwater collected during baseflow and storm flow. Unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg concentrations decreased with increases in time prior to sample processing; holding times of 24 hours or less resulted in concentration changes (mean 11 7% different) similar to variability in duplicates collected manually during analogous field conditions (mean 7 10% different). Comparisons of samples collected with manual and automated techniques throughout a year for a wide range of stream conditions were also found to be similar to differences observed between duplicate grab samples. These results demonstrate automated sampling into LDPE bags with holding times of 24 hours or less can be effectively used to collect streamwater for Hg and MeHg analysis, and encourage the testing of these materials and methods for implementation in other aqueous systems where high-frequency sampling is warranted.

  8. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. This quarterly report contains data received between March 8 and May 24, 1993, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the January through March quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  9. Production of vegetation samples containing radionuclides gamma emitters to attend the interlaboratory programs; Producao de amostras de vegetacao contendo radionuclideos emissores gama para participar de programas interlaboratoriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Poliana Santos de

    2016-07-01

    The production of environmental samples such as soil, sediment, water and vegetation with radionuclides for intercomparison tests is a very important contribution to environmental monitoring. Laboratories that carry out such monitoring need to demonstrate that their results are reliable. The IRD National Intercomparison Program (PNI) produces and distributes environmental samples containing radionuclides used to check the laboratories performance. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing vegetation (grass) samples containing {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs by the spike sample method for the PNI. The preparation and the statistical tests followed the ISO guides 34 and 35 recommendations. The grass samples were dried, ground and passed through a sieve of 250 μm. 500 g of vegetation was treated in each procedure. Samples were treated by two different procedures:1) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing vegetation by hand and drying in an oven and 2) homogenizing of the radioactive solution containing the vegetation in a rotatory evaporator and drying in an oven. The theoretical activity concentration of the radionuclides in the grass had a range of 593 Bq/kg to 683 Bq/kg. After gamma spectrometry analysis the results of both procedures were compared as accuracy, precision, homogeneity and stability. The accuracy, precision and short time stability from both methods were similar but the homogeneity test of the evaporation method was not approved for the radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 134}Cs. Based on comparisons between procedures was chosen the manual agitation procedure for the grass sample for the PNI. The accuracy of the procedure, represented by the uncertainty and based on theoretical value had a range between -1.1 and 5.1% and the precision between 0.6 a 6.5 %. This result show is the procedure chosen for the production of grass samples for PNI. (author)

  10. Isotopic composition of groundwater in semi-arid regions of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.; Urk, H. van

    1975-01-01

    Although the isotope content of precipitation in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa is extremely variable, groundwater samples from the same district are found to have a remarkably constant isotopic composition. The oxygen-18 content of the underground water, in general, varies by about 0.5% in a given area. The differences that occur between different regions are sufficiently large to allow the groundwater of an area to be characterized by means of its oxygen-18 content. In order to localize the infiltration area of an aquifer, radiocarbon dating of the water is used. It appears that the groundwater contains, in general, less of the heavy isotopes than does the precipitation in the recharge area. This indicates that infiltration only takes place during periods of heavy rainfall. Examples are given where the isotope content of the groundwater is used to distinguish between different aquifers in the same region

  11. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  12. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  13. Chemical and biological tracers to determine groundwater flow in karstic aquifer, Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenczewski, M.; Leal-Bautista, R. M.; McLain, J. E.

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the extent of pollution in groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula; however current population growth, both from international tourism and Mexican nationals increases the potential for wastewater release of a vast array of contaminants including personal care products, pharmaceuticals (Rx), and pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens and Rx in groundwater can persist and can be particularly acute in this region where high permeability of the karst bedrock and the lack of top soil permit the rapid transport of contaminants into groundwater aquifers. The objective of this research is to develop and utilize novel biological and chemical source tracking methods to distinguish between different sources of anthropogenic pollution in degraded groundwater. Although several methods have been used successfully to track fecal contamination sources in small scale studies, little is known about their spatial limitations, as source tracking studies rarely include sample collection over a wide geographical area and with different sources of water. In addition, although source tracking methods to distinguish human from animal fecal contamination are widely available, this work has developed source tracking distinguish between separate human populations is highly unique. To achieve this objective, we collected water samples from a series of drinking wells, cenotes (sinkholes), wastewater treatment plants, and injection wells across the Yucatan Peninsula and examine potential source tracers within the collected water samples. The result suggests that groundwater sources impacted by tourist vs. local populations contain different chemical stressors. This work has developed a more detailed understanding of the presence and persistence of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and fecal indicators in a karstic system; such understanding will be a vital component for the protection Mexican groundwater and human health. Quantification of different pollution sources

  14. Recording of interference fringe structure by femtosecond laser pulses in samples of silver-containing porous glass and thick slabs of dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Olga V.; Dement'ev, Dmitry A.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Matveets, Yu. A.; Serov, Oleg B.; Smolovich, Anatoly M.

    2002-05-01

    The recording geometry and recording media for the method of achromatic wavefront reconstruction are discussed. The femtosecond recording on the thick slabs of dichromated gelatin and the samples of silver-containing porous glass was obtained. The applications of the method to ultrafast laser spectroscopy and to phase conjugation were suggested.

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and perfluorinated compounds in groundwater in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Lai, Webber Wei-Po; Tung, Hsin-hsin; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we investigated the emerging pollutants in Taiwanese groundwater for the first time and correlated their presence with possible contamination sources. Fifty target pharmaceuticals and perfluorinated chemicals in groundwater were mostly present at ng L(-1) concentrations, except for 17α-ethynylestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, and acetaminophen (maximums of 1822, 1820, and 1036 ng L(-1), respectively). Perfluorinated compounds were detected with the highest frequencies in groundwater at almost all of the sample sites, especially short-chained perfluorinated carboxylates, which were easily transferred to the groundwater. The results indicate that the compounds found to have high detection frequencies and concentrations in groundwater are similar to those found in other countries around the world. Most common pharmaceuticals that contain hydrophilic groups, such as sulfonamide antibiotics and caffeine, are easily transported through surface waters to groundwater. The results also indicated that the persistent natures of emerging contaminants with high detection frequencies in surface water and groundwater, such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (risk quotient >1), caffeine, and carbamazepine, should be further studied and evaluated.

  16. Impact of irrigation-practices on nitrate-leaching to contaminate groundwater and its risk to rural community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate contamination of shallow groundwater by nitrogen fertilizers. Results of the study show that the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen varies from 0.03 to 3.25 mg/l in the water samples collected from the tile-drainage areas, which is much below the maximum permissible limit of 10 mg/l. The nitrate-nitrogen concentration exceeded the permissible limit in about 15% of the samples collected from outside the tile-drainage areas. In general, it is found that there is no danger of shallow groundwater pollution by nitrate if the agricultural drainage system (tile drains) is functioning well. In contrast to this, there are chances of groundwater pollution where there is no such drainage-system. Further, the analysis of the water-samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells indicates that nitrates accumulate in the top surface of groundwater, after their leaching with downward percolating water. For this reason, the concentration of nitrate was found a maximum in the shallower groundwater. It decreases rather sharply with increase in groundwater depth. Thus, it is safer to tap deeper groundwater to lesson the danger of pollution by nitrates for human health. Soil-samples were also collected from selected points, along with water samples. These results indicate that soil-texture has a significant impact on production of nitrates, as well as their leaching and subsequent pollution of groundwater. There is more risk of groundwater-pollution in areas occupied by coarse-textured material, containing more than 50 percent sand particles. (author)

  17. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)

    2010-06-17

    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  18. groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from parts of the Wilberforce Island in Bayelsa State,. Southern Nigeria has ... chemical composition of groundwater or anthropogenic factors that ...... of pipelines in the Niger Delta.

  19. hydrogeochemical appraisal of fluoride in groundwater of langtang

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIBAL

    GROUNDWATER OF LANGTANG AREA, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA ... trace elements and rare earth elements for the rock samples were determined by the XRF method and fluorine by the ... Fluorine is leached into the groundwater from the ...

  20. Groundwater flow pattern in the Ruataniwha Plains as derived from the isotope and chemistry signature of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.; van der Raaij, R.; Baalousha, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Ruataniwha Basin is situated in the upper Tukituki catchment, approximately 70 km south west of Napier City. The boundaries of the Ruataniwha Basin are the foothills of the Ruahine Range in the west, Turiri Range and Raukawa Range in the east and rolling hills in the north. The Ruataniwha Plains groundwater system is a multi-layered aquifer system that has a complex hydrogeological setting, as the plains evolved in response to sea-level changes, tectonic activity, and geomorphic processes. Aquifers in the basin occur in gravel, sandstone, pumice and limestone strata within a basin structure. In this study, groundwater samples have been collected for hydrochemistry, dissolved gases, and age tracer analysis. Tracer results were interpreted in terms of groundwater recharge source and rate, groundwater age, changes in groundwater source, and the homogeneity of the aquifers. This helps with conceptual understanding of Ruataniwha Basin groundwater flow patterns, and provides data for calibration of a numerical surface-groundwater flow model. Most water samples across the Ruataniwha Basin contain old water, with a mean residence time (MRT) > 25 years. The old age of most of the waters indicates that these groundwaters are not directly linked to surface water. In the south eastern part of the basin, all groundwater samples are old (>100 years), indicating slow movement of groundwater and slow recharge, consistent with the geology of the area. In the south eastern part of the basin the geologic units have low permeability. The age depth relationship is biased by upwelling groundwater and reflects the closed nature of the basin. The average vertical flow velocity indicates a recharge rate of 0.19 m/y. Four wells in the vicinity of the lower Waipawa River show excellent age-depth relationships, indicating absence of disturbance by groundwater upwelling. The recharge rate there of 0.42 m/y is substantially higher than in the other parts of the basin, indicating river

  1. 680 SPATIAL VARIATION IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher in Group A water samples, and reduced slightly in the Group B and then the Group C samples, ... Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water quality. ... situation which may likely pose a threat to the.

  2. Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Brown, Andrew S; van der Veen, Adriaan M H

    2016-01-01

    The traceable and accurate measurement of biogas impurities is essential in order to robustly assess compliance with the specifications for biomethane being developed by CEN/TC408. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determinate the content of impurities is the sampling and the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Key issues are the suitability of the sample container and minimising the losses of impurities during the sampling and analysis process. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in biogas sampling with the focus on trace impurities. Most of the vessel suitability studies reviewed focused on raw biogas. Many parameters need to be studied when assessing the suitability of vessels for sampling and storage, among them, permeation through the walls, leaks through the valves or physical leaks, sorption losses and adsorption effects to the vessel walls, chemical reactions and the expected initial concentration level. The majority of these studies looked at siloxanes, for which sampling bags, canisters, impingers and sorbents have been reported to be fit-for-purpose in most cases, albeit with some limitations. We conclude that the optimum method requires a combination of different vessels to cover the wide range of impurities commonly found in biogas, which have a wide range of boiling points, polarities, water solubilities, and reactivities. The effects from all the parts of the sampling line must be considered and precautions must be undertaken to minimize these effects. More practical suitability tests, preferably using traceable reference gas mixtures, are needed to understand the influence of the containers and the sampling line on sample properties and to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  4. Multilinear analysis of Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectra of U(VI containing natural water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višňák Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural waters’ uranium level monitoring is of great importance for health and environmental protection. One possible detection method is the Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS, which offers the possibility to distinguish different uranium species. The analytical identification of aqueous uranium species in natural water samples is of distinct importance since individual species differ significantly in sorption properties and mobility in the environment. Samples originate from former uranium mine sites and have been provided by Wismut GmbH, Germany. They have been characterized by total elemental concentrations and TRLFS spectra. Uranium in the samples is supposed to be in form of uranyl(VI complexes mostly with carbonate (CO32− and bicarbonate (HCO3− and to lesser extend with sulphate (SO42− , arsenate (AsO43− , hydroxo (OH− , nitrate (NO3− and other ligands. Presence of alkaline earth metal dications (M = Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Sr2+ will cause most of uranyl to prefer ternary complex species, e.g. Mn(UO2(CO332n-4 (n ∊ {1; 2}. From species quenching the luminescence, Cl− and Fe2+ should be mentioned. Measurement has been done under cryogenic conditions to increase the luminescence signal. Data analysis has been based on Singular Value Decomposition and monoexponential fit of corresponding loadings (for separate TRLFS spectra, the “Factor analysis of Time Series” (FATS method and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC, all data analysed simultaneously. From individual component spectra, excitation energies T00, uranyl symmetric mode vibrational frequencies ωgs and excitation driven U-Oyl bond elongation ΔR have been determined and compared with quasirelativistic (TDDFT/B3LYP theoretical predictions to cross -check experimental data interpretation.

  5. Wettability of hot-pressed samples of boron-containing aluminium compounds by liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Nizhenko, V.I.; Kirillova, N.V.; Floka, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    Highly dispersed powders of aluminium borides and borocarbides were sintered by hot pressing method. Temperature dependence of wettability of hot-pressed boride samples (α-AlB 12 and AlB 18 ) and aluminium borocarbides (Al 3 B 48 C 2 , Al 8 B 4 C 2 and AlB 24 C) by liquid aluminium, copper, germanium, silicon and melts Al + 25 wt.%Si and Cu + (3-6) wt.%Ti was studied. Dependence of a compound wettability on the ratio of components in it was analyzed [ru

  6. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  7. Detection of trace organics in Mars analog samples containing perchlorate by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Danell, Ryan M; Brinckerhoff, William B; Pinnick, Veronica T; van Amerom, Friso; Arevalo, Ricardo D; Getty, Stephanie A; Mahaffy, Paul R; Steininger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from recent Mars missions indicates the presence of perchlorate salts up to 1 wt % level in the near-surface materials. Mixed perchlorates and other oxychlorine species may complicate the detection of organic molecules in bulk martian samples when using pyrolysis techniques. To address this analytical challenge, we report here results of laboratory measurements with laser desorption mass spectrometry, including analyses performed on both commercial and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) breadboard instruments. We demonstrate that the detection of nonvolatile organics in selected spiked mineral-matrix materials by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry is not inhibited by the presence of up to 1 wt % perchlorate salt. The organics in the sample are not significantly degraded or combusted in the LDI process, and the parent molecular ion is retained in the mass spectrum. The LDI technique provides distinct potential benefits for the detection of organics in situ on the martian surface and has the potential to aid in the search for signs of life on Mars.

  8. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  9. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors

  10. Validation of groundwater modelling for DDT and petroleum hydrocarbons at Border Pump Station and Rainy Hollow, northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, M.; Bright, D.; Hartshorne, B.

    2001-01-01

    Border Station and Rainy Hollow are inactive booster pumping stations along the Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline in northern British Columbia. An emergency site cleanup was conducted in 1994 after canisters containing DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro phenyl)ethane] were discovered buried in a dump. A detailed site investigation showed that hydrocarbons and DDT were present in soil and groundwater. The major contaminants of concern were DDTs in surface soil, DDTs in subsurface soils and groundwater, and light hydrocarbons in subsurface soils and groundwater. Remedial action took place in the summer of 1997. The canisters, along with soils and other contaminated materials, were excavated and shipped off-site for disposal. A conceptual groundwater model was developed to predict future contaminant releases to the nearby Klehini River. A monitoring program was initiated to validate the groundwater model. From 1997 to 2000, the groundwater was sampled analyzed annually for DDT, metals and hydrocarbons. Results indicated a striking overall consistency in the concentrations of DDT and hydrocarbons in both groundwater and surface water samples, confirming the validity of the 1996 model predictions. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, J. (Conterra, Uppsala (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Wallin, B. (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden)); Bruechert, V. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)); Molinero, J. (Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with

  12. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J.; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F.; Wallin, B.; Bruechert, V.; Molinero, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater. Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and thus limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Laxemar to be considered for use in (future) safety assessments. To achieve this, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide related data reported from the Laxemar site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2009/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) (i.e. in situ sampling from one or more borehole sections using mobile equipment) are usually lower than those measured during the monitoring phase (i.e. in situ sampling from one borehole section using permanently installed equipment). An exception is borehole KLX01, where values generally lie within the same range as the monitoring samples. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' sulphide value. When both initial values from CCC (or samples taken with the hydrotest

  13. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This quarterly report contains data received between January and March 1995, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the January through March quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported. Nineteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater monitoring projects are conducted at the Hanford Site. These projects include treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for both solid and liquid waste. The groundwater monitoring programs described in this report comply with the interim-status federal (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulation [CFR] Part 265) and state (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303-400) regulations. The RCRA projects are monitored under one of three programs: background monitoring, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment.

  14. Groundwater Contamination by Uranium and Mercury at the Ridaura Aquifer (Girona, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of uranium and mercury have been detected in drinking water from public supply and agricultural wells in alluvial and granitic aquifers of the Ridaura basin located at Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR. The samples showed high concentrations of U above the U.S. standards and the World Health Organization regulations which set a maximum value of 30 µg/L. Further, high mercury concentrations above the European Drinking Water Standards (1 μg/L were found. Spatial distribution of U in groundwater and geochemical evolution of groundwater suggest that U levels appear to be highest in granitic areas where groundwater has long residence times and a significant salinity. The presence of high U concentrations in alluvial groundwater samples could be associated with hydraulic connection through fractures between the alluvial system and deep granite system. According to this model, oxidizing groundwater moving through fractures in the leucocratic/biotitic granite containing anomalous U contents are the most likely to acquire high levels of U. The distribution of Hg showed concentrations above 1 μg/L in 10 alluvial samples, mainly located near the limit of alluvial aquifer with igneous rocks, which suggests a possible migration of Hg from granitic materials. Also, some samples showed Hg concentrations comprised between 0.9 and 1.5 μg/L, from wells located in agricultural areas.

  15. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  16. Assessment of Hydrochemistry for Use as Groundwater Age Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; Daughney, Chris; Jackson, Bethanna; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating can aid groundwater management by providing information on groundwater flow, mixing and residence-, storage- and exposure-time of groundwater in the subsurface. Groundwater age can be inferred from environmental tracers, such as tritium, SF6 and CFCs (CFC-12, -11 and -113). These tracers often need to be applied complementarily, since they have a restricted application range and ambiguous age interpretations can be obtained. Some tracers, such as the CFCs, will become of limited use in near future, due their fading out atmospheric concentration. As a consequence of these limitations, there is a need for additional, complementary tracers to ensure groundwater dating in future. Hydrochemistry parameters, such as the concentrations and ratios of major ions, appear to be promising candidates. Hydro-chemistry data at various spatial and temporal scales are widely available through local, regional and national groundwater monitoring programmes. Promising relationships between hydrochemistry parameters and groundwater residence time or aquifer depth have been found in near piston flow environments. However, most groundwater samples contain proportions of different aged water, due to mixing of water emerging from different flow lines during sampling or discharge, which complicates the establishment of hydrochemistry-time relationships in these environments. In this study, we establish a framework to infer hydrochemistry - (residence) time relationships in non-piston flow environments by using age information inferred from environmental tracer data and lumped parameter models (LPMs). The approach involves the generation of major element concentrations by 'classic' Monte Carlo simulation and subsequent comparison of simulated and observed element concentrations by means of an objective function to establish hydrochemistry-time relationships. The framework also allows for assessment of the hydrochemistry-time relationships with regards to their potential to

  17. Characterization of microbial communities distributed in the groundwater pumped from deep tube wells in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi; Chapagain, Saroj Kumar; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Mori, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Kazama, Futaba

    2012-03-01

    Although groundwater is a major water supply source in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, it is known that the groundwater has significant microbial contamination exceeding the drinking water quality standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and that this has been implicated in causing a variety of diseases among people living in the valley. However, little is known about the distribution of pathogenic microbes in the groundwater. Here, we analysed the microbial communities of the six water samples from deep tube wells by using the 16S rRNA gene sequences based culture-independent method. The analysis showed that the groundwater has been contaminated with various types of opportunistic microbes in addition to fecal microbes. Particularly, the clonal sequences related to the opportunistic microbes within the genus Acinetobacter were detected in all samples. As many strains of Acinetobacter are known as multi-drug resistant microbes that are currently spreading in the world, we conducted a molecular-based survey for detection of the gene encoding carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase (bla(oxa-23-like) gene), which is a key enzyme responsible for multi-drug resistance, in the groundwater samples. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two specific primer sets for amplifying bla(oxa-23-like) gene indicated that two of six groundwater samples contain multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter.

  18. Investigation of geochemical indicators to evaluate the connection between inland and coastal groundwater systems near Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.; Barber, Larry B.; Beisner, Kimberly R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The connection between inland and coastal aquifers near Kona, Hawai‘i is uncertain. • If connected, increased inland groundwater pumping may threaten coastal ecosystems. • Connection of inland and coastal aquifers was investigated using geochemical data. • Stable isotope results provide strong evidence of a connection between the systems. • Other geochemical data suggest a connection but are not conclusive. - Abstract: Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) is a coastal sanctuary on the western side of the Island of Hawai‘i that was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities. KAHO contains a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources and water-related habitat for species that have been declared as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or are candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are dependent on coastal unconfined groundwater in a freshwater-lens system. The coastal unconfined-groundwater system is recharged by local infiltration of rainfall but also may receive recharge from an inland groundwater system containing groundwater impounded to high altitudes. The area inland of and near KAHO is being rapidly urbanized and increased groundwater withdrawals from the inland impounded-groundwater system may affect habitat and water quality in KAHO, depending on the extent of connection between the coastal unconfined groundwater and inland impounded-groundwater. An investigation of the geochemistry of surface-water and groundwater samples in and near KAHO was performed to evaluate the presence or absence of a connection between the inland impounded- and coastal unconfined-groundwater systems in the area. Analyses of major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, and strontium-isotope ratio results from ocean, fishpond, anchialine pool, and groundwater samples were consistent with a linear

  19. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Testing of complementarity of PDA and MS detectors using chromatographic fingerprinting of genuine and counterfeit samples containing sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Deborah; Krakowska, Barbara; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia; Daszykowski, Michal; Apers, Sandra; Deconinck, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global threat to public health. High amounts enter the European market, which is why characterization of these products is a very important issue. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method were developed for the analysis of genuine Viagra®, generic products of Viagra®, and counterfeit samples in order to obtain different types of fingerprints. These data were included in the chemometric data analysis, aiming to test whether PDA and MS are complementary detection techniques. The MS data comprise both MS1 and MS2 fingerprints; the PDA data consist of fingerprints measured at three different wavelengths, i.e., 254, 270, and 290 nm, and all possible combinations of these wavelengths. First, it was verified if both groups of fingerprints can discriminate between genuine, generic, and counterfeit medicines separately; next, it was studied if the obtained results could be ameliorated by combining both fingerprint types. This data analysis showed that MS1 does not provide suitable classification models since several genuines and generics are classified as counterfeits and vice versa. However, when analyzing the MS1_MS2 data in combination with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), a perfect discrimination was obtained. When only using data measured at 254 nm, good classification models can be obtained by k nearest neighbors (kNN) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), which might be interesting for the characterization of counterfeit drugs in developing countries. However, in general, the combination of PDA and MS data (254 nm_MS1) is preferred due to less classification errors between the genuines/generics and counterfeits compared to PDA and MS data separately.

  1. Protein precipitation of diluted samples in SDS-containing buffer with acetone leads to higher protein recovery and reproducibility in comparison with TCA/acetone approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Cátia; Anjo, Sandra I; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Proteomic approaches are extremely valuable in many fields of research, where mass spectrometry methods have gained an increasing interest, especially because of the ability to perform quantitative analysis. Nonetheless, sample preparation prior to mass spectrometry analysis is of the utmost importance. In this work, two protein precipitation approaches, widely used for cleaning and concentrating protein samples, were tested and compared in very diluted samples solubilized in a strong buffer (containing SDS). The amount of protein recovered after acetone and TCA/acetone precipitation was assessed, as well as the protein identification and relative quantification by SWATH-MS yields were compared with the results from the same sample without precipitation. From this study, it was possible to conclude that in the case of diluted samples in denaturing buffers, the use of cold acetone as precipitation protocol is more favourable than the use of TCA/acetone in terms of reproducibility in protein recovery and number of identified and quantified proteins. Furthermore, the reproducibility in relative quantification of the proteins is even higher in samples precipitated with acetone compared with the original sample. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  5. Geochemical studies of groundwater systems of semiarid Yola area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the process controlling the water chemistry and to assess the ... for the deep groundwater and Na+-Cl- for the surface water bodies. ... Groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater indicate pH values (6.10 to 7.08) ...

  6. Estimation of Ni63, Pu241, Pu242 and Am243 from Co60, Pu239, and Cm244 activities in groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Part B Permit for F ampersand H Seepage Basins calls for analysis of several constituents of concern in groundwater monitoring wells. Four of these analytes are the radionuclides Ni 63 , Pu 241 , Pu 242 , and Am 243 . These are currently not being analyzed due to their very difficult, tedious analytical schemes coupled with their relatively low activity values. This report demonstrates how the activity value for Ni 63 , a week beta emitter, can be estimated from that of Co 60 , an easily detectable, high-energy gamma emitter. Similarly, estimates of Pu 241 , a beta emitter, and the alpha-emitting Pu 242 can be made from the activity value of the more easily detected Pu 239 . Am 243 can be estimated from the activity of Cm 244 , which is easier to detect because of a shorter half-life (higher specific activity) and the emission of higher energy alpha particles. These correlations are made under very specific parameters in order to ensure the validity of this approach. Therefore, assumptions must be established setting ground rules for establishing these activity relationships. Bases for these assumptions are explained and/or referenced. Their degree of uncertainty limits the accuracy of the data so that the term ''estimate'' is used. Such soundly-based, conservative estimates for these four rads can provide a tool for evaluating any hazards from their presence over the next several years. Hopefully, during this time, sufficient advances will be made in their radiochemical analyses and in counting techniques so that in the future, their activities may be quantitatively determined more easily and also more cost effectively

  7. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickel, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  8. Summary report on groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1993-07-01

    The preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal (in Finland) carried out by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) during the period 1987 to 1992 yielded data on hydrogeochemistry from a total 337 water samples. The main objective of the groundwater chemistry studies was to characterize groundwaters at the investigation sites and, specifically, to create a concept for the mean residence times and evolution of groundwater by means of isotopic analyses. Moreover, the studies yielded input data for geochemical modelling and the performance assessment. Samples were taken from deep boreholes (with a depth of 500 to 1000 m), percussion-drilled boreholes (depth approx. 200 m), flushing-water wells (approx. 100 m) and multi-level pietzometers (approx. 100 m) used in the hydrological tests. The water used for drilling the deep boreholes was taken from local flushing-water wells, whose water was also analyzed in detail. The flushing water used in drilling was marked with two tracers, iodine and uranine, analyzed with two different methods. For reference purposes, samples were also taken from surficial and groundwaters over a large area surrounding the investigation site. Precipitation over a period of at least one year was collected at all the five investigation sites and the samples were analyzed in great detail, particularly with regard to isotopes. Similarly, snow profile samples representing precipitation during the entire winter was taken from each site at least once

  9. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Lokesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and residual sodium carbonate (RSC values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  10. Calendar Year 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2008 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2008 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  11. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  12. Hydrochemistry and Characteristics of Groundwater: Case Study Water Contamination at Citarum River Upstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sapari Dwi Hadian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rancaekek and Sayang area, West Java, are the area where many industrial factories are located.Thus, the region becomes the targeted destination for industrial development.The  population in the area is rising due to the growth of industries causing the regional development becomes uncontrollable. In addition, the constant increment of waste and also poor-coordinated disposal systems may result in groundwater contamination in the areas. The rapid growth of the area increase the need for groundwater as well as the need for more research about contamination at Rancaekek and Sayang. The research aims to explore the spread of groundwater contamination in the area. The research method is carried out based on the analysis of Geological Mapping, Hydrogeological Mapping and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the area. Chemical analyses of the groundwater were conducted through laboratory test of groundwater samples at specific spots of dug wells. The lab test results were further analyzed to determine the contamination zone. The findings reveal that the distribution of contamination in the area follow the shallow ground water flow patterns, the water contamination contains heavy metal and there is degradation of soil fertility. The findings suggest the stakeholders to delineate the contaminated area, and increase the dissemination of environmental awareness.

  13. The occurrence and geochemistry of arsenic in groundwaters of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Lu, H.; Liu, T.

    2008-12-01

    Blackfoot disease caused by digesting water with high concentration (>0.3 mg/L) of arsenic from deep wells affected thousands of people in Chianan of Taiwan during 1930 to 1960. Drinking water with arsenic, even in a lower concentration (0.1-0.01 mg/L) increase risk of cancer that had been demonstrated by a number of studies on Taiwan. By concerning the effects of long-term chronic exposure to arsenic, the EPA of United States had revised the regulatory limit of arsenic for drinking water from 0.05 to 0.01 mg/L in 2006. Many researches have investigated on the occurrence and chemistry of the arsenic-contained groundwater and its health effects in Chianan of Taiwan. However, there are only a few studies on the other groundwater basins of Taiwan that providing about one third of water supplies for a population of 21 million. In this study, we investigate the occurrence and redox geochemistry of arsenic in nine major groundwater basins of Taiwan. The values and concentrations of pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, iron, methane, sulfide, bicarbonate and ammonium in groundwaters were determined with a total of 610 monitoring wells in 2006. More than 60% of wells in the GW6 basin with a concentration of arsenic exceed 0.05 mg/L. The groundwaters in GW6 basin also have the highest average arsenic concentration. The exceeding percent (>0.05 mg/L) of wells for GW7, GW5, GW9 and GW8 basins are 30%, 20%, 18% and 8%, respectively. All of arsenic concentrations in groundwaters of GW1 to GW4 basins are lower than 0.05 mg/L, but some samples are higher than 0.01 mg/L. The exceeding percent of samples for arsenic 0.01 mg/L in GW3, GW1, GW2 and GW4 basins are 28%, 24%, 23% and 6%, respectively. Our results suggest that the concentrations of arsenic as well as iron in groundwaters of Taiwan were elevated by the iron-reducing process in aquifers. Samples, especially those with higher concentration of bicarbonate (> 400 mg/L) and oversaturated methane, mostly in the GW6 basin

  14. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  15. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Creosote-contaminated groundwater contains a complex mixture of phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-, sulphur- or oxygen-containing heterocyclic, aromatic compounds. One of the most important factors that limits the spreading of these contaminants in groundwater aquifers is degradation by...... enhancement of the native population of subsurface micro-organisms to degrade the contaminants (in situ treatment) and withdrawal of the groundwater followed by treatment by various wastewater treatment processes (above-ground treatment)....

  16. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    the 70 wells sampled, 3 surface-water samples were collected in streams near 2 of the sampled wells in order to better comprehend the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-TCP), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and alkalinity), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), and dissolved gases (including noble gases) also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 298 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix-spikes) were collected at approximately 3 to 12 percent of the wells in the SCRC study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were less than 10 percent relative and/or standard deviation, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84

  17. Electrophoretic extraction of low molecular weight cationic analytes from sodium dodecyl sulfate containing sample matrices for their direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Tristan F; Lopez, Thomas D; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-03-03

    While the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in separation buffers allows efficient analysis of complex mixtures, its presence in the sample matrix is known to severely interfere with the mass-spectrometric characterization of analyte molecules. In this article, we report a microfluidic device that addresses this analytical challenge by enabling inline electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of low molecular weight cationic samples prepared in SDS containing matrices. The functionality of this device relies on the continuous extraction of analyte molecules into an SDS-free solvent stream based on the free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) technique prior to their ESI-MS analysis. The reported extraction was accomplished in our current work in a glass channel with microelectrodes fabricated along its sidewalls to realize the desired electric field. Our experiments show that a key challenge to successfully operating such a device is to suppress the electroosmotically driven fluid circulations generated in its extraction channel that otherwise tend to vigorously mix the liquid streams flowing through this duct. A new coating medium, N-(2-triethoxysilylpropyl) formamide, recently demonstrated by our laboratory to nearly eliminate electroosmotic flow in glass microchannels was employed to address this issue. Applying this surface modifier, we were able to efficiently extract two different peptides, human angiotensin I and MRFA, individually from an SDS containing matrix using the FFZE method and detect them at concentrations down to 3.7 and 6.3 μg/mL, respectively, in samples containing as much as 10 mM SDS. Notice that in addition to greatly reducing the amount of SDS entering the MS instrument, the reported approach allows rapid solvent exchange for facilitating efficient analyte ionization desired in ESI-MS analysis.

  18. Microbiological oxidative dissolution of a complex mineral sample containing pyrite (FeS2), pyrrotite (Fe1-xS) and molybdenite (MoS2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco Junior, Wilmo E.; Bevilaqua, Denise; Garcia Junior, Oswaldo

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the oxidation of a complex molybdenite mineral which contains pyrite and pyrrotite, by Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans. This study was performed by respirometric essays and bioleaching in shake flasks. Respirometric essays yielded the kinetics of mineral oxidation. The findings showed that sulfide oxidation followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Bioleaching in shake flasks allowed evaluation of chemical and mineralogical changes resulting from sulfide oxidation. The results demonstrated that pyrrotite and pyrite were completely oxidized in A. ferrooxidans cultures whereas molybdenite was not consumed. These data indicated that molybdenite was the most recalcitrant sulfide in the sample. (author)

  19. Use of an internal sample attenuator in radioimmunoassay. Assay of triiodothyronine (T3) using starch particles containing entrapped charcoal and bismuth oxide in combination with free antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.; Mattiasson, B.; Thorell, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for triiodothyronine involving no separate washing or separation steps is described. By using an internal sample attenuator, bismuth oxide, co-immobilized with the sorbent, charcoal, for the non-bound fraction of T 3 , a system was designed in which a suspension of starch spheres containing the sorbent and the attenuator was added after the immunological reaction had taken place. The particles sedimented and the whole test tube was counted in a gamma-counter. The coefficient of correlation between the results obtained with the present method and those from conventional procedures was 0.993. (Auth.)

  20. Laboratory electrical resistivity analysis of geologic samples from Fort Irwin, California: Chapter E in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Correlating laboratory resistivity measurements with geophysical resistivity models helps constrain these models to the geology and lithology of an area. Throughout the Fort Irwin National Training Center area, 111 samples from both cored boreholes and surface outcrops were collected and processed for laboratory measurements. These samples represent various lithologic types that include plutonic and metamorphic (basement) rocks, lava flows, consolidated sedimentary rocks, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that formed in a series of intermountain basins. Basement rocks, lava flows, and some lithified tuffs are generally resistive (≥100 ohm-meters [Ω·m]) when saturated. Saturated unconsolidated samples are moderately conductive to conductive, with resistivities generally less than 100 Ω·m, and many of these samples are less than 50 Ω·m. The unconsolidated samples can further be separated into two broad groups: (1) younger sediments that are moderately conductive, owing to their limited clay content, and (2) older, more conductive sediments with a higher clay content that reflects substantial amounts of originally glassy volcanic ash subsequently altered to clay. The older sediments are believed to be Tertiary. Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired near most of the boreholes, and, on the whole, close agreements between laboratory measurements and resistivity models were found. 

  1. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period April 1 through June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and ''Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities,'' as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company manages RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. This quarterly report contains data received between May 20 and August 19, 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the April through June quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported

  2. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Chapter 12. Sampling and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Cook, P.G.; Solomon, D.K.; Han, L.F.; Groening, M.; Oster, H.

    2006-01-01

    When water samples are taken for the analysis of CFCs, regardless of the sampling method used, contamination of samples by contact with atmospheric air (with its 'high' CFC concentrations) is a major concern. This is because groundwaters usually have lower CFC concentrations than those waters which have been exposed to the modern air. Some groundwaters might not contain CFCs and, therefore, are most sensitive to trace contamination by atmospheric air. Thus, extreme precautions are needed to obtain uncontaminated samples when groundwaters, particularly those with older ages, are sampled. It is recommended at the start of any CFC investigation that samples from a CFC-free source be collected and analysed, as a check upon the sampling equipment and methodology. The CFC-free source might be a deep monitoring well or, alternatively, CFC-free water could be carefully prepared in the laboratory. It is especially important that all tubing, pumps and connection that will be used in the sampling campaign be checked in this manner

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 , (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters

  5. Determination of the analytical performance of a headspace capillary gas chromatographic technique and karl Fischer coulometric titration by system calibration using oil samples containing known amounts of moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years, concerns have been raised in the literature about the accuracy of the Karl Fischer (KF) method for assessing moisture in transformer mineral oils. To better understand this issue, the performance of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic (HS-CGC) technique was compared to that of KF coulometric titration by analyzing moisture in samples containing known amounts of water and various samples obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two modes of adding samples into the KF vessel were used:  direct injection and indirect injection via an azeotropic distillation of the moisture with toluene. Under the conditions used for direct injection, the oil matrix was totally dissolved in the anolyte, which allowed the moisture to be titrated in a single-phase solution rather than in a suspension. The results have shown that when HS-CGC and combined azeotropic distillation/KF titration are calibrated with moisture-in-oil standards, a linear relation is observed over 0-60 ppm H(2)O with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9994 (95% confidence), with the regression line crossing through zero. A similar relation can also be observed when calibration is achieved by direct KF addition of standards prepared with octanol-1, but in this case an intercept of 4-5 ppm is noted. The amount of moisture determined by curve interpolation in NIST reference materials by the three calibrated systems ranges from 13.0 to 14.8 ppm for RM 8506 and 42.5 to 46.4 ppm for RM 8507, and in any case, the results were as high as those reported in the literature with volumetric KF titration. However, titration of various dehydrated oil and solvent samples showed that direct KF titration is affected by a small bias when samples contain very little moisture. The source of error after correction for the large sample volume used for the determination (8 mL) is about 6 ppm for Voltesso naphthenic oil and 4 ppm for toluene, revealing a matrix

  6. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  7. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area...... in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using...... both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...

  8. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  9. Recharge sources and residence times of groundwater as determined by geochemical tracers in the Mayfield Area, southwestern Idaho, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.

    2013-01-01

    Parties proposing residential development in the area of Mayfield, Idaho are seeking a sustainable groundwater supply. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, used geochemical tracers in the Mayfield area to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge and differences in groundwater residence time. Fourteen groundwater wells and one surface-water site were sampled for major ion chemistry, metals, stable isotopes, and age tracers; data collected from this study were used to evaluate the sources of groundwater recharge and groundwater residence times in the area. Major ion chemistry varied along a flow path between deeper wells, suggesting an upgradient source of dilute water, and a downgradient source of more concentrated water with the geochemical signature of the Idaho Batholith. Samples from shallow wells had elevated nutrient concentrations, a more positive oxygen-18 signature, and younger carbon-14 dates than deep wells, suggesting that recharge comes from young precipitation and surface-water infiltration. Samples from deep wells generally had higher concentrations of metals typical of geothermal waters, a more negative oxygen-18 signature, and older carbon-14 values than samples from shallow wells, suggesting that recharge comes from both infiltration of meteoric water and another source. The chemistry of groundwater sampled from deep wells is somewhat similar to the chemistry in geothermal waters, suggesting that geothermal water may be a source of recharge to this aquifer. Results of NETPATH mixing models suggest that geothermal water composes 1–23 percent of water in deep wells. Chlorofluorocarbons were detected in every sample, which indicates that all groundwater samples contain at least a component of young recharge, and that groundwater is derived from multiple recharge sources. Conclusions from this study can be used to further refine conceptual hydrological models of the area.

  10. Summary of chemical data from onsite and laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the surficial aquifer, Las Vegas, Nevada, April and August 1993 and September 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of data collected during April and August 1993 and September 1994. These results are to be used as a wet-site analog to southern Nevada soils located at the Amargosa Desert Research Site near Beatty, Nevada. The samples were collected and analyzed in conjunction with the Nevada Basin and Range study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA).

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  13. Estimation of microbial respiration rates in groundwater by geochemical modeling constrained with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in geochemistry and stable isotopes along a well-established groundwater flow path were used to estimate in situ microbial respiration rates in the Middendorf aquifer in the southeastern United States. Respiration rates were determined for individual terminal electron acceptors including O 2 , MnO 2 , Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- . The extent of biotic reactions were constrained by the fractionation of stable isotopes of carbon and sulfur. Sulfur isotopes and the presence of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms indicated that sulfate is produced through the oxidation of reduced sulfur species in the aquifer and not by the dissolution of gypsum, as previously reported. The respiration rates varied along the flow path as the groundwater transitioned between primarily oxic to anoxic conditions. Iron-reducing microorganisms were the largest contributors to the oxidation of organic matter along the portion of the groundwater flow path investigated in this study. The transition zone between oxic and anoxic groundwater contained a wide range of terminal electron acceptors and showed the greatest diversity and numbers of culturable microorganisms and the highest respiration rates. A comparison of respiration rates measured from core samples and pumped groundwater suggests that variability in respiration rates may often reflect the measurement scales, both in the sample volume and the time-frame over which the respiration measurement is averaged. Chemical heterogeneity may create a wide range of respiration rates when the scale of the observation is below the scale of the heterogeneity

  14. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  15. Workshop on methods for siting groundwater monitoring wells: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E.

    1992-02-01

    The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify methods for the optimum siting of groundwater monitoring wells to minimize the number required that will provide statistically and physically representative samples. In addition, the workshop served to identify information and data gaps, stimulated discussion and provided an opportunity for exchange of ideas between regulators and scientists interested in siting groundwater monitoring wells. These proceedings should serve these objectives and provide a source of relevant information which may be used to evaluate the current state of development of methods for siting groundwater monitoring wells and the additional research needs. The proceedings contain the agenda and list of attendees in the first section. The abstract and viewgraphs for each presentation are given in the second section. For several presentations, abstracts and viewgraphs were not received. After the presentations, four working groups were organized and met for approximately a day. The working group leaders then gave a verbal summary of their sessions. This material was transcribed and is included in the next section of these proceedings. The appendices contain forms describing various methods discussed in the working groups

  16. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  17. Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation with Reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) for the both the groundwater and soil samples and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) for the soil samples were also computed. Out of the analyzed 20 groundwater samples, 8 show EC values below 0.7 and the remaining between 0.71 and 1.12 dS/m, and pH values from ...

  18. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    , oxygen, and carbon, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 300 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 11 percent of the wells sampled for each analysis, and the results obtained from these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that data for the groundwater samples were not compromised by possible contamination during sample collection, handling or analysis. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, raw groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to raw groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), and with aesthetic and technical thresholds established by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only, and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with regulatory thresholds. The concentrations of most constituents detected in groundwater samples from MADCHOW wells were below drinking-water thresholds. Organic compounds (VOCs and pesticides

  19. Isotope and chemical tracers in groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.; Stewart, M.K.; Morgenstern, U.; Trompetter, V.

    1999-01-01

    The course sessions cover: session 1, Fundamentals of stable and radioactive isotopes; session 2, Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in hydrology: background, examples, sampling strategy; session 3, Catchment studies using oxygen and hydrogen isotopes: background - the hydrologic water balance, evapotranspiration - the lion's share, runoff generation - new water/old water fractions, groundwater recharge - the crumbs; session 4, Isotopes in catchment hydrology: survey of applications, future developments; session 5, Applications of tritium in hydrology: background and measurement, interpretation, examples; session 6, Case studies using mixing models: Hutt Valley groundwater system, an extended mixing model for simulating tracer transport in the unsaturated zone; session 7, Groundwater dating using CFC concentrations: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 8, Groundwater dating with carbon-14: background, sampling and measurement, use and applications; session 9, NZ case studies: Tauranga warm springs, North Canterbury Plains groundwater; session 10, Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes: background and examples, biological applications of C-N-S isotopes; session 11, New developments in isotope hydrology: gas isotopes, compound specific applications, age dating of sediments etc; session 12, NZ case studies: North Canterbury Plains groundwater (continued), Waimea Plains groundwater. (author). refs., figs

  20. Groundwater monitoring of an open-pit limestone quarry: groundwater characteristics, evolution and their connections to rock slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eang, Khy Eam; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Fujinaga, Ryota; Kondo, Megumi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar

    2018-03-06

    Groundwater flow and its geochemical evolution in mines are important not only in the study of contaminant migration but also in the effective planning of excavation. The effects of groundwater on the stability of rock slopes and other mine constructions especially in limestone quarries are crucial because calcite, the major mineral component of limestone, is moderately soluble in water. In this study, evolution of groundwater in a limestone quarry located in Chichibu city was monitored to understand the geochemical processes occurring within the rock strata of the quarry and changes in the chemistry of groundwater, which suggests zones of deformations that may affect the stability of rock slopes. There are three distinct geological formations in the quarry: limestone layer, interbedded layer of limestone and slaty greenstone, and slaty greenstone layer as basement rock. Although the hydrochemical facies of all groundwater samples were Ca-HCO 3 type water, changes in the geochemical properties of groundwater from the three geological formations were observed. In particular, significant changes in the chemical properties of several groundwater samples along the interbedded layer were observed, which could be attributed to the mixing of groundwater from the limestone and slaty greenstone layers. On the rainy day, the concentrations of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - in the groundwater fluctuated notably, and the groundwater flowing along the interbedded layer was dominated by groundwater from the limestone layer. These suggest that groundwater along the interbedded layer may affect the stability of rock slopes.

  1. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  2. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ{sup 37}Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water.

  3. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ"3"7Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water. • Groundwater

  4. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... is evaluated. At gas work sites, where cyanide is mainly present as iron cyanide complexes, the risk for effects on humans from exposure to cyanide compounds seems to be of minor relevance....

  5. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  6. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    palaeohydrogeological conditions. It is likely that inland areas have had longer durations of post-glacial fresh water infiltration than coastal areas, possibly causing greater degrees of dilution and dispersion of preexisting groundwaters and thus overprinting their hydrochemical and isotopic 'fingerprints'. Lower post-glacial hydraulic gradients relative to inland sites may account for the occurrence of more relict cold-climate water at coastal sites. Some general observations are based on rather thin evidence and therefore speculative. Firstly, it seems that glacial melt water penetrated many hundreds of metres and in some places to at least 1,000 m depth. However the low remaining proportions of melt water and of much older saline Shield water suggest that melt water flux did not fully displace pre-existing groundwaters at these depths. Secondly, where there has been post-glacial infiltration of palaeo-Baltic sea water, the density stratification or compartmentalisation effect coupled with low hydraulic gradient has reduced rates of subsequent fresh water circulation after shoreline recession. There are many uncertainties in interpreting these geochemical indicators in terms of the penetration depths of glacial melt waters and the degree to which they replace preexisting groundwaters, of other aspects of groundwater stability, and of comparisons between inland and coastal groundwater systems. Uncertainties derive partly from the reliability of groundwater samples as being representative of in situ conditions, and partly from the non-uniqueness of interpretative models. Future investigations using these approaches need to improve sampling, to make conjunctive use of geochemical and isotopic indicators which have varying timescales and sensitivities, and to integrate these indicators with palaeohydrogeological modelling to support the development of reliable groundwater flow and solute transport models for Performance Assessment

  7. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    local palaeohydrogeological conditions. It is likely that inland areas have had longer durations of post-glacial fresh water infiltration than coastal areas, possibly causing greater degrees of dilution and dispersion of preexisting groundwaters and thus overprinting their hydrochemical and isotopic 'fingerprints'. Lower post-glacial hydraulic gradients relative to inland sites may account for the occurrence of more relict cold-climate water at coastal sites. Some general observations are based on rather thin evidence and therefore speculative. Firstly, it seems that glacial melt water penetrated many hundreds of metres and in some places to at least 1,000 m depth. However the low remaining proportions of melt water and of much older saline Shield water suggest that melt water flux did not fully displace pre-existing groundwaters at these depths. Secondly, where there has been post-glacial infiltration of palaeo-Baltic sea water, the density stratification or compartmentalisation effect coupled with low hydraulic gradient has reduced rates of subsequent fresh water circulation after shoreline recession. There are many uncertainties in interpreting these geochemical indicators in terms of the penetration depths of glacial melt waters and the degree to which they replace preexisting groundwaters, of other aspects of groundwater stability, and of comparisons between inland and coastal groundwater systems. Uncertainties derive partly from the reliability of groundwater samples as being representative of in situ conditions, and partly from the non-uniqueness of interpretative models. Future investigations using these approaches need to improve sampling, to make conjunctive use of geochemical and isotopic indicators which have varying timescales and sensitivities, and to integrate these indicators with palaeohydrogeological modelling to support the development of reliable groundwater flow and solute transport models for Performance Assessment.

  8. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Nevada study unit: granitic, metamorphic, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks. One natural spring that is not used for drinking water was sampled for comparison with a nearby primary grid well in the same cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA] and perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major ions, total dissolved solids, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (radium isotopes, radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, and uranium isotopes). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-14, strontium isotopes, and tritium), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells sampled for each analysis, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection, handling, and analytical procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, with few exceptions. Matrix-spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to finished drinking water that is served to the consumer, not to untre

  9. Geochemistry and the Understanding of Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Plummer, L. N.; Weissmann, G. S.; Stute, M.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical techniques and concepts have made major contributions to the understanding of groundwater systems. Advances continue to be made through (1) development of measurement and characterization techniques, (2) improvements in computer technology, networks and numerical modeling, (3) investigation of coupled geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and biologic processes, and (4) scaling of individual observations, processes or subsystem models into larger coherent model frameworks. Many applications benefit from progress in these areas, such as: (1) understanding paleoenvironments, in particular paleoclimate, through the use of groundwater archives, (2) assessing the sustainability (recharge and depletion) of groundwater resources, and (3) their vulnerability to contamination, (4) evaluating the capacity and consequences of subsurface waste isolation (e.g. geologic carbon sequestration, nuclear and chemical waste disposal), (5) assessing the potential for mitigation/transformation of anthropogenic contaminants in groundwater systems, and (6) understanding the effect of groundwater lag times in ecosystem-scale responses to natural events, land-use changes, human impacts, and remediation efforts. Obtaining “representative” groundwater samples is difficult and progress in obtaining “representative” samples, or interpreting them, requires new techniques in characterizing groundwater system heterogeneity. Better characterization and simulation of groundwater system heterogeneity (both physical and geochemical) is critical to interpreting the meaning of groundwater “ages”; to understanding and predicting groundwater flow, solute transport, and geochemical evolution; and to quantifying groundwater recharge and discharge processes. Research advances will also come from greater use and progress (1) in the application of environmental tracers to ground water dating and in the analysis of new geochemical tracers (e.g. compound specific isotopic analyses, noble gas

  10. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.; Becker, V.; Kingston, A.; Akbilgic, O.; Taylor, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged − 69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n = 63) in free gas and − 65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n = 26) in dissolved gas. δ"1"3C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ"1"3C values in concert with average δ"2H_C_H_4 values of − 289 ± 44‰ (n = 45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO_2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically > 500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100–250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. - Highlights: • Analysis of gas geochemical data from 186 monitoring wells in

  11. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humez, P., E-mail: phumez@ucalgary.ca [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Mayer, B.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.; Becker, V.; Kingston, A. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Akbilgic, O. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); UTHSC-ORNL Center for Biomedical Informatics, 910 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38104 (United States); Taylor, S. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged − 69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n = 63) in free gas and − 65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n = 26) in dissolved gas. δ{sup 13}C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ{sup 13}C values in concert with average δ{sup 2}H{sub CH4} values of − 289 ± 44‰ (n = 45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO{sub 2} reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically > 500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100–250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. - Highlights: • Analysis of gas geochemical data from 186

  12. Groundwater well services site safety and health plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, B.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Health and Safety Plan covers well servicing in support of the Environmental Restoration Contractor Groundwater Project. Well servicing is an important part of environmental restoration activities supporting several pump and treat facilities and assisting in evaluation and servicing of various groundwater wells throughout the Hanford Site. Remediation of contaminated groundwater is a major part of the ERC project. Well services tasks help enhance groundwater extraction/injection as well as maintain groundwater wells for sampling and other hydrologic testing and information gathering

  13. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    wells screened in Sierra Nevada sands contained low concentrations of nitrite or ammonium, indicating reduction of nitrate by denitrification or dissimilatory processes, respectively.Geology of the Coast Ranges westward of the study unit strongly affects groundwater quality in the WSJV. Elevated concentrations of TDS, sulfate, boron, selenium and strontium in groundwater were primarily associated with aquifer sediments and recharge derived from areas of the Coast Ranges dominated by Cretaceous-to-Miocene age, organic-rich, reduced marine shales, known as the source of selenium in WSJV soils, surface water, and groundwater. Low sulfur-isotopic values (δ34S) of dissolved sulfate indicate that the sulfate was largely derived from oxidation of biogenic pyrite from the shales, and correlations with trace element concentrations, geologic setting, and groundwater geochemical modeling indicated that distributions of sulfate, strontium, and selenium in groundwater were controlled by dissolution of secondary sulfate minerals in soils and sediments.Elevated concentrations of chromium(VI) were primarily associated with aquifer sediments and recharge derived from areas of the Coast Ranges dominated by the Franciscan Complex and ultramafic rocks. The Franciscan Complex also has boron-rich, sodium-chloride dominated hydrothermal fluids that contribute to elevated concentrations of boron and TDS.Groundwater from wells screened in Coast Ranges alluvium was primarily oxic and relatively alkaline (median pH value of 7.55) in the Delta–Mendota study area, and primarily nitrate-reducing or suboxic and alkaline (median pH value of 8.4) in the Westside study area. Many groundwater samples from those wells have elevated concentrations of arsenic(V), molybdenum, selenium, or chromium(VI), consistent with desorption of metal oxyanions from mineral surfaces under those geochemical conditions.High concentrations of benzene were associated with deep wells located in the vicinity of petroleum

  14. Determination of uptake kinetics (sampling rates) by lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Lebo, J.A.; Clark, R.C.; Gibson, V.L.; Gala, W.R.; Echols, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (R(s)s; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery- corrected R(s) values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by significant changes (relative to this study) in water temperature, degree of biofouling, and current velocity- turbulence. Included in this paper is a discussion of the effects of temperature and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)); the impacts of biofouling and hydrodynamics are reported separately. Overall, SPMDs responded proportionally to aqueous PAH concentrations; i.e., SPMD R(s) values and SPMD-water concentration factors were independent of aqueous concentrations. Temperature effects (10, 18, and 26 ??C) on Rs values appeared to be complex but were relatively small.The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (Rss; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery-corrected Rs values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by

  15. Iron Isotope Variations in Reduced Groundwater and in Drinking Water Supplies: A Case Study of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.

    2004-12-01

    In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and δ 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a δ 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater

  16. Comparative evaluation of ICP sample introduction systems to be used in the metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klencsár, Balázs; Sánchez, Carlos; Balcaen, Lieve; Todolí, José; Lynen, Frederic; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2018-05-10

    A systematic evaluation of four different ICP sample introduction systems to be used in the context of metabolite profiling of chlorine-containing pharmaceuticals via HPLC-ICP-MS was carried out using diclofenac and its major metabolite, 4'-hydroxy-diclofenac, as model compounds. The strict requirements for GMP validation of chromatographic methods in the pharmaceutical industry were adhered to in this context. The final aim of this investigation is an extension of the applicability and validatability of HPLC-ICP-MS in the field of pharmaceutical R&D. Five different gradient programmes were tested while the baseline peak width (w b ), peak capacity (P), USP tailing factor (A s ) and USP signal-to-noise ratio (USP S/N) were determined as major indicators of the chromatographic performance and the values obtained were compared to the corresponding FDA recommendations (if applicable). Four different ICP-MS sample introductions systems were investigated involving two units typically working at higher flow rates (∼1.0 mL min -1 ) and another two systems working at lower flow rates (∼0.