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Sample records for groundwater remediation field

  1. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  2. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER — RESULTS OF PROTOTYPE FIELD TESTS IN BANGLADESH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowolik, K; Addy, S.E.A.; Gadgil, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. Many methods of arsenic removal (mostly using chemical adsorbents) have been studied, but most of these are too expensive and impractical to be implemented in poor countries such as Bangladesh. This project investigates ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) as an affordable means of removing arsenic. Experiments were performed on site in Bangladesh using a prototype termed “sushi”. This device consists of carbon steel sheets that serve as electrodes wrapped into a cylinder, separated by plastic mesh and surrounded by a tube-like container that serves as a holding cell in which the water is treated electrochemically. During the electrochemical process, current is applied to both electrodes causing iron to oxidize to various forms of iron (hydr)oxides. These species bind to arsenic(V) with very high affi nity. ECAR also has the advantage that As(III), the more toxic form of arsenic, oxidizes to As(V) in situ. Only As(V) is known to complex with iron (hydr)oxides. One of the main objectives of this research is to demonstrate the ability of the new prototype to reduce arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater from >200 ppb to below the WHO limit of 10 ppb. In addition, varying fl ow rate and dosage and the effect on arsenic removal was investigated. Experiments showed that ECAR reduced Bangladeshi water with an initial arsenic concentration as high as 250 ppb to below 10 ppb. ECAR proved to be effective at dosages as high as 810 Coulombs/Liter (C/L) and as low as 386 C/L (current 1 A, voltage 12 V). These results are encouraging and provide great promise that ECAR is an effi cient method in the remediation of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. A preliminary investigation of arsenic removal trends with varying Coulombic dosage, complexation time and fi ltration methods is

  4. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  5. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    FORMER BUILDING X CHAIN LINK FENCE TREELINE EXISTING BUILDING / X 6 Sl1aw· Shaw Environmental, Inc. ESTCP FIELD DEMONSTRATION BIOAUGMENTATION...KIRKWOOD FORMATION) L------ MAG-203 $ MONITORING WELL (MANASQUAN FORMATION) X X CHAIN LINK FENCE $ MONITORING WELL ~ TREELINE (VINCENTOWN FORMATION) S

  6. Field Demonstration of Propane Biosparging for In Situ Remediation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ER-200828 DECEMBER 2015 Paul B. Hatzinger, Ph.D. David Lippincott, P.G. CB&I Federal Services, LLC. Distribution Statement A This...Neil Harvey, Paul Weinhardt, and Sheryl Streger of CB&I were vital to project success. Their efforts ultimately lead to the quality experimental...Annable, M.D., K. Hatfield, J. Cho, H. Klammler, B.L. Parker, J.A. Cherry , and P.S.C. Rao. 2005. Field-scale evaluation of the passive flux meter

  7. In situ remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater using ZVI/organic carbon amendment in China: field pilot test and full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Meng, Liang; Guo, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Chlorinated solvents in groundwater pose threats to human health and the environment due to their carcinogenesis and bioaccumulation. These problems are often more severe in developing countries such as China. Thus, methods for chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater remediation are urgently needed. This study presents a technique of in situ remediation via the direct-push amendment injection that enhances the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater in the low-permeability aquifer. A field-based pilot test and a following real-world, full-scale application were conducted at an active manufacturing facility in Shanghai, China. The chlorinated solvents found at the clay till site included 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and chloroethane (CA). A commercially available amendment (EHC ® , Peroxychem, Philadelphia, PA) combining zero-valent iron and organic carbon was used to treat the above pollutants. Pilot test results showed that direct-push EHC injection efficiently facilitated the in situ reductive remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The mean removal rates of 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1-DCA, and 1,1-DCE at 270 days post-injection were 99.6, 99.3, and 73.3%, respectively, which were obviously higher than those of VC and CA (42.3 and 37.1%, respectively). Clear decreases in oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen concentration, and increases in Fe 2+ and total organic carbon concentration, were also observed during the monitoring period. These indicate that EHC promotes the anaerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons primarily via long-term biological reductive dechlorination, with instant chemical reductive dechlorination acting as a secondary pathway. The optimal effective time of EHC injection was 0-90 days, and its radius of influence was 1.5 m. In full-scale application, the maximum concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA

  8. Application of ozone micro-nano-bubbles to groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liming; Xia, Zhiran

    2018-01-15

    Ozone is widely used for water treatment because of its strong oxidation ability. However, the efficiency of ozone in groundwater remediation is limited because of its relatively low solubility and rapid decomposition in the aqueous phase. Methods for increasing the stability of ozone within the subsurface are drawing increasing attention. Micro-nano-bubbles (MNBs), with diameters ranging from tens of nanometres to tens of micrometres, present rapid mass transfer rates, persist for a relatively long time in water, and transport with groundwater flow, which significantly improve gas concentration and provide a continuous gas supply. Therefore, MNBs show a considerable potential for application in groundwater remediation. In this study, the characteristics of ozone MNBs were examined, including their size distribution, bubble quantity, and zeta potential. The mass transfer rate of ozone MNBs was experimentally investigated. Ozone MNBs were then used to treat organics-contaminated water, and they showed remarkable cleanup efficiency. Column tests were also conducted to study the efficiency of ozone MNBs for organics-contaminated groundwater remediation. Based on the laboratory tests, field monitoring was conducted on a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site. The results showed that ozone MNBs can greatly improve remediation efficiency and represent an innovative technology for in situ remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Groundwater remediation in the Straz leaching operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The locality affected by consequences of the chemical mining of the uranium during underground leaching 'in situ' is found in the area of the Czech Republic in the northeastern part of the Ceska Lipa district. In the contribution the complex groundwater remediation project is discussed. First, the risks of the current state are expressed. Then the alternatives of remediation of the both Cenomanian and Turonian aquifers are presented. Evaluation of the remediation alternatives with the view to the time-consumption, economy, ecology and the elimination of unacceptable risks for the population and environment is done. Finally, the present progress of remediation and the conception of remediation of chemical mining on deposit of Straz pod Ralskem are presented. (orig.)

  10. Decision process for Hanford sitewide groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes a decision process for planning future investigations and remediating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This decision process details the following: identifies key decisions and activities; defines the criteria used in making each decision; and defines the logic that links the decisions and the activities in a stepwise manner

  11. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  12. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  13. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij C. Jha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs on carbon nanotubes (CNTs has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE, the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-07-21

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  15. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies...... and present methodological issues to consider when conducting LCAs within the area. Within the field of contaminated site remediation , a terminology distinguishing three types of environmental impacts: primary, secondary and tertiary, is often applied. Primary impacts are the site-related impacts due...... and efficiency of remediation, which are important for assessment or primary impacts; (ii) robust assessment of primary impacts using site-specific fate and exposure models; (iii) weighting of primary and secondary (or tertiary) impacts to evaluate trade-offs between life cycle impacts from remediation...

  16. Resistivity and self-potential tomography applied to groundwater remediation and contaminant plumes: Sandbox and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Revil, A.; Hort, R. D.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Atekwana, E. A.; Kulessa, B.

    2015-11-01

    Geophysical methods can be used to remotely characterize contaminated sites and monitor in situ enhanced remediation processes. We have conducted one sandbox experiment and one contaminated field investigation to show the robustness of electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential (SP) tomography for these applications. In the sandbox experiment, we injected permanganate in a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated environment under a constant hydraulic gradient. Inverted resistivity tomograms are able to track the evolution of the permanganate plume in agreement with visual observations made on the side of the tank. Self-potential measurements were also performed at the surface of the sandbox using non-polarizing Ag-AgCl electrodes. These data were inverted to obtain the source density distribution with and without the resistivity information. A compact horizontal dipole source located at the front of the plume was obtained from the inversion of these self-potential data. This current dipole may be related to the redox reaction occurring between TCE and permanganate and the strong concentration gradient at the front of the plume. We demonstrate that time-lapse self-potential signals can be used to track the kinetics of an advecting oxidizer plume with acceptable accuracy and, if needed, in real time, but are unable to completely resolve the shape of the plume. In the field investigation, a 3D resistivity tomography is used to characterize an organic contaminant plume (resistive domain) and an overlying zone of solid waste materials (conductive domain). After removing the influence of the streaming potential, the identified source current density had a magnitude of 0.5 A m-2. The strong source current density may be attributed to charge movement between the neighboring zones that encourage abiotic and microbially enhanced reduction and oxidation reactions. In both cases, the self-potential source current density is located in the area of strong resistivity

  17. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  18. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  19. Electrochemical remediation technologies for soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, F. [Electrochemical Processes I.I. c. Valley Forge, PA (United States)]|[P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany); Doering, N. [P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Direct Current Technologies (DCTs) a direct current electricity is passed between at least two subsurface electrodes in order to effect the remediation of the groundwater and/or the soil. DCTs in line with the U.S.-terminology comprise of the ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs), and GeoKinetics. The primary distinction between ECRTs and ElectroKinetics are the power input, and the mode of operation, which are electrochemical reactions vs. mass transport. ECRTs combine phenomena of colloid (surface) electrochemistry with the phenomena of Induced Polarization (IP). This report focuses on ECRTs, comprising of the ElectroChemical GeoOxidation (ECGO) for the mineralization of organic pollutants to finally carbon dioxide and water, and Induced Complexation (IC), related to the electrochemical conversion of metals enhancing the mobilization and precipitation of heavy metals on both electrodes. Both technologies are based on reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions at the scale of the individual soil particles. (orig.)

  20. Optimized remedial groundwater extraction using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater extraction systems are typically installed to remediate contaminant plumes or prevent further spread of contamination. These systems are expensive to install and maintain. A traditional approach to designing such a wellfield uses a series of trial-and-error simulations to test the effects of various well locations and pump rates. However, the optimal locations and pump rates of extraction wells are difficult to determine when objectives related to the site hydrogeology and potential pumping scheme are considered. This paper describes a case study of an application of linear programming theory to determine optimal well placement and pump rates. The objectives of the pumping scheme were to contain contaminant migration and reduce contaminant concentrations while minimizing the total amount of water pumped and treated. Past site activities at the area under study included disposal of contaminants in pits. Several groundwater plumes have been identified, and others may be present. The area of concern is bordered on three sides by a wetland, which receives a portion of its input budget as groundwater discharge from the pits. Optimization of the containment pumping scheme was intended to meet three goals: (1) prevent discharge of contaminated groundwater to the wetland, (2) minimize the total water pumped and treated (cost benefit), and (3) avoid dewatering of the wetland (cost and ecological benefits). Possible well locations were placed at known source areas. To constrain the problem, the optimization program was instructed to prevent any flow toward the wetland along a user-specified border. In this manner, the optimization routine selects well locations and pump rates so that a groundwater divide is produced along this boundary

  1. Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Methanol is used by oil and gas operators to inhibit hydrate formation in the recovery of heavy oils, in natural gas production and transport, as well as in various other production applications. Emissions from methanol primary occur from miscellaneous solvent usage, methanol production, end-product manufacturing, and storage and handling losses. This document provided soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol releases into the environment. The guidelines were consistent with the Alberta Environment tier 1 soil and groundwater framework. The chemical and physical properties of methanol were reviewed. The environmental fate and behavior of methanol releases was discussed, and the behaviour and effects of methanol in terrestrial and aquatic biota were evaluated. The toxicity of methanol and its effects in humans and mammalian species were reviewed. Soil quality and ground water quality guidelines were presented. Surface water and soil guideline calculation methods were provided, and ecological exposure and ground water pathways were discussed. Management limits for methanol concentrations were also provided. 162 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Field-Scale Evaluation of Biostimulation for Remediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater at a Proposed NABIR Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criddle, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrologic, geochemical and microbial characterization of the Area 3 field site has been completed. The formation is fairly impermeable, but there is a region of adequate flow approximately 50 feet bgs. The experiment will be undertaken within that depth interval. Groundwater from that depth is highly acidic (pH 3.2), and has high levels of nitrate, aluminum, uranium, and other heavy metals, as well as volatile chlorinated solvents (VOCs). Accordingly, an aboveground treatment train has been designed to remove these contaminants. The train consists of a vacuum stripper to remove VOCs, two chemical precipitation steps to adjust pH and remove metals, and a fluidized bed bioreactor to remove nitrate. The aboveground system will be coupled to a belowground recirculation system. The belowground system will contain an outer recirculation cell and a nested inner recirculation cell: the outer cells will be continuously flushed with nitrate-free treated groundwater. The inner cell will receive periodic inputs of uranium, tracer, and electron donor. Removal of uranium will be determined by comparing loss rates of conservative tracer and uranium within the inner recirculation cell. Over the past year, a detailed workplan was developed and submitted for regulatory approval. The workplan was presented to the Field Research Advisory Panel (FRAP), and after some extensive revision, the FRAP authorized implementation. Detailed design drawings and numerical simulations of proposed experiments have been prepared. System components are being prefabricated as skid-mounted units in Michigan and will be shipped to Oak Ridge for assembly. One manuscript has been submitted to a peer reviewed journal. This paper describes a novel technique for inferring subsurface hydraulic conductivity values. Two posters on this project were presented at the March 2002 NABIR PI meeting. One poster was presented at the Annual conference of the American Society for Microbiology in Salt Lake City, UT in

  3. A co-metabolic approach to groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Herbes, S.E.; White, D.C.; Strandberg, G.W.; Donaldson, T.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Phelps, T.J.; White, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Integrated Demonstration (Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-arid Sites) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee (UT) are involved in demonstrations of the use of methanotrophs in bioreactors for remediation of contaminated groundwater. In preparation for a field demonstration at ORNL's K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL is conducting batch experiments, is operating a number of bench-scale bioreactors, has designed pretreatment systems, and has modified a field-scale bioreactor provided by the Air Force Engineering and Services Center for use at the site. UT is operating benchscale bioreactors with the goal of determining the stability of a trichloroethylene-degrading methanotrophic consortia during shifts in operating conditions (e.g. pH, nutrient inputs, and contaminant mixtures). These activities are all aimed at providing the knowledge base necessary for successful treatment of contaminated groundwater at the SRS and K-25 sites as well as other DOE sites

  4. A co-metabolic approach to groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Strandberg, G.W.; Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Herbes, S.E.; Phelps, T.J.; White, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Integrated Demonstration (Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-arid Sites) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee (UT) are involved in demonstrations of the use of methanotrophs in bioreactors for remediation of contaminated groundwater. In preparation for a field demonstration at ORNL's K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL is conducting batch experiments, is operating a number of bench-scale bioreactors, has designed pretreatment systems, and has modified a field-scale bioreactor provided by the Air Force Engineering and Services Center for use at the site. UT is operating bench-scale bioreactors with the goal of determining the stability of a trichloroethylene-degrading methanotrophic consortia during shifts in operating conditions (e.g. pH, nutrient inputs, and contaminant mixtures). These activities are all aimed at providing the knowledge base necessary for successful treatment of contaminated groundwater at the SRS and K-25 sites as well as other DOE sites. 18 refs., 1 fig. , 1 tab

  5. Integrated remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, R.S.; Howles, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals frequently focuses on a single phase of the chemical in question. This paper describes an integrated approach to remediation involving selection of complimentary technologies designed to create a remedial system which achieves cleanup goals in affected media in the shortest possible time consistent with overall environmental protection

  6. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  7. Soil and groundwater remediation using dual-phase extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.W.; Gan, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A gasoline underground storage tank (UST) was formerly used to fuel vehicles for a hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. Elevated concentrations of gasoline range organics (GRO) were observed in soils and groundwater at the site during the tank removal and a subsequent site investigation. Based on the extent of soil and groundwater contamination, a dual-phase extraction technology was selected as the most cost effective alternative to remediate the site. The dual-phase extraction system includes one extraction well functioning both as a soil vapor extraction (SVE) and groundwater recovery well. After six months of operation, samples collected from the groundwater monitoring wells indicated that the groundwater has been cleaned up to levels below the Wisconsin preventative action limits. The dual-phase extraction system effectively remediated the site in a short period of time, saving both operation and maintenance costs and overall project cost

  8. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  9. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  10. Groundwater re-injection at Fernald: Its role in accelerating the aquifer remedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg, Kenneth A.; Janke, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A successful field-scale demonstration of the use of groundwater re-injection at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was recently completed, bringing the U.S. Department of Energy one step closer to achieving an accelerated site remediation. The demonstration marks the end of a several-year effort to evaluate (a) whether re-injection could be conducted efficiently at Fernald and (b) whether the approved aquifer remedy at Fernald would benefit from incorporating re-injection

  11. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Predrag R.; Čalenić Aleksandar I.; Polomčić Dušan M.; Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric bor...

  12. Black Swans and the Effectiveness of Remediating Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.

    2013-12-01

    Black swans, outliers, dominate science far more than do predictable outcomes. Predictable success constitutes the Black Swan in groundwater remediation. Even the National Research Council concluded that remediating groundwater to drinking water standards has failed in typically complex hydrogeologic settings where heterogeneities and preferential flow paths deflect flow paths obliquely to hydraulic gradients. Natural systems, be they biological or physical, build upon a combination of large-scale regularity coupled to chaos at smaller scales. We show through a review of over 25 case studies that groundwater remediation efforts are best served by coupling parsimonious site characterization to natural and induced geochemical tracer tests to at least know where contamination advects with groundwater in the subsurface. In the majority of our case studies, actual flow paths diverge tens of degrees from anticipated flow paths because of unrecognized heterogeneities in the horizontal direction of transport, let alone the vertical direction. Consequently, regulatory agencies would better serve both the public and the environment by recognizing that long-term groundwater cleanup probably is futile in most hydrogeologic settings except to relaxed standards similar to brownfielding. A Black Swan

  13. The UMTRA PEIS: A strategy for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, C.; Ulland, L.; Weston, R.F.; Metzler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) was initiated in 1992 for the uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) program. The PEIS kicked off the groundwater restoration phase of UMTRA, a project involving remediation of 24 sites in ten states and tribal lands contaminated with tailings from uranium mining and milling operations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed, in early 1992, that a PEIS was an appropriate strategy to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for this second, groundwater phase of the project. This decision recognized that although a parallel effort was being undertaken in preparing a PEIS for DOE's Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) program, characteristics and the maturity of the UMTRA project made it more appropriate to prepare a separate PEIS. The ER/WM PEIS is intended to examine environmental restoration and waste management issues from a very broad perspective. For UMTRA, with surface remediation completed or well under way at 18 of the 24 sites, a more focused programmatic approach for groundwater restoration is more effective than including the UMTRA project within the ER/WM environmental impact statements. A separate document allows a more focused and detailed analysis necessary to efficiently tier site-specific environmental assessments for groundwater restoration at each of the 24 UMTRA former processing sites

  14. Groundwater Remediation in a Floodplain Aquifer at Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dave [Navarro Research and Engineering; Miller, David [Navarro Research and Engineering; Kautsky, Mark [U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dander, David [Navarro Research and Engineering; Nofchissey, Joni [Navajo Nation Division of Natural Resources

    2016-03-06

    A uranium- and vanadium-ore-processing mill operated from 1954 to 1968 within the Navajo Nation near Shiprock, New Mexico. By September 1986, all tailings and structures on the former mill property were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of two existing tailings piles on the Shiprock site (the site) [1]. Local groundwater was contaminated by multiple inorganic constituents as a result of the milling operations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) took over management of the site in 1978 as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The DOE Office of Legacy Management currently manages ongoing activities at the former mill facility, including groundwater remediation. Remediation activities are designed primarily to reduce the concentrations and total plume mass of the mill-related contaminants sulfate, uranium, and nitrate. In addition to contaminating groundwater in alluvial and bedrock sediments directly below the mill site, ore processing led to contamination of a nearby floodplain bordering the San Juan River. Groundwater in a shallow alluvial aquifer beneath the floodplain is strongly influenced by the morphology of the river channel as well as changing flows in the river, which provides drainage for regional runoff from the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. As part of a recent study of the floodplain hydrology, a revised conceptual model was developed for the alluvial aquifer along with an updated status of contaminant plumes that have been impacted by more than 10 years of groundwater pumping for site remediation purposes. Several findings from the recent study will be discussed here.

  15. Arsenic in the groundwater: Occurrence, toxicological activities, and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Mishra, V K; Damodaran, T; Sharma, D K; Kumar, Parveen

    2017-04-03

    Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater has become a geo-environmental as well as a toxicological problem across the globe affecting more than 100-million people in nearly 21 countries with its associated disease "arsenicosis." Arsenic poisoning may lead to fatal skin and internal cancers. In present review, an attempt has been made to generate awareness among the readers about various sources of occurrence of arsenic, its geochemistry and speciation, mobilization, metabolism, genotoxicity, and toxicological exposure on humans. The article also emphasizes the possible remedies for combating the problem. The knowledge of these facts may help to work on some workable remedial measure.

  16. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  17. Effect of heterogeneity on enhanced reductive dechlorination: Analysis of remediation efficiency and groundwater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A.; Lacroix, E.; Robinson, C. E.; Gerhard, J.; Holliger, C.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive in situ treatment technology for chlorinated contaminants. The process includes two acid-forming microbial reactions: fermentation of an organic substrate resulting in short-chain fatty acids, and dehalogenation resulting in hydrochloric acid. The accumulation of acids and the resulting drop of groundwater pH are controlled by the mass and distribution of chlorinated solvents in the source zone, type of electron donor, alternative terminal electron acceptors available and presence of soil mineral phases able to buffer the pH (such as carbonates). Groundwater acidification may reduce or halt microbial activity, and thus dehalogenation, significantly increasing the time and costs required to remediate the aquifer. In previous work a detailed geochemical and groundwater flow simulator able to model the fermentation-dechlorination reactions and associated pH change was developed. The model accounts for the main processes influencing microbial activity and groundwater pH, including the groundwater composition, the electron donor used and soil mineral phase interactions. In this study, the model was applied to investigate how spatial variability occurring at the field scale affects dechlorination rates, groundwater pH and ultimately the remediation efficiency. Numerical simulations were conducted to examine the influence of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity on the distribution of the injected, fermentable substrate and on the accumulation/dilution of the acidic products of reductive dehalogenation. The influence of the geometry of the DNAPL source zone was studied, as well as the spatial distribution of soil minerals. The results of this study showed that the heterogeneous distribution of the soil properties have a potentially large effect on the remediation efficiency. For examples, zones of high hydraulic conductivity can prevent the accumulation of acids and alleviate the problem of groundwater acidification. The

  18. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using nanocatalyst and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Seo, Hyunhee; Sun, Eunyoung; Kim, Inseon; Roh, Yul

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the remediation of trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater using both a nanocatalyst (bio-Zn-magnetite) and bacterium (similar to Clostridium quinii) in anoxic environments. Of the 7 nanocatalysts tested, bio-Zn-magnetite showed the highest TCE dechlorination efficiency, with an average of ca. 90% within 8 days in a batch experiment. The column tests confirmed that the application of bio-Zn-magnetite in combination with the bacterium achieved high degradation efficiency (ca. 90%) of TCE within 5 days compared to the nanocatalyst only, which degraded only 30% of the TCE. These results suggest that the application of a nanocatalyst and the bacterium have potential for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater in subsurface environments.

  19. Use of LCA as decision support for the selection of remedial strategies for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2009-01-01

    , there is a trade-off between obtaining local beneficial effects from the remediation and generating environmental impacts on the regional and global scale due to the remedial actions. Therefore there is a need for including the impact of soil contaminants that will potentially leach to the groundwater, e......Groundwater is the dominant source of drinking water in Denmark and the general policy is to maintain the groundwater as a clean source of drinking water. The risk of groundwater contamination is therefore often the prime reason for remediating a contaminated site. Chlorinated solvents are among...... the contaminants most frequently found to be threatening the groundwater quality in Denmark and worldwide. Life cycle assessment has recently been applied as part of decision support for contaminated site management and subsurface remediation techniques. Impacts in the groundwater compartment have only gained...

  20. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  1. Application of optimization modeling to groundwater remediation at US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, A.A.; Dal Santo, D.J.; Smalley, R.C.; Phillips, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines and explores the fundamentals of the current strategies for groundwater hydraulic and quality management modeling and presents a scheme for the application of such strategies to DOE facilities. The discussion focuses on the DOE-Savannah River Operations (DOE-SR) facility. Remediation of contaminated groundwater at active and abandoned waste disposal sites has become a major element of environmental programs. Traditional groundwater remediation programs (e.g., pumping and treatment) may not represent optimal water quality management strategies at sites to be remediated. Complex, interrelated environmental (geologic/geohydrologic), institutional, engineering, and economic conditions at a site may require a more comprehensive management strategy. Groundwater management models based on the principles of operations research have been developed and used to determine optimal management strategies for water resources needs and for hypothetical remediation programs. Strategies for groundwater remediation programs have ranged from the simple removal of groundwater to complex, hydraulic gradient control programs involving groundwater removal, treatment, and recharge

  2. Development and applications of groundwater remediation technologies in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    The future of the development and application of groundwater remediation technologies will unfold in an atmosphere of heightened public concern and attention. Cleanup policy will undergo incremental change towards more comprehensive efforts which account for the impact of remediation on nearby resources. Newly discovered contaminants will cause the re-examination of "mature" technologies since they may be persistent, mobile and difficult to treat in-situ. Evaluations of the effectiveness of remedial technologies will eventually include by-product formation, geochemical consequences and sustainability. Long-term field trials of remedial technologies alone can provide the data necessary to support claims of effectiveness. Dans le futur, le développement et les applications des technologies de traitement des eaux souterraines seront déroulés en tenant compte de l'inquiétude et l'attention croissante de l'opinion publique. La politique de nettoyage va subir un changement vers des efforts plus compréhensifs qui prendront en compte l'impact du traitement sur les ressources voisines. Les nouveaux contaminants seront persistants, mobiles et difficile de traiter in situ; par conséquence ils vont provoquer la reexamination des technologies consacrées. L'évaluation de l'efficacité des technologies de traitement doit considérer l'apparition des produits secondaires ainsi que les conséquences géochimiques et le développement durable. Seulement les essais in situ, pendant des longues périodes sur les technologies peuvent fournir les éléments nécessaires pour démontrer leur efficacité. El futuro del desarrollo y de la aplicación de las tecnologías para la recuperación del agua subterránea, se revelará en una atmósfera de gran atención e interés público elevado. La política de limpieza sufrirá un cambio adicional hacia esfuerzos más tangibles, los cuales incluyan el impacto de la recuperación en los recursos circundantes. Los contaminantes

  3. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  4. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This work plan identifies the objectives, tasks, and schedule for conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit addresses contamination identified in the aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, as determined in the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE/RL 1992b). The objectives of this work plan are to develop a program to investigate groundwater contaminants in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area that were designated for Limited Field Investigations (LFIs) and to implement Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) recommended in the 200 West Groundwater AAMSR. The purpose of an LFI is to evaluate high priority groundwater contaminants where existing data are insufficient to determine whether an IRM is warranted and collect sufficient data to justify and implement an IRM, if needed. A Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) will be performed as part of the LFI. The purpose of an IRM is to develop and implement activities, such as contaminant source removal and groundwater treatment, that will ameliorate some of the more severe potential risks of groundwater contaminants prior to the RI and baseline Risk Assessment (RA) to be conducted under the Final Remedy Selection (FRS) at a later date. This work plan addresses needs of a Treatability Study to support the design and implementation of an interim remedial action for the Uranium- 99 T c -Nitrate multi-contaminant IRM plume identified beneath U Plant

  5. Mechanisms of uranium interactions with hydroxyapatite: Implications for groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.C.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.; Piana, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The speciation of U(VI) sorbed to synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a combination of U LIII-edge XAS, synchrotron XRD, batch uptake measurements, and SEM-EDS. The mechanisms of U(VI) removal by apatite were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of apatitebased in-situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). In batch U(VI) uptake experiments with synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), near complete removal of dissolved uranium (>99.5%) to use in development of PRBs for groundwater U(VI) remediation.

  6. An innovative funnel and gate approach to groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.O.; Wilkey, M.L.; Willis, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, office of Science and Technology (EM-50) sponsored a demonstration project of the Barrier Member Containment Corporation's patented EnviroWall trademark system at the Savannah River site. With this system, contaminated groundwater can be funneled into a treatment system without pumping the contaminated water to the surface. The EnviroWall trademark barrier and pass-through system, an innovative product of sic years of research and development, provides a means to enhance groundwater flow on the upgradient side of an impermeable wall and direct it to an in situ treatment system. The EnviroWall trademark system is adaptable to most site conditions. Remedial applications range form plume containment to more robust designs that incorporate groundwater manipulation coupled with in situ treatment. Several key innovations of the EnviroWall trademark system include the following: a method for guide box installation; a means for using interlocking seals at vertical seams; a down-hole video camera for inspecting seams and panels, installation of horizontal- and vertical-collection systems; installation of vertical monitoring wells and instrumentation on each side of the barrier; site-specific backfill design; and a pass-through system for funneling groundwater into a treatment system

  7. Aquifer characterization and groundwater modeling in support of remedial actions at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.; Carman, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Aquifer characterization studies were performed to develop a hydrogeologic understanding of an unconfined shallow aquifer at the Weldon Spring site west of St. Louis, Missouri. The 88-ha site became contaminated because of uranium and thorium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. Slug and pumping tests provided valuable information on the lateral distribution of hydraulic conductivities, and packer tests and lithologic information were used to determine zones of contrasting hydrologic properties within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, finite- element groundwater flow model was developed and used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system at the site. The results of this study show that groundwater flow through the system is predominantly controlled by a zone of fracturing and weathering in the upper portion of the limestone aquifer. The groundwater flow model, developed and calibrated from field investigations, improved the understanding of the hydrogeology and supported decisions regarding remedial actions at the site. The results of this study illustrate the value, in support of remedial actions, of combining field investigations with numerical modeling to develop an improved understanding of the hydrogeology at the site

  8. Prioritization and accelerated remediation of groundwater contamination in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.; Ford, B.H.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site, operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), occupies about 1,450 km 2 (560 mi 2 ) of the southeastern part of Washington State north of the confluence of the Yakima and Columbia Rivers. The Hanford Site is organized into numerically designated operational areas. The 200 Areas, located near the center of the Hanford Site, encompasses the 200 West, East and North Areas and cover an area of over 40 km 2 . The Hanford Site was originally designed, built, and operated to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons using production reactors and chemical reprocessing plants. Operations in the 200 Areas were mainly related to separation of special nuclear materials from spent nuclear fuel and contain related chemical and fuel processing and waste management facilities. Large quantities of chemical and radioactive waste associated with these processes were often disposed to the environment via infiltration structures such as cribs, ponds, ditches. This has resulted in over 25 chemical and radionuclide groundwater plumes, some of which have reached the Columbia River. An Aggregate Area Management Study program was implemented under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order to assess source and groundwater contamination and develop a prioritized approach for managing groundwater remediation in the 200 Areas. This included a comprehensive evaluation of existing waste disposal and environmental monitoring data and the conduct of limited field investigations (DOE-RL 1992, 1993). This paper summarizes the results of groundwater portion of AAMS program focusing on high priority contaminant plume distributions and the groundwater plume prioritization process. The objectives of the study were to identify groundwater contaminants of concern, develop a conceptual model, refine groundwater contaminant plume maps, and develop a strategy to expedite the remediation of high priority contaminants through the implementation of interim actions

  9. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  10. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  11. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  12. An Elitist Multiobjective Tabu Search for Optimal Design of Groundwater Remediation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Jinguo; Zhou, Zhifang

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a new multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), the elitist multiobjective tabu search (EMOTS), and incorporates it with MODFLOW/MT3DMS to develop a groundwater simulation-optimization (SO) framework based on modular design for optimal design of groundwater remediation systems using pump-and-treat (PAT) technique. The most notable improvement of EMOTS over the original multiple objective tabu search (MOTS) lies in the elitist strategy, selection strategy, and neighborhood move rule. The elitist strategy is to maintain all nondominated solutions within later search process for better converging to the true Pareto front. The elitism-based selection operator is modified to choose two most remote solutions from current candidate list as seed solutions to increase the diversity of searching space. Moreover, neighborhood solutions are uniformly generated using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) in the bounded neighborhood space around each seed solution. To demonstrate the performance of the EMOTS, we consider a synthetic groundwater remediation example. Problem formulations consist of two objective functions with continuous decision variables of pumping rates while meeting water quality requirements. Especially, sensitivity analysis is evaluated through the synthetic case for determination of optimal combination of the heuristic parameters. Furthermore, the EMOTS is successfully applied to evaluate remediation options at the field site of the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. With both the hypothetical and the large-scale field remediation sites, the EMOTS-based SO framework is demonstrated to outperform the original MOTS in achieving the performance metrics of optimality and diversity of nondominated frontiers with desirable stability and robustness. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  13. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STrietelmeir, B.

    2000-01-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), and extremely inexpensive and easy to emplace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels has been discharged from this plant for many years, until recently when the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated this past year to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier. will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mhl nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 microM perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system

  14. Scientific Opportunity to Reduce Risk in Groundwater and Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Looney, Brian B.; Zachara, John M.; Liang, Liyuan; Lesmes, D.; Chamberlain, G. M.; Skubal, Karen L.; Adams, V.; Denham, Miles E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-08-25

    In this report, we start by examining previous efforts at linking science and DOE EM research with cleanup activities. Many of these efforts were initiated by creating science and technology roadmaps. A recurring feature of successfully implementing these roadmaps into EM applied research efforts and successful cleanup is the focus on integration. Such integration takes many forms, ranging from combining information generated by various scientific disciplines, to providing technical expertise to facilitate successful application of novel technology, to bringing the resources and creativity of many to address the common goal of moving EM cleanup forward. Successful projects identify and focus research efforts on addressing the problems and challenges that are causing “failure” in actual cleanup activities. In this way, basic and applied science resources are used strategically to address the particular unknowns that are barriers to cleanup. The brief descriptions of the Office of Science basic (Environmental Remediation Science Program [ERSP]) and EM’s applied (Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program) research programs in subsurface science provide context to the five “crosscutting” themes that have been developed in this strategic planning effort. To address these challenges and opportunities, a tiered systematic approach is proposed that leverages basic science investments with new applied research investments from the DOE Office of Engineering and Technology within the framework of the identified basic science and applied research crosscutting themes. These themes are evident in the initial portfolio of initiatives in the EM groundwater and soil cleanup multi-year program plan. As stated in a companion document for tank waste processing (Bredt et al. 2008), in addition to achieving its mission, DOE EM is experiencing a fundamental shift in philosophy from driving to closure to enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation.

  15. Particulate Pyrite Autotrophic Denitrification (PPAD) for Remediation of Nitrate-contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, L. C.; Henderson, M.; Feng, C.; Ergas, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid movement of human civilization towards urbanization, industrialization, and increased agricultural activities has introduced a large amount of nitrate into groundwater. Nitrate is a toxic substance discharged from groundwater to rivers and leads to decreased dissolved oxygen and eutrophication. For this experiment, an electron donor is needed to convert nitrate into non-toxic nitrogen gas. Pyrite is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust making it an ideal candidate as an electron donor. The overall goal of this research was to investigate the potential for pyrite to be utilized as an electron donor for autotrophic denitrification of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Batch studies of particulate pyrite autotrophic denitrification (PPAD) of synthetic groundwater (100 mg NO3--N L-1) were set up with varying biomass concentration, pyrite dose, and pyrite particle size. Reactors were seeded with mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (VSS) from a biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facility. PPAD using small pyrite particles (exhibited substantial nitrate removal rate, lower sulfate accumulation (5.46 mg SO42-/mg NO3--N) and lower alkalinity consumption (1.70 mg CaCO3/mg NO3--N) when compared to SOD (7.54 mg SO42-/mg NO3--N, 4.57 mg CaCO3/mg NO3--N based on stoichiometric calculation). This research revealed that the PPAD process is a promising technique for nitrate-contaminated groundwater treatment and promoted the utilization of pyrite in the field of environmental remediation.

  16. Tailings From Mining Activities, Impact on Groundwater, and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rawahy

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Effluent wastes from mining operations and beneficiation processes are comprized mostly of the following pollutants: total suspended solids (TTS, alkalinity or acidity (pH, settleable solids, iron in ferrous mining, and dissolved metals in nonferrous mining. Suspended solids consist of small particles of solid pollutants that resist separation by conventional means. A number of dissolved metals are considered toxic pollutants. The major metal pollutants present in ore mining and beneficiation waste waters include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Tailings ponds are used for both the disposal of solid waste and the treatment of waste-water streams. The supernatant decanted from these ponds contains suspended solids and, at times, process reagents introduced to the water during ore beneficiation. Leakage of material from tailings pond into groundwater is one possible source of water pollution in the mining industry. Percolation of waste-water from impoundment may occur if tailings ponds are not properly designed. This paper addresses potential groundwater pollution due to effluent from mining activities, and the possible remediation options.

  17. Groundwater Radioiodine: Prevalence, Biogeochemistry, And Potential Remedial Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-01-01

    ) compile the background information necessary to understand behavior of 129 I in the environment, (2) discuss sustainable remediation approaches to 129 I contaminated groundwater, and (3) identify areas of research that will facilitate remediation of 129 I contaminated areas on DOE sites. Lines of scientific inquiry that would significantly advance the goals of basic and applied research programs for accelerating 129 I environmental remediation and reducing uncertainty associated with disposal of 129 I waste are: (1) Evaluation of amendments or other treatment systems that can sequester subsurface groundwater 129 I. (2) Develop analytical techniques for measurement of total 129 I that eliminate the necessity of collecting and shipping large samples of groundwater. (3) Develop and evaluate ways to manipulate areas with organic-rich soil, such as wetlands, to maximize 129 I sorption, minimizing releases during anoxic conditions. (4) Develop analytical techniques that can identify the various 129 I species in the subsurface aqueous and solid phases at ambient concentrations and under ambient conditions. (5) Identify the mechanisms and factors controlling iodine-natural organic matter interactions at appropriate environmental concentrations. (6) Understand the biological processes that transform iodine species throughout different compartments of subsurface waste sites and the role that these processes have on 129 I flux

  18. GROUNDWATER RADIOIODINE: PREVALENCE, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, AND POTENTIAL REMEDIAL APPROACHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-09-23

    former Yucca Mountain disposal facilities. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile the background information necessary to understand behavior of {sup 129}I in the environment, (2) discuss sustainable remediation approaches to {sup 129}I contaminated groundwater, and (3) identify areas of research that will facilitate remediation of {sup 129}I contaminated areas on DOE sites. Lines of scientific inquiry that would significantly advance the goals of basic and applied research programs for accelerating {sup 129}I environmental remediation and reducing uncertainty associated with disposal of {sup 129}I waste are: (1) Evaluation of amendments or other treatment systems that can sequester subsurface groundwater {sup 129}I. (2) Develop analytical techniques for measurement of total {sup 129}I that eliminate the necessity of collecting and shipping large samples of groundwater. (3) Develop and evaluate ways to manipulate areas with organic-rich soil, such as wetlands, to maximize {sup 129}I sorption, minimizing releases during anoxic conditions. (4) Develop analytical techniques that can identify the various {sup 129}I species in the subsurface aqueous and solid phases at ambient concentrations and under ambient conditions. (5) Identify the mechanisms and factors controlling iodine-natural organic matter interactions at appropriate environmental concentrations. (6) Understand the biological processes that transform iodine species throughout different compartments of subsurface waste sites and the role that these processes have on {sup 129}I flux.

  19. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  20. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design

  1. Field demonstration of rapid turnaround, multilevel groundwater screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingle, A.R.; Baker, L.; Long, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    A combined technology approach to rapidly characterizing source area and downgradient groundwater associated with a past fuel spill has been field tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the presence and extent of fuel-related compounds or indications of their biodegradation in groundwater. The distance from the source area to be investigated was established by calculating the potential extent of a plume based only on groundwater flow velocities. To accomplish this objective, commercially available technologies were combined and used to rapidly assess the source area and downgradient groundwater associated with the fuel discharge. The source of contamination that was investigated overlies glacial sand and gravel outwash deposits. Historical data suggest that from 1955 to 1970 as many as 1 to 6 million pi of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) were god at the study area. Although the remedial investigation (RI) for this study area indicated fuel-related groundwater contamination at the source area, fuel-related contamination was not detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Rapid horizontal groundwater velocities and the 24-year time span from the last reported spill farther suggest that a plume of contaminated groundwater could extend several thousand feet downgradient. The lack of contamination downgradient from the source suggests two possibilities: (1) monitoring wells installed during the RI did not intersect the plume or (2) fuel-related compounds had naturally degraded

  2. Application of Fe-Cu/Biochar System for Chlorobenzene Remediation of Groundwater in Inhomogeneous Aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zhang; Yanqing Wu; Pingping Zhao; Xin Shu; Qiong Zhou; Zichen Dong

    2017-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CB), as a typical Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC), is toxic, highly persistent and easily migrates in water, posing a significant risk to human health and subsurface ecosystems. Therefore, exploring effective approaches to remediate groundwater contaminated by CB is essential. As an enhanced micro-electrolysis system for CB-contaminated groundwater remediation, this study attempted to couple the iron-copper bimetal with biochar. Two series of columns using sands with differ...

  3. Groundwater remediation from the past to the future: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Mao, Guozhu; Crittenden, John; Liu, Xi; Du, Huibin

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and plays a role in geochemical cycling. Groundwater is also used for agricultural irrigation and for the domestic supply of drinking water in most nations. However, groundwater contamination has led to many research efforts on groundwater remediation technologies and strategies. This study evaluated a total of 5486 groundwater remediation-related publications from 1995 to 2015 using bibliometric technology and social network analysis, to provide a quantitative analysis and a global view on the current research trend and future research directions. Our results underline a strong research interest and an urgent need to remediate groundwater pollution due to the increasing number of both groundwater contamination and remediation publications. In the past two decades, the United States (U.S.) published 41.1% of the papers and it was the core country of the international collaboration network, cooperating with the other 19 most productive countries. Besides the active international collaboration, the funding agencies also played positive roles to foster the science and technology publications. With respect to the analysis of the distribution of funding agencies, the National Science Foundation of China sponsored most of the groundwater remediation research. We also identified the most productive journals, Environmental Science and Technology and Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, which published 334 and 259 scientific articles (including research articles and reviews) over the past 20 years, respectively. In addition to journal publications, a patent analysis was performed to show the impact of intellectual property protection on journal publications. Three major remediation technologies, including chemical oxidation, biodegradation and adsorption, have received increasing interest in both journal publication and patent development. Our results provide a valuable reference and global overview to identify

  4. Monitoring remediation of trichloroethylene using a chemical fiber optic sensor: Field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B.W.; Brown, S.B.; Langry, K.; Daley, P.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1994-06-01

    Current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires characterization and subsequent remediation of areas where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged into the soil and groundwater. Technology that allows trace quantities of this contaminant to be measured in situ on a continuous basis is needed. Fiber optic chemical sensors offer a promising low cost solution. Field tests of such a fiber optic chemical sensor for TCE have recently been completed. Sensors have been used to measure TCE contamination at Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (S300) in the groundwater and vadose zones. Both sites are currently undergoing remediation processes

  5. In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John C.; Kaback, Dawn S.; Looney, Brian B.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

  6. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  7. ZVI-Clay remediation of a chlorinated solvent source zone, Skuldelev, Denmark: 2. Groundwater contaminant mass discharge reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Lange, Ida Vedel; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    The impact of source mass depletion on the down-gradient contaminant mass discharge was monitored for a 19-month period as a part of a field demonstration of the ZVI-Clay soil mixing remediation technology. Groundwater samples were collected from conventional monitoring wells (120 samples) and a ...... down-gradient contaminant mass discharge reduction (76%) for the parent compound (PCE), while the overall reduction of chlorinated ethenes was smaller (21%)....

  8. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  9. Application of natural resource valuation concepts for development of sustainable remediation plans for groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, John A; Paquette, Shawn; McHugh, Thomas; Gie, Elaine; Hemingway, Mark; Bianchi, Gino

    2017-12-15

    This paper explores the application of natural resource assessment and valuation procedures as a tool for developing groundwater remediation strategies that achieve the objectives for health and environmental protection, in balance with considerations of economic viability and conservation of natural resources. The natural resource assessment process, as applied under U.S. and international guidelines, entails characterization of groundwater contamination in terms of the pre-existing beneficial services of the impacted resource, the loss of these services caused by the contamination, and the measures and associated costs necessary to restore or replace the lost services. Under many regulatory programs, groundwater remediation objectives assume that the impacted groundwater may be used as a primary source of drinking water in the future, even if not presently in use. In combination with a regulatory preference for removal or treatment technologies, this assumed exposure, while protective of human health, can drive the remedy selection process toward remedies that may not be protective of the groundwater resource itself or of the other natural resources (energy, materials, chemicals, etc.) that may be consumed in the remediation effort. To achieve the same health and environmental protection goals under a sustainable remediation framework, natural resource assessment methods can be applied to restore the lost services and preserve the intact services of the groundwater so as to protect both current and future users of that resource. In this paper, we provide practical guidelines for use of natural resource assessment procedures in the remedy selection process and present a case study demonstrating the use of these protocols for development of sustainable remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Proceedings (of the) first annual groundwater and soil remediation R, D and D (research, development and demonstration) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A symposium was held to present results of research on the remediation of contamination of groundwater and soils. Papers were presented on groundwater/soil remediation research and demonstration programs, in-situ bioremediation, remediation of groundwater contaminated by gasoline-derived aromatics, solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, bioreactors for cleaning hydrocarbon- and salt-contaminated soils, in-situ volatilization technologies, evaluations of spill cleanup technologies, remediating subsurface contamination around sour gas processing plants, and the influence of gasoline oxygenates on the persistence of aromatics in groundwater. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers from this symposium.

  11. Remediation of BTEX contaminated groundwater: best technology assessment between pump&treat and bioremediation by oxygen injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Baldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX dissolved in the groundwater and migrated from a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL source in an alluvial aquifer required a remedial action to be taken by the responsible party as established by the Italian regulation (Legislative Decree 152/06 and subsequent amendments. For such purpose, field investigations were conducted on site in order to define the site conceptual model and to identify the appropriate remediation technology to be applied. The remediation design was developed by means of a flow and reactive transport mathematical model, applied to saturated media, using the numerical codes MODFLOW and RT3D. Groundwater field observations showed evidence of occurring BTEX biodegradation processes by bacteria naturally present in the aquifer. Since such specific bacterial activity would be significantly enhanced by the injection of free oxygen in the aquifer, the performance of traditional pump and treat systems (P&T was assessed and compared with cost/efficiency of reactive oxygen bio-barrier technology (OD. The results showed a clear advantage in terms of cost/efficiency with the application of the OD. This presents an overall cost of about 30% of the P&T installation and maintenance, and it reaches remedial target in a shorter timeframe. Moreover, the system is also applicable as a bioremediation technology in case of Environmental Emergency Measures (MISE. The site examined is part of an industrial plant located in Central Italy.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of the in situ chemical treatment approach to soil and groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorton, E.C.; Trader, D.E.

    1993-10-01

    Results of initial proof of principle laboratory testing activities successfully demonstrated the viability of the in situ chemical treatment approach for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium. Testing activities currently in progress further indicate that soils contaminated with hexavalent chromium and uranium at concentrations of several hundred parts per million can be successfully treated with 100 ppM hydrogen sulfide gas mixtures. Greater than 90% immobilization of hexavalent chromium and 50% immobilization of uranium have been achieved in these tests after a treatment period of one day. Activities associated with further development and implementation of the in situ chemical treatment approach include conducting additional bench scale tests with contaminated geomedia, and undertaking scale-up laboratory tests and a field demonstration. This report discusses the testing and further development of this process

  13. Sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater control and remediation: Case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.; Jowett, R.; Gamble, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waterloo Barrier trademark steel sheet piling (patents pending) incorporates a cavity at each interlocking joint that is flushed clean and injected with sealant after the piles have been driven into the ground to form a vertical cutoff wall. The installation and sealing procedures allow for a high degree of quality assurance and control. Bulk wall hydraulic conductivities of 10 -8 to 10 -10 cm/sec have been demonstrated at field installations. Recent case histories are presented in which Waterloo Barrier trademark cutoff walls are used to prevent off-site migration of contaminated groundwater or soil gases to adjacent property and waterways. Full enclosures to isolate DNAPL source zones or portions of contaminated aquifers for pilot-scale remediation testing will also be described. Monitoring data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waterloo Barrier trademark in these applications

  14. Development of a sitewide groundwater remediation strategy at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.

    1996-01-01

    Over 440 km 2 (170 mi 2 ) of groundwater beneath the Hanford Site are contaminated by hazardous and radioactive waste, out of which almost half is over state and federal drinking water standards. In addition to the complicated nature of these plumes, remediation is further obscured by limited application of available technologies and hydrogeologic information. This paper briefly describes the processes used by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) in developing a sitewide groundwater remediation strategy for Hanford and its outcome. As an initial approach to sitewide groundwater remediation, the strategy is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas (100 Area) adjacent to the Columbia River and contain the major plumes found in the Central Plateau region (200 Area). This approach was based mainly on the qualitative risk, stakeholder's and tribe's values, and available technical feasibility. The strategy emphasizes the use of existing treatment and extraction technology for the remediation of groundwater in combination with proposed and existing site infrastructure. This work is being performed in parallel with ongoing risk and other feasibility activities. Under this strategy, innovative technologies being developed are in the areas of dense nonaqueous phase liquid identification and recovery, and problems associated with strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium in the vadose zone and groundwater. The final remediation strategy alternatives remain a product of risk assessment, technical feasibility, site use scenario, and cost consideration. In order to develop a strategy for the final cleanup, several issues such as aquifer restoration, natural attenuation, potential contamination of groundwater from the tank farms and from the existing contamination source in the vadose zone must be looked in detail in conjuction with public and stakeholder's values

  15. An introduction to geographic information systems as applied to a groundwater remediation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammock, J.K.; Lorenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    While the attention to environmental issues has grown over the past several years, so has the focus on groundwater protection. Addressing the task of groundwater remediation often involves a large-scale program with numerous wells and enormous amounts of data. This data must be manipulated and analyzed in an efficient manner for the remediation program to be truly effective. Geographic Information System's (GIS) have proven to be an extremely effective tool in handling and interpreting this type of groundwater information. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to GIS technology, describe how it is being used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to handle groundwater data and demonstrate how it may be used in the corporate Westinghouse environment

  16. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  17. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater operable unit interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Swanson, L.C.; Weeks, R.S.; Giacinto, J.; Gustafson, F.W.; Ford, B.H.; Wittreich, C.; Parnell, S.; Green, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (ERM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume and an associated nitrate contamination plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need and potentially achievable objectives and goals for an IRM and evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  18. A Case Study of Using Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z.; Kaback, D.; Bennett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (nZVI) is a promising technology for rapid in situ remediation of numerous contaminants, including chlorinated solvents, in groundwater and soil. Because of the high specific surface area of nZVI particles, this technology achieves treatment rates that are significantly faster than micron-scale and granular ZVI. However, a key technical challenge facing this technology involves agglomeration of nZVI particles. To improve nZVI mobility/deliverability and reactivity, an innovative method was recently developed using a low-cost and bio-degradable organic polymer as a stabilizer. This nZVI stabilization strategy offers unique advantages including: (1) the organic polymer is cost-effective and "green" (completely bio-compatible), (2) the organic polymer is highly effective in stabilizing nZVI particles; and (3) the stabilizer is applied during particle preparation, making nZVI particles more stable. Through a funding from the U.S. Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), AMEC performed a field study to test the effectiveness of this innovative technology for degradation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater at a military site. Laboratory treatability tests were conducted using groundwater samples collected from the test site and results indicated that trichloroethene (main groundwater contaminant at the site) was completely degraded within four hours by nZVI particles. In March and May 2011, two rounds of nZVI injection were performed at the test site. Approximately 700 gallons of nZVI suspension with palladium as a catalyst were successfully prepared in the field and injected into the subsurface. Before injection, membrane filters with a pore size of 450 nm were used to check the nZVI particle size and it was observed that >85% of nZVI particles were passed through the filter based on total iron measurement, indicating particle size of <450 nm. During field injections, nZVI particles were observed in a monitoring well

  19. Groundwater flow in the Venice lagoon and remediation of the Porto Marghera industrial area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Terrenghi, Jacopo

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the groundwater flow in a large area of the Venice (northeast Italy) lagoon that is under great anthropogenic pressure, which is influencing the regional flow in the surficial aquifer (about 30 m depth). The area presents several elements that condition the groundwater flow: extraction by means of drainage pumps and wells; tidal fluctuation; impermeable barriers that define part of the coastline, rivers and artificial channels; precipitation; recharge, etc. All the elements were studied separately, and then they were brought together in a numerical groundwater flow model to estimate the impact of each one. Identification of the impact of each element will help to optimise the characteristics of the Porto Marghera remediation systems. Longstanding industrial activity has had a strong impact on the soil and groundwater quality, and expensive and complex emergency remediation measures in problematic locations have been undertaken to ensure the continuity of industrial and maritime activities. The land reclamation and remediation works withdraw 56-74% of the water budget, while recharge from the river accounts for about 21-48% of the input. Only 21-42% of groundwater in the modelled area is derived from natural recharge sources, untouched by human activity. The drop of the piezometric level due to the realization of the upgradient impermeable barrier can be counteracted with the reduction of the pumping rate of the remediation systems.

  20. The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

  1. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by in-situ stimulating biogenic precipitation of iron sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kunfu; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Ma, Teng; Liu, Yaqing; Su, Chunli; Zhu, Yapeng; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Severe health problems due to elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater have made it urgent to develop cost-effective technologies for As removal. This field experimental study tested the feasibility of in-situ As immobilization via As incorporation into newly formed biogenic Fe(II) sulfides in a typical As-affected strongly reducing aquifer at the central part of Datong Basin, China. After periodic supply of FeSO 4 into the aquifer for 25 d to stimulate microbial sulfate reduction, dissolved sulfide concentrations increased during the experiment, but the supplied Fe(II) reacted quickly with sulfide to form Fe(II)-sulfides existing majorly as mackinawite as well as a small amount of pyrite-like minerals in sediments, thereby restricting sulfide build-up in groundwater. After the completion of field experiment, groundwater As concentration decreased from an initial average value of 593 μg/L to 159 μg/L, with an overall As removal rate of 73%, and it further declined to 136 μg/L adding the removal rate up to 77% in 30 d after the experiment. The arsenite/As total ratio gradually increased over time, making arsenite to be the predominant species in groundwater residual As. The good correlations between dissolved Fe(II), sulfide and As concentrations, the increased abundance of As in newly-formed Fe sulfides as well as the reactive-transport modeling results all indicate that As could have been adsorbed onto and co-precipitated with Fe(II)-sulfide coatings once microbial sulfate reduction was stimulated after FeSO 4 supply. Under the strongly reducing conditions, sulfide may facilitate arsenate reduction into arsenite and promote As incorporation into pyrite or arsenopyrite. Therefore, the major mechanisms for the in-situ As-contaminated groundwater remediation can be As surface-adsorption on and co-precipitation with Fe(II) sulfides produced during the experimental period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Groundwater arsenic remediation using zerovalent iron: Batch and column tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, increasing efforts have been made to explore the applicability and limitations of zerovalent iron (Fe0) for the treatment of arsenicbearing groundwater and wastewater. The experimental batch and column tests have demonstrated that arsenate and arsenite are removed effec...

  3. Risk assessment guidance document for the UMTRA project groundwater remediation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the groundwater remedial activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites is to reduce, control, or eliminate risks to human health and the environment. This is in accordance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 192. According to this regulation, the need for groundwater restoration is based upon US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-defined groundwater cleanup standards and must be consistent with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. Risk assessments will be used in the UMTRA Groundwater Program to aid in the evaluation of sites. Risk assessments are conducted for four purposes: (1) Preliminary risk assessments are used to aid in prioritizing sites, scope data collection, end determine if a site presents immediate health risks. (2) Baseline risk assessments provide a comprehensive integration and interpretation of demographic, geographic, physical, chemical, and biological factors at a site to determine the extent of actual or potential harm. This information Is used to determine the need for remedial action. (3) Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives is performed to evaluate risks to humans or the environment associated with the various remedial strategies. (4) After remediation, an evaluation of residual risks is conducted. The information gathered for each of these risk evaluations is used to determine the need for subsequent evaluation. Several sites may be eliminated after a preliminary risk assessment if there is no current or future threat to humans or the environment. Likewise, much of the data from a baseline risk assessment can be used to support alternate concentration limits or supplemental standards demonstrations, or identify sensitive habitats or receptors that may be of concern in selecting a remedy

  4. Status of remedial investigation activities in the Hanford Site 300 Area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Innis, B.E.; Frank, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) and Phase 1 and 2 feasibility studies (FS) for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit underlying the 300 Area on the Hanford Site have been completed. Analysis and evaluation of soil, sediment, and surface water, and biotic sampling data, groundwater chemistry, and radiological data gathered over the past 3 years has been completed. Risk assessment calculations have been performed. Use of the data gathered, coupled with information from an automated water level data collection system, has enabled engineers to track three plumes that represent the most significant contamination of the groundwater

  5. Consensus implementation of a groundwater remediation project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, K.R.; Carlson, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Because of significant characterization uncertainties existing when the Record of Decision was signed and the unfavorable national reputation of groundwater pump and treat remediation projects, the Test Area North (TAN) groundwater ROD includes the evaluation of five emerging technologies that show potential for treating the organic contamination in situ or reducing the toxicity of contaminants above ground. Treatability studies will be conducted to ascertain whether any may be suitable for implementation at TAN to yield more timely or cost effective restoration of the aquifer. The implementation approach established for the TAN groundwater project is a consensus approach, maximizing a partnership relation with stakeholders in constant, iterative implementation decision making

  6. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  7. 200-UP-1 groundwater remedial design/remedial action work plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This 200-UP-1 remedial design report presents the objective and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure for the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  8. The impact of abandoned coal gasification plants on groundwater and remediation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.; Stieber, M.

    1997-01-01

    Areas of abandoned coal gasification-, cokeovenplants and town gasworks normally contain hazardous contaminants as there are among others PAHs, cyanides, mono aromatic compounds and phenols. Therefore a strong impact on the groundwater can be expected. In the thousands of sites existing in Germany a complete remediation is almost impossible. Combustion is the only safe way to eliminate the contaminants by mineralization; but is to expensive and not applicable for the large amount of soil to be treated. Soil washing and bio-remediation is limited by the composition of the contaminants on the one side and by the soil structure on the other. Therefore the success of the mentioned remediation techniques is normally weak and only in some selected cases efficient enough. A combination of different methods according the site characteristics might help to increase the efficiency. On the other hand it it obvious, that there are natural barriers integrated between the contaminants and the groundwater as there are e.g solubility adsorbability and biodegradability of the hazardous compounds and the distance to the groundwater. Recently developed methods for downstream groundwater remediation are presented and discussed for the application in gas work contaminations. Those so called 'passive systems' are said to be very economic and might help to prevent further distribution of the contaminants into the environment. (au)

  9. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  10. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  11. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  12. Biosensor-based diagnostics of contaminated groundwater: assessment and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Jessica; Read, David; Amos, Sean; Dooley, Stephen; Killham, Kenneth; Paton, Graeme I.

    2005-01-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath a former airfield site in southern England has been heavily contaminated with a wide range of chlorinated solvents. The feasibility of using bacterial biosensors to complement chemical analysis and enable cost-effective, and focussed sampling has been assessed as part of a site evaluation programme. Five different biosensors, three metabolic (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens 10568 and Escherichia coli HB101) and two catabolic (Pseudomonas putida TVA8 and E. coli DH5α), were employed to identify areas where the availability and toxicity of pollutants is of most immediate environmental concern. The biosensors used showed different sensitivities to each other and to the groundwater samples tested. There was generally a good agreement with chemical analyses. The potential efficacy of remediation strategies was explored by coupling sample manipulation to biosensor tests. Manipulation involved sparging and charcoal treatment procedures to simulate remediative engineering solutions. Sparging was sufficient at most locations. - Luminescent bacteria complement chemical analysis and support remediation technology

  13. Soil and groundwater remediation through the program of energy research and development at Environment Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Research and development in groundwater and soil remediation within the federal Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) are conducted in the context of activities related to the oil and gas industry. Contamination of groundwater and soil by the oil and gas sector affects the health of ecosystems and the economic viability of impacted lands. This paper presented an outline of remediation research and development activities associated with PERD, as well as an overview of PERD's development of improved generic remediation technologies and approaches for use by industries. In addition, issues concerning the development of key guidelines, methods and protocols for use by regulators were discussed. Science and technology efforts within PERD contribute to the development of national standards and guidelines concerning public safety and environmental needs

  14. Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

    2009-04-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metal and, though it, of groundwater represent a serious alteration of original geochemical levels owing to various human activities as: particular industrial processes and their non-correct treatment emission, urban traffic, use of phytosanitary product and mineral fertilizer. Heavy metals are genotoxic contaminants who can be found by environmental matrix analysis or by examination of the genetic damage inducted, after exposition, to sentry organism. In this last case we use a relative quantitation of the gene expression monitoring the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism hepatopancreas's gene of the organism used by bioindicator. This test is based on consideration that the hepatopancreas is the first internal organ affected by heavy metals or any other pollutant that the organism is exposed. In this work, the organism used by bioindicator to evalutate the pollutant contamination of waste water is Danio rerio (Zebrafish) that is a little tropical fish of 2-3 cm, native on asiatic south-east rivers. This organism has a large use in scientific field because its genoma is almost completely mapped and, above all, because the congenital gene cause in human, if it was mutated in zebrafish, similar damage or almost similar mutation that happens in human being so you can develop a dose - response curve. To do this, after prepared a cadmium solution with a concentration 10 times the Italian normative limit, the organisms have been put in the aquarium to recreate the optimal condition to survival of zebrafish observed by continuous monitoring by web-cam. After one month exposition, that we took little by little sample fish to analyzing, for different exposition time, the hepatopancreas's fish. First results shows considerable variation of the gene expression by interested gene in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism compared to control, highlighting the mutagenity caused by heavy metals on Danio rerio's hepatopancreas and, mutatis mutandis, also in

  15. The effect of remedial measures upon groundwater quality in connection with soil contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and the related costs - by example of the City of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mull, R.; Mull, J.; Pielke, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of remedial actions on the groundwater quality was investigated in the aquifer of the City of Hannover. The improvement of groundwater quality was related to the costs for the remedial actions. The attention was focussed on groundwater pollution by chlorinated hydrocarbons as the most important contaminants of groundwater in urban areas. (orig.)

  16. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert W.; Frank, James R.; Feng, Xiandong

    1998-01-01

    An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

  17. Feasibility of phyto remediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    to the two Timbre sites : Hunedoara (Romania) and Szprotawa (Poland). Phytoremediation is the technique to clean up (remediate) contaminated sites using plants, typically trees. The principles of the data were deta iled, with focus on obstacles (phytotoxicity) and factors stimulating success (degradation...

  18. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L. [ARCADIS, U.S., 2000 Powell St., 7th Floor, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed

  19. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed to evaluate

  20. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  1. Advanced oxidation for groundwater remediation and for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.

    2001-01-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) used in this paper is based on EB irradiation of water in the presence and absence of ozone. The paper describes two distinct sets of experiments, one dealing with groundwater contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) and some genotoxic compounds, and the other dealing with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The combination of ozone and EB irradiation has shown to be able to mineralize trace amounts of PCE contained in groundwater in a single stage process without formation of any by-product to be disposed of. Moreover, experiments performed with real groundwater have demonstrated that the combined ozone/EB irradiation process is also apt for total removal of some genotoxic compounds detected in groundwater contaminated with PCE. The design of an ozone/EB irradiation plant for treating 108 m 3 /h is presented. The issue concerning both the occurrences of genotoxic compounds in oxygen containing groundwater and possible processes for their removal is discussed. In the second part soil contaminated with PAHs has been treated in aqueous suspension using ozone and EB irradiation, respectively. Experiments were performed with low contaminated soil (total PAHs about 332 mg/kg soil). With an ozone consumption of 10 g C) 3 /kg soil a total PAH decomposition of about 21% was recorded. EB irradiation with a reasonable radiation dose of 100 kGy results in about 7% total PAH decomposition at room temperature and about 16%, respectively at 55-60 deg. C. It was recorded that almost no transfer of the PAH takes place from the soil into the water when soil is merely suspended in water. Ozone mainly attacked the high molecular fraction (i.e. consisting of 5 or 6 aromatic rings) of the PAHs investigated while EB irradiation of the aqueous soil suspension mostly decomposed the lower fraction (i.e. consisting up to 4 aromatic rings). (author)

  2. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  3. Non-attainment policy: A viable approach for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javandel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Research Council recently completed a three-year study entitled open-quotes Alternatives for Groundwater Cleanupclose quotes. One of the conclusions of this study indicated that for sites with a complex geologic and hydrologic set up, existing technologies may not be able to restore contaminated aquifers to health-based standards. Therefore, the most logical approach in these cases, perhaps, could be to adopt the open-quotes non-attainment zoneclose quotes policy. The essence of this policy is to first contain the plume and stop any further migration of contaminated groundwater, and then to remove the source of contamination. This paper briefly discusses some of the problems encountered with this approach for a contaminated area at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory

  4. Laboratory study on sequenced permeable reactive barrier remediation for landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhao Yongsheng; Zhang Weihong; Hong Mei

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was a promising technology for groundwater remediation. Landfill leachate-polluted groundwater riches in various hazardous contaminants. Two lab-scale reactors (reactors A and B) were designed for studying the feasibility of PRB to remedy the landfill leachate-polluted groundwater. Zero valent iron (ZVI) and the mixture of ZVI and zeolites constitute the first section of the reactors A and B, respectively; the second section of two reactors consists of oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs). Experimental results indicated that BOD 5 /COD increased from initial 0.32 up to average 0.61 and 0.6 through reactors A and B, respectively. Removal efficiency of mixed media for pollutants was higher than that of single media (ZVI only). Zeolites exhibited selective removal of Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd, Sr, and NH 4 + , and removal efficiency was 97.2%, 99.6%, 95.9%, 90.5% and 97.4%, respectively. The maximum DO concentration of reactors A and B were 7.64 and 6.78 mg/L, respectively, while the water flowed through the ORC. Therefore, sequenced PRB system was effective and was proposed as an alternative method to remedy polluted groundwater by landfill leachate

  5. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2018-03-05

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  7. Optimal groundwater remediation using artificial neural networks and the genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Leah L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    An innovative computational approach for the optimization of groundwater remediation is presented which uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the genetic algorithm (GA). In this approach, the ANN is trained to predict an aspect of the outcome of a flow and transport simulation. Then the GA searches through realizations or patterns of pumping and uses the trained network to predict the outcome of the realizations. This approach has advantages of parallel processing of the groundwater simulations and the ability to ``recycle`` or reuse the base of knowledge formed by these simulations. These advantages offer reduction of computational burden of the groundwater simulations relative to a more conventional approach which uses nonlinear programming (NLP) with a quasi-newtonian search. Also the modular nature of this approach facilitates substitution of different groundwater simulation models.

  8. Optimal groundwater remediation using artificial neural networks and the genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.L.

    1992-08-01

    An innovative computational approach for the optimization of groundwater remediation is presented which uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the genetic algorithm (GA). In this approach, the ANN is trained to predict an aspect of the outcome of a flow and transport simulation. Then the GA searches through realizations or patterns of pumping and uses the trained network to predict the outcome of the realizations. This approach has advantages of parallel processing of the groundwater simulations and the ability to ''recycle'' or reuse the base of knowledge formed by these simulations. These advantages offer reduction of computational burden of the groundwater simulations relative to a more conventional approach which uses nonlinear programming (NLP) with a quasi-newtonian search. Also the modular nature of this approach facilitates substitution of different groundwater simulation models

  9. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER MS

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site

  10. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2007-12-05

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site.

  11. Engineered wetlands for on-site groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands have been touted as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and water. They incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems that enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. Engineered wetlands generally emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. Design parameters include biodegradation rate coefficients, flowrate, hydraulic residence time plus influent and required effluent concentrations. This paper described the installation of an engineered wetland system at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery in Wyoming where a pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and ammonia. The wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of contaminated ground water per day and has been in operation since May 2003. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  13. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: APPLICATION OF THE NICHED PARETO GENETIC ALGORITHM (NPGA). (R826614)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiobjective optimization algorithm is applied to a groundwater quality management problem involving remediation by pump-and-treat (PAT). The multiobjective optimization framework uses the niched Pareto genetic algorithm (NPGA) and is applied to simultaneously minimize the...

  14. Remedial Process Optimization and Green In-Situ Ozone Sparging for Treatment of Groundwater Impacted with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, J.

    2012-12-01

    A former natural gas processing station is impacted with TPH and BTEX in groundwater. Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/AVE) remediation systems had previously been operated at the site. Currently, a groundwater extraction and treatment system is operated to remove the chemicals of concern (COC) and contain the groundwater plume from migrating offsite. A remedial process optimization (RPO) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of historic and current remedial activities and recommend an approach to optimize the remedial activities. The RPO concluded that both the AS/SVE system and the groundwater extraction system have reached the practical limits of COC mass removal and COC concentration reduction. The RPO recommended an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) study to evaluate the best ISCO oxidant and approach. An ISCO bench test was conducted to evaluate COC removal efficiency and secondary impacts to recommend an application dosage. Ozone was selected among four oxidants based on implementability, effectiveness, safety, and media impacts. The bench test concluded that ozone demand was 8 to 12 mg ozone/mg TPH and secondary groundwater by-products of ISCO include hexavalent chromium and bromate. The pH also increased moderately during ozone sparging and the TDS increased by approximately 20% after 48 hours of ozone treatment. Prior to the ISCO pilot study, a capture zone analysis (CZA) was conducted to ensure containment of the injected oxidant within the existing groundwater extraction system. The CZA was conducted through a groundwater flow modeling using MODFLOW. The model indicated that 85%, 90%, and 95% of an injected oxidant could be captured when a well pair is injecting and extracting at 2, 5, and 10 gallons per minute, respectively. An ISCO pilot test using ozone was conducted to evaluate operation parameters for ozone delivery. The ozone sparging system consisted of an ozone generator capable of delivering 6 lbs/day ozone through two ozone

  15. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  16. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    units would be reused in the remedy. Contingency measures to be included in the remedy are potential metals removal prior to water end use, potential...onbase reuse of a portion of the water, and wellhead treatment on offbase supply wells. The contingency measures will only be implemented if necessary...94 LEGEND Ouatmar aluvi dposts agua Frmaion(cosoldatd aluval epoits W iead rdetilnsMhte omtin(neitccnlmeae ansoe9ndkeca F 70 Quvatei-lernayalvu e pk

  17. ERC hazard classification matrices for above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the status of the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) process for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities currently underway for planned for fiscal year (FY) 1997. This classification process is based on current US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) guidance for the classification of facilities and activities containing radionuclide and nonradiological hazardous material inventories. The above ground structures presented in the matrices were drawn from the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project Facility List (DOE 1996), which identifies the facilities in the RL-Environmental Restoration baseline contract in 1997. This document contains the following two appendices: (1) Appendix A, which consists of a matrix identifying PHC documents that have been issued for BHI's above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997, and (2) Appendix B, which consists of a matrix showing anticipated PHCs for above ground structures, and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997. Appendix B also shows the schedule for finalization of PHCs for above ground structures with an anticipated classification of Nuclear

  18. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  19. Ferrier Groundwater Remediation Project: A proactive response to public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Ferrier gas plant in Alberta is owned by Pembina Resources and produces ca 10 m 3 /d of oil, 8,000 l/d of natural gas liquids, and sales gas. In late 1992, contamination from benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene was detected in a residential water well south of the plant. A site investigation found that a drain line from the plant's dehydrator still column to the flare was leaking, and that a well in the process building had free condensate on the water. Within the first three weeks of the initial report of contamination, the source of contamination had been identified, soil gas surveys had been conducted, integrity of pipelines was tested, piezometers were installed, and the first of many public meetings was held to inform residents of progress in tackling the problem. An action plan was developed and alternative water supplies were installed for affected residents. Newsletters were mailed to local residents concerning progress on remediation and plans to control the source and to capture the contamination plume were shared with the community at all times. Recovery wells to capture the plume were drilled and the captured water was treated and returned to the aquifer. Control of the source (the free condensate floating on the water table) was tackled by installing a recovery trench with drain lines. Meetings with the local residents' committee will continue to maintain trust with the community

  20. The use of in-situ dual vacuum extraction for remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dual Extraction provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and groundwater impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Dual Extraction is the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole using entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 square feet. The release produced vadose zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 - 30 feet below ground surface with TPH concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. A layer of free floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 30 feet bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 feet to 3.0 feet. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and groundwater to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hours/day for 196 days with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days, over 17,000 pounds of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings were advanced in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations and indicated that TPH and BTEX concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations. Three confirmatory groundwater samples were obtained from monitoring wells initially exhibiting up to 3 feet of floating product. Confirmatory samples exhibited non-detectable (ND) concentrations of TPH and BTEX. Based upon the positive confirmatory results, site closure was obtained from the RWQCB in May of 1991. In only 28 weeks of operation, the groundwater contamination was reduced from free floating product to non-detectable concentrations of TPH using Dual Vacuum Extraction

  1. Least-cost groundwater remediation design using uncertain hydrogeological information. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of the project is to formulate, test, and evaluate a new approach to the least-cost design of groundwater contamination containment and decontamination systems. The proposed methodology employs robust optimization, the outer-approximation method of non-linear programming, and groundwater flow and transport modeling to find the most cost-effective pump-and-treat design possible given the physical parameters describing the groundwater reservoir are known with uncertainty. The result is a methodology that will provide the least-cost groundwater remediation design possible given a specified set of design objectives and physical and sociological constraints. As of the end of the first year of this 3-year project the author has developed and tested the concept of robust optimization within the framework of least-cost groundwater-contamination-containment design. The outer-approximation method has been employed in this context for the relatively simple linear-constraint case associated with the containment problem. In an effort to enhance the efficiency and applicability of this methodology, a new strategy for selecting the various realizations arising out of the Monte-Carlo underpinnings of the robust-optimization technique has been developed and tested. Based upon observations arising out of this work a yet more promising approach has been discovered. The theoretical foundation for this most recent approach has been, and continues to be, the primary focus of the research.'

  2. Electrical imaging of subsurface nanoparticle propagation for in-situ groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Orozco, Adrián; Gallistl, Jakob; Schmid, Doris; Micic Batka, Vesna; Bücker, Matthias; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Application of nanoparticles has emerged as a promising in situ remediation technology for the remediation of contaminated groundwater, particularly for areas difficult to access by other remediation techniques. The performance of nanoparticle injections, as a foremost step within this technology, is usually assessed through the geochemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples. This approach is not well suited for a real-time monitoring, and often suffers from a poor spatio-temporal resolution and only provides information from areas close to the sampling points. To overcome these limitations we propose the application of non-invasive Induced Polarization (IP) imaging, a geophysical method that provides information on the electrical properties of the subsurface. The analysis of temporal changes in the electrical images allows tracking the propagation of the injected nanoparticle suspension and detection of the induced bio-geochemical changes in the subsurface. Here, we present IP monitoring results for data collected during the injection of Nano-Goethite particles (NGP) used for simulation of biodegradation of a BTEX plume (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) at the Spolchemie II site, CZ. Frequency-domain IP measurements were collected parallel to the groundwater flow direction and centred on the NGP injection point. Pre-injection imaging results revealed high electrical conductivities (> 10 S/m) and negligible polarization effects in the BTEX-contaminated part of the saturated zone (below 5 m depth). The apparently contradictory observation - BTEX compounds are poor electrical conductors - can be explained by the release of carbonic acids (a metabolic by-product of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons), which leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity. Post-injection images revealed a significant decrease (> 50%) of the electrical conductivity, with even larger changes in the proximity of the injection points, most likely due to the

  3. FIELD STUDY OF ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ZEROVALENT IRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of ground-water resources by arsenic is a widespread environmental problem; consequently, there is a need for developments and improvements of remedial technologies to effectively manage arsenic contamination in ground water and soils. In June 2005, a 7 m long, 14 ...

  4. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two major remedial campaigns have been applied to a plume of trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated groundwater near the former X-740 facility at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon Ohio. The two selected technologies, phytoremediation using a stand of hybrid poplar trees from 1999-2007 and in situ chemical oxidation using modified Fenton's Reagent from 2008-2009, have proven ineffective in achieving remedial action objectives (RAOs). The 'poor' performance of these technologies is a direct result of site specific conditions and the local contaminant hydrogeology. Key among these challenges is the highly heterogeneous subsurface geology with a thin contaminated aquifer zone (the Gallia) - the behavior of the contamination in the Gallia is currently dominated by slow release of TCE from the clay of the overlying Minford formation, from the sandstone of the underlying Berea formation, and from clayey layers within the Gallia itself. In response to the remediation challenges for the X-740 plume, the Portsmouth team (including the US Department of Energy (DOE), the site contractor (CDM), and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA)) is evaluating the feasibility of remediation at this site and identifying specific alternatives that are well matched to site conditions and that would maximize the potential for achieving RAOs. To support this evaluation, the DOE Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation (EM-32) assembled a team of experts to serve as a resource and provide input and recommendations to Portsmouth. Despite the challenging site conditions and the failure of the previous two remediation campaigns to adequately move the site toward RAOs, the review team was unanimous in the conclusion that an effective combination of cost effective technologies can be identified. Further, the team expressed optimism that RAOs can be achieved if realistic timeframes are accepted by all parties. The initial efforts of the review team focused on reviewing the

  5. Simulant composition for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A project has been initiated at the request of ER to study and remediate the groundwater contamination at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF). This water contains a wide variety of both inorganics (e.g., sodium) and organics (e.g., benzene, trichloroethylene). Most compounds are present in the ppB range, and certain components (e.g., trichloroethylene, silver) are present at concentrations that exceed the primary drinking water standards (PDWS). These compounds must be reduced to acceptable levels as per RCRA and CERCLA orders. This report gives a listing of the important constituents which are to be included in a simulant to model the MWMF aquifer. This simulant will be used to evaluate the feasibility of various state of the art separation/destruction processes for remediating the aquifer

  6. Application of Fe-Cu/Biochar System for Chlorobenzene Remediation of Groundwater in Inhomogeneous Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorobenzene (CB, as a typical Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC, is toxic, highly persistent and easily migrates in water, posing a significant risk to human health and subsurface ecosystems. Therefore, exploring effective approaches to remediate groundwater contaminated by CB is essential. As an enhanced micro-electrolysis system for CB-contaminated groundwater remediation, this study attempted to couple the iron-copper bimetal with biochar. Two series of columns using sands with different grain diameters were used, consisting of iron, copper and biochar fillings as the permeable reactive barriers (PRBs, to simulate the remediation of CB-contaminated groundwater in homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. Regardless of the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous porous media, the CB concentrations in the effluent from the PRB columns were significantly lower than the natural sandy columns, suggesting that the iron and copper powders coupled with biochar particles could have a significant removal effect compared to the natural sand porous media in the first columns. CB was transported relatively quickly in the heterogeneous porous media, likely due to the fact that the contaminant residence time is proportional to the infiltration velocities in the different types of porous media. The average effluent CB concentrations from the heterogeneous porous media were lower than those from homogeneous porous media. The heterogeneity retarded the vertical infiltration of CB, leading to its extended lateral distribution. During the treatment process, benzene and phenol were observed as the products of CB degradation. The ultimate CB removal efficiency was 61.4% and 68.1%, demonstrating that the simulated PRB system with the mixture of iron, copper and biochar was effective at removing CB from homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers.

  7. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, B.D.; Binning, Philip John; Sloan, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of calcite (CaCO3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process...... leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal...... diminishes. Column tests also show that pH control is important for optimizing fluoride removal with the mass removed increasing with decreasing pH. Barrier pH can be regulated by CO2 addition with the point of injection being critical for optimising the remediation performance. Experimental and model...

  8. Use of toxicity assays for evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater remediation with Fenton’s reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bennedsen, Lars; Christophersen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    evaluates in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using modified Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + chelated Fe2+) as a groundwater remedy. Three injections were performed over a period to test treatment efficacy. Performance monitoring samples were collected from two depths both prior to and during treatment, and analyzed...... treatment with Fenton’s reagent the toxicity had increased and now needed 7100 times dilution to reduce toxicity to the LC10 probably due to mobilization of metals. It is concluded that toxicity assay is a useful tool for evaluating samples from contaminated sites and that toxicity assays and chemical...

  9. INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE X-701B GROUNDWATER REMEDY, PORTSMOUTH, OHIO: TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Costanza, J.; Rossabi, J.; Early, T.; Skubal, K.; Magnuson, C.

    2008-12-15

    The Department of Energy Portsmouth Paducah Project Office requested assistance from Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM-22) to provide independent technical experts to evaluate past and ongoing remedial activities at the Portsmouth facility that were completed to address TCE contamination associated with the X-701B groundwater plume and to make recommendations for future efforts. The Independent Technical Review team was provided with a detailed and specific charter. The charter requested that the technical team first review the past and current activities completed for the X-701B groundwater remedy for trichloroethene (TCE) in accordance with a Decision Document that was issued by Ohio EPA on December 8, 2003 and a Work Plan that was approved by Ohio EPA on September 22, 2006. The remedy for X-701B divides the activities into four phases: Phase I - Initial Source Area Treatment, Phase II - Expanded Source Area Treatment, Phase III - Evaluation and Reporting, and Phase IV - Downgradient Remediation and Confirmation of Source Area Treatment. Phase I of the remedy was completed during FY2006, and DOE has now completed six oxidant injection events within Phase II. The Independent Technical Review team was asked to evaluate Phase II activities, including soil and groundwater results, and to determine whether or not the criteria that were defined in the Work Plan for the Phase II end point had been met. The following criteria are defined in the Work Plan as an acceptable Phase II end point: (1) Groundwater samples from the identified source area monitoring wells have concentrations below the Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) for TCE in groundwater, or (2) The remedy is no longer effective in removing TCE mass from the source area. In addition, the charter specifies that if the Review Team determines that the Phase II endpoint has not been reached, then the team should address the following issues: (1) If additional injection events are

  10. A stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty for groundwater remediation design--part I. Model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Huang, G H; Lu, H W

    2010-04-15

    Solving groundwater remediation optimization problems based on proxy simulators can usually yield optimal solutions differing from the "true" ones of the problem. This study presents a new stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty (SOMUM) and the associated solution method for simultaneously addressing modeling uncertainty associated with simulator residuals and optimizing groundwater remediation processes. This is a new attempt different from the previous modeling efforts. The previous ones focused on addressing uncertainty in physical parameters (i.e. soil porosity) while this one aims to deal with uncertainty in mathematical simulator (arising from model residuals). Compared to the existing modeling approaches (i.e. only parameter uncertainty is considered), the model has the advantages of providing mean-variance analysis for contaminant concentrations, mitigating the effects of modeling uncertainties on optimal remediation strategies, offering confidence level of optimal remediation strategies to system designers, and reducing computational cost in optimization processes. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty for groundwater remediation design-Part I. Model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, L., E-mail: li.he@ryerson.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Huang, G.H. [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); College of Urban Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lu, H.W. [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Solving groundwater remediation optimization problems based on proxy simulators can usually yield optimal solutions differing from the 'true' ones of the problem. This study presents a new stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty (SOMUM) and the associated solution method for simultaneously addressing modeling uncertainty associated with simulator residuals and optimizing groundwater remediation processes. This is a new attempt different from the previous modeling efforts. The previous ones focused on addressing uncertainty in physical parameters (i.e. soil porosity) while this one aims to deal with uncertainty in mathematical simulator (arising from model residuals). Compared to the existing modeling approaches (i.e. only parameter uncertainty is considered), the model has the advantages of providing mean-variance analysis for contaminant concentrations, mitigating the effects of modeling uncertainties on optimal remediation strategies, offering confidence level of optimal remediation strategies to system designers, and reducing computational cost in optimization processes.

  12. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center: Transformational Technology Development For Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Gephart, Roy E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Chronister, Glen B.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Marble, Justin; Ramirez, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    DOE-EM, Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation and DOE Richland, in collaboration with the Hanford site and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, have established the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The DVZ-AFRC leverages DOE investments in basic science from the Office of Science, applied research from DOE EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development, and site operation (e.g., site contractors [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contractor and Washington River Protection Solutions], DOE-EM RL and ORP) in a collaborative effort to address the complex region of the deep vadose zone. Although the aim, goal, motivation, and contractual obligation of each organization is different, the integration of these activities into the framework of the DVZ-AFRC brings the resources and creativity of many to provide sites with viable alternative remedial strategies to current baseline approaches for persistent contaminants and deep vadose zone contamination. This cooperative strategy removes stove pipes, prevents duplication of efforts, maximizes resources, and facilitates development of the scientific foundation needed to make sound and defensible remedial decisions that will successfully meet the target cleanup goals for one of DOE EM's most intractable problems, in a manner that is acceptable by regulators.

  13. Application of Biostimulation for Remediation of Sulfate-Contaminated Groundwater at a Mining Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreon, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing concern regarding sulfate contamination of groundwater. One innovative in-situ remediation option under investigation is biostimulation through addition of electron-donor amendments to enhance sulfate reduction. Two pilot-scale ethanol-injection tests were conducted at a former uranium mining site that is contaminated with sulfate and nitrate (with a lack of heavy metals), and for which there appears to be minimal natural attenuation of sulfate. The first test was a push-pull test that had a limited zone of influence, while the second test was a single-well injection test in which additional downgradient wells were monitored. For both tests, sulfate concentrations began to decline within a few weeks of injection, after nitrate concentrations were significantly reduced. Concomitantly, aqueous concentrations of manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide increased from background. Monitoring over many months revealed that the declines in sulfate concentration conformed to exponential decay, with first-order decay rates of approximately 0.01 /d. Analysis of sulfur stable isotope data indicated that the decrease in sulfate concentrations was microbially mediated. The results also indicated that sulfides formed during sulfate reduction may have undergone partial re-oxidation. This study illustrates the feasibility of using ethanol injection for remediation of sulfate-contaminated groundwater. However, re-oxidation of sulfides (both metal sulfide precipitates and hydrogen sulfide gas) is a potential issue of significance that would need to be addressed.

  14. Information needs for demonstrating compliance with groundwater aspects of 40 CFR 192 for uranium mill tailings remedial action programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, M.J.; Verma, T.R.; Martin, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, provides the Department of Energy with authority to perform remedial actions at designated inactive uranium-mill sites. The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated radiological and non-radiological standards (40 CFR 192) for remedial actions at inactive uranium-mill sites. All remedial actions require the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Subpart C of 40 CFR 192 addresses the control of pollutants in groundwater at sites for which remedial action is proposed pursuant to P.L 95-604. As the authors interpret the regulation, it is essentially an admonition to carefully evaluate what is useful and practicable to deal with existing contamination and to control potential future contamination. In reviewing groundwater aspects of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action documents, current NRC experience shows that the reports should address the following information needs: (1) The need to identify the physical and chemical nature of the present groundwater flow system in sufficient detail to provide a reasonable expectation that the extent and value of the groundwater resource to be protected is understood adequately; (2) The need to identify reasonable foreseeable events, both natural and man-made, that could alter the present groundwater flow system and the effects of such changes on the definition of the protected zone; (3) The need to identify current groundwater use within the protected zone; (4) The need to identify site-specific models, boundary conditions, and representative values of system parameters to predict with reasonable assurance that the proposed actions will protect groundwater and surface water resources for the design period of 200 - 1000 years

  15. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit interim remedial measure. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (IRM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need for an IRM and its potentially achievable objectives and goals. The report also evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99 and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  16. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

  17. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  18. Use of a permeable biological reaction barrier for groundwater remediation at a uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thombre, M.S.; Thomson, B.M.; Barton, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work at the University of New Mexico and elsewhere has shown that sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of reducing uranium from the soluble +6 oxidation state to the insoluble +4 oxidation state. This chemistry forms the basis of a proposed groundwater remediation strategy in which microbial reduction would be used to immobilize soluble uranium. One such system would consist of a subsurface permeable barrier which would stimulate microbial growth resulting in the reduction of sulfate and nitrate and immobilization of metals while permitting the unhindered flow of ground water through it. This research investigated some of the engineering considerations associated with a microbial reducing barrier such as identifying an appropriate biological substrate, estimating the rate of substrate utilization, and identifying the final fate of the contaminants concentrated in the barrier matrix. The performance of batch reactors and column systems that treated simulated plume water was evaluated using cellulose, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, sawdust, and soluble starch as substrates. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) were monitored over time. Precipitates from each system were collected and the precipitated U(IV) was determined to be crystalline UO 2 (s) by X-ray Diffraction. The results of this study support the proposed use of cellulosic substrates as candidate barrier materials

  19. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinpress, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  20. A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Lee, Jechan; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo, E-mail: thilo.hofmann@univie.ac.at

    2016-09-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  2. Dynamic optimal control of groundwater remediation with management periods: Linearized and quasi-Newton approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Several modifications of the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) optimization algorithm are developed, and the computational efficiency of each algorithm with respect to groundwater remediation is evaluated. In each case, the optimization model is combined with a finite element groundwater flow and transport simulation model to determine the optimal time-varying pump-and-treat policy. The first modification of the LQR algorithm incorporated management periods, which are groups of simulation time steps during which the pumping policy remains constant. Management periods reduced the total computational demand, as measured by the CPU time, by as much as 85% compared to the time needed for the LQR solution without management periods. Complexity analysis revealed that computational savings of equal or greater magnitude can be expected in general for groundwater remediation applications and for many other applications of dynamic control. The LQR algorithm with management periods was further modified by assuming steady-state hydraulics within a management period (SSLQR), which simplifies the derivatives of the transition equation. A quasi-Newton differential dynamic programming (QNDDP) was formulated by approximating the complicated second derivatives of the transition equation using a Broyden rank-one approximation. QNDDP converged to the optimal policy for the test problem significantly faster than the LQR algorithm, requiring approximately half the computational time. With the test problem expanded to include the capacity of the treatment facility as a state variable, QNDDP with management periods can determine the optimal treatment facility capacity. With many management periods, the addition of the capital costs of the treatment facility changed the optimal policy so that the required treatment facility capacity was reduced

  3. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  4. Update on the National Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, A.

    1992-01-01

    The national Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP), supported jointly by government and the petroleum industry, targets research on innovative ways to clean up groundwater and soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, and conducts technology transfer sessions. Within its broad context as an initiative for research, development and demonstration of innovative cleanup technologies, GASReP now targets basic applied research and/or technology development only. Industry partners and other government programs will be encouraged to extend GASReP research findings to the final stage of technology demonstration. During 1991-92 GASReP shifted its attention from starting new projects to evaluating the program, setting a new direction, and establishing a better way to seek ideas for projects. Unlike previous years, only three projects began during this period. Two technology development projects are iron and manganese pre-treatment for pump and treat clean-up systems, and surface bioreactor to clean soil/waste contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The one technology assessment project dealt with a review of six technologies for in-situ bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) in groundwater. Current program direction, interests, and research needs are summarized, and candidate proposals for project selection in 1992-93 are listed

  5. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  6. Subsurface Transport Behavior of Micro-Nano Bubbles and Potential Applications for Groundwater Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengzhen Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano bubbles (MNBs are tiny bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers and nanometers, showing great potential in environmental remediation. However, the application is only in the beginning stages and remains to be intensively studied. In order to explore the possible use of MNBs in groundwater contaminant removal, this study focuses on the transport of MNBs in porous media and dissolution processes. The bubble diameter distribution was obtained under different conditions by a laser particle analyzer. The permeability of MNB water through sand was compared with that of air-free water. Moreover, the mass transfer features of dissolved oxygen in water with MNBs were studied. The results show that the bubble diameter distribution is influenced by the surfactant concentration in the water. The existence of MNBs in pore water has no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of sand. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO in water is greatly increased by the MNBs, which will predictably improve the aerobic bioremediation of groundwater. The results are meaningful and instructive in the further study of MNB research and applications in groundwater bioremediation.

  7. Remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units' interim action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document is a combination remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) interim action. The interim actions described in this document represent the first of an ongoing program to address groundwater contamination in each operable unit. This document describes the design basis, provides a description of the interim action, and identifies how they will meet the requirements set forth in the interim action Record of Decision

  8. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contamination from unsaturated soil: Field application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ technique under development at Sandia National Laboratories for removal of ionic contaminants from soil. While to date most other studies of this technique have focused on saturated soils, usually clays, the work at Sandia has been to extend the process to unsaturated sandy soils typical of arid regions. The impetus for this study is a chromate plume located beneath an old Sandia chemical waste landfill. Working in unsaturated soils is complicated by moisture control requirements, both to prevent undesired hydraulic transport of contamination outside the treatment zone and to optimize soil properties for efficient electrokinetic remediation. Two field tests will be discussed. First, a field test in clean soil is in progress to demonstrate moisture control with the Sandia electrode system. The second field demonstration, planned to begin the Fall of 1995, involves chromate removal from a in a chemical waste landfill

  9. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  10. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC

  11. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  12. Speciation of As in calcite by micro-XAFS: Implications for remediation of As contamination in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Y; Takahashi, Y; Iwatsuki, T; Terada, Y

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of calcite as a host phase of arsenic (As) in As-contaminated groundwater, distribution behavior of Asbetween natural calcite and groundwater in deep underground was investigated based on As oxidation state. Speciation analyses of As in natural calcite by μ-XRF-XAFS analyses showed (i) preferentialarsenate uptake by calcite, and (ii) promptness of arsenate uptake by minor iron (Fe) carbonate minerals coprecipitated with calcite. These findings suggest that the effect of calcite on As remediation of the As-contamination systems stronglydepends on arsenite to arsenate ratio (i.e., redox condition) in groundwater, and maybe governed bythe amount of Fe coprecipitated with calcite.

  13. Independent technical reviews for groundwater and soil remediation projects at US Department Of Energy sites - 59188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, Dawn S.; Chamberlain, Grover; Morse, John G.; Petersen, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management has supported independent technical reviews of soil and groundwater projects at multiple DOE sites over the last 10 years. These reviews have resulted in significant design improvements to remedial plans that have accelerated cleanup and site closure. Many have also resulted in improved understanding of complex subsurface conditions, promoting better approaches to design and implementation of new technologies. Independent technical reviews add value, because they provide another perspective to problem solving and act as a check for especially challenging problems. By bringing in a team of independent experts with a broad experience base, alternative solutions are recommended for consideration and evaluation. In addition, the independence of the panel is significant, because it is able to address politically sensitive issues. The expert panel members typically bring lessons learned from other sites to help solve the DOE problems. In addition, their recommendations at a particular site can often be applied at other sites, making the review even more valuable. The review process can vary, but some common lessons ensure a successful review: - Use a multi-disciplinary broadly experienced team; - Engage the panel early and throughout the project; - Involve regulators and stakeholders in the workshop, if appropriate. - Provide sufficient background information; - Close the workshop with a debriefing followed by a written report. Many groundwater remediation challenges remain at DOE sites. Independent technical reviews have and will ensure that the best capabilities and experience are applied to reduce risks and uncertainties. Even though the groundwater remediation industry has developed significantly over the last twenty years, advancements are needed to address the complexities of the subsurface at the DOE sites. These advancements have tremendous potential to save millions of dollars and to accelerate the

  14. Mobility of Nanoscale and Microscale iron for groundwater remediation: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, T.; Gastone, F.; Sethi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Colloidal suspensions of zerovalent iron micro- and nanoparticles (MZVI and NZVI) have been studied in recent years for in-situ groundwater remediation. Thanks to their small size, MZVI and NZVI can be dispersed in aqueous suspensions and directly injected into the subsurface, for a targeted treatment of contamination plumes and even sources. However, colloidal dispersions of such particles are not stable in pure water, due to fast aggregation (for NZVI) and gravitational sedimentation (for MZVI). Viscous, environmentally friendly fluids (guar gum and xanthan gum solutions), which exhibit shear thinning rheological properties, were found to be effective in improving colloidal stability, thus greatly improving handling and injectability (1-3). The present work reports laboratory tests and numerical modelling concerning the mobility of MZVI and NZVI viscous suspensions in porous media. The efficacy of xanthan and guar gum was investigated in column transport tests, performed injecting highly concentrated iron suspensions (20 g/L), dispersed in xanthan gum (3g/L) and guar gum (3-6 g/l) solutions. Particle breakthrough curves and concentration profiles were monitored by magnetic susceptibility measurements. Pressure drop at column ends was also continuously monitored. The tests proved that green polymers can greatly improve both colloidal stability and mobility of the particles. Their use is fundamental in particular for MZVI, which cannot be transported nor even dispersed in pure water. A numerical model for NZVI and NZVI transport in porous media was then developed (E-MNM1D, Enhanced Micro-and Nanoparticle transport Model in porous media in 1D geometry) (4). Due to the high concentration of the particles and to the non-Newtonian rheology of the carrier fluid, hydrodynamic parameters, fluid properties and concentration of deposed and suspended particles are mutually influenced. The rheological properties of the suspensions are accounted for through a variable

  15. Phase 1 remediation of jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport using dual phase extraction and bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Bianco, P. Rizzo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contaminated with jet fuel at Terminal One of the JFK International Airport in New York have been remediated using dual phase extraction (DPE) and bioventing. Two areas were remediated using 51 DPE wells and 20 air sparging/air injection wells. The total area remediated by the DPE wells is estimated to be 4.8 acres. Groundwater was extracted to recover nonaqueous phase and aqueous phase jet fuel from the shallow aquifer and treated above ground by the following processes; oil/water separation, iron-oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, air stripping and liquid-phase granular activated carbon (LPGAC) adsorption. The extracted vapors were treated by vapor-phase granular activated carbon (VPGAC) adsorption in one area, and catalytic oxidation and VPGAC adsorption in another area. After 6 months of remediation, approximately 5,490 lbs. of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were removed by soil vapor extraction (SVE), 109,650 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed from the extracted groundwater, and 60,550 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were biologically oxidized by subsurface microorganisms. Of these three mechanisms, the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon removal was the highest for biological oxidation in one area and by groundwater extraction in another area

  16. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  17. Groundwater remediation of hexavalent chromium along the Columbia River at the Hanford site in Washington state, USA - 59030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, Dyan L.; Charboneau, Briant L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, formerly used for nuclear weapons production, encompasses 1500 square kilometers in southeast Washington State along the Columbia River. A principle threat to the river are the groundwater plumes of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), which affect approximately 9.8 square kilometers, and 4.1 kilometers of shoreline. Cleanup goals are to stop Cr(VI) from entering the river by the end of 2012 and remediate the groundwater plumes to the drinking water standards by the end of 2020. Five groundwater pump-and-treat systems are currently in operation for the remediation of Cr(VI). Since the 1990's, over 13.6 billion L of groundwater have been treated; over 1, 435 kg of Cr(VI) have been removed. This paper describes the unique aspects of the site, its environmental setting, hydrogeology, groundwater-river interface, riverine hydraulic effects, remediation activities completed to date, a summary of the current and proposed pump-and-treat operations, the in situ redox manipulation barrier, and the effectiveness of passive barriers, resins, and treatability testing results of calcium polysulfide, bio-stimulation, and electrocoagulation, currently under evaluation. (authors)

  18. Development of a biotreatment system for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, B.R.; Kurisko, P.R.; Ensley, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Inadvertent release of fuels and solvents into soil has resulted in groundwater contamination across the United States. This paper reports on the development of biologically based systems for treating mixtures of chemical contaminants which often requires knowledge of both degradative pathways and interactions between individual chemicals. These issues may necessitate the use of specialized microorganisms and/or treatment systems designed to overcome these limitations. One strategy for the treatment of chemical mixtures which cannot be source separated, such as contaminated groundwater, is a modular system to sequentially biodegrade groups of compatible chemicals. A two-stage bioreactor system was constructed for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and TCE. This treatment system is undergoing development for a field pilot demonstration. Successful implementation of this system should result in significant cost and time savings compared to competitive technologies

  19. Feasibility study for the remediation of groundwater contaminated by organolead compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, Gianni; Dallago, Loris; Ferrarese, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of chemical oxidation, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) and adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) for the ex situ remediation of a groundwater contaminated by organolead compounds, including tetraethyl lead (TEL), triethyl lead (TREL) and diethyl lead (DEL). The groundwater of concern was collected from the site of a former tetraalkyllead producing company in Trento (Italy), and showed an average total organic lead (TOL) content about 95.1 μg/L (TEL 0.5 μg/L, TREL 86.4 μg/L, DEL 8.3 μg/L). The main target of the study was to find out which method was more effective in reducing the pollutant content. For this purpose, several laboratory tests were performed, including chemical oxidation tests with different reactants (hydrogen peroxide, modified Fenton's reagent, potassium permanganate, activated potassium persulfate, oxygen and combinations of potassium permanganate and modified Fenton's reagent), AOPs with ozone, UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide and filtration on granular activated carbon. A combination of chemical and physical treatments was also tested, with GAC filtration followed by chemical oxidation. According to the results achieved, the treatments which showed the best remediation performances were: chemical oxidation with modified Fenton's reagent, AOPs with hydrogen peroxide and ozone (perozone), AOPs with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation, and the combined treatment with activated carbon filtration followed by chemical oxidation with perozone. All these treatments showed a 90% TOL removal, with excellent removals of both TEL and TREL, and final DEL concentrations below 5 μg/L

  20. Feasibility study for the remediation of groundwater contaminated by organolead compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, Gianni; Dallago, Loris [Universita degli Studi di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Via Mesiano 77, 38050 Trento (Italy); Ferrarese, Elisa [Universita degli Studi di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Via Mesiano 77, 38050 Trento (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.ferrarese@ing.unitn.it

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of chemical oxidation, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) and adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) for the ex situ remediation of a groundwater contaminated by organolead compounds, including tetraethyl lead (TEL), triethyl lead (TREL) and diethyl lead (DEL). The groundwater of concern was collected from the site of a former tetraalkyllead producing company in Trento (Italy), and showed an average total organic lead (TOL) content about 95.1 {mu}g/L (TEL 0.5 {mu}g/L, TREL 86.4 {mu}g/L, DEL 8.3 {mu}g/L). The main target of the study was to find out which method was more effective in reducing the pollutant content. For this purpose, several laboratory tests were performed, including chemical oxidation tests with different reactants (hydrogen peroxide, modified Fenton's reagent, potassium permanganate, activated potassium persulfate, oxygen and combinations of potassium permanganate and modified Fenton's reagent), AOPs with ozone, UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide and filtration on granular activated carbon. A combination of chemical and physical treatments was also tested, with GAC filtration followed by chemical oxidation. According to the results achieved, the treatments which showed the best remediation performances were: chemical oxidation with modified Fenton's reagent, AOPs with hydrogen peroxide and ozone (perozone), AOPs with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation, and the combined treatment with activated carbon filtration followed by chemical oxidation with perozone. All these treatments showed a 90% TOL removal, with excellent removals of both TEL and TREL, and final DEL concentrations below 5 {mu}g/L.

  1. A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2001-12-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for undergraduate general chemistry in which students investigate the chemistry behind iron-permeable reactive barriers (iron PRBs), a new technology that is widely used to remediate contaminated groundwater. Contaminant remediation involving iron PRBs is a redox process: the iron metal undergoes oxidative dissolution while the contaminant is reduced. The reaction is complicated, however, by the fact that it involves a surface that changes owing to the development of a layer of rust (iron oxide) on the iron. In this experiment, students examine the iron PRB-contaminant reaction by characterizing the kinetics of the degradation of a dye (the model contaminant) in the presence of granular iron under various experimental conditions. Students can be asked to design their own experiments to investigate aspects of the degradation reaction that are of particular interest to them. The material covered in the lab includes oxidation-reduction reactions, pseudo first-order kinetics, spectrophotometry, and the application of chemistry to solving environmental problems. The experiment can also be used as a vehicle to introduce more advanced topics in chemistry such as heterogeneous reactions, corrosion, passive film growth, and mass transport.

  2. Sustainable remediation: electrochemically assisted microbial dechlorination of tetrachloroethene-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sayali S; Adetutu, Eric M; Rochow, Jacqueline; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electric systems (MESs) hold significant promise for the sustainable remediation of chlorinated solvents such as tetrachlorethene (perchloroethylene, PCE). Although the bio-electrochemical potential of some specific bacterial species such as Dehalcoccoides and Geobacteraceae have been exploited, this ability in other undefined microorganisms has not been extensively assessed. Hence, the focus of this study was to investigate indigenous and potentially bio-electrochemically active microorganisms in PCE-contaminated groundwater. Lab-scale MESs were fed with acetate and carbon electrode/PCE as electron donors and acceptors, respectively, under biostimulation (BS) and BS-bioaugmentation (BS-BA) regimes. Molecular analysis of the indigenous groundwater community identified mainly Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and γ and δ-Proteobacteria. Environmental scanning electron photomicrographs of the anode surfaces showed extensive indigenous microbial colonization under both regimes. This colonization and BS resulted in 100% dechlorination in both treatments with complete dechlorination occurring 4 weeks earlier in BS-BA samples and up to 11.5 μA of current being generated. The indigenous non-Dehalococcoides community was found to contribute significantly to electron transfer with ∼61% of the current generated due to their activities. This study therefore shows the potential of the indigenous non-Dehalococcoides bacterial community in bio-electrochemically reducing PCE that could prove to be a cost-effective and sustainable bioremediation practice. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Permanganate gel (PG) for groundwater remediation: compatibility, gelation, and release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung Seok; Olson, Pamela R; Gupta, Neha; Solpuker, Utku; Schwartz, Franklin W; Kim, Yongje

    2014-02-01

    Permanganate (MnO4(-)) is a strong oxidant that is widely used for treating chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. This study aims to develop hyper-saline MnO4(-) solution (MnO4(-) gel; PG) that can be injected into aquifers via wells, slowly gelates over time, and slowly release MnO4(-) to flowing water. In this study, compatibility and miscibility of gels, such as chitosan, aluminosilicate, silicate, and colloidal silica gels, with MnO4(-) were tested. Of these gels, chitosan was reactive with MnO4(-). Aluminosilicates were compatible but not readily miscible with MnO4(-). Silicates and colloidal silica were both compatible and miscible with MnO4(-), and gelated with addition of KMnO4 granules. Colloidal silica has low initial viscosity (<15cP), exhibited delayed gelation characteristics with the lag times ranging from 0 to 200min. Release of MnO4(-) from the colloidal silica-based PG gel occurred in a delayed fashion, with maximum duration of 24h. These results suggested that colloidal silica can be used to create PG or delayed-gelling forms containing other oxidants which can be used for groundwater remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Groundwater monitoring for remedial investigation in the Oriskany-Whitestown Sand Plain, Oneida County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewer, R.P.; Birckhead, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The 50-acre Whitestown Landfill is listed by NYSDEC as a Class 2 inactive hazardous waste disposal site. During Remedial Investigations, a 23-well groundwater monitoring system was installed, exploring Wisconsin age glaciofluvial deposits of the Oriskany-Whitestown sand plain. These were described in the late 19th century as deltaic sediments deposited in a proglacial lake. However, no recent studies and only limited subsurface data were available, prompting a two-phase installation program. The landfill is located above steep bluffs 70 feet above the Mohawk River and Oriskany Creek valleys. Beneath the landfill, Phase I identified a gradational sequence of coarse to fine deltaic sediments with glacial till. This sequence was partly eroded and overlain by alluvium and colluvium in the valleys. The landfill was constructed on surficial deposits of coarse fluviodeltaic gravel. These were underlain by deltaic deposits grading from sand to silt with depth, the lower silts comprising the uppermost aquifer. The silts made identification of the water table difficult during drilling and caused problems in meeting a stringent development criterion for turbidity. Phase I found that the saturated zone, up to 50 feet thick, is perched on glaciolacustrine clays and, locally, tills, which were the lower boundary of the system investigated. Partly influenced by the clays, groundwater and contaminant movement was to the adjoining valley, causing off-site impacts in the shallow alluvial/colluvial aquifer. Therefore, Phase 11 focused on characterizing flow and groundwater quality in the discharge area, particularly with respect to an adjacent residence and wetlands. Contamination was found to extend northward only as far as the Old Erie Canal, which parallels the base of the bluff. Only limited off-site involvement was documented which will be monitored in the post-closure period using the installed well system

  5. Effect of increased groundwater viscosity on the remedial performance of surfactant-enhanced air sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Heonki; Kwon, Hobin; Annable, Michael D.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of groundwater viscosity control on the performance of surfactant-enhanced air sparging (SEAS) was investigated using 1- and 2-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) bench-scale physical models. The viscosity of groundwater was controlled by a thickener, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), while an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), was used to control the surface tension of groundwater. When resident DI water was displaced with a SCMC solution (500 mg/L), a SDBS solution (200 mg/L), and a solution with both SCMC (500 mg/L) and SDBS (200 mg/L), the air saturation for sand-packed columns achieved by air sparging increased by 9.5%, 128%, and 154%, respectively, (compared to that of the DI water-saturated column). When the resident water contained SCMC, the minimum air pressure necessary for air sparging processes increased, which is considered to be responsible for the increased air saturation. The extent of the sparging influence zone achieved during the air sparging process using the 2-D model was also affected by viscosity control. Larger sparging influence zones (de-saturated zone due to air injection) were observed for the air sparging processes using the 2-D model initially saturated with high-viscosity solutions, than those without a thickener in the aqueous solution. The enhanced air saturations using SCMC for the 1-D air sparging experiment improved the degradative performance of gaseous oxidation agent (ozone) during air sparging, as measured by the disappearance of fluorescence (fluorescein sodium salt). Based on the experimental evidence generated in this study, the addition of a thickener in the aqueous solution prior to air sparging increased the degree of air saturation and the sparging influence zone, and enhanced the remedial potential of SEAS for contaminated aquifers.

  6. Numerical modeling of remediation of groundwater in a wellfield of in-situ leaching of uranium by pump-and-treat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Junwen; Shi Wenge; Yang Yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the hydrogeological conditions at the investigated site, the coupled mathematic model about the flow and the contaminant transportation in groundwater was established. The software Visual MODflow, the most popular simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transportation, was used to study the contaminants distribution in groundwater during pumping at different pumping rates, and to determine the pumping well arrangement and optimal pumping rate, which directs the remediation of contaminated groundwater by the pump-and-treat system. (authors)

  7. Progress Toward Cleanup of Operable Unit 1 Groundwater at the US DOE Mound, Ohio, Site: Success of a Phase-Combined Remedy – 15310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Harrison, OH (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Stoller Newport News Nuclear Inc., Weldon Spring, MS (United States); Looney, Brian [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Huntsman, Brent [Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) soil and groundwater have been affected by volatile organic compounds (VOC) Present groundwater remedy is collection, treatment, and disposal (pump and treat [P&T]) Several combinations of technologies were used to address soil and groundwater contamination Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is a viable alternative Majority of source term has been excavated VOC concentrations in groundwater have decreased Attenuation mechanisms have been observed in the subsurface at OU-1

  8. The X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility: A field-scale test of trichloroethylene dechlorination using iron filings for the X-120/X-749 groundwater plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Korte, N.E.

    1997-09-01

    The dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents by zero-valence iron has recently become the subject of intensive research and development as a potentially cost-effective, passive treatment for contaminated groundwater through reactive barriers. Because of its successful application in the laboratory and other field sites, the X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility (GTF) was constructed to evaluate reactive barrier technology for remediating trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The X-625 GTF was built to fulfill the following technical objectives: (1) to test reactive barrier materials (e.g., iron filings) under realistic groundwater conditions for long term applications, (2) to obtain rates at which TCE degrades and to determine by-products for the reactive barrier materials tested, and (3) to clean up the TCE-contaminated water in the X-120 plume. The X-625 is providing important field-scale and long-term for the evaluation and design of reactive barriers at PORTS. The X-625 GTS is a unique facility not only because it is where site remediation is being performed, but it is also where research scientists and process engineers can test other promising reactive barrier materials. In addition, the data collected from X-625 GTF can be used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of replacing the activated carbon units in the pump-and-treat facilities at PORTS

  9. In-situ remediation of brine impacted soils and groundwater using hydraulic fracturing, desalinization and recharge wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C. [Wiebe Environmental Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Ratiu, I. [GeoGrid Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This conference presentation focused on the in-stu remediation of brine impacted soils and groundwater using hydraulic fracturing, desalinization and recharge wells. A former oil battery was established in the 1940s, decommissioned in the late 1960s with a reclamation certificate issued in 1972. The land owner reported poor vegetative growth in the former battery area. The purpose of the study was to investigate the cause of poor growth and delineate contaminants of concern and to remediate impacted soil and groundwater associated with the former battery site. The investigation involved agrological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigation into the extent of anthropogenic impacts as well as the development of remediation options and plans to deal with issues of concern. The presentation provided the results of the investigation, options identified, and discussed limitation on salt remediation and treatment of saline soils. Other topics included hydraulic fracturing, injection wells that were installed to re-circulate treated groundwater though the salt plume, desalinization processes, and next steps. figs.

  10. An Integrated Simulation, Inference and Optimization Approach for Groundwater Remediation with Two-stage Health-Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated simulation, inference and optimization approach with two-stage health risk assessment (i.e., ISIO-THRA is developed for supporting groundwater remediation for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Both environmental standards and health risk are considered as the constraints in the ISIO-THRA model. The health risk includes two parts: (1 the health risk during the remediation process and (2 the health risk in the natural attenuation period after remediation. In the ISIO-THRA framework, the relationship between contaminant concentrations and time is expressed through first-order decay models. The results demonstrate that: (1 stricter environmental standards and health risk would require larger pumping rates for the same remediation duration; (2 higher health risk may happen in the period of the remediation process; (3 for the same environmental standard and acceptable health-risk level, the remediation techniques that take the shortest time would be chosen. ISIO-THRA can help to systematically analyze interaction among contaminant transport, remediation duration, and environmental and health concerns, and further provide useful supportive information for decision makers.

  11. Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions Program Field Office Work Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program was established by DP to comply with regulations for characterization and cleanup of inactive waste sites. The program specifically includes inactive site identification and characterization, technology development and demonstration, remedial design and cleanup action, and postclosure activities of inactive radioactive, chemically hazardous, and mixed waste sites. It does not include facility decontamination and decommissioning activities; these are included in a parallel program, Environmental Restoration Decontamination and Decommissioning (ERD and D), also managed by DP. The ERRA program was formally established in fiscal year (FY) 1988 at the Hanford Site to characterize and remediate inactive waste sites at Hanford. The objectives, planned implementation activities, and management planning for the ERRA Program are contained in several planning documents. These documents include planning for the national program and for the Hanford Program. This summary describes the major documents and the role and purpose of this Field Office Work Plan (FOWP) within the overall hierarchy of planning documents. 4 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Application of in situ biosparging to remediate a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site: field and microbial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, C Y; Chen, S C; Chien, H Y; Chen, Y L

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a full-scale biosparging investigation was conducted at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site. Field results reveal that natural attenuation was the main cause of the decrease in major contaminants [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] concentrations in groundwater before the operation of biosparging system. Evidence of the occurrence of natural attenuation within the BTEX plume includes: (1) decrease of DO, nitrate, sulfate, and redox potential, (2) production of dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, methane, and CO(2), (3) decreased BTEX concentrations along the transport path, (4) increased microbial populations, and (5) limited spreading of the BTEX plume. Field results also reveal that the operation of biosparging caused the shifting of anaerobic conditions inside the plume to aerobic conditions. This variation can be confirmed by the following field observations inside the plume due to the biosparging process: (1) increase in DO, redox potential, nitrate, and sulfate, (2) decrease dissolved ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane, (3) increased total cultivable heterotrophs, and (4) decreased total cultivable anaerobes as well as methanogens. Results of polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal that three BTEX biodegraders (Candidauts magnetobacterium, Flavobacteriales bacterium, and Bacteroidetes bacterium) might exist at this site. Results show that more than 70% of BTEX has been removed through the biosparging system within a 10-month remedial period at an averaged groundwater temperature of 18 degrees C. This indicates that biosparging is a promising technology to remediate BTEX contaminated groundwater.

  13. Can nitrate contaminated groundwater be remediated by optimizing flood irrigation rate with high nitrate water in a desert oasis using the WHCNS model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Qi, Zhiming; Hu, Kelin; Prasher, Shiv O; Zhang, Yuanpei

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is an environmental concern in intensively cultivated desert oases where this polluted groundwater is in turn used as a major irrigation water resource. However, nitrate fluxes from root zone to groundwater are difficult to monitor in this complex system. The objectives of this study were to validate and apply the WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model to simulate water drainage and nitrate leaching under different irrigation and nitrogen (N) management practices, and to assess the utilization of groundwater nitrate as an approach to remediate nitrate contaminated groundwater while maintain crop yield. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a corn field irrigated with high nitrate groundwater (20 mg N L(-1)) in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment consisted of two irrigation treatments (Istd, standard, 750 mm per season; Icsv, conservation, 570 mm per season) factorially combined with two N fertilization treatments (Nstd, standard, 138 kg ha(-1); Ncsv, conservation, 92 kg ha(-1)). The validated results showed that the WHCNS model simulated values of crop dry matter, yield, soil water content and soil N concentration in soil profile all agreed well with the observed values. Compared to the standard water management (Istd), the simulated drainage and nitrate leaching decreased about 65% and 59%, respectively, under the conservation water management (Icsv). Nearly 55% of input N was lost by leaching under the IstdNstd and IstdNcsv treatments, compared to only 26% under the IcsvNstd and IcsvNcsv treatments. Simulations with more than 240 scenarios combing different levels of irrigation and fertilization indicated that irrigation was the main reason leading to the high risk of nitrate leaching, and the nitrate in irrigation groundwater can be best utilized without corn yield loss when the total irrigation was reduced from the current 750 mm to 491 mm. This reduced irrigation rate facilitated

  14. Field-scale modeling of acidity production and remediation efficiency during in situ reductive dechlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A.; Robinson, C. E.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination is a viable technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Although in recent years increased understanding of this technology has led to more rapid dechlorination rates, complete dechlorination can be hindered by unfavorable conditions. Hydrochloric acid produced from dechlorination and organic acids generated from electron donor fermentation can lead to significant groundwater acidification. Adverse pH conditions can inhibit the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms and thus slow or stall the remediation process. The extent of acidification likely to occur at a contaminated site depends on a number of factors including (1) the extent of dechlorination, (2) the pH-sensitivity of dechlorinating bacteria, and (3) the geochemical composition of the soil and water, in particular the soil’s natural buffering capacity. The substantial mass of solvents available for dechlorination when treating DNAPL source zones means that these applications are particularly susceptible to acidification. In this study a reactive transport biogeochemical model was developed to investigate the chemical and physical parameters that control the build-up of acidity and subsequent remediation efficiency. The model accounts for the site water chemistry, mineral precipitation and dissolution kinetics, electron donor fermentation, gas phase formation, competing electron-accepting processes (e.g., sulfate and iron reduction) and the sensitivity of microbial processes to pH. Confidence in the model was achieved by simulating a well-documented field study, for which the 2-D field scale model was able to reproduce long-term variations of pH, and the concurrent build up of reaction products. Sensitivity analyses indicated the groundwater flow velocity is able to reduce acidity build-up when the rate of advection is comparable or larger than the rate of dechlorination. The extent of pH change is highly dependent on the presence of

  15. Effect of groundwater geochemistry on pentachlorophenol remediation by smectite-templated nanosized Pd0/Fe0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Gu, Cheng; Li, Hui; Fan, Xiaoyun; Li, Shouzhu; Wang, Chuanyi

    2012-09-01

    Zero-valent iron holds great promise in treating groundwater, and its reactivity and efficacy depend on many surrounding factors. In the present work, the effects of solution chemistry such as pH, humic acid (HA), and inorganic ions on pentachlorophenol (PCP) dechlorination by smectite-templated Pd(0)/Fe(0) were systematically studied. Smectite-templated Pd(0)/Fe(0) was prepared by saturating the negatively charged sites of smectite clay with Fe(III) and a small amount of Pd(II), followed by borohydride reduction to convert Fe(III) and Pd(II) into zero-valent metal clusters. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water chemistry on PCP remediation. The PCP dechlorination rate critically depends on the reaction pH over the range 6.0~10.0; the rate constant (k (obs)) increases with decreasing the reaction pH value. Also, the PCP remediation is inhibited by HA, which can be attributed to the electron competition of HA with H(+). In addition, the reduction of PCP can be accelerated by various anions, following the order: Cl(-) > HCO (3) (-) > SO (4) (2-) ~no anion. In the case of cations, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (10 mM) decrease the dechlorination rate to 0.7959 and 0.7798 from 1.315 h(-1), respectively. After introducing HA into the reaction systems with cations or/and anions, the dechlorination rates are similar to that containing HA alone. This study reveals that low pH and the presence of some anions such as Cl(-) facilitate the PCP dechlorination and induce the rapid consumption of nanosized zero-valent iron simultaneously. However, the dechlorination rate is no longer correlated to the inhibitory or accelerating effects by cations and anions in the presence of 10 mg/L HA.

  16. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with arsenic through enhanced natural attenuation: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeznezami, Saeedreza; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Jun, Dukwoo; Rugh, Megyn B; Haro, Heather L; Park, Austin; Suh, Jae; Najm, Tina; Reynolds, Matthew D; Davis, James A; Parhizkar, Tarannom; Jay, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Batch and column laboratory experiments were conducted on natural sediment and groundwater samples from a contaminated site in Maine, USA with the aim of lowering the dissolved arsenate [As(V)] concentrations through chemical enhancement of natural attenuation capacity. In batch factorial experiments, two levels of treatment for three parameters (pH, Ca, and Fe) were studied at different levels of phosphate to evaluate their impact on As(V) solubility. Results illustrated that lowering pH, adding Ca, and adding Fe significantly increased the sorption capacity of sediments. Overall, Fe amendment had the highest individual impact on As(V) levels. To provide further evidence for the positive impact of Ca on As(V) adsorption, isotherm experiments were conducted at three different levels of Ca concentrations. A consistent increase in adsorption capacity (26-37%) of sediments was observed with the addition of Ca. The observed favorable effect of Ca on As(V) adsorption is likely caused by an increase in the surface positive charges due to surface accumulation of Ca 2+ ions. Column experiments were conducted by flowing contaminated groundwater with elevated pH, As(V), and phosphate through both uncontaminated and contaminated sediments. Potential in-situ remediation scenarios were simulated by adding a chemical amendment feed to the columns injecting Fe(II) or Ca as well as simultaneous pH adjustment. Results showed a temporary and limited decrease in As(V) concentrations under the Ca treatment (39-41%) and higher levels of attenuation in Fe(II) treated columns (50-91%) but only after a certain number of pore volumes (18-20). This study illustrates the importance of considering geochemical parameters including pH, redox potential, presence of competing ions, and sediment chemical and physical characteristics when considering enhancing the natural attenuation capacity of sediments to mitigate As contamination in natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullington, M.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE Standards Committee's Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ''commercial'' bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein

  18. Studies of Contaminant Diffusion in an Aquitard and Groundwater Remediation by Reactive Metals at Dover Air Force Base Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, William

    1998-01-01

    This project focused on analysis of in-situ concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in an aquitard underlying the site of a prior field-scale investigation of pump-and-treat remediation in sheet...

  19. Studies of Contaminant Diffusion in an Aquitard and Groundwater Remediation by Reactive Metals at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, William

    1998-01-01

    This project focused on analysis of in-situ concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in an aquitard underlying the site of a prior field-scale investigation of pump-and-treat remediation in sheet...

  20. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  1. Remediation Of Radioactive Contaminated Soil in Oil Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.A.; Hassib, G.M.; Ibrahim, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in evaporation pond has been evaluated. At several onshore oil field locations, the produced water is discharged to form artificial lagoons or ponds. Subsequently, the released waters drain to the ground leaving radioactive deposits associated with the soil that eventually require remedial action in accordance with radiation protection principles. The present study aims to investigate the remediation of contaminated soil in some oil fields and in this concern, two scenarios were proposed. The first scenario is studying the feasibility of using soil washing technique (a physical-chemical separation process) for removing radium-226 from the contaminated soil samples collected from an evaporating pond. The size/activity distribution analyses were carried out. The data obtained showed that almost 68 % of the investigated soil was coarse sand (≥ 300 μm), 28 % was medium and fine sand (≤300 μm and (≥75 μm) and only small fraction of 4 % was silt and clay (≤75 μm). A series of mild acids such as HCl and mild NaCl/HCl (chloride washing) were used for washing the investigated soil fractions. The obtained data showed that the coarse fraction ≥ 300 μm can be re mediated below a regulatory level of 1Bq/g. and the radium from this coarse fraction could be easily removed by screening and chloride washing. For the remediation of (≤ 300 μm and (≥ 75 μm soil fractions, a series of mild chloride washing experiments also showed that the chloride base (NaCl/HCl) was found to be potentially useful. However, there was a difficulty in achieving a low radium value in the fine (≥ 75 μm size fractions using chloride washing. The second scenario is to get rid of all contaminated soil and store it in a concrete basin through the program of radiological protection of personnel and environment. Preliminary gamma survey of contaminated soil showed that the significant area of the investigated

  2. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  3. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer, E-mail: odahan@bgu.ac.il; Ronen, Zeev, E-mail: zeevrone@bgu.ac.il

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  4. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10"5 to 10"7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  5. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  6. Inorganic photocatalytic membranes for the remediation of VOCs in groundwater at the Portsmouth Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L. II

    1997-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of a new photocatalytic membrane reactor was undertaken at the X-623 Groundwater Treatment Facility at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The photocatalytic membrane reactor initially removed between 60 and 65% of the TCE in a single pass. It also removed significant amounts of three additional compounds (including completely removing one of the compounds). It is believed that these compounds were vinyl chloride, and two isomers of dichloroethylene. Within three days from startup, high suspended solids (mainly bacteria) contained in the feedwater tank caused plugging of the system's prefilter. The high concentration of bacteria was the result of a previously unknown large amount of activated carbon present in the feed tank prior to addition of the groundwater. It was also later discovered that fine colloidal silt particles had fouled the photocatalytic membranes and reduced their activity yielding only about a 20% reduction of TCE. The silt particles were determined to be between 50 and 100 nm and were able to pass through the 500 nm (0.5 μm) diameter pores of the prefilter. The results of this field test demonstrated the potential for success of the deployment of this technology, the simplicity, flexibility, and operability of the process and that improvements to the system design are needed prior to any future demonstrations. 9 figs

  7. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  8. Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirthensohn, T. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences-Vienna, Department of IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.wirthensohn@boku.ac.at; Schoeberl, P. [Wienenergie Gasnetz GmbH, Referat 17-Altlasten, Josefstaedterstrasse 10-12, 1080 Vienna (Austria); Ghosh, U. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Fuchs, W. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences-Vienna, Department of IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5 h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies.

  9. Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthensohn, T; Schoeberl, P; Ghosh, U; Fuchs, W

    2009-04-15

    The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies.

  10. Pilot plant experiences using physical and biological treatment steps for the remediation of groundwater from a former MGP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirthensohn, T.; Schoeberl, P.; Ghosh, U.; Fuchs, W.

    2009-01-01

    The production of manufactured gas at a site in Vienna, Austria led to the contamination of soil and groundwater with various pollutants including PAHs, hydrocarbons, phenols, BTEX, and cyanide. The site needs to be remediated to alleviate potential impacts to the environment. The chosen remediation concept includes the excavation of the core contaminated site and the setup of a hydraulic barrier to protect the surrounding aquifer. The extracted groundwater will be treated on-site. To design the foreseen pump-and-treat system, a pilot-scale plant was built and operated for 6 months. The scope of the present study was to test the effectiveness of different process steps, which included an aerated sedimentation basin, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR), a multi-media filter, and an activated carbon filter. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 7.0 h during normal flow conditions and 3.5 h during high flow conditions. The treatment system was effective in reducing the various organic and inorganic pollutants in the pumped groundwater. However, it was also demonstrated that appropriate pre-treatment was essential to overcome problems with clogging due to precipitation of tar and sulfur compounds. The reduction of the typical contaminants, PAHs and BTEX, was more than 99.8%. All water quality parameters after treatment were below the Austrian legal requirements for discharge into public water bodies

  11. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  12. GASReP/DESRT: Proceedings [of the] 2nd annual symposium on groundwater and soil remediation. Comptes rendus [de la] 2e symposium annuel sur la restauration des eaux souterraines et des sois contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A conference was held to discuss ground water and soil remediation with emphasis on the Canadian national Groundwater and Soil Remediation Program (GASReP) and the Development and Demonstration of Site Remediation Technology (DESRT) program. Papers were presented on the subjects of groundwater and soil remediation research projects, bioremediation, excavation and treatment, pumping and treatment/soil venting, and industry and government initiatives. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers from the conference.

  13. Games for groundwater governance: field experiments in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Meinzen-Dick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a common-pool resource that is subject to depletion in many places around the world as a result of increased use of irrigation and water-demanding cash crops. Where state capacity to control groundwater use is limited, collective action is important to increase recharge and restrict highly water-consumptive crops. We present results of field experiments in hard rock areas of Andhra Pradesh, India, to examine factors affecting groundwater use. Two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs ran the games in communities where they were working to improve watershed and water management. Results indicate that, when the links between crop choice and groundwater depletion is made explicit, farmers can act cooperatively to address this problem. Longer NGO involvement in the villages was associated with more cooperative outcomes in the games. Individuals with more education and higher perceived community social capital played more cooperatively, but neither gender nor method of payment had a significantly effect on individual behavior. When participants could repeat the game with communication, similar crop choice patterns were observed. The games provided an entry point for discussion on the understanding of communities of the interconnectedness of groundwater use and crop choice.

  14. Unintentional contaminant transfer from groundwater to the vadose zone during source zone remediation of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Andrea D; Mayer, K Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Historical heavy use of chlorinated solvents in conjunction with improper disposal practices and accidental releases has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and groundwater in North America and worldwide. As a result, remediation of chlorinated solvents is required at many sites. For source zone treatment, common remediation strategies include in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using potassium or sodium permanganate, and the enhancement of biodegradation by primary substrate addition. It is well known that these remediation methods tend to generate gas (carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the case of ISCO using permanganate, CO 2 and methane (CH 4 ) in the case of bioremediation). Vigorous gas generation in the presence of chlorinated solvents, which are categorized as volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), may cause gas exsolution, ebullition and stripping of the contaminants from the treatment zone. This process may lead to unintentional 'compartment transfer', whereby VOCs are transported away from the contaminated zone into overlying clean sediments and into the vadose zone. To this extent, benchtop column experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of gas generation during remediation of the common chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE/C 2 Cl 3 H). Both ISCO and enhanced bioremediation were considered as treatment methods. Results show that gas exsolution and ebullition occurs for both remediation technologies. Facilitated by ebullition, TCE was transported from the source zone into overlying clean groundwater and was subsequently released into the column headspace. For the case of enhanced bioremediation, the intermediate degradation product vinyl chloride (VC) was also stripped from the treatment zone. The concentrations measured in the headspace of the columns (TCE ∼300ppm in the ISCO column, TCE ∼500ppm and VC ∼1380ppm in the bioremediation column) indicate that substantial transfer of VOCs to the vadose zone is possible. These findings

  15. The nanotoxicology of a newly developed zero-valent iron nanomaterial for groundwater remediation and its remediation efficiency assessment combined with in vitro bioassays for detection of dioxin-like environmental pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Schiwy, Andreas Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of chemicals and new compounds is an important task of ecotoxicology. In this thesis a newly developed zero-valent iron material for nanoremediation of groundwater contaminations was investigated and in vitro bioassays for high throughput screening were developed. These two elements of the thesis were combined to assess the remediation efficiency of the nanomaterial on the groundwater contaminant acridine. The developed in vitro bioassays were evaluated for quantification of th...

  16. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass

  17. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE`s overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program.

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE's overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program

  20. Modelling Technique for the Assessment of the Sub-Soil Drain for Groundwater Seepage Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Baharuddin Mohamad Faizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater simulation technique was carried out for examining the performance of sub-soil drain at problematic site area. Subsoil drain was proposed as one of solution for groundwater seepage occurred at the slope face by reducing groundwater table at Taman Botani Park Kuala Lumpur. The simulation technique used Modular Three-Dimensional Finite Difference Groundwater Flow (MODFLOW software. In transient conditions, the results of simulation showed that heads increases surpass 1 to 2 m from the elevation level of the slope area that caused groundwater seepage on slope face. This study attempt to decrease the heads increase surpass by using different sub-soil drain size in simulation technique. The sub-soil drain capable to decline the heads ranges of 1 to 2 m.

  1. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  2. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than -200mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150mg/L at the inlet to ∼300mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10 5 to 10 7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-01

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  4. Screening of groundwater remedial alternatives for brownfield sites: a comprehensive method integrated MCDA with numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Min; Wang, Mingyu; Han, Zhantao; Liu, Jiankai; Chen, Zhezhou; Liu, Bo; Yan, Yan; Liu, Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Brownfield sites pollution and remediation is an urgent environmental issue worldwide. The screening and assessment of remedial alternatives is especially complex owing to its multiple criteria that involves technique, economy, and policy. To help the decision-makers selecting the remedial alternatives efficiently, the criteria framework conducted by the U.S. EPA is improved and a comprehensive method that integrates multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with numerical simulation is conducted in this paper. The criteria framework is modified and classified into three categories: qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative criteria, MCDA method, AHP-PROMETHEE (analytical hierarchy process-preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation) is used to determine the priority ranking of the remedial alternatives and the solute transport simulation is conducted to assess the remedial efficiency. A case study was present to demonstrate the screening method in a brownfield site in Cangzhou, northern China. The results show that the systematic method provides a reliable way to quantify the priority of the remedial alternatives.

  5. Use of Cometabolic Air Sparging to Remediate Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magar, Victor

    2001-01-01

    ...) process at the McClellan National Test Site, California. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the effectiveness of and costs associated with CAS for removal of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from groundwater...

  6. Cost and Performance Report - Use of Cometabolic Air Sparging to Remediate Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magar, Victor

    2001-01-01

    ...) process at the McClellan National Test Site, California. The purpose of the demonstration was to evaluate the effectiveness of and costs associated with CAS for removal of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) from groundwater...

  7. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  8. Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Permeable Reactive Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    enter PRB; level of Fax: 43-2243-22843 contamination Email: niederbacher@geol.at varies with groundwater level Marzone Inc./ Tifton , GA 1998 BHC, beta...system should be constructed to allow for gas venting (Bodo Canyon, Marzone). � The length of trench box should be mini- mized to reduce slope failure

  9. Mixing-induced groundwater denitrification beneath a manured field in southern Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.E.; Ryan, M.C.; Mayer, B.; Rodvang, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of shallow groundwater by NO 3 - from manure may occur under fields where manure is spread as fertilizer and for disposal. Attenuation of NO 3 - in groundwater occurs through denitrification under certain conditions, or NO 3 - -contaminated younger groundwater may mix with older groundwater, lowering the NO 3 - concentration. In this study, δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of NO 3 - , and δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in groundwater under a manured field were evaluated to determine if groundwater NO 3 - concentrations were influenced through mixing of shallower, manure-impacted groundwater with older groundwater, or if denitrification was reducing NO 3 - concentrations. The younger groundwater showed clear evidence of manure impact with elevated Cl - (∼85 mg L -1 ) and NO 3 - concentrations (∼50 mg NO 3 -N L -1 ), and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of NO 3 - consistent with a manure source. Vertical hydraulic gradients and δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in groundwater suggest older, more reduced groundwater is upwelling locally and mixing with the shallow groundwater. Decreasing NO 3 :Cl ratios, decreasing dissolved O 2 concentrations, and increasing δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of NO 3 - suggest that denitrification occurs locally in the aquifer. The extent of denitrification is proportional to the fraction of deeper groundwater in the aquifer. Denitrification apparently does not proceed in the younger, manure-impacted groundwater in the absence of mixing

  10. Field Testing of an In-well Point Velocity Probe for the Rapid Characterization of Groundwater Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, T.; Devlin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable estimates of groundwater velocity is essential in order to best implement in-situ monitoring and remediation technologies. The In-well Point Velocity Probe (IWPVP) is an inexpensive, reusable tool developed for rapid measurement of groundwater velocity at the centimeter-scale in monitoring wells. IWPVP measurements of groundwater speed are based on a small-scale tracer test conducted as ambient groundwater passes through the well screen and the body of the probe. Horizontal flow direction can be determined from the difference in tracer mass passing detectors placed in four funnel-and-channel pathways through the probe, arranged in a cross pattern. The design viability of the IWPVP was confirmed using a two-dimensional numerical model in Comsol Multiphysics, followed by a series of laboratory tank experiments in which IWPVP measurements were calibrated to quantify seepage velocities in both fine and medium sand. Lab results showed that the IWPVP was capable of measuring the seepage velocity in less than 20 minutes per test, when the seepage velocity was in the range of 0.5 to 4.0 m/d. Further, the IWPVP estimated the groundwater speed with a precision of ± 7%, and an accuracy of ± 14%, on average. The horizontal flow direction was determined with an accuracy of ± 15°, on average. Recently, a pilot field test of the IWPVP was conducted in the Borden aquifer, C.F.B. Borden, Ontario, Canada. A total of approximately 44 IWPVP tests were conducted within two 2-inch groundwater monitoring wells comprising a 5 ft. section of #8 commercial well screen. Again, all tests were completed in under 20 minutes. The velocities estimated from IWPVP data were compared to 21 Point Velocity Probe (PVP) tests, as well as Darcy-based estimates of groundwater velocity. Preliminary data analysis shows strong agreement between the IWPVP and PVP estimates of groundwater velocity. Further, both the IWPVP and PVP estimates of groundwater velocity appear to be reasonable when

  11. Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo

    1998-01-01

    The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)

  12. Long-Term Capacity of Plant Mulch to Remediate Trichloroethylene in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive reactive barriers are commonly used to treat groundwater that is contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). A number of passive reactive barriers have been constructed with plant mulch as the reactive medium. The TCE is removed in these barr...

  13. Effects of the proposed EPA groundwater standards on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    Potential groundwater contamination beneath the 24 tailings piles that are to be stabilized under the UMTRA Project was intended in early project plans to be minimized by placing disposal piles over thick stratigraphic sequences of tight (minimally permeable) formations, and by designing covers that contained low permeability soil/clay infiltration barriers. The court-ordered revision of the UMTRA groundwater standards by EPA (proposed standards of September 1987) include very low Maximum Concentration Limits (MCLs), which are based mostly on Primary Drinking Water Standards. EPA also mandates that the designs should control radioactivity and hazardous constituents...for up to one thousand years, to the extends reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for at least two hundred years.... In order to accommodate this stipulation, transport modeling of water and contaminants in both the vadose and saturated zones beneath the piles is run until steady state conditions are reached. The early decision to locate stabilized piles over tight formations now exacerbates the problem of complying with the standards, since the contaminants percolate to groundwater that moves only slowly through strata having low permeabilities. Innovative solutions have been evaluated that are aimed at further minimizing long-term infiltration, geochemically fixing contaminants in place before they reach groundwater, or otherwise minimizing contaminant flux

  14. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using media-injected permeable reactive barriers with a modified montmorillonite: sand tank studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ximing; Liu, Haifei; Huang, Guoxin; Li, Ye; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A modified montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared using an acid activation-sodium activation-iron oxide coating method to improve the adsorption capacities of natural MMTs. For MMT, its interlamellar distance increased from 12.29 to 13.36 Å, and goethite (α-FeOOH) was intercalated into its clay layers. Two novel media-injected permeable reactive barrier (MI-PRB) configurations were proposed for removing arsenic from groundwater. Sand tank experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the two MI-PRBs: Tank A was filled with quartz sand. Tank B was packed with quartz sand and zero-valent iron (ZVI) in series, and the MMT slurry was respectively injected into them to form reactive zones. The results showed that for tank A, total arsenic (TA) removal of 98.57% was attained within the first 60 mm and subsequently descended slowly to 88.84% at the outlet. For tank B, a similar spatial variation trend was observed in the quartz sand layer, and subsequently, TA removal increased to ≥99.80% in the ZVI layer. TA removal by MMT mainly depended on both surface adsorption and electrostatic adhesion. TA removal by ZVI mainly relied on coagulation/precipitation and adsorption during the iron corrosion. The two MI-PRBs are feasible alternatives for in situ remediation of groundwater with elevated As levels.

  15. Permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of groundwater in a mining area: results for a pilot-scale project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Belen Martinez-Martinez, Lucia; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina-Ruiz, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union is located in the Region of Murcia, Southeast of Spain. This zone presents high levels of heavy metals due to natural, geogenic reasons. In addition, the prolonged mining activity, and subsequent abandonment of farms, has had consequences on the environment, including severe affectation of the groundwater in the area. To remediate this situation, the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) technology was assayed, which required in addition to the hydro-geological study of the zone, a careful optimization study for the design and construction of PRBs. For such a purpose a pilot-scale project was developed, and this communication reports some of the most relevant findings obtained after a four-years monitorization period. The selected reactive material for the PRBs was limestone filler. The filler is a waste material produced in many factories in the zone. These residues have good adsorption properties, high alkalinity, low cost and high availability, which make them suitable for use in remediation. The PRB was constituted by a 50% limestone filler and 50% sand, a proportion optimized by means of independent batch experiments. A layer of gravel was placed at the top, and on it a layer of natural soil. The barrier was designed in the form of a continuous trench, because the level of the contaminated groundwater was not very deep. In this way, the barrier could be prepared with standard excavation equipment. Parallel to the barrier, 6 wells where arranged downstream for sample collection. The pH and conductivity of the samples was measured directly in situ, and the content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb were analyzed in the laboratory. All the samples collected after the PRB was constructed had basic pH values between 7.5 and 8. The conductivity was between 5 and 11 mS / cm except for the well 4, which had a value of 3.70 mS / cm. The concentration values of trace elements were below the detection limit (atomic absorption measurement) in

  16. Evaluation of Groundwater Remediation Technologies Based on Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is an essential resource for the development of society and its production is huge. There is a great risk of leakage of oil during production, refining, and transportation. After entering the environment, the oil pollutants will be a great threat to the environment and may endanger human health. Therefore, it is very important to remediate oil pollution in the subsurface. However, it is necessary to choose the appropriate remediation technology. In this paper, 18 technologies are evaluated through constructing a parameter matrix with each technology and seven performance indicators, and a comprehensive analysis model is presented. In this model, four MCDA methods are used. They are SWA (Simple Weighted Addition Method, WP (Weighted Product Method, CGT (Cooperative Game Theory, and TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. Mean ranking and Borda ranking methods are used to integrate the results of SWA, WP, CGT, and TOPSIS. Then two selection priorities of each method (mean ranking and Borda ranking are obtained. The model is proposed to help decide the best choice of remediation technologies. It can effectively reduce contingency, subjectivity, one-sidedness of the traditional methods and provide scientific reference for effective decision-making.

  17. Remediation of groundwater contaminated by exa valent chromium. Part 1.: Treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbaffoni, S.; Vaccari, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chromium compounds have been used in several industrial activities and they are often found in soil and groundwater of former industrial sites. Chromium exists in various oxidation states, but the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation ones are of major environmental concern due to their stability in the environment. In particular, Cr(V I) is highly soluble and mobile and is very toxic with mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. The present paper describes the main chemical, physical and toxicological properties of Cr(V I), its fate in the subsoil and both the conventional and innovative technologies for its removal from contaminated groundwater. The paper includes also a brief description of few interesting foreign case studies. [it

  18. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  19. Ion exchange technology in the remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Chris; Glassmeyer, Cathy; Bozich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Using pump and treat methodology, uranium contaminated groundwater is being removed from the Great Miami Aquifer at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) per the FEMP Record of Decision (ROD) that defines groundwater cleanup. Standard extraction wells pump about 3900 gallons-per-minute (gpm) from the aquifer through five ion exchange treatment systems. The largest treatment system k the Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWWT) Expansion System with a capacity of 1800 gpm, which consists of three trains of two vessels. The trains operate in parallel treating 600 gpm each, The two vessels in each train operate in series, one in lead and one in lag. Treated groundwater is either reinfected back into the aquifer to speed up the aquifer cleanup processor discharged to the Great Miami River. The uranium regulatory ROD limit for discharge to the river is 20 parts per billion (ppb), and the FEMP uranium administrative action level for reinfection is 10 ppb. Spent (i.e., a resin that no longer adsorbs uranium) ion exchange resins must either be replaced or regenerated. The regeneration of spent ion exchange resins is considerably more cost effective than their replacement. Therefore, a project was undertaken to learn how best to regenerate the resins in the groundwater vessels. At the outset of this project, considerable uncertainty existed as to whether a spent resin could be regenerated successfully enough so that it performed as well as new resin relative to achieving very low uranium concentrations in the effluent. A second major uncertain y was whether the operational lifetime of a regenerated resin would be similar to that of a new resin with respect to uranium loading capacity and effluent concentration behavior. The project was successful in that a method for regenerating resins has been developed that is operationally efficient, that results in regenerated resins yielding uranium concentrations much lower than regulatory limits, and that results in

  20. Cost Effective, Ultra Sensitive Groundwater Monitoring for Site Remediation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    evaporites, sandstone, gravel, conglomerate, and andesitic basalt . Closed basin; playa, alluvial fan, fluvial 600 to 10,000+ Unconfined, leaky...confined Lower unit Breccia, conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and local basaltic to rhyolitic flows and pyroclastic rocks. Alluvial fan, fluvial...with large volumes of groundwater. Three of the cartridges additionally protected by glass fiber filters (Acrodisc AP-4523; Pall GmbH, Dreieich, GE

  1. Supplemental Groundwater Remediation Technologies to Protect the Columbia River at Hanford, WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.M.; Petersen, Scott W.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    Nine projects have been recently selected by the US Department of Energy (EM-22) to address groundwater contaminant migration at the Hanford Site. This paper summarizes the background and objectives of these projects. Five of the selected projects are targeted at hexavalent chromium contamination in Hanford 100 Area groundwater. These projects represent an integrated approach towards identifying the source of hexavalent chromium contamination in the Hanford 100-D Area and treating the groundwater contamination. Currently, there is no effective method to stop strontium-90 associated with the riparian zone sediments from leaching into the river. Phytoremediation may be a possible way to treat this contamination. Its use at the 100-N Area will be investigated. Another technology currently being tested for strontium-90 contamination at the 100-N Area involves injection (through wells) of a calcium-citrate-phosphate solution, which will precipitate apatite, a natural calcium-phosphate mineral. Apatite will adsorb the strontium-90, and then incorporate it as part of the apatite structure, isolating the strontium-90 contamination from entering the river. This EM-22 funded apatite project will develop a strategy for infiltrating the apatite solution from ground surface or a shallow trench to provide treatment over the upper portion of the contaminated zone, which is unsaturated during low river stage.

  2. Chance-constrained multi-objective optimization of groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites using a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuai; Luo, Jiannan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective (AMALGAM) method is proposed as a multi-objective optimization solver. It was implemented in the multi-objective optimization of a groundwater remediation design at sites contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids. In this study, there were two objectives: minimization of the total remediation cost, and minimization of the remediation time. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was adopted to compare with the proposed method. For efficiency, the time-consuming surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation simulation model was replaced by a surrogate model constructed by a multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. Similarly, two other surrogate modeling methods-support vector regression (SVR) and Kriging (KRG)-were employed to make comparisons with MGGP. In addition, the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was incorporated in the optimization model by chance-constrained programming (CCP). The results showed that, for the problem considered in this study, (1) the solutions obtained by AMALGAM incurred less remediation cost and required less time than those of NSGA-II, indicating that AMALGAM outperformed NSGA-II. It was additionally shown that (2) the MGGP surrogate model was more accurate than SVR and KRG; and (3) the remediation cost and time increased with the confidence level, which can enable decision makers to make a suitable choice by considering the given budget, remediation time, and reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chance-constrained multi-objective optimization of groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites using a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuai; Luo, Jiannan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective (AMALGAM) method is proposed as a multi-objective optimization solver. It was implemented in the multi-objective optimization of a groundwater remediation design at sites contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids. In this study, there were two objectives: minimization of the total remediation cost, and minimization of the remediation time. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was adopted to compare with the proposed method. For efficiency, the time-consuming surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation simulation model was replaced by a surrogate model constructed by a multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. Similarly, two other surrogate modeling methods-support vector regression (SVR) and Kriging (KRG)-were employed to make comparisons with MGGP. In addition, the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was incorporated in the optimization model by chance-constrained programming (CCP). The results showed that, for the problem considered in this study, (1) the solutions obtained by AMALGAM incurred less remediation cost and required less time than those of NSGA-II, indicating that AMALGAM outperformed NSGA-II. It was additionally shown that (2) the MGGP surrogate model was more accurate than SVR and KRG; and (3) the remediation cost and time increased with the confidence level, which can enable decision makers to make a suitable choice by considering the given budget, remediation time, and reliability.

  4. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  5. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  6. Remediation of Groundwater Polluted by Aromatic Compounds by Means of Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Canzano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental and modeling analysis of the adsorption of four aromatic compounds (i.e., toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene onto a commercial activated carbon is carried out. The aim is to assess the suitability of the adsorption process for the treatment of polluted groundwater, also when a multiple contamination is detected. Batch adsorption tests from simulated polluted groundwater are performed in single-compound systems and in two binary systems (i.e., toluene + naphthalene and o-xylene + ethylbenzene, at constant temperature (20 °C and pH (7. Experimental results in single-compound systems reveal that all of the analytes are significantly adsorbed on the tested activated carbon. In particular, toluene and naphthalene adsorption capacities are the highest and of similar value, while for o-xylene and ethylbenzene, the performances are lower. The adsorption of these compounds seems to be influenced by a combined effect of several parameters, such as hydrophobicity, molecule size, structure of the molecule, etc. Experimental results in binary systems show a different behavior of the two systems, which confirms their complexity and explains the interest in these complex adsorption systems. In particular, toluene and naphthalene are mutually competitive, while in the case of o-xylene + ethylbenzene, only the former undergoes competitive effects. The analysis of the entire experimental data set is integrated with a dedicated modeling analysis using the extended Langmuir model. For both single-compound and binary systems, this model provides acceptable results, in particular for low equilibrium concentrations, like those more commonly found in groundwater, and for the compounds involved in adsorptive competitive effects.

  7. Groundwater Chemistry and Overpressure Evidences in Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales-Arredondo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the geological and hydrogeological processes influencing the hydrogeochemical behavior of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CP aquifer, Mexico, a characterization of the water samples collected from geothermal wells was carried out. Different hydrochemical diagrams were used to evaluate brine evolution of the aquifer. To determine pressure conditions at depth, a calculation was performed using hydrostatic and lithostatic properties from CP, considering geological characteristics of the study area, and theoretical information about some basin environments. Groundwater shows hydrogeochemical and geological evidences of the diagenetic evolution that indicate overpressure conditions. Some physical, chemical, textural, and mineralogical properties reported in the lithological column from CP are explained understanding the evolutionary process of the sedimentary material that composes the aquifer.

  8. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs

  9. Review of passive groundwater remediation systems: Lessons learned Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    One of the proposed solutions for treatment of the contaminated groundwater in the Bear Creek Valley is the installation of a passive treatment system. Such a system would use a reactive media installed in a continuous trench or in a gate as part of a barrier wall and gate system. This report evaluates information on five similar systems [no information was available on two additional systems] and evaluates the shortcomings and the advantages of each. Section 5 provides a short summary of the findings and presents some recommendations on how to avoid some of the common problems encountered with the existing systems

  10. Pilot Field Test of Electrokinetically-Delivered and Thermally Activated Persulfate (EKTAP) for Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrol, D. M.; Head, N.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Inglis, A.; Garcia, A. N.; Reynolds, D. A.; Hayman, J.; Hogberg, D.; Austrins, L. M.; Sidebottom, A.; Auger, M.; Eimers, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2017-12-01

    Remediation of low-permeability soils that are contaminated with chlorinated solvents is challenging. In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with persulfate is promising, however, the delivery of the oxidant by hydraulic gradient is limited in low-permeability soils. Electrokinetic (EK) enhanced transport of amendments has shown the potential to overcome these limitations. In particular, the combined technology of EK-delivered and thermally activated persulfate (EKTAP) has been recently demonstrated in the laboratory as promising in these challenging environments (Chowdhury A. I. (2016) Hydraulic and Electrokinetic Delivery of Remediants for In-situ Remediation. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository, Paper 4135). This study presents the first pilot field test to evaluate EKTAP to enhance the distribution and effectiveness of persulfate in clayey soil. The pilot field test was conducted at a contaminated site formerly occupied by a chlorinated solvent production facility. In the EK transport phase, 925 L of 40 g/L persulfate was injected over 57 days, during which 9A of direct current (DC) was applied between two electrodes spaced 3 m apart. In the subsequent heating phase, 10A of alternate current (AC) was applied across the same electrodes for an additional 70 days. Extensive sampling of soil and groundwater in this EKTAP cell were compared to those from two parallel control cells, one with EK only and one with no electrodes. Results indicated that EK can significantly increase transport rates of persulfate in clayey soil. Persulfate activation primarily occurred in the period of DC application, indicating that the natural reduction capacity of the clay soil had a significant impact on persulfate decomposition. Temperature mapping indicated that AC current was able to increase soil temperatures, validating the EKTAP concept. Degradation of chlorinated compounds, in particular, 1-2, dichloroethane (1,2- DCA), was observed to be substantial in areas of persulfate

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  13. Demonstration test and evaluation of Ultraviolet/Ultraviolet Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation at Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    We demonstrated, tested and evaluated a new ultraviolet (UV) lamp integrated with an existing commercial technology employing UV catalyzed peroxide oxidation to destroy organics in groundwater at an Oak Ridge K-25 site. The existing commercial technology is the perox-pure trademark process of Peroxidation Systems Incorporated (PSI) that employs standard UV lamp technology to catalyze H 2 O 2 into OH radicals, which attack many organic molecules. In comparison to classical technologies for remediation of groundwater contaminated with organics, the perox-pure trademark process not only is cost effective but also reduces contaminants to harmless by-products instead of transferring the contaminants from one medium to another. Although the perox-pure trademark process is cost effective against many organics, it is not effective for some organic contaminants of interest to DOE such as TCA, which has the highest concentration of the organics at the K-25 test site. Contaminants such as TCA are treated more readily by direct photolysis using short wavelength UV light. WJSA has been developing a unique UV lamp which is very efficient in the short UV wavelength region. Consequently, combining this UV lamp with the perox-pure trademark process results in a means for treating essentially all organic contaminants. In the program reported here, the new UV lamp lifetime was improved and the lamp integrated into a PSI demonstration trailer. Even though this UV lamp operated at less than optimum power and UV efficiency, the destruction rate for the highest concentration organic (TCA) was more than double that of the commercial unit. An optimized UV lamp may double again the destruction rate; i.e., a factor of four greater than the commercial system. The demonstration at K-25 included tests with (1) the commercial PSI system, (2) the new UV lamp-based system and (3) the commercial PSI and new UV lamp systems in series

  14. Field demonstration of ex situ biological treatability of contaminated groundwater at the Strachan gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Stepan, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    A multi-phase study was conducted to deal with the issues of groundwater and soil contamination by sour gas processing plants in Alberta. Phase One consisted of a review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Canadian Clean Water Act. The current phase involves the development, evaluation and demonstration of selected remediation technologies to address subsurface contamination of sediments and groundwater at sour gas treatment plants with special attention to the presence of natural gas condensate in the subsurface. Results are presented from a pilot-scale biological treatability test that was performed at the Gulf Strachan Natural Gas Processing Plant in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, where contaminated groundwater from the plant was being pumped to the surface through many recovery wells to control contaminant migration. The recovered groundwater was directed to a pump-and-treat system that consisted of oil-water separation, iron removal, hardness removal, and air stripping, before being reinjected. The pilot-scale biological treatability testing was conducted to evaluate process stability in treating groundwater without pretreatment for iron and hardness reduction and to evaluate the removal of organic contaminants. Results of a groundwater characterization analysis are discussed. Chemical characteristics of the groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant showed that an ex situ remediation technology would address the dissolved volatile and semi-volatile organic contamination from natural gas condensates, as well as the nitrogenous compounds resulting from the use of amine-based process chemicals. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  16. Innovative Uses of Organo-philic Clays for Remediation of Soils, Sediments and Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    PCBs and similar low-solubility organic compounds continue to offer significant challenges in terrestrial and sediment remediation applications. While selective media such as granular activated carbon (GAC) have proven to be successful at absorbing soluble organics, these media may have reduced performance due to blinding in the presence of high molecular weight organic matter. An alternative technology addresses this problem with a clay-based adsorption media, which effectively and efficiently stabilizes low-solubility organic matter. Organoclay TM reactive media utilizes granular sodium bentonite, which has been chemically modified to attract organic matter without absorbing water. The unique platelet structure of bentonite clays provides tremendous surface area and the capacity of the media to absorb over 60 percent of its own weight in organic matter. Because of these properties, organo-clays allow for several cost-effective in-situ remediation techniques, such as: - Flow-through filtration for removal of organic matter from aqueous solutions. Organo-clay can be utilized as a fixed-bed media in a column operation. This specialty media offers a high efficient alternative to Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) when applied as a flow through media to remove oil, PCB and other low soluble organic contaminates from water. - Placement in a Reactive Core Mat TM . Organo-clay may be encapsulated into carrier textiles which are adhered together to create a thin reactive layer with high strength and even distribution of the reactive media. This type of delivery mechanism can be successfully applied in a sub aqueous or terrestrial environment for sediment capping applications - Permeable reactive barriers. Organo-clay can deliver high sorption capacity, high efficiency, and excellent hydraulic conductivity as a passive reactive media in these applications. (authors)

  17. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground

  18. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian; Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Case, Glenn; Yule, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground surface

  19. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  20. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  1. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives

  2. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime's, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives

  3. Demonstrating practical application of soil and groundwater clean-up and recovery technologies at natural gas processing facilities: Bioventing, air sparging and wetlands remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the project newsletter described the nature of bioventing, air sparging and wetland remediation. It reviewed their effectiveness in remediating hydrocarbon contaminated soil above the groundwater surface. Bioventing was described as an effective, low cost treatment in which air is pumped below ground to stimulate indigenous bacteria. The bacteria then use the oxygen to consume the hydrocarbons, converting them to CO 2 and water. Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater surface. As the air rises, hydrocarbons are stripped from the contaminated soil and water. The advantage of air sparging is that it cleans contaminated soil and water from below the groundwater surface. Hydrocarbon contamination of wetlands was described as fairly common. Conventional remediation methods of excavation, trenching, and bellholes to remove contamination often cause extreme harm to the ecosystem. Recent experimental evidence suggests that wetlands may be capable of attenuating contaminated water through natural processes. Four hydrocarbon contaminated wetlands in Alberta are currently under study. Results to date show that peat's high organic content promotes sorption and biodegradation and that some crude oil spills can been resolved by natural processes. It was suggested that assuming peat is present, a good clean-up approach may be to contain the contaminant source, monitor the lateral and vertical extent of contamination, and wait for natural processes to resolve the problem. 3 figs

  4. Conservative strategy-based ensemble surrogate model for optimal groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Lin, Jin; Deng, Wenbing; Cheng, Weiguo

    2017-08-01

    The surrogate-based simulation-optimization techniques are frequently used for optimal groundwater remediation design. When this technique is used, surrogate errors caused by surrogate-modeling uncertainty may lead to generation of infeasible designs. In this paper, a conservative strategy that pushes the optimal design into the feasible region was used to address surrogate-modeling uncertainty. In addition, chance-constrained programming (CCP) was adopted to compare with the conservative strategy in addressing this uncertainty. Three methods, multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP), Kriging (KRG) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to construct surrogate models for a time-consuming multi-phase flow model. To improve the performance of the surrogate model, ensemble surrogates were constructed based on combinations of different stand-alone surrogate models. The results show that: (1) the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was successfully addressed by the conservative strategy, which means that this method is promising for addressing surrogate-modeling uncertainty. (2) The ensemble surrogate model that combines MGGP with KRG showed the most favorable performance, which indicates that this ensemble surrogate can utilize both stand-alone surrogate models to improve the performance of the surrogate model.

  5. In situ bioremediation: Cost effectiveness of a remediation technology field tested at the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the SRID is the volatile organic compound (VOC), tricloroetylene(TCE). A 384 day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In Situ Bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biolgoical process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted air stream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given this data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  6. Evaluation of remedial alternative of a LNAPL plume utilizing groundwater modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.; Way, S.; Powell, G.

    1997-01-01

    The TIMES model was utilized to evaluate remedial options for a large LNAPL spill that was impacting the North Platte River in Glenrock, Wyoming. LNAPL was found discharging into the river from the adjoining alluvial aquifer. Subsequent investigations discovered an 18 hectare plume extended across the alluvium and into a sandstone bedrock outcrop to the south of the river. The TIMES model was used to estimate the LNAPL volume and to evaluate options for optimizing LNAPL recovery. Data collected from recovery and monitoring wells were used for model calibration. A LNAPL volume of 5.5 million L was estimated, over 3.0 million L of which is in the sandstone bedrock. An existing product recovery system was evaluated for its effectiveness. Three alternative recovery scenarios were also evaluated to aid in selecting the most cost-effective and efficient recovery system for the site. An active wellfield hydraulically upgradient of the existing recovery system was selected as most appropriate to augment the existing system in recovering LNAPL efficiently

  7. Groundwater remediation project at Stockem railway station following a pollution with MIAK (Methyl Isoamyl Ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelemans, A.; Boden, A.; Schuyteneer, L.W. de; Achter, L.H. van [Soil Service of Belgium, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    On the 20{sup th} of January 2000, a derailment accident happened near the railway station of Stockem in the vicinity of the city of Arlon. An estimated 20.000 litres of MIAK (methyl isoamyl ketone or 5-methyl-2-hexanone) was spilled and lost into the soil. Immediately after the accident, the Soil Service of Belgium received a request from the Belgian National Railway Company to establish an emergency plan for the remediation of the spill, including the design and the follow-up of the clean up operations. The calamity happened to the West of the railway station at a height of 360 m above sea level and in the vicinity of the Semois river (200 m to the South). From a geological point of view, the Formation of Florenville is outcropping at the site. This formation is characterized by an alternation of sandy sediments and sandstone layers. Locally the rock layer are porous allowing vertical migration of the water. The formation is an important but vulnerable aquifer. Further to the South, water is extracted from the aquifer in large quantities for both public distribution and bottling purposes. The spilled product, 5-methyl-2-hexanone (MIAK), has a typical fruity odour and its density is slightly lower than water. The product is relative mobile and fairly easy degraded biologically in low concentrations. (orig.)

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  9. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using acid/BOF slag enhanced chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T T; Kao, C M; Wang, J Y

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying acid/H(2)O(2)/basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) and acid/S(2)O(8)(2-)/BOF slag systems to enhance the chemical oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. Results from the bench-scale study indicate that TCE oxidation via the Fenton-like oxidation process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag at low pH (pH=2-5.2) and neutral (pH=7.1) conditions. Because the BOF slag has iron abundant properties (14% of FeO and 6% of Fe(2)O(3)), it can be sustainably reused for the supplement of iron minerals during the Fenton-like or persulfate oxidation processes. Results indicate that higher TCE removal efficiency (84%) was obtained with the addition of inorganic acid for the activation of Fenton-like reaction compared with the experiments with organic acids addition (with efficiency of 10-15% lower) (BOF slag=10gL(-1); initial pH=5.2). This could be due to the fact that organic acids would compete with TCE for available oxidants. Results also indicate that the pH value had a linear correlation with the observed first-order decay constant of TCE, and thus, lower pH caused a higher TCE oxidation rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  11. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian petroleum company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwekani, R.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Awad, I.

    2005-08-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Syrian petroleum company oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  12. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  13. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.

  14. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  15. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  16. Risk-Based Management of Contaminated Groundwater: The Role of Geologic Heterogeneity, Exposure and Cancer Risk in Determining the Performance of Aquifer Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.M.; Carle, S.F.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of aquifer remediation is typically expressed in terms of a reduction in contaminant concentrations relative to a regulated maximum contaminant level (MCL), and is usually confined by sparse monitoring data and/or simple model calculations. Here, the effectiveness of remediation is examined from a risk-based perspective that goes beyond the traditional MCL concept. A methodology is employed to evaluate the health risk to individuals exposed to contaminated household water that is produced from groundwater. This approach explicitly accounts for differences in risk arising from variability in individual physiology and water use, the uncertainty in estimating chemical carcinogenesis for different individuals, and the uncertainties and variability in contaminant concentrations within groundwater. A hypothetical contamination scenario is developed as a case study in a saturated, alluvial aquifer underlying a real Superfund site. A baseline (unremediated) human exposure and health risk scenario, as induced by contaminated groundwater pumped from this site, is predicted and compared with a similar estimate based upon pump-and-treat exposure intervention. The predicted reduction in risk in the remediation scenario is not an equitable one-that is, it is not uniform to all individuals within a population and varies according to the level of uncertainty in prediction. The importance of understanding the detailed hydrogeologic connections that are established in the heterogeneous geologic regime between the contaminated source, municipal receptors, and remediation wells, and its relationship to this uncertainty is demonstrated. Using two alternative pumping rates, we develop cost-benefit curves based upon reduced exposure and risk to different individuals within the population, under the presence of uncertainty

  17. Hydrogeloogic characterization of fractured rock formations: A guide for groundwater remediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1995-10-01

    A field site was developed in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of ground water flow and transport in fractured rocks. Nine boreholes were drilled into the granitic bedrock, and a wide variety of new and traditional subsurface characterization tools were implemented. The hydrogeologic structure and properties of the field site were deduced by integrating results from the various geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and other investigative methods. The findings of this work are synthesized into this report, which is structured in a guidebook format. The applications of the new and traditional technologies, suggestions on how best to use, integrate, and analyze field data, and comparisons of the shortcoming and benefits of the different methods are presented

  18. Hydrogeloogic characterization of fractured rock formations: A guide for groundwater remediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1995-10-01

    A field site was developed in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of ground water flow and transport in fractured rocks. Nine boreholes were drilled into the granitic bedrock, and a wide variety of new and traditional subsurface characterization tools were implemented. The hydrogeologic structure and properties of the field site were deduced by integrating results from the various geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and other investigative methods. The findings of this work are synthesized into this report, which is structured in a guidebook format. The applications of the new and traditional technologies, suggestions on how best to use, integrate, and analyze field data, and comparisons of the shortcoming and benefits of the different methods are presented.

  19. Synchrotron X-ray characterization of mackinawite and uraninite relevant to bio-remediation of groundwater contaminated with uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Hyun, S.; Hayes, K. F.

    2010-12-01

    Uranium (U) originating from mining operations for weapon manufacturing and nuclear energy production is a significant radionuclide contaminant in groundwater local to uranium mining, uranium milling, and uranium mill tailing (UMT) storage sites. In the USA, the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently overseeing approximately 24 Uranium Mill Tailing Remediation Action (UMTRA) sites which have collectively processed over 27 million tons of uranium ore1,2. In-Situ microbial bio-reduction of the highly mobile U6+ ion into the dramatically less mobile U4+ ion has been demonstrated as an effective remedial process to inhibit uranium migration in the aqueous phase3. The resistance of this process to oxidization and possible remobilization of U when bioremediation stops (and oxidants such as oxygen from the air or nitrate in water diffuse into the formation) in the long term is not known. UMTRA site studies3 have shown that iron sulfide solids are produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) during U bioremediation, and some forms of these iron sulfide solids are known to be effective oxidant scavengers, potentially protecting against re-oxidation and thus remobilization of U. This work is investigating the role of iron sulfide solids in the long-term immobilization of reduced U compounds after bioremediation is completed in groundwater local to UMTRA sites. Re-oxidation tests are being performed in packed media columns loaded with both FeS and U solids. High quality mackinawite (FeS), and uraninite (UO2) have been synthesized in our laboratory via a wet chemistry approach. These synthetic materials are expected to mimic the naturally occurring and biogenic materials present in biologically stimulated UMTRA sites. In order to establish the initial conditions of the prepared experimental columns and to compare synthetic and biogenic FeS and UO2, these synthesized materials have been characterized with synchrotron radiation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

  20. Cost-Effective, Ultra-Sensitive Groundwater Monitoring for Site Remediation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    the In Situ Sampler (IS2). The finished product provides an account of the theory, the engineering design process, and the first field data generated...38 Figure 27. Concentrations of ethylbenzene and isopropylbenzene reported in the demonstration well using samples...Realignment and Closure BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene , and xylenes CAS Chemical Abstract Service COTS commercial off-the-shelf DC direct

  1. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  2. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  3. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  4. Laboratory and field evaluation of the gas treatment approach for insitu remediation of chromate-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Jackson, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Laboratory scale soil treatment tests have been conducted as part of an effort to develop and implement an in situ chemical treatment approach to the remediation of chromate-contaminated soils through the use of reactive gases. These tests involved three different soil samples that were contaminated with Cr(VI) at the 200 ppM level. Treatment of the contaminated soils was performed by passing 100 ppM and 2000 ppM concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in nitrogen through soil columns until a S:Cr mole ratio of 10:1 was achieved. The treated soils were then leached with groundwater or deionized water and analyzed to assess the extent of chromium immobilization. Test results indicate >90% immobilization of chromium and demonstrate that the treatment process is irreversible. Ongoing developmental efforts are being directed towards the demonstration and evaluation of the gas treatment approach in a field test at a chromate-contaminated site. Major planned activities associated with this demonstration include laboratory testing of waste site soil samples, design of the treatment system and injection/extraction well network, geotechnical and geochemical characterization of the test site, and identification and resolution of regulatory and safety requirements

  5. Rice Field Geochemistry and Hydrology: An Explanation for Why Groundwater Irrigated Fields in Bangladesh are Net Sinks of Arsenic from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B.; St. Vincent, Allison P.; Roberts, Linda C.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ali, M. Ashraf; Harvey, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated groundwater transfers tens of cubic kilometers of water and thousands of tons of arsenic from aquifers to rice fields each year. Here we combine observations of infiltration patterns with measurements of porewater chemical composition from our field site in Munshiganj Bangladesh to characterize the mobility of arsenic in soils beneath rice fields. We find that very little arsenic delivered by irrigation returns to the aquifer, and that recharging water mobilizes little, if any, arsenic from rice field subsoils. Arsenic from irrigation water is deposited on surface soils and sequestered along flow paths that pass through bunds, the raised soil boundaries around fields. Additionally, timing of flow into bunds limits the transport of biologically available organic carbon from rice fields into the subsurface where it could stimulate reduction processes that mobilize arsenic from soils and sediments. Together, these results explain why groundwater irrigated rice fields act as net sinks of arsenic from groundwater. PMID:21332196

  6. Remediation mechanisms for Cd-contaminated soil using natural sepiolite at the field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuling; Xu, Yingming; Huang, Rong; Huang, Qingqing; Xie, Zhonglei; Cai, Yanming; Liang, Xuefeng

    2017-12-13

    Remediation of heavy metal polluted agricultural soil is essential for human health and ecological safety and remediation mechanisms at the microscopic level are vital for their large-scale utilization. In this study, natural sepiolite was employed as an immobilization agent for in situ field-scale remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil and the remediation mechanisms were investigated in terms of soil chemistry and plant physiology. Natural sepiolite had a significant immobilization effect for bioavailable Cd contents in paddy soil, and consequently could lower the Cd concentrations of brown rice, husk, straw, and roots of rice plants by 54.7-73.7%, 44.0-62.5%, 26.5-67.2%, and 36.7-46.7%, respectively. Regarding soil chemistry, natural sepiolite increased the soil pH values and shifted the zeta potentials of soil particles to be more negative, enhancing the fixation or sorption of Cd on soil particles, and resulted in the reduction of HCl and DTPA extractable Cd concentrations in paddy soil. Natural sepiolite neither enhanced nor inhibited iron plaques on the rice root surface, but did change the chemical environments of Fe and S in rice root. Natural sepiolite improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity to alleviate the stress of Cd. It also promotes the synthesis of GSH and NPT to complete the detoxification. In general, the remediation mechanisms of natural sepiolite for the Cd pollutant in paddy soil could be summarized as the collective effects of soil chemistry and plant physiology.

  7. Screening Assessment of Radionuclide Migration in Groundwater from the “Dneprovskoe” Tailings Impoundment (Dneprodzerzhynsk City) and Evaluation of Remedial Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalskyi, O.; Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Ryazantsev, V. [State Nuclear Regularity Committee of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of the hydrogeological conditions at the “Dneprovskoe” (“D”) tailings impoundment –object of the former industrial association of “Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant”, which contains uranium ore processing wastes. This radioactively polluted site is located in a densely populated region (at the outskirts of Dneprodzerginsk City) near the major watercourse of the Ukraine — Dnieper River.The mathematical modeling utilized Visual Modflow (for groundwater flow) and Ecolego (Facilia AB, Sweden) radioecology modeling software (for radionuclide transport).Modeling results indicate the possibility of essential radioactive contamination in future of the phreatic aquifer in alluvial deposits between the “D” tailings and the Dnieper River (mainly due to migration of uranium). Therefore long-term management strategies should preclude water usage from the aquifer in the zone of the in-fluence of the “D” tailings. Filtration discharge of uranium to the Dnepr River does not represent a significant risk due to large dilution by surface waters. The important modeling conclusion is that besides the uranium ore processing wastes inside the tailings, the major source of radionuclide migration to groundwater is represented by contaminated geological deposits below the tailings. This last source was formed due to leakage of wastewaters during the operational period of the “D” tailings (1954–1968). Therefore an exemption and re-disposal of wastes from the “D” tailings to a more safe storage location (proposed by some remedial plans) will not provide significant benefit from the viewpoint of minimizing of radionuclide transport to the groundwater and Dnieper River (especially in short-and medium-term perspective). The rational remedial strategy for the “D” tailings is conservation of tailing wastes in-situ by means of specially designed “zero flux” soil screen, which would minimize infiltration of

  8. Remediation of lead and cadmium from simulated groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using permeable reactive barrier filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunhui; Gao, Yalin; Zhang, Yingchao; Dong, Wanqing; Lai, Miao

    2018-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is potentially effective for groundwater remediation, especially using environmentally friendly mixed fillers in representative areas, such as semi-arid loess region in northwestern China. The mixed materials, including corn straw (agricultural wastes), fly ash (industrial wastes), zeolite synthesized from fly ash (reutilized products), and iron-manganese nodule derived from loess (materials with regional characteristics) in northwestern China, were chosen as PRB media to reduce the contents of lead and cadmium in simulated groundwater. A series of lab-scale column experiments were investigated, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the working process; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to further reveal the reaction mechanism. It shows that the purification efficiencies are more acceptable when the concentrations of lead and cadmium are approximately 7 and 0.7 mg/L, respectively, at 25 °C in weakly acidic solution, and functional groups of -OH and C=C play an important role for contaminants removal. The mixed adsorbents used are effective to remove lead and cadmium in groundwater. This is the first report on the removal of lead and cadmium from groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using PRB filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

  9. Characterizing Field Biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater with Active Reclaimed Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraven, S.; Zhou, Q.; Garcia, J.; Gasca, M.; Johnson, T.

    2007-12-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging contaminant in groundwater, because of its aqueous miscibility, exceptional animal toxicity, and human carcinogenicity. NDMA detections in groundwater have been tracked to either decomposition of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) used in rocket fuel facilities or chlorine disinfection in wastewater reclamation plants. Laboratory experiments on both unsaturated and saturated soil samples have demonstrated that NDMA can be biodegraded by microbial activity, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, very limited direct evidence for its biodegradation has been found from the field in saturated groundwater. Our research aimed to evaluate photolysis and biodegradation of NDMA occurring along the full travel path - from wastewater reclamation plant effluent, through rivers and spreading grounds, to groundwater. For this evaluation, we established an extensive monitoring network to characterize NDMA concentrations at effluent discharge points, surface water stations, and groundwater monitoring and production wells, during the operation of the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge facilities in Los Angeles County, California. Field monitoring for NDMA has been conducted for more than six years, including 32 months of relatively lower NDMA concentrations in effluent, 43 months of elevated NDMA effluent concentrations, and 7 months with significantly reduced NDMA effluent concentrations. The NDMA effluent concentration increase and significant concentration decrease were caused by changes in treatment processes. The NDMA sampling data imply that significant biodegradation occurred in groundwater, accounting for a 90% mass reduction of NDMA over the six-year monitoring period. In addition, the occurrence of a discrete well monitored effluent release during the study period allowed critical analysis of the fate of NDMA in a well- characterized, localized groundwater flow subsystem. The data indicate that 80% of the

  10. Field Test of Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery Using a Shear-Thinning Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Adamson, David; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhong, Lirong; Mackley, Rob D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Johnson, Christian D.; Rysz, Michal; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Newell, Charles J.

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneity of hydraulic properties in aquifers may lead to contaminants residing in lower-permeability zones where it is difficult to deliver remediation amendments using conventional injection processes. The focus of this effort is to examine use of a shear-thinning fluid (STF) to improve the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution within a heterogeneous aquifer. Previous studies have demonstrated the significant potential of STFs for improving remedial amendment delivery in heterogeneous aquifers, but quantitative evaluation of these improvements from field applications are lacking. A field-scale test was conducted that compares data from successive injection of a tracer in water followed by injection of a tracer in a STF to evaluate the impact of the STF on tracer distribution uniformity in the presence of permeability contrasts within the targeted injection zone. Data from tracer breakthrough at multiple depth-discrete monitoring intervals and electrical resistivity tomography showed that inclusion of STF in the injection solution slowed movement in high-permeability pathways, improved delivery of amendment to low-permeability materials, and resulted in better uniformity in injected fluid distribution within the targeted treatment zone.

  11. Field Investigation Plan for 1301-N and 1325-N Facilities Sampling to Support Remedial Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    This field investigation plan (FIP) provides for the sampling and analysis activities supporting the remedial design planning for the planned removal action for the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities (LWDFs), which are treatment, storage,and disposal (TSD) units (cribs/trenches). The planned removal action involves excavation, transportation, and disposal of contaminated material at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF).An engineering study (BHI 1997) was performed to develop and evaluate various options that are predominantly influenced by the volume of high- and low-activity contaminated soil requiring removal. The study recommended that additional sampling be performed to supplement historical data for use in the remedial design

  12. Environmental summary of the F- and H-area seepage basins groundwater remediation project, Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friday, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of nearly 70 investigations of the baseline environment, describes the remedial action, and identifies constituents of interest that pose potential risk to human health and the environment. It also proposes an approach for evaluating the effectiveness of the remedial action

  13. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  14. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangjoo [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eungyu [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO{sub 4} concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO{sub 4}, supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO{sub 3} at shallow depths and by SO{sub 4} reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area.

  15. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon; Park, Eungyu; Koh, Dong-Chan; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2008-01-01

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO 4 concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO 4 , supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO 3 at shallow depths and by SO 4 reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO 3 and SO 4 in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area

  16. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl{sup −} concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM{sub (ZS)} is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl{sup -} concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup -} concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM{sub (ZS)} based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl{sup −} concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup −} concentration.

  17. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl − concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM (ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl - concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl - concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM (ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl − concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl − concentration

  18. Source zone remediation by zero valent iron technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    at a fifth of these contaminated sites. These source zones pose a serious threat to soil and groundwater quality. Remediation of the heterogeneous source zones is challenging due to irregular downwards migration patterns in the subsurface, low aqueous solubility and matrix diffusion. To protect the soil...... and groundwater resources from long-term deterioration, the development of in situ technologies suitable for remediation of DNAPL is warranted. Currently, an array of aggressive in situ remediation technologies remediation exists. These technologies may be suitable under various site specific conditions; however......, most of them are limited by subsurface heterogeneities and/or the risk of inadvertent DNAPL displacement during field application. This thesis presents the results of an investigation of the potential for remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones by emerging zero valent iron (ZVI) based...

  19. Evaluation of select trade-offs between ground-water remediation and waste minimization for petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C.D.; McTernan, W.F.; Willett, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation comparing environmental remediation alternatives and attendant costs for a hypothetical refinery site located in the Arkansas River alluvium was completed. Transport from the land's surface to and through the ground water of three spill sizes was simulated, representing a base case and two possible levels of waste minimization. Remediation costs were calculated for five alternative remediation options, for three possible regulatory levels and alternative site locations, for four levels of technology improvement, and for eight different years. It is appropriate from environmental and economic perspectives to initiate significant efforts and expenditures that are necessary to minimize the amount and type of waste produced and disposed during refinery operations; or conversely, given expected improvements in technology, is it better to wait until remediation technologies improve, allowing greater environmental compliance at lower costs? The present work used deterministic models to track a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) spill through the unsaturated zone to the top of the water table. Benzene leaching from LNAPL to the ground water was further routed through the alluvial aquifer. Contaminant plumes were simulated over 50 yr of transport and remediation costs assigned for each of the five treatment options for each of these years. The results of these efforts show that active remediation is most cost effective after a set point or geochemical quasi-equilibrium is reached, where long-term improvements in technology greatly tilt the recommended option toward remediation. Finally, the impacts associated with increasingly rigorous regulatory levels present potentially significant penalties for the remediation option, but their likelihood of occurrence is difficult to define

  20. Enhancement of stability of various nZVI suspensions used in groundwater remediation with environmentally friendly organic stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Velimirović, Milica; Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ remediation of polluted soil and groundwater has been shown as one of the most promising techniques [1]. The success of this technology depends on the mobility, reactivity, and longevity of nZVI particles. The mobility of nZVI particles depends on the properties of the single particles, stability of the particle suspension, and the aquifer material [1,2]. In order to enhance the mobility of nZVI, the mobility-decisive properties of the nZVI particles in suspension such as concentration, size distribution, surface charge, and sedimentation rate have to be investigated and optimized. Previous studies showed that pristine nZVI particles aggregate rapidly in water, reducing the particles radius of influence after injection [3]. In order to prevent aggregation and sedimentation of the nZVI particles, and consequently improve the stability of nZVI suspension and therefore the mobility of the nZVI particles, surface stabilizers can be used to provide electrostatic repulsion and steric or electrosteric stabilization [3,4]. The objective of this lab-scale study is to investigate the potential for enhancing the stability of different nZVI suspensions by means of environmentally friendly organic stabilizers, including carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin, alginate, xanthan, and guar gum. The different nZVI particles used included pristine and polyacrylic acid-coated nZVI particles provided in suspension (Nanofer 25 and Nanofer 25S, respectively, NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), air-stable nZVI particles (Nanofer Star, (NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), and milled iron flakes (UVR-FIA, Germany). In order to study the enhancement of nZVI stability (1 g L-1 total iron) different concentrations of organic stabilizers (1-20 wt.%) were applied in these nZVI suspensions. Each nZVI suspension was freshly prepared and treated for 10 minutes with Ultra-Turrax (15 000 rpm) and 10 minutes ultrasonic bath prior to

  1. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  2. Mathematical modeling of groundwater contamination with varying velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pintu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analytical models for predicting groundwater contamination in isotropic and homogeneous porous formations are derived. The impact of dispersion and diffusion coefficients is included in the solution of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE, subjected to transient (time-dependent boundary conditions at the origin. A retardation factor and zero-order production terms are included in the ADE. Analytical solutions are obtained using the Laplace Integral Transform Technique (LITT and the concept of linear isotherm. For illustration, analytical solutions for linearly space- and time-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients along with molecular diffusion coefficients are presented. Analytical solutions are explored for the Peclet number. Numerical solutions are obtained by explicit finite difference methods and are compared with analytical solutions. Numerical results are analysed for different types of geological porous formations i.e., aquifer and aquitard. The accuracy of results is evaluated by the root mean square error (RMSE.

  3. 100-FR-3 groundwater/soil gas supplemental limited field investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, a Limited Field Investigation (LFI) was conducted for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit which identified trichloroethylene (TCE) as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) (DOE-RL 1994). In groundwater samples collected for the LFI, TCE was detected in well 199-177-1 at a concentration exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (5 μg/L) and Washington State groundwater criteria (3 μg/L). With the concurrence of the EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), a supplemental LFI was conducted to determine the extent and potential source of TCE groundwater contamination associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. This report summarizes the activities and results of the groundwater/soil gas supplemental LFI for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the lateral distribution of TCE in shallow (3 to 5 ft below the water table) groundwater associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The second objective was to assess soil gas (3 to 5 concentrations in the study area in an attempt to identify potential sources of TCE and develop a correlation between soil gas and groundwater concentrations). Finally, the third objective of the investigation was to refine the site conceptual model

  4. Degradation of Nitrobenzene Using Bio-Reduced Fe-Clays: Progress Towards the Development of an in-situ Groundwater Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. L.; Fialips, C. I.

    2008-12-01

    Clay minerals are widely used in agricultural, industrial and environmental engineering applications due to their specific physical and chemical properties and their high abundance in soils in sediments. Currently however, Fe-bearing clays are not widely exploited in these applied fields. Fe-rich smectites, such as nontronite, can contain up to 20wt% of Fe2O3 as structural Fe(III) and if a suitable electron donor is available, this Fe(III) can be utilized by Fe-reducing bacteria as a terminal electron acceptor. When reduced, the overall reactivity of Fe-smectites changes, particularly where interactions with water and various organic compounds are involved. For instance, the presence of reduced Fe-smectites has been found to induce the degradation of certain organic contaminants found in groundwaters and the subsurface, e.g. chlorinated aliphatics and nitroaromatic compounds. The goal of this study is to develop an in-situ groundwater remediation technology that targets redox- sensitive organics, in the form of a permeable Bio Fe-clay barrier. To achieve this, the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae BrY was first used to reduce structural FeIII in <2micron fractions of the Fe- rich smectite nontronite (NAu-2, 41.74wt% Fe2O3) and a Fe-bearing montmorrillonite (Speeton Clay, Yorkshire, UK, ~8wt% Fe2O3). S. algae BrY was able to reduce structural FeIII within these clays to maximum Fe(II)/Fe(II)+Fe(III) ratios 0.34 and 0.19 for the nontronite and Speeton Clay, respectively, in the presence and absence of the electron shuttle, AQDS (9, 10-anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonic acid). These results are novel because the capability of S. algae BrY to reduce structural Fe(III) in smectite clays has not previously been tested. Nitrobenzene was selected as the test redox-sensitive organic compound as it is a common subsurface contaminant and is of global ecotoxicological concern. To test the capability of bio- reduced Fe-clays to transform nitrobenzene to aniline (the less

  5. Sequential and joint hydrogeophysical inversion using a field-scale groundwater model with ERT and TDEM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Fiandaca, G.; Auken, Esben

    2013-01-01

    hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to inform a field-scale groundwater model with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. In a sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI) a groundwater model is calibrated with geophysical data by coupling groundwater model parameters...... with the inverted geophysical models. We subsequently compare the SHI with a joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI). In the JHI, a geophysical model is simultaneously inverted with a groundwater model by coupling the groundwater and geophysical parameters to explicitly account for an established petrophysical...

  6. Sequential and joint hydrogeophysical inversion using a field-scale groundwater model with ERT and TDEM data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Fiandaca, G.; Auken, Esben

    2013-01-01

    with the inverted geophysical models. We subsequently compare the SHI with a joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI). In the JHI, a geophysical model is simultaneously inverted with a groundwater model by coupling the groundwater and geophysical parameters to explicitly account for an established petrophysical...... hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to inform a field-scale groundwater model with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. In a sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI) a groundwater model is calibrated with geophysical data by coupling groundwater model parameters...

  7. Groundwater Waves in a Coastal Fractured Aquifer of the Third Phase Qinshan Nuclear Power Engineering Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nian-qing; TANG Yi-qun; TANG He-ping

    2005-01-01

    Tidal fluctuations of Hangzhou Bay produce progressive pressure waves in adjacent field fractured aquifers, as the pressure waves propagate, groundwater levels and hydraulic gradients continuously fluctuate. The effect of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow can be determined using the mean hydraulic gradient that can be calculated by comparing mean ground and surface water elevations. Tidal fluctuation is shown to affect the piezometer readings taken in a nearshore fractured aquifer around the nuclear power engineering field. Continuous monitoring of a network of seven piezometers provided relations between the tidal cycle and the piezometer readings. The relations can be expressed in times of a time and amplitude scaling factor. The time lag and the tidal effi ciency factor and wavelength are calculated using these parameters. It provides significant scientific basis to prevent tide and groundwater for the nuclear power engineering construction and safety run of nuclear power station in the future.

  8. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  11. A Mathematical Model for Simulating Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Heavy Metals using Bio-Carriers with Dead Baccilus sp. B1 and Polysulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Wang, S.; Lee, M.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of groundwater contaminated by heavy metals, organic contaminants, etc. using various types of bio-carriers has been widely studied as a novel technology in the literature. In this study, a series of batch experiments were conducted to investigated the fundamental characteristics in the removal process using bio-carriers (beads) with dead Bacillus sp. B1 and polysulfone. Through equilibrium and kinetic sorption experiments, sorption efficiencies for lead and copper under various conditions such as pH, temperature, contaminant concentration, etc. were examined and sorption parameters including maximum sorption capacities were obtained for model applications. Experimental data showed that equilibrium sorption patterns for Pb2+and Cu2+on bio-carrier beads follows Langmuir sorption isotherm and that the sorption dynamics can be described with a pseudo-second-order kinetics. One dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive transport model was also developed for simulating and analyzing the remediation processes. The HSDM (homogeneous surface diffusion model) were incorporated in the model to take into account the mass transfer and sorption mechanisms around/inside the bio-carrier beads. Applying the proposed model, numerical column experiments were carried out and the simulation results reasonably described temporal and spatial distribution of Pb2+and Cu2+in a fixed-bed flow-through sorption column. Experimental and numerical results showed that the main mechanism of the bio-carrier to remove heavy metals is the sorption on/inside of the bio-carriers and the bio-carriers can function as excellent biosorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from groundwater.

  12. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  13. Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Nuclear Corporation, Mckinley County, New Mexico, ground-water operable unit (first remedial action) September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) site is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Gallup, New Mexico in McKinley County. The site operated as a State-licensed uranium mill facility from June 1977 to May 1982. It includes an ore-processing mill (about 25 acres) and an unlined tailings pond area (about 100 acres). In July 1979, approximately 23 million gallons of tailings and pond water were released to a nearby river as a result of a dam breach in the tailings pond area. The site damage was repaired; however, attention was focused on ground-water contamination resulting from tailings seepage. Nevertheless, the offsite migration of radionuclides and chemical constituents from uranium milling byproduct materials into the ground water, as well as to surface water and air, are still principal threats at the site. The remedial action will address onsite ground water contamination. Source control and onsite surface reclamation will be implemented under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and integrated with this ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, and radioactive substances including radium-226/228 and gross alpha. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  15. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  16. Potential of aerobic bacteria use for remediation of groundwater of Pavlodar outskirt contaminated with soluble mercury compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan there are some regions contaminated with mercury as a result of technogenic releases from industrial enterprises. The mercury ingress into the environment has resulted in significant pollution of groundwater and surface water with soluble mercury com...

  17. Conducting Polymers in the Fields of Energy, Environmental Remediation, and Chemical-Chiral Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G; Rincón, Marina E; Gutierrez-Granados, Silvia; Chahma, M'hamed; Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A

    2018-05-09

    Conducting polymers (CPs), thanks to their unique properties, structures made on-demand, new composite mixtures, and possibility of deposit on a surface by chemical, physical, or electrochemical methodologies, have shown in the last years a renaissance and have been widely used in important fields of chemistry and materials science. Due to the extent of the literature on CPs, this review, after a concise introduction about the interrelationship between electrochemistry and conducting polymers, is focused exclusively on the following applications: energy (energy storage devices and solar cells), use in environmental remediation (anion and cation trapping, electrocatalytic reduction/oxidation of pollutants on CP based electrodes, and adsorption of pollutants) and finally electroanalysis as chemical sensors in solution, gas phase, and chiral molecules. This review is expected to be comprehensive, authoritative, and useful to the chemical community interested in CPs and their applications.

  18. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  19. A Field Test of Electromigration as a Method for Remediating Sulfate from Shallow Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C.G.; Runnells, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Electromigration offers a potential tool for remediating ground water contaminated with highly soluble components, such as Na+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-. A field experiment was designed to test the efficacy of electromigration for preconcentrating dissolved SO42- in ground water associated with a fossil-fuel power plant. Two shallow wells, 25 feet apart (one 25 feet deep, the other 47 feet deep), were constructed in the upper portion of an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The wells were constructed with a double-wall design, with an outer casing of 4-inch PVC and an inner tube of 2-inch PVC; both were fully slotted (0.01 inch). Electrodes were constructed by wrapping the inner tubing with a 100-foot length of rare-earth metal oxide/copper wire. An electrical potential of 10.65 volts DC was applied, and tests were run for periods of 12, 44, and 216 hours. Results showed large changes in the pH from the initial pH of ground water of about 7.5 to values of approximately 2 and 12 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Despite the fact that the test conditions were far from ideal, dissolved SO42- was significantly concentrated at the anode. Over a period of approximately nine days, the concentration of SO42- at the anode reached what appeared to be a steady-state value of 2200 mg/L, compared to the initial value in ground water of approximately 1150 mg/L. The results of this field test should encourage further investigation of electromigration as a tool in the remediation of contaminated ground water.

  20. Perchlorate Removal, Destruction and Field Monitoring Demonstration (Groundwater RemediationPilot-Scale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Space Administration NDBA N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine NDEA N-nitrosodiethylamine NDMA N-nitrosodimethylamine NDPA N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine v...spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). Nitrosamines were analyzed using EPA Method 521. N-nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ) was 2.6 parts per trillion (ppt) with a...TS/TDS]), and metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Na , and Zn). Specific methods are listed in Table 5. ** N-nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ), N

  1. Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnik, V.

    1990-01-01

    A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)

  2. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  3. First field example of remediation of unwanted migration from a natural CO2 reservoir: The Bečej Field, Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karas, D.; Demić, I.; Kultysheva, K.; Antropov, A.; Blagojević, M.; Neele, F.; Pluymaekers, M.; Orlić, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Bečej field, discovered in 1951 by the Petroleum Industry of Serbia (NIS), is one of the largest natural CO2 fields in Europe. Uncontrolled migration of CO2 out of the main reservoir, leading to subsurface seepage and surface leakage, was caused by the Bč-5 well blowout in 1968. Remediation

  4. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money

  5. Remediation of organic and inorganic arsenic contaminated groundwater using a nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Meng Xiaoguang; Calvache, Edwin [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 mug L{sup -1} As(III), 246 mug L{sup -1} As(V), 151 mug L{sup -1} MMA, and 202 mug L{sup -1} DMA was continuously passed through a TiO{sub 2} filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 mug L{sup -1}. However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). - A nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  6. Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater using a Nonocrystalline TiO2 Based Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C.; Meng, X; Calvache, E; Jiang, G

    2009-01-01

    A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 ?g L-1 As(III), 246 ?g L-1 As(V), 151 ?g L-1 MMA, and 202 ?g L-1 DMA was continuously passed through a TiO2 filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 ?g L-1. However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  7. The Oak Ridge Field Research Center : Advancing Scientific Understanding of the Transportation, Fate, and Remediation of Subsurface Contamination Sources and Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Watson

    2005-01-01

    Historical research, development, and testing of nuclear materials across this country resulted in subsurface contamination that has been identified at over 7,000 discrete sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. With the end of the Cold War threat, DOE has shifted its emphasis to remediation, decommissioning, and decontamination of the immense volumes of contaminated groundwater, sediments, and structures at its sites. DOE currently is responsible for remediating 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to approximately four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of contaminated soil, enough to fill approximately 17 professional sports stadiums.* DOE also sponsors research intended to improve or develop remediation technologies, especially for difficult, currently intractable contaminants or conditions. The Oak Ridge FRC is representative of some difficult sites, contaminants, and conditions. Buried wastes in contact with a shallow water table have created huge reservoirs of contamination. Rainfall patterns affect the water table level seasonally and over time. Further, the hydrogeology of the area, with its fractures and karst geology, affects the movement of contaminant plumes. Plumes have migrated long distances and to surface discharge points through ill-defined preferred flowpaths created by the fractures and karst conditions. From the standpoint of technical effectiveness, remediation options are limited, especially for contaminated groundwater. Moreover, current remediation practices for the source areas, such as capping, can affect coupled processes that, in turn, may affect the movement of subsurface contaminants in unknown ways. Research conducted at the FRC or with FRC samples therefore promotes understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of extant remediation options, and the

  8. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898–2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendizabal, I.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Baggelaar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical trend analysis is applied to a 110. years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences

  9. A field-scale demonstration of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.R.; Hokett, S.L.; Donithan, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Two pilot field-scale studies were conducted during the period of May 24 to July 22, 1996, to evaluate the potential of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids. Previous analytical solutions to the rate of tritium removal were evaluated and compared to the experimental results. The analytical solution of Craig and Gordon that describes isotopic fractionation of an evaporating body of water appears to most accurately describe the process, versus the more limited isotopic exchange equation of Slattery and Ingraham and the mass transfer equation of Wilson and Fordham, which are accurate only at moderate to high humidities and do not describe the tritium enrichment process that would occur at low humidities. The results of the two experiments demonstrated that air sparging of tritium is a viable process in the field. Tritium removal rates of 60 percent were reported during the first experiment and 66 percent for the second experiment. Comparison to previous laboratory work revealed that rates could have been improved by starting with higher concentrations, utilizing smaller bubbles, and longer bubble path lengths. Risks associated with the pilot study were greater the closer one worked to the experiment with a maximum increase in the Lifetime Excess Total Risk per Unit Uptake of 2.4 x 10 -5 . Conduct of this experiment at locations with much higher activities of tritium would significantly increase the associated risk

  10. Installation of an innovative remedial technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, B.

    1995-01-01

    The major goal of the Lasagna trademark project was to design, construct, install, and operate an in situ remediation system in low-permeability soil. A new technology--the Lasagna process--uses electro-osmosis to move contaminated groundwater through treatment zones. The treatment zones are installed in contaminated soils, thereby forming an integrated in situ remedial process. Electro-osmosis, well known for its effectiveness and extremely low power consumption, uses a direct current to cause Groundwater to travel through low-permeability soil. When a bench-scale version of the technology was 98 percent effective in removing contamination, an actual field test was the next step. The site chosen for this first field effort was the DOE-owned Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. The target contaminant for this project was trichloroethylene (TCE) because it is found at many sites across the country and is present at approximately 60 percent of DOE's sites

  11. Fate of para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) in groundwater under anoxic conditions: modelling results from a field site in Berlin (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffe, Raffaella; Kohfahl, Claus; Hamann, Enrico; Greskowiak, Janek; Massmann, Gudrun; Dünnbier, Uwe; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a field modelling study to investigate the processes controlling the plume evolution of para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) in anoxic groundwater in Berlin, Germany. The organic contaminant p-TSA originates from the industrial production process of plasticisers, pesticides, antiseptics and drugs and is of general environmental concern for urban water management. Previous laboratory studies revealed that p-TSA is degradable under oxic conditions, whereas it appears to behave conservatively in the absence of oxygen (O2). p-TSA is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment of Berlin and present in high concentrations (up to 38 μg L(-1)) in an anoxic aquifer downgradient of a former sewage farm, where groundwater is partly used for drinking water production. To obtain refined knowledge of p-TSA transport and degradation in an aquifer at field scale, measurements of p-TSA were carried out at 11 locations (at different depths) between 2005 and 2010. Comparison of chloride (Cl(-)) and p-TSA field data showed that p-TSA has been retarded in the same manner as Cl(-). To verify the transport behaviour under field conditions, a two-dimensional transport model was setup, applying the dual-domain mass transfer approach in the model sector corresponding to an area of high aquifer heterogeneity. The distribution of Cl(-) and p-TSA concentrations from the site was reproduced well, confirming that both compounds behave conservatively and are subjected to retardation due to back diffusion from water stagnant zones. Predictive simulations showed that without any remediation measures, the groundwater quality near the drinking water well galleries will be affected by high p-TSA loads for about a hundred years.

  12. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  13. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S ampersand A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S ampersand A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S ampersand A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S ampersand A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S ampersand A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S ampersand A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan

  14. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  15. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steadystate and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer.The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination.The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or –3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  16. Coupling of bio-PRB and enclosed in-well aeration system for remediation of nitrobenzene and aniline in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ding, Feng; Wang, Liu; Liu, Peng; Yu, Xiaolong; Ye, Kang

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory-scale bio-permeable reactive barrier (bio-PRB) was constructed and combined with enclosed in-well aeration system to treat nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in groundwater. Batch-style experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NB and AN degradation, using suspension (free cells) of degrading consortium and immobilized consortium by a mixture of perlite and peat. The NB and AN were completely degraded in 4 mg L(-1) when the aeration system was applied into the bio-PRB system. The NB and AN were effectively removed when the aeration system was functional in the bio-PRB. The removal efficiency decreased when the aeration system malfunctioned for 20 days, thus indicating that DO was an important factor for the degradation of NB and AN. The regain of NB and AN removal after the malfunction indicates the robustness of degradation consortium. No original organics and new formed by-products were observed in the effluent. The results indicate that NB and AN in groundwater can be completely mineralized in a bio-PRB equipped with enclosed in-well aeration system and filled with perlite and peat attached with degrading consortium.

  17. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully

  18. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, Reika

    2016-09-01

    Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters. Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr (81 Kr and 85 Kr) possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled determination of ultra-trace noble gas radioisotope abundances using 5-10 μ L of pure Kr. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries. Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled (138 K) activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. This simple process uses a single adsorbent and separates 99% of the bulk atmospheric gases from Kr without significant loss. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas. Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The presented Kr separation system has a demonstrated capability of extracting Kr with > 90% yield and 99% purity within 75 min from 1.2 to 26.8 L STP of atmospheric air with various concentrations of CH4. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples.

  19. Basin F Subregional Groundwater Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazion, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The groundwater flow system at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is complex. To evaluate proposed remedial alternatives, interaction of the local groundwater flow system with the present contamination control systems must be understood...

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge in a Japanese Headwater Area by Intensive Collaboration of Field Survey and Modelling Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, S.; Kondo, H.; Tawara, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mori, K.; Yoshida, A.; Tada, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to understand groundwater systems, including their recharge, flow, storage, discharge, and withdrawal, so that we can use groundwater resources efficiently and sustainably. To examine groundwater recharge, several methods have been discussed based on water balance estimation, in situ experiments, and hydrological tracers. However, few studies have developed a concrete framework for quantifying groundwater recharge rates in an undefined area. In this study, we established a robust method to quantitatively determine water cycles and estimate the groundwater recharge rate by combining the advantages of field surveys and model simulations. We replicated in situ hydrogeological observations and three-dimensional modeling in a mountainous basin area in Japan. We adopted a general-purpose terrestrial fluid-flow simulator (GETFLOWS) to develop a geological model and simulate the local water cycle. Local data relating to topology, geology, vegetation, land use, climate, and water use were collected from the existing literature and observations to assess the spatiotemporal variations of the water balance from 2011 to 2013. The characteristic structures of geology and soils, as found through field surveys, were parameterized for incorporation into the model. The simulated results were validated using observed groundwater levels and resulted in a Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency Coefficient of 0.92. The results suggested that local groundwater flows across the watershed boundary and that the groundwater recharge rate, defined as the flux of water reaching the local unconfined groundwater table, has values similar to the level estimated in the `the lower soil layers on a long-term basis. This innovative method enables us to quantify the groundwater recharge rate and its spatiotemporal variability with high accuracy, which contributes to establishing a foundation for sustainable groundwater management.

  3. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  4. In situ precipitation and sorption of arsenic from groundwater: Laboratory and ex situ field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J.M.; Adu-Wusu, K.; Frampton, W.H.; Staib, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Permeable, reactive walls may provide long term, low-maintenance prevention of off-site migration of contaminated groundwater. Laboratory and ex situ field tests conducted on several arsenic-contaminated groundwaters indicate that both precipitation and sorption can remove arsenic to levels of less than 10 ppb. Precipitation has been induced by adjusting pH, adding selected cations, and/or reducing the oxidation-reduction potential. Adjusting pH or adding cations was most effective when there were high levels of other ionic species with which arsenic could coprecipitate. Reducing the oxidation-reduction potential was effective on a variety of groundwaters. Humate was an effective sorbent at low pH; aluminum and iron materials were effective over a large range of conditions. Long term performance of precipitation systems can be limited by formation of precipitate on reactive surfaces. Long term sorption can be reduced by competing ions, such as phosphate. Laboratory and ex situ field tests indicate that reactive walls may have lifetimes of decades or more

  5. Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

    2015-03-02

    A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7 μm) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200 nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488 mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4 mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%–49.6% and 4.0%–32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%–84.1% and 22.8%–61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. - Highlights: • Sepiolite has reliability and stability for remediation of contaminated Cd. • Sepiolite significantly decreases Cd bioavailability in soil and uptake in plant. • The treatment of sepiolite improves soil quality. - Sepiolite not only decreased soil Cd bioavailability and plant Cd uptake, but also improved soil quality.

  7. Long-term performance of elemental iron and hydroxyapatite for uranium retention in permeable reactive barriers used for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, V.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental iron (Fe 0 ) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were evaluated as reactive mate-rials for use in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove uranium from conta-minated groundwater. Special attention was given to the long-term performance of the materials, which was investigated by means of column tests with a duration of up to 30 months using two different artificial groundwaters (AGW) with varying composition and uranium concentration. The interaction of the materials with AGW was studied in column tests using 237 U as a radiotracer to monitor the movement of the contamination front through the columns. The tested materials were shredded cast iron (granulated grey cast iron, 0.3 - 1.3 mm) supplied by Gotthard Mayer, Rheinfelden, Germany, and food quality grade hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, 99 % 0 (AGW with 9.6 mg U/L and low bicarbonate content of 120 mg/L). No breakthrough was observed for the Fe 0 columns with effluent uranium con-centrations being below the detection limit of 10 μg/L after treating more than 2,000 pore volumes (PV) and no uranium could be leached from loaded Fe 0 columns with 200 PV of uranium free AGW. However, columns with high Fe 0 content (≥ 50%) suffered from severe loss of permeability when AGW with ≥ 320 mg/L bicarbonate was used. In the HAP columns a breakthrough occurred with effluent uranium concentrations > 15 μg/l after treating 1,240 PV (10% and 50% breakthrough after 1,460 PV and 2,140 PV respectively). 12.2% of the accu-mulated uranium could be desorbed again with 840 PV of uranium free AGW. Adsorption was found to be the dominant reaction mechanism for uranium and HAP. Image analysis of high uranium content samples showed uranium and phosphate bearing crystals growing from HAP surfaces. The uranium phases chernikovite and meta-ankoleite of the autunite group were identified by x-ray diffraction. The existence of these mineral phases proves that surface precipitation also occurs under favourable conditions. No uranium

  8. Mechanisms on the Impacts of Alkalinity, pH, and Chloride on Persulfate-Based Groundwater Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Orozco, Ruben; Camargos, Natalia; Liu, Haizhou

    2017-04-04

    Persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- )-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has gained more attention in recent years due to the generation of highly reactive and selective sulfate radical (SO 4 •- ). This study examined the effects of important groundwater chemical parameters, i.e., alkalinity, pH, and chloride on benzene degradation via heterogeneous persulfate activation by three Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-containing aquifer minerals: ferrihydrite, goethite, and pyrolusite. A comprehensive kinetic model was established to elucidate the mechanisms of radical generation and mineral surface complexation. Results showed that an increase of alkalinity up to 10 meq/L decreased the rates of persulfate decomposition and benzene degradation, which was associated with the formation of unreactive surface carbonato complexes. An increase in pH generally accelerated persulfate decomposition due to enhanced formation of reactive surface hydroxo complexation. A change in the chloride level up to 5 mM had a negligibly effect on the reaction kinetics. Kinetics modeling also suggested that SO 4 •- was transformed to hydroxyl radical (HO • ) and carbonate radical (CO 3 •- ) at higher pHs. Furthermore, the yields of two major products of benzene oxidation, i.e., phenol and aldehyde, were positively correlated with the branching ratio of SO 4 •- reacting with benzene, but inversely correlated with that of HO • or CO 3 •- , indicating that SO 4 •- preferentially oxidized benzene via pathways involving fewer hydroxylation steps compared to HO • or CO 3 •- .

  9. Database Dictionary for Ethiopian National Ground-Water DAtabase (ENGDA) Data Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Litke, David W.; Tucci, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This document describes the data fields that are used for both field forms and the Ethiopian National Ground-water Database (ENGDA) tables associated with information stored about production wells, springs, test holes, test wells, and water level or water-quality observation wells. Several different words are used in this database dictionary and in the ENGDA database to describe a narrow shaft constructed in the ground. The most general term is borehole, which is applicable to any type of hole. A well is a borehole specifically constructed to extract water from the ground; however, for this data dictionary and for the ENGDA database, the words well and borehole are used interchangeably. A production well is defined as any well used for water supply and includes hand-dug wells, small-diameter bored wells equipped with hand pumps, or large-diameter bored wells equipped with large-capacity motorized pumps. Test holes are borings made to collect information about the subsurface with continuous core or non-continuous core and/or where geophysical logs are collected. Test holes are not converted into wells. A test well is a well constructed for hydraulic testing of an aquifer in order to plan a larger ground-water production system. A water-level or water-quality observation well is a well that is used to collect information about an aquifer and not used for water supply. A spring is any naturally flowing, local, ground-water discharge site. The database dictionary is designed to help define all fields on both field data collection forms (provided in attachment 2 of this report) and for the ENGDA software screen entry forms (described in Litke, 2007). The data entered into each screen entry field are stored in relational database tables within the computer database. The organization of the database dictionary is designed based on field data collection and the field forms, because this is what the majority of people will use. After each field, however, the

  10. Sequential and joint hydrogeophysical inversion using a field-scale groundwater model with ERT and TDEM data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Herckenrath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, ground-based and airborne geophysical data sets are used to inform groundwater models. Recent research focuses on establishing coupling relationships between geophysical and groundwater parameters. To fully exploit such information, this paper presents and compares different hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to inform a field-scale groundwater model with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT data. In a sequential hydrogeophysical inversion (SHI a groundwater model is calibrated with geophysical data by coupling groundwater model parameters with the inverted geophysical models. We subsequently compare the SHI with a joint hydrogeophysical inversion (JHI. In the JHI, a geophysical model is simultaneously inverted with a groundwater model by coupling the groundwater and geophysical parameters to explicitly account for an established petrophysical relationship and its accuracy. Simulations for a synthetic groundwater model and TDEM data showed improved estimates for groundwater model parameters that were coupled to relatively well-resolved geophysical parameters when employing a high-quality petrophysical relationship. Compared to a SHI these improvements were insignificant and geophysical parameter estimates became slightly worse. When employing a low-quality petrophysical relationship, groundwater model parameters improved less for both the SHI and JHI, where the SHI performed relatively better. When comparing a SHI and JHI for a real-world groundwater model and ERT data, differences in parameter estimates were small. For both cases investigated in this paper, the SHI seems favorable, taking into account parameter error, data fit and the complexity of implementing a JHI in combination with its larger computational burden.

  11. Application of isotope techniques to groundwater pollution research for Xiangshan uranium ore field, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fulin; Liu Peilun; Zhu Chuande; Wu Xiaowei; Zeng Yinsheng

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of groundwater pollution due to uranium deposits focused on the most important uranium metallogenic area-Zhoujiashan district of Xiangshan uranium ore field, China. Groundwater collected from five completed exploration boreholes in the area is regarded as the pollution source and is traced and analysed by using isotope as well as radio-hydrochemical techniques. In addition, the pollution situation of a small uranium ore pile for heap-leaching and a big uranium ore open pit are monitored by the same techniques. It has been experimentally proven that the uranium concentration and the uranium isotope ratio 234 U/ 238 U in natural waters are two sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution in natural waters. It was concluded that under present conditions, exploration of uranium deposits may not cause serious groundwater pollution of radioactive elements (U, Ra, Rn and Th), however, it is difficult to avoid the serious surface water pollution coming from the exploitation of uranium ore by a big open pit. (author)

  12. The field application of an immunoassay-based test for petroleum fuels contamination in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The recent development of low-cost, rapid field analytical tests for petroleum fuels based on immunoassay technology has provided an on-site tool for the cost-effective, accurate assessment of groundwater contamination. The method allows for rapid, direct measurement of contaminant concentration. The method has been used for a variety of applications including surface water runoff testing and groundwater monitoring well siting. The PETRO RISc Water Test can be used to substantially reduce the cost of monitoring well installation. Current, monitoring wells are placed based on knowledge of the location of the source of contamination, the size of the release, the time elapsed since the release began, and the hydrogeology of the site. While the location of the source is generally known with some precision, the hydrogeology of the site and the timing of the release rarely are. This results in the need for an ''educated guess'' regarding the drilling location for monitoring wells that are installed to provide long term feedback on groundwater contamination. The tests have the greatest sensitivity to aliphatic compounds in the range of six to ten carbons and aromatic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and naphthalene

  13. Field Evaluation of Two Geophysical Techniques for Real-Time Mapping of Smouldering Remediation (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, L. M.; Tsourlos, P.; McMaster, M.; Liefl, D.; Sims, A.; Dominguez, J. L. G.; Vidumsky, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2016-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) technology destroys non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in situ using principles of smouldering combustion. It involves propagating an exothermic (400-1000C) oxidation reaction outwards from an ignition well. A full-scale STAR system is currently being applied at an industrial site contaminated with coal tar below the water table in New Jersey, USA. STAR is typically tracked using multi-level thermocouples, which are discrete and sparse in space and time. This study evaluates two surface-based geophysical methods - Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Self-Potential (SP) - for the ability to map the STAR reaction in real time at the New Jersey site. Both techniques involve placing electrode arrays on the surface and monitoring electrical signals over time (i.e., time-lapse). It is hypothesized that ERT should be able to monitor the resistive dry zone that precedes the reaction front and/or the growing NAPL-depleted zone. SP is expected to be able to detect the potential difference associated with thermal gradients generated by the reaction. Approximately 72 ERT electrodes in a "swiss cross" pattern plus 10 SP electrodes will be emplaced over single STAR treatment cell (six ignition wells). This setup will be employed to monitor both a deep (25 feet) and shallow (8 feet) STAR treatments. The geophysics will be complemented by in situ temperature measurements, continuous gas measurements, and pre- and post-treatment coring. The primary goal of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of using ERT and SP for STAR under field conditions. The tests will be conducted in August 2016.

  14. Field Tests of Real-time In-situ Dissolved CO2 Monitoring for CO2 Leakage Detection in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zou, Y.; Delgado, J.; Guzman, N.; Pinedo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring for detecting CO2 leakage relies on groundwater sampling from water wells drilled into aquifers. Usually groundwater samples are required be collected periodically in field and analyzed in the laboratory. Obviously groundwater sampling is labor and cost-intensive for long-term monitoring of large areas. Potential damage and contamination of water samples during the sampling process can degrade accuracy, and intermittent monitoring may miss changes in the geochemical parameters of groundwater, and therefore signs of CO2 leakage. Real-time in-situ monitoring of geochemical parameters with chemical sensors may play an important role for CO2 leakage detection in groundwater at a geological carbon sequestration site. This study presents field demonstration of a real-time in situ monitoring system capable of covering large areas for detection of low levels of dissolved CO2 in groundwater and reliably differentiating natural variations of dissolved CO2 concentration from small changes resulting from leakage. The sand-alone system includes fully distributed fiber optic sensors for carbon dioxide detection with a unique sensor technology developed by Intelligent Optical Systems. The systems were deployed to the two research sites: the Brackenridge Field Laboratory where the aquifer is shallow at depths of 10-20 ft below surface and the Devine site where the aquifer is much deeper at depths of 140 to 150 ft. Groundwater samples were periodically collected from the water wells which were installed with the chemical sensors and further compared to the measurements of the chemical sensors. Our study shows that geochemical monitoring of dissolved CO2 with fiber optic sensors could provide reliable CO2 leakage signal detection in groundwater as long as CO2 leakage signals are stronger than background noises at the monitoring locations.

  15. Field evidence of biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater with incidental and active recycled water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quanlin; McCraven, Sally; Garcia, Julio; Gasca, Monica; Johnson, Theodore A; Motzer, William E

    2009-02-01

    Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been found through laboratory incubation in unsaturated and saturated soil samples under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, direct field evidence of in situ biodegradation in groundwater is very limited. This research aimed to evaluate biodegradation of NDMA in a large-scale groundwater system receiving recycled water as incidental and active recharge. NDMA concentrations in 32 monitoring and production wells with different screen intervals were monitored over a period of seven years. Groundwater monitoring was used to characterize changes in the magnitude and extent of NDMA in groundwater in response to seasonal hydrogeologic conditions and, more importantly, to significant concentration variations in effluent from water reclamation plants (associated with treatment-process changes). Extensive monitoring of NDMA concentrations and flow rates at effluent discharge locations and surface-water stations was also conducted to reasonably estimate mass loading through unlined river reaches to underlying groundwater. Monitoring results indicate that significant biodegradation of NDMA occurred in groundwater, accounting for an estimated 90% mass reduction over the seven-year monitoring period. In addition, a discrete effluent-discharge and groundwater-extraction event was extensively monitored in a well-characterized, localized groundwater subsystem for 626 days. Analysis of the associated NDMA fate and transport in the subsystem indicated that an estimated 80% of the recharged mass was biodegraded. The observed field evidence of NDMA biodegradation is supported by groundwater transport modeling accounting for various dilution mechanisms and first-order decay for biodegradation, and by a previous laboratory study on soil samples collected from the study site [Bradley, P.M., Carr, S.A., Baird, R.B., Chapelle, F.H., 2005. Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in soil from a water reclamation facility

  16. Laboratory evaluation of PAH oxidation by magnesium peroxides and iron oxides mixtures as reactive material for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Cortina, J.L.; Farran, A.; Marti, V.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. They represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic and are included in the priority pollutants lists. In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to PAH contamination in aquatic sediments. Biological aerobic degradation was earlier the promoted option to degrade PAH in soils and sediments; however this could be extended for decades. In this direction, addition of oxygen has been proposed as an effective way to speed up their degradation in contaminated soil or groundwater. This objective could be achieved either by adding oxygen releasing compounds or by using an oxygen pump. The latter option is not economically defensible due to the enormous power needed. The use of ex-situ technologies to treat contaminated soils is in general not effective due to the high costs and work efforts demanded to remove big quantities of soil. For that reason, the use of in-situ technologies based on degradation processes has been identified as a suitable approach. These technologies would reduce costs and environmental impacts due to reduction of soil transportations and digging activities. In-situ degradation of recalcitrant contaminants could be achieved by using strong oxidant agents by soil injection or by using permeable treatment wall or zones. Oxidants typically used have been hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and ozone. In situ chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and iron(II) mixtures) has been evaluated for BTEX and poly-aromatic compounds. The successful application of in situ Fenton's reagent chemical oxidation is based on an understanding of oxidant chemistry and the geology, hydrogeology and chemistry of the contaminant site. Choosing the proper conditions requires the determination of 1) the better way to promote the formation of the OH radicals that react with the

  17. Integral Analysis of Field Work and Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Saline Water Intrusion Prediction in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, M. H.; Zahar, M. F.; Hashim, M. M. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Zahari, N. M.; Kamaruddin, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Saline water intrusion is a serious threat to the groundwater as many part of the world utilize groundwater as their main source of fresh water supply. The usage of high salinity level of water as drinking water can lead to a very serious health hazard towards human. Saline water intrusion is a process by which induced flow of seawater into freshwater aquifer along the coastal area. It might happen due to human action and/or by natural event. The climate change and rise up of sea level may speed up the saline water intrusion process. The conventional method for distinguishing and checking saltwater interference to groundwater along the coast aquifers is to gather and test the groundwater from series of observation wells (borehole) with an end goal to give the important information about the hydrochemistry data to conclude whether the water in the well are safe to consume or not. An integrated approach of field and laboratory electrical resistivity investigation is proposed for indicating the contact region between saline and fresh groundwater. It was found that correlation for both soilbox produced almost identical curvilinear trends for 2% increment of seawater tested using sand sample. This project contributes towards predicting the saline water intrusion to the groundwater by non-destructive test that can replaced the conventional method of groundwater monitoring using series of boreholes in the coastal area

  18. Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2013-03-14

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

  19. Management of groundwater in-situ bioremediation system using reactive transport modelling under parametric uncertainty: field scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, E.; Atteia, O.; Rouvreau, L.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation is a commonly used remediation technology to clean up the subsurface of petroleum-contaminated sites. Forecasting remedial performance (in terms of flux and mass reduction) is a challenge due to uncertainties associated with source properties and the uncertainties associated with contribution and efficiency of concentration reducing mechanisms. In this study, predictive uncertainty analysis of bio-remediation system efficiency is carried out with the null-space Monte Carlo (NSMC) method which combines the calibration solution-space parameters with the ensemble of null-space parameters, creating sets of calibration-constrained parameters for input to follow-on remedial efficiency. The first step in the NSMC methodology for uncertainty analysis is model calibration. The model calibration was conducted by matching simulated BTEX concentration to a total of 48 observations from historical data before implementation of treatment. Two different bio-remediation designs were then implemented in the calibrated model. The first consists in pumping/injection wells and the second in permeable barrier coupled with infiltration across slotted piping. The NSMC method was used to calculate 1000 calibration-constrained parameter sets for the two different models. Several variants of the method were implemented to investigate their effect on the efficiency of the NSMC method. The first variant implementation of the NSMC is based on a single calibrated model. In the second variant, models were calibrated from different initial parameter sets. NSMC calibration-constrained parameter sets were sampled from these different calibrated models. We demonstrate that in context of nonlinear model, second variant avoids to underestimate parameter uncertainty which may lead to a poor quantification of predictive uncertainty. Application of the proposed approach to manage bioremediation of groundwater in a real site shows that it is effective to provide support in

  20. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped ... ing the affected groundwater aquifer down to some drinking water standard. Several .... For simplicity, rectangular support domain is used in this study. Figure 1 ..... For PAT remediation system, decision variables include the.

  1. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%-49.6% and 4.0%-32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%-84.1% and 22.8%-61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The source and behavior of iodine dissolving in groundwater in the Mobara gas field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Gento [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-06-01

    The groundwater of the Mobara gas-field in Boso peninsula, eastern Japan, contains considerable amount, around 100 mg/L, of iodine besides dissolved methane. Twelve groundwater samples from gas-producing wells to the aquifer within the Kazusa Group in Mobara and Naruto districts have been analyzed for iodine, pH, Eh, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SiO{sub 2}(aq), {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} and seventeen elements. There is a good correlation between the concentrations of the dissolved elements to those in marine algae. The principal source of the iodine is believed to be algae buried in the sediments and the iodine has been discharged to the porefluid during decomposition of the tissue. The molar ratio of I{sup -}/Cl{sup -} in the groundwater increases from 1.0 x 10{sup 3} to 2.2 x 10{sup 3} with changing the depth from 2000 to 1000 meters below the surface and turns to decrease from 2.2 x 10{sup 3} to 1.8 x 10{sup 3} with going up from 1000 to 500 meters. This tendency may be caused by the variation of buried organisms due to changing the sedimentary environment. The observed variation in the ratio indicates that the iodine discharged in the pore fluid did not migrate significantly after the deposition of the formation. This paper can be regarded as an English version of Japanese article written by Kamei, which was published on the 'Shigen Chishitsu (Resource Geology)' 51(2)145-151(2000). (author)

  3. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  4. Potential Electrokinetic Remediation Technologies of Laboratory Scale into Field Application- Methodology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuni Suied, Anis; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Nizam Zakaria, Muhammad; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal in soil possesses high contribution towards soil contamination which causes to unbalance ecosystem. There are many ways and procedures to make the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) method to be efficient, effective, and potential as a low cost soil treatment. Electrode compartment for electrolyte is expected to treat the contaminated soil through electromigration and enhance metal ions movement. The electrokinetic is applicable for many approaches such as electrokinetic remediation (EKR), electrokinetic stabilization (EKS), electrokinetic bioremediation and many more. This paper presents a critical review on comparison of laboratory scale between EKR, EKS and EK bioremediation treatment by removing the heavy metal contaminants. It is expected to propose one framework of contaminated soil mapping. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of famous indirect geophysical tools for surface mapping and subsurface profiling. Hence, ERM is used to mapping the migration of heavy metal ions by electrokinetic.

  5. Enhancement Solution to Improve Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Lead by Electrical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Abd Al-hamza Faisal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory investigation of six different tests were conducted on silty clay soil spiked with lead in concentrations of 1500 mg/kg. A constant DC voltage gradient of 1 V/cm was applied for all these tests with duration of 7 days remediation process for each test. Different purging solutions and addition configurations, i.e. injection wells, were investigated experimentally to enhance the removal of lead from Iraqi soil during electro-kinetic remediation process. The experimental results showed that the overall removal efficiency of lead for tests conducted with distilled water, 0.1 M acetic acid, 0.2 M EDTA and 1 M ammonium citrate as the purging solutions were equal to 18 %, 37 %, 42 %, and 29 %, respectively. However, introducing the injection wells as another enhancement technique into the tests used the same purging solutions mentioned above which have vital role in increasing the removal efficiency up to 59 %.

  6. Natural bioventing remediation from tidal wave action at a field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampbell, D.H.; Kittel, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A remediation research study has been implemented at a jet fuel spill site on an island airport. A buried pipeline fracture several years ago resulted in a fuel spill exceeding 160,000 gallons. The site hydrogeology is a fragmented coral matrix with fresh water overlying more dense salt water. Water table fluctuations of about two feet occur once every twelve hours from tidal action. The research approach being pursued is to recover free-phase floating petroleum liquid using vacuum-mediated subsurface skimming wells. The vacuum will create an active vadose zone aeration to enhance aerobic biodegradation processes and vaporization of fuel. Once the floating fuel is removed, a natural bioventing action caused by tidal oscillations will complete remediation of the spill site

  7. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale

    OpenAIRE

    Germaine, Kieran J.; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumu...

  8. Assessment of international remedial technologies for application to Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanning, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents some of the logical arguments for conducting research on remedial technologies for contaminated land and groundwater at an international level. It gives information on many of the international organizations that are involved in environmental programs, but it especially gives emphasis to the NATO-CCMS pilot study on Demonstration of Remedial Action Technologies for Contaminated Land and Groundwater. The purpose of the study is to field demonstrate and evaluate new/innovative technologies for remedial action at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. This study is a logical international extension of the US EPA SITE program. It offers the opportunity to obtain a multiple data base on various remedial action unit processes without any single country having to commit a disproportionate amount of its internal resources to any specific activity. Each participating country provides the necessary resources for those demonstrations which they are contributing to the study. Sites are selected by a majority vote of all participating countries (no country is permitted to vote for its own sites). The study is a 5 year program with participants from Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and the US. The need for cost-effective remedial action technologies for hazardous waste sites is a problem of all industrialized countries. The need to build a knowledge base of emerging remedial technologies was the impetus behind the USEPA's lead role and commitment to this pilot study

  9. Re-injection accelerates groundwater clean up at Fernald, Fluor Fernald, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave Brettschneider; William Hertel; Ken Broberg

    2000-01-01

    A successful one year long, field scale demonstration of the use of groundwater re-infection at Fernald was recently completed bringing DOE one step closer to achieving an accelerated site remediation (DOE 2000). The demonstration marks the end of a several year effort to evaluate whether: re-injection could be conducted efficiently at Fernald, and if the approved aquifer remedy at Fernald would benefit by incorporating re-infection. Evaluation of re-injection technology involved not only technical considerations, but also participation and cooperation of regulators and stakeholders. The demonstration was considered to be unique in that it was integrated into the design of the current approved aquifer remedy and utilized the existing remediation infrastructure. Information collected during the demonstration indicated that re-injection wells could be operated efficiently at Fernald and that the current approved groundwater remedy should be modified to include the use of re-injection

  10. Utilizing potential field data to support delineation of groundwater aquifers in the southern Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elawadi, Eslam; Mogren, Saad; Ibrahim, Elkhedr; Batayneh, Awni; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper potential field data are interpreted to map the undulation of the basement surface, which represents the bottom of the water bearing zones, and to delineate the tectonic framework that controls the groundwater flow and accumulation in the southern Red Sea coastal area of Saudi Arabia. The interpretation reveals that the dominant structural trend is a NW (Red Sea) trend that resulted in a series of faulted tilted blocks. These tilted blocks are dissected by another cross-cut NE trend which shapes and forms a series of fault-bounded small basins. These basins and the bounded structural trends control and shape the flow direction of the groundwater in the study area, i.e. they act as groundwater conduits. Furthermore, the present results indicate that volcanic intrusions are present as subsurface flows, which hinder the groundwater exploration and drilling activities in most of the area; in some localities these volcanic flows crop out at the surface and cover the groundwater bearing formations. Furthermore, the gravity and magnetic data interpretation indicates the possible existence of a large structural basin occupying the southeastern side of the study area. This basin is bounded with NW and NE trending faults and is expected to be a good host for groundwater aquifers; thus it is a promising site for hydrogeological investigation. (paper)

  11. 25 Years Of Environmental Remediation In The General Separations Area Of The Savannah River Site: Lessons Learned About What Worked And What Did Not Work In Soil And Groundwater Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blount, Gerald; Thibault, Jeffrey; Millings, Margaret; Prater, Phil

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned and administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE). SRS covers an area of approximately 900 square kilometers. The General Separation Area (GSA) is located roughly in the center of the SRS and includes: radioactive material chemical separations facilities, radioactive waste tank farms, a variety of radioactive seepage basins, and the radioactive waste burial grounds. Radioactive wastes were disposed in the GSA from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Radioactive operations at the F Canyon began in 1954; radioactive operations at H Canyon began in 1955. Waste water disposition to the F and H Seepage Basins began soon after operations started in the canyons. The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) began operations in 1952 to manage solid waste that could be radioactive from all the site operations, and ceased receiving waste in 1972. The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) received radioactive solid waste from 1969 until 1995. Environmental legislation enacted in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s led to changes in waste management and environmental cleanup practices at SRS. The US Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970, and the Clean Water Act in 1972; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted by Congress in 1980; the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was signed into law in 1992. Environmental remediation at the SRS essentially began with a 1987 Settlement Agreement between the SRS and the State of South Carolina (under the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control - SCDHEC), which recognized linkage between many SRS waste management facilities and RCRA. The SRS manages several of the larger groundwater remedial activities under RCRA for facilities recognized early on as environmental problems. All subsequent

  12. Linking deposit morphology and clogging in subsurface remediation: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, David C. [University of Colorado Denver

    2013-12-11

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for water supply, especially in arid and semiarid areas of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Accordingly, remediation of contaminated groundwater is an important application of science and technology, particularly for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees a number of groundwater remediation sites from Cold War era mining. Groundwater remediation is complex, because it depends on identifying, locating, and treating contaminants in the subsurface, where remediation reactions depend on interacting geological, hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological factors. Within this context, permeability is a fundamental concept, because it controls the rates and pathways of groundwater flow. Colloid science is intimately related to permeability, because when colloids are present (particles with equivalent diameters between 1 nanometer and 10 micrometers), changes in hydrological or geochemical conditions can trigger a detrimental reduction in permeability called clogging. Accordingly, clogging is a major concern in groundwater remediation. Several lines of evidence suggest that clogging by colloids depends on (1) colloid deposition, and (2) deposit morphology, that is, the structure of colloid deposits, which can be quantified as a fractal dimension. This report describes research, performed under a 2-year, exploratory grant from the DOE’s Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program. This research employed a novel laboratory technique to simultaneously measure flow, colloid deposition, deposit morphology, and permeability in a flow cell, and also collected field samples from wells at the DOE’s Old Rifle remediation site. Field results indicate that suspended solids at the Old Rifle site have fractal structures. Laboratory results indicate that clogging is associated with colloid deposits with smaller fractal dimensions, in accordance with previous studies on initially clean granular media. Preliminary

  13. Groundwater flow modeling for near-field of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. Y.; Park, J. W.; Jang, G. M.; Kim, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    For a hypothetical near-surface radioactive disposal facility, the behavior of groundwater flow around the near-field of disposal vault located at the unsaturated zone were analyzed. Three alternative conceptual models proposed as the hydraulic barrier layer design were simulated to assess the hydrologic performance of engineered barriers for the facility. In order to evaluate the seepage possibility of the infiltrated water passed through the final disposal cover after the facility closure, the flow path around and water flux through each disposal vault were compared. The hydrologic parameters variation that accounts for the long-term aging and degradation of the cover and engineered materials was considered in the simulations. The results showed that it is necessary to construct the hydraulic barrier at the upper and sides of the vault, and that, for this case, achieving design hydraulic properties of bentonite/sand mixture barrier in the as-built condition is crucial to limit the seepage into the waste

  14. The influence of heterogeneity on coastal groundwater flow - physical and numerical modeling of fringing reefs, dykes and structured conductivity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Georg J.; Stoeckl, Leonard; Mariner, Katrina E.; Choudhury, Anis S.

    2018-03-01

    Geological heterogeneity of the subsurface, caused by both discrete features and spatially distributed hydraulic conductivity fields, affects the flow of coastal groundwater. It influences the shape and the position of the interface between saltwater and freshwater, as well as the location and flux rate of freshwater discharge to the ocean. Fringing reefs lead to a bimodal regime of freshwater discharge, with discharge at the beach face and through deeper, submarine springs. Impermeable vertical flow barriers (dykes) lead to an impoundment of fresh groundwater and a compartmentalization of the aquifer but also to a delayed expulsion of saline water. Spatially distributed conductivity fields affect the shape of the interface and the geometry of the saltwater wedge. Higher effective conductivities lead to a further landward intrusion of the wedge toe. These flow characteristics can be important for groundwater extraction, the delineation of protection zones and the assessment of contaminant transport to coastal ecosystems.

  15. Estimating groundwater-ephemeral stream exchange in hyper-arid environments: Field experiments and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Vasilevskiy, Peter Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Surface water infiltration from ephemeral dryland streams is particularly important in hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions. However, streamflow transmission losses can vary significantly, partly due to spatiotemporal variations in streambed permeability. To extend our understanding of changes in streambed hydraulic properties, field investigations of streambed hydraulic conductivity were conducted in an ephemeral dryland stream in north-western China during high and low streamflow periods. Additionally, streamflow transmission losses were numerically estimated using combined stream and groundwater hydraulic head data and stream and streambed temperature data. An analysis of slug test data at two different river flow stages (one test was performed at a low river stage with clean water and the other at a high river stage with muddy water) suggested that sedimentation from fine-grained particles, i.e., physical clogging processes, likely led to a reduction in streambed hydraulic properties. To account for the effects of streambed clogging on changes in hydraulic properties, an iteratively increasing total hydraulic resistance during the slug test was considered to correct the estimation of streambed hydraulic conductivity. The stream and streambed temperature can also greatly influence the hydraulic properties of the streambed. One-dimensional coupled water and heat flux modelling with HYDRUS-1D was used to quantify the effects of seasonal changes in stream and streambed temperature on streamflow losses. During the period from 6 August 2014 to 4 June 2015, the total infiltration estimated using temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity accounted for approximately 88% of that using temperature-independent hydraulic conductivity. Streambed clogging processes associated with fine particle settling/wash up cycles during flow events, and seasonal changes in streamflow temperature are two considerable factors that affect water

  16. Ecopiling: A combined Phytoremediation and Passive Biopiling System for Remediating Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils at Field Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran J Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil (1613 mg Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH kg-1 soil. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilisers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium multiflorum and white clover (Trifolium repens was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but 1 subsample (152mg TPH kg-1 soil. The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labour and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs. The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is aesthetically pleasing.

  17. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Kieran J; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2014-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg(-1) soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg(-1) soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing.

  18. Assessment of village-wise groundwater draft for irrigation: a field-based study in hard-rock aquifers of central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. K.; Syed, T. H.; Saha, Dipankar; Sarkar, B. C.; Patre, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extracted groundwater, 90% of which is used for irrigated agriculture, is central to the socio-economic development of India. A lack of regulation or implementation of regulations, alongside unrecorded extraction, often leads to over exploitation of large-scale common-pool resources like groundwater. Inevitably, management of groundwater extraction (draft) for irrigation is critical for sustainability of aquifers and the society at large. However, existing assessments of groundwater draft, which are mostly available at large spatial scales, are inadequate for managing groundwater resources that are primarily exploited by stakeholders at much finer scales. This study presents an estimate, projection and analysis of fine-scale groundwater draft in the Seonath-Kharun interfluve of central India. Using field surveys of instantaneous discharge from irrigation wells and boreholes, annual groundwater draft for irrigation in this area is estimated to be 212 × 106 m3, most of which (89%) is withdrawn during non-monsoon season. However, the density of wells/boreholes, and consequent extraction of groundwater, is controlled by the existing hydrogeological conditions. Based on trends in the number of abstraction structures (1982-2011), groundwater draft for the year 2020 is projected to be approximately 307 × 106 m3; hence, groundwater draft for irrigation in the study area is predicted to increase by ˜44% within a span of 8 years. Central to the work presented here is the approach for estimation and prediction of groundwater draft at finer scales, which can be extended to critical groundwater zones of the country.

  19. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  20. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic

  1. Strategic planning for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation projects may range from a single leaking storage tank to an entire plant complex or producing oil and gas field. Strategic planning comes into play when the contamination of soil and groundwater is extensive. If adjacent landowners have been impacted or the community at large is concerned about the quality of drinking water, then strategic planning is even more important. (1) To manage highly complex interrelated issues--for example, the efforts expended on community relations can alter public opinion, which can impact regulatory agency decisions that affect cleanup standards, which can...and so on. (2) To ensure that all potential liabilities are managed--for example, preparation for the defense of future lawsuits is essential during site investigation and remediation. (3) To communicate with senior management--when the remediation team provides a strategic plan that includes both technical and business issues, senior management has the opportunity to become more involved and make sound policy decisions. The following discusses the elements of a strategic plan, who should participate in it, and the issues that should be considered

  2. The use of field redox measurements in assessing remediation of ground water containing petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, S.D.; Gallinatti, J.D.; Honniball, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Field measurements of the reduction-oxidation (redox) condition of ground water were used to assess the effects of in situ remediation of ground water affected by petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated organic compounds at multiple sites in northern California. The redox condition of ground water, traditionally measured quickly and inexpensively using a meter that measures electrode potential (Eh), is a valuable parameter by which to assess the conditions that affect the relative stability of various chemicals in ground water. Although not specific to a given redox couple measurements obtained using the traditional Eh meter give a sense of the relative tendency for a ground water to be reducing or oxidizing by providing a measurement of the system Eh. Two cases demonstrate the use of ground water Eh measurements in assessing the effects of in situ ground water remediation. In the first case, ground water affected by petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline (TPHg), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) (ambient Eh of -100 to +100 millivolts [mv]) was treated by injecting hydrogen peroxide to supply oxygen to the subsurface environment and stimulate microbial activity. The second case involved remediation of ground water containing chlorinated organic compounds. In this case, a subsurface permeable ground water treatment wall containing granular iron was installed across the flow path of the affected ground water. The in situ chemical treatment, which successfully dechlorinates compounds such as trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride, caused reducing conditions in the ground water, which resulted in the decrease in ground water Eh from am ambient reading of about -50 mv to about -400 mv

  3. Implications of soil mixing for NAPL source zone remediation: Column studies and modeling of field-scale systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mitchell R; Sale, Tom C

    2015-01-01

    Soil remediation is often inhibited by subsurface heterogeneity, which constrains contaminant/reagent contact. Use of soil mixing techniques for reagent delivery provides a means to overcome contaminant/reagent contact limitations. Furthermore, soil mixing reduces the permeability of treated soils, thus extending the time for reactions to proceed. This paper describes research conducted to evaluate implications of soil mixing on remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. The research consisted of column studies and subsequent modeling of field-scale systems. For column studies, clean influent water was flushed through columns containing homogenized soils, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Within the columns, NAPL depletion occurred due to dissolution, followed by either column-effluent discharge or ZVI-mediated degradation. Complete removal of TCE NAPL from the columns occurred in 6-8 pore volumes of flow. However, most of the TCE (>96%) was discharged in the column effluent; less than 4% of TCE was degraded. The low fraction of TCE degraded is attributed to the short hydraulic residence time (10 m) and reducing permeability by one-or-more orders of magnitude, the residence time could be greatly extended, potentially for periods of years to decades. Model output indicates that the fraction of TCE degraded can be increased to >99.9%, given typical post-mixing soil permeability values. These results suggest that remediation performance can be greatly enhanced by combining contaminant degradation with an extended residence time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Field Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides responses to US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV EPA-M and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Oversite Division (TDEC-O) comments on report ORNL/ER-58, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 consists of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage system downgradient of the major ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed. A strategy for the remedial investigation (RI) of WAG2 was developed in report ES/ER-14 ampersand Dl, Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This strategy takes full advantage of WAG2's role as an integrator of contaminant releases from the ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed, and takes full advantage of WAG2's role as a conduit for contaminants from the ORNL site to the Clinch River. The strategy calls for a multimedia environmental monitoring and characterization program to be conducted in WAG2 while upgradient contaminant sources are being remediated. This monitoring and characterization program will (1) identify and quantify contaminant fluxes, (2) identify pathways of greatest concern for human health and environmental risk, (3) improve conceptual models of contaminant movement, (4) support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, (5) support efforts to prioritize sites for remediation, (6) document the reduction in contaminant fluxes following remediation, and (7) support the eventual remediation of WAG2. Following this strategy, WAG2 has been termed an ''integrator WAG,'' and efforts in WAG2 over the short term are directed toward supporting efforts to remediate the contaminant ''source WAGS'' at ORNL

  5. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  6. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  7. ENA of heterocyclic hydrocarbons by adding hydrogen peroxide in groundwater circulation wells - a field-based study on a large physical model scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagner, A.; Tiehm, A.; Trotschler, O.; Haslwimmer, Th.; Koschitzky, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Heterocyclic Hydrocarbons (NSO-HET) are ingredients of tar oil, commonly found down-gradient of former gasworks sites. Typical NSO-HET are benzofurans, methyl-benzofurans, methylquinoline, acridine or carbazole. During investigations of MNA (monitored natural attenuation) remediation strategies, it was found that most NSO-HET are highly mobile due to their high water solubility and low biodegradation rates. In addition, some were found to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In particular under anaerobic conditions, NSO-HET biodegradation rates are low. However, aerobic biological degradation was found to be effective. Based on the extension and contaminant distribution of the plume (∼ 800 m long) down-gradient of a former gasworks 'Testfeld Sued' (TFS) in Southern Germany, the most applicable technology for enhancing the natural degradation of PAH, BTEX and NSO-HET was selected and tested under controlled conditions in a large physical model (Large Flume of VEGAS). The investigations focused on a technology for a homogeneous infiltration of electron acceptor solutions such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to provide the bacteria with molecular oxygen. An initial infiltration of oxygen (air-saturated water) during the adaptation of microorganism to aerobic biodegradation was followed by a time-limited addition of hydrogen peroxide to achieve an oxygen concentration up to 23 mg/L in the model aquifer. An almost complete degradation of NSO-HET was found. On the basis of numerical simulations and lab experiments, it was found that natural dispersion will not lead to a wide-ranging homogeneous distribution and mixing of the oxygen in the aquifer. The Groundwater Circulation Wells technology (GCW) can be applied to achieve a maximum mixing of the electron acceptor solution with the groundwater. A spherical groundwater circulation is induced by means of ex- and infiltration ports in vertical wells. Infiltration and ex-filtration ports are located in hydraulically separated

  8. Improved Understanding of Fenton-like Reactions for the In Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Including Treatment of Sorbed Contaminants and Destruction of DNAPLs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watts, Richard J; Loge, Frank; Teel, Amy L

    2006-01-01

    .... However, the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, promoted by natural iron and manganese oxides in the subsurface, has previously limited the utility of CHP for the remediation of contaminated...

  9. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  10. Developing a methodology for identifying action zones to protect and manage groundwater well fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Sandra; Viennot, Pascal; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Schott, Celine

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of a long term action plan to manage and protect well fields is a complex and very expensive process. In this context, the relevance and efficiency of such action plans on water quality should be evaluated. The objective of this study is to set up a methodology to identify relevant actions zones in which environmental changes may significantly impact the quantity or quality of pumped water. In the Seine-et-Marne department (France), under French environmental laws three sectors integrating numerous well-field pumping in Champigny's limestone aquifer are considered as priority. This aquifer, located at south-east of Paris, supplies more than one million people with drinking water. Catchments areas of these abstractions are very large (2000 km2) and their intrinsic vulnerability was established by a simple parametric approach that does not permit to consider the complexity of hydrosystem. Consequently, a methodology based on a distributed modeling of the process of the aquifer was developed. The basin is modeled using the hydrogeological model MODCOU, developed in MINES ParisTech since the 1980s. It simulates surface and groundwater flow in aquifer systems and allows to represent the local characteristics of the hydrosystem (aquifers communicating by leakage, rivers infiltration, supply from sinkholes and locally perched or dewatering aquifers). The model was calibrated by matching simulated river discharge hydrographs and piezometric heads with observed ones since the 1970s. Thanks to this modelling tool, a methodology based on the transfer of a theoretical tracer through the hydrosystem from the ground surface to the outlets was implemented to evaluate the spatial distribution of the contribution areas at contrasted, wet or dry recharge periods. The results show that the surface of areas contributing to supply most catchments is lower than 300 km2 and the major contributory zones are located along rivers. This finding illustrates the importance of

  11. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  12. Prediction of Groundwater Quality Improvement Down-Gradient of In Situ Permeable Treatment Barriers and Fully-Remediated Source Zones. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Paul C; Carlson, Pamela M; Dahlen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In situ permeable treatment barriers (PTB) are designed so that contaminated groundwater flows through an engineered treatment zone within which contaminants are eliminated or the concentrations are significantly reduced...

  13. Field Assessment and Groundwater Modeling of Pesticide Distribution in the Faga`alu Watershed in Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, E.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Shuler, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    To examine contaminant transport paths, groundwater and surface water interactions were investigated as a vector of pesticide migration on the island Tutuila in American Samoa. During a field campaign in summer 2016, water from wells, springs, and streams was collected across the island to analyze for selected pesticides. In addition, a detailed watershed-study, involving sampling along the mountain to ocean gradient was conducted in Faga`alu, a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority watershed that drains into the Pago Pago Harbor. Samples were screened at the University of Hawai`i for multiple agricultural chemicals using the ELISA method. The pesticides analyzed include glyphosate, azoxystrobin, imidacloprid and DDT/DDE. Field data was integrated into a MODFLOW-based groundwater model of the Faga`alu watershed to reconstruct flow paths, solute concentrations, and dispersion of the analytes. In combination with land-use maps, these tools were used to identify potential pesticide sources and their contaminant contributions. Across the island, pesticide concentrations were well below EPA regulated limits and azoxystrobin was absent. Glyphosate had detectable amounts in 56% of collected groundwater and 62% of collected stream samples. Respectively, 72% and 36% had imidacloprid detected and 98% and 97% had DDT/DDE detected. The highest observed concentration of glyphosate was 0.3 ppb, of imidacloprid was 0.17 ppb, and of DDT was 3.7 ppb. The persistence and ubiquity of DDT/DDE in surface and groundwater since its last island-wide application decades ago is notable. Groundwater flow paths modeled by MODFLOW imply that glyphosate sources match documented agricultural land-use areas. Groundwater-derived pesticide fluxes to the reef in Faga`alu are 977 mg/d of glyphosate and 1642 mg/d of DDT/DDE. Our study shows that pesticides are transported not only via surface runoff, but also via groundwater through the stream's base flow and are exiting the aquifer via submarine

  14. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  15. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems: recent insights from satellite and field-based studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamus, D.; Zolfaghar, S.; Villalobos-Vega, R.; Cleverly, J.; Huete, A.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are at risk globally due to unsustainable levels of groundwater extraction, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this review, we examine recent developments in the ecohydrology of GDEs with a focus on three knowledge gaps: (1) how do we locate GDEs, (2) how much water is transpired from shallow aquifers by GDEs and (3) what are the responses of GDEs to excessive groundwater extraction? The answers to these questions will determine water allocations that are required to sustain functioning of GDEs and to guide regulations on groundwater extraction to avoid negative impacts on GDEs. We discuss three methods for identifying GDEs: (1) techniques relying on remotely sensed information; (2) fluctuations in depth-to-groundwater that are associated with diurnal variations in transpiration; and (3) stable isotope analysis of water sources in the transpiration stream. We then discuss several methods for estimating rates of GW use, including direct measurement using sapflux or eddy covariance technologies, estimation of a climate wetness index within a Budyko framework, spatial distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing, groundwater modelling and stable isotopes. Remote sensing methods often rely on direct measurements to calibrate the relationship between vegetation indices and ET. ET from GDEs is also determined using hydrologic models of varying complexity, from the White method to fully coupled, variable saturation models. Combinations of methods are typically employed to obtain clearer insight into the components of groundwater discharge in GDEs, such as the proportional importance of transpiration versus evaporation (e.g. using stable isotopes) or from groundwater versus rainwater sources. Groundwater extraction can have severe consequences for the structure and function of GDEs. In the most extreme cases, phreatophytes experience crown dieback and death following groundwater drawdown. We provide a brief

  16. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  17. Development and implementation of a comprehensive groundwater protection program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that future operations do not adversely affect the quality or availability of the groundwater resources at the site. The specific elements of this program include (1) continuation of an extensive groundwater monitoring program, (2) assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality, (3) implementation of mitigative actions, as required, to restore or protect groundwater quality, (4) incorporation of groundwater protection concepts in the design of new production and waste management facilities, and (5) review of site utilization of groundwater resources to ensure compatibility with regional needs. The major focal points of the groundwater protection program are the assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality and the implementation of remedial action projects. Many locations at SRP have been used as waste disposal sites for a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Field investigations are ongoing to determine the nature and extent of any contamination in the sediments and groundwater at these waste sites on a priority basis. Remedial action has been initiated. Certain aspects of the groundwater protection program have been identified as key to the success in achieving the desired objectives. Key elements of the program have included early identification of all the potential sources for groundwater contamination, development of an overall strategy for waste site assessment and mitigation, use of a flexible computerized system for data base management, and establishing good relationships with regulatory agencies. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  18. Field Characterization for Remediation of Trinitrotoluene in Sediment and Water from Vieques, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, E. L.; Carvalho-Knighton, K. M.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in military shells, bombs, and grenades, industrial applications, and underwater blasting. The explosive itself, some of its degradation and transformation products, and any manufacturing impurities or by-products are all considered serious environmental contaminants with potential harmful and toxic effects on animals, plants and humans. In Vieques, Puerto Rico, The Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Area consists of areas and nearby waters that have become contaminated primarily by United States Department of Defense (DoD) activities. Known areas of concern include waters influenced by target practice off the eastern shores of Vieques, areas where ships were anchored north of Vieques, and waters near the western side of Vieques, including Mosquito Pier. Detection and remediation of TNT in these areas is necessary to protect the health and welfare of the present and future Vieques residents and visitors. This work examines the distribution of TNT at specific locations in Vieques. Samples were collected from Mosquito Bay which is located in the watershed between the residential and naval sections of Vieques and also in a northern section of the island at Kiani Lagoon. In addition to Vieques sediment studies, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) to degrade trinitrotoluene was examined. The ultimate focus is on emulsifying ZVI particles that are capable of promoting rapid and complete degradation of TNT molecules. ZVI has demonstrated effective degradation of TNT, however, these particles by themselves have significant problems in treating sorbed phase TNT. Results from these studies will be presented.

  19. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste fadities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCIA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RIFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Coffective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the Pre at sign ary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/Sl) Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study (RI/FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCIA into an RI Work Plan for the lint phase of characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 4

  20. Hydrochemical trends for public supply well fields in The Netherlands (1898-2008), natural backgrounds and upscaling to groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Igor; Baggelaar, Paul K.; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryStatistical trend analysis is applied to a 110 years long groundwater quality time series from the national network of public supply well fields (PSWFs) in The Netherlands. Such a groundwater quality monitoring network should be available in many countries, so that approaches and experiences presented here could be of interest world wide. Trendless concentration data series measured in the early years, which should bear the least anthropogenic influences, are selected to quantify the regional natural background concentration levels (NBLs) of groundwater resources at the depth of abstraction. Trends in the period 1960-2005, which contained a more homogeneous data set, are normalized to drinking water standards, mapped in planar view and cross sections, and used to identify the responsible hydrochemical processes. Seven representative trend bundles are defined by aggregation of trends for individual chemical parameters. Trend reversals due to either environmental sanitation measures or well field adaptation measures are identified by comparing significant trends obtained for two different periods within the time series. Natural background levels (NBLs) for individual PSWFs are upscaled to the national groundwater body level (as reported to EU), by aggregating them according to a PSWF typology based on a Hydrochemical System Analysis. This aggregation method groups together PSWFs that deliver waters of the same origin and similar hydrogeochemical environment. PSWFs delivering old groundwaters with a very stable quality are clearly differentiated from PSWFs pumping highly vulnerable aquifers characterized by strongly deteriorating water quality trends. Results are presented on national maps of The Netherlands with NBLs and water quality trends for selected major constituents. A normalized concentration change index (NCC) is defined and mapped to relate the quality difference between a recent survey (in 2008) and calculated NBLs, to the EU drinking water

  1. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, I.R.; Orueetxebarria, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Schofield, P.F.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m 2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMS TM ) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  2. Modeling groundwater flow at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater flow in the shallow unconfined aquifer at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles County, Missouri, was modeled with the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) groundwater flow and contaminant transport computer code. The modeling was performed in support of a hydrogeological characterization effort that is part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement process being carried out by the US Department of Energy at the site. This report presents the results of model development and calibration. In the calibration procedure, the range of field-measured hydrogeological parameters was tested to obtain the best match between model-predicted and measured groundwater elevations. After calibration, the model was used to evaluate whether the presence of an on-site disposal cell would impact the ability to remediate contaminated groundwater beneath the cell. The results of the numerical modeling, which were based on an evaluation of steady-state groundwater flow velocity plots, indicated that groundwater would flow beneath the disposal cell along natural gradients. The presence of a disposal cell would not significantly affect remediation capability for groundwater contamination

  3. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtensimer, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface) and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface) to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE), soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012–Dec 2013) at 2 to 3 days (n = 13), weekly (n = 29), biweekly (n = 17), and monthly (n = 5) intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15). Samples were analyzed for total P (TP), orthophosphate-P (PO4–P), and other–P (TP—PO4-P). The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater. PMID:28107505

  4. Septic Systems Contribution to Phosphorus in Shallow Groundwater: Field-Scale Studies Using Conventional Drainfield Designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mechtensimer

    Full Text Available Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm of gravel on top of 30.5 cm commercial sand and natural soil. Suction cup lysimeters were installed in the drainfields (at 30.5, 61, 106.7 cm below infiltrative surface and piezometers were installed in the groundwater (>300 cm below infiltrative surface to capture P dynamics from the continuum of unsaturated to saturated zones in the septic systems. Septic tank effluent (STE, soil-water, and groundwater samples were collected for 64 events (May 2012-Dec 2013 at 2 to 3 days (n = 13, weekly (n = 29, biweekly (n = 17, and monthly (n = 5 intervals. One piezometer was installed up-gradient of the drainfields to monitor background groundwater (n = 15. Samples were analyzed for total P (TP, orthophosphate-P (PO4-P, and other-P (TP-PO4-P. The gravel trench drainfield removed significantly (p300 cm in the groundwater, both systems had similar TP reductions of >97%. After 18 months of STE application, there was no significant increase in groundwater TP concentrations in both systems. We conclude that both drainfield designs are effective at reducing P transport to shallow groundwater.

  5. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report. Revised final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites. According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, (UMTRCA) the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment; characterization of existing groundwater quality; definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source; and description of local water resources.

  6. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites. According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, (UMTRCA) the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment; characterization of existing groundwater quality; definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source; and description of local water resources

  7. Optimal estimation of spatially variable recharge and transmissivity fields under steady-state groundwater flow. Part 2. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Wendy D.; Neff, Christina R.

    1994-05-01

    The first-order analytical solution of the inverse problem for estimating spatially variable recharge and transmissivity under steady-state groundwater flow, developed in Part 1 is applied to the Upper Floridan Aquifer in NE Florida. Parameters characterizing the statistical structure of the log-transmissivity and head fields are estimated from 152 measurements of transmissivity and 146 measurements of hydraulic head available in the study region. Optimal estimates of the recharge, transmissivity and head fields are produced throughout the study region by conditioning on the nearest 10 available transmissivity measurements and the nearest 10 available head measurements. Head observations are shown to provide valuable information for estimating both the transmissivity and the recharge fields. Accurate numerical groundwater model predictions of the aquifer flow system are obtained using the optimal transmissivity and recharge fields as input parameters, and the optimal head field to define boundary conditions. For this case study, both the transmissivity field and the uncertainty of the transmissivity field prediction are poorly estimated, when the effects of random recharge are neglected.

  8. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  9. Computation of the velocity field and mass balance in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Darcian velocity has been conventionally calculated in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow by taking the derivatives of the computed pressure field. This results in discontinuities in the velocity field at nodal points and element boundaries. Discontinuities become enormous when the computed pressure field is far from a linear distribution. It is proposed in this paper that the finite element procedure that is used to simulate the pressure field or the moisture content field also be applied to Darcy's law with the derivatives of the computed pressure field as the load function. The problem of discontinuity is then eliminated, and the error of mass balance over the region of interest is much reduced. The reduction is from 23.8 to 2.2% by one numerical scheme and from 29.7 to -3.6% by another for a transient problem

  10. Optimal estimation of spatially variable recharge and transmissivity fields under steady-state groundwater flow. Part 1. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Wendy D.; Tankersley, Claude D.

    1994-05-01

    Stochastic methods are used to analyze two-dimensional steady groundwater flow subject to spatially variable recharge and transmissivity. Approximate partial differential equations are developed for the covariances and cross-covariances between the random head, transmissivity and recharge fields. Closed-form solutions of these equations are obtained using Fourier transform techniques. The resulting covariances and cross-covariances can be incorporated into a Bayesian conditioning procedure which provides optimal estimates of the recharge, transmissivity and head fields given available measurements of any or all of these random fields. Results show that head measurements contain valuable information for estimating the random recharge field. However, when recharge is treated as a spatially variable random field, the value of head measurements for estimating the transmissivity field can be reduced considerably. In a companion paper, the method is applied to a case study of the Upper Floridan Aquifer in NE Florida.

  11. Temporal-spatial variations and influencing factors of nitrogen in the shallow groundwater of the nearshore vegetable field of Erhai Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anqiang; Lei, Baokun; Hu, Wanli; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhai, Limei; Mao, Yanting; Fu, Bin; Zhang, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen export from the nearshore vegetable field of Erhai Lake seriously threatens the water quality of Erhai Lake, which is the second largest highland freshwater lake in Yunnan Province, China. Among the nitrogen flows into Erhai Lake, shallow groundwater migration is a major pathway. The nitrogen variation and influencing factors in the shallow groundwater of the nearshore vegetable field of Erhai Lake are not well documented. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of nitrogen species in the shallow groundwater and their influencing factors in the nearshore vegetable field of Erhai Lake. The results showed that concentrations of TN, NO 3 - -N, and NO 2 - -N gradually increased with increasing elevation and distance from Erhai Lake, but the opposite was observed for NH 4 + -N in the shallow groundwater. The concentrations of nitrogen species in the rainy season were greater than those in the dry season. NO 3 - -N accounted for more than 79% of total nitrogen in shallow groundwater. Redundancy analysis showed that more than 70% of the temporal and spatial variations of nitrogen concentrations in the shallow groundwater were explained by shallow groundwater depth, and only approximately 10% of variation was explained by the factors of soil porosity, silt clay content of soil, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N concentrations of soil (p shallow groundwater depth had more notable effects on nitrogen concentrations in the shallow groundwater than other factors. This result will strongly support the need for further research regarding the management practices for reducing nitrogen concentrations in shallow groundwater.

  12. Field Demonstration of Propane Biosparging for In Situ Remediation of NNitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater. Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    fluidization pump, an influent distribution system and effluent/ biomass collection system, two biomass separators, 7,100 lbs of carbon media (coconut shell ...ratio of oxygen (O2) to propane (C3H8) for complete oxidation of propane to carbon dioxide (CO2; not accounting for microbial biomass incorporation

  13. Field Demonstration, Optimization, and Rigorous Validation of Peroxygen-Based ISCO for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater - CHP Stabilization Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    treatability testing. • Site mineralogy . If a description or characterization of the site mineralogy indicates high iron and/or manganese oxide content...document concludes with detailed descriptions of two case histories. 3 1 Introduction to Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO...changes in organic matter and mineralogy , particularly iron oxides . Visual inspections can be used to help assess changes in lithology and associated

  14. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  15. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.

    1988-01-01

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  16. Preliminary study on the characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the Shiziping geothermal field groundwater in Emei Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujing; Jia Shuyuan

    2000-01-01

    Emei Mountain is a well-known scenic tourism spot in China. In order to promote the development of tourist trade, the authors have explored the hydrothermal water in Emei Mountain. At the beginning of 1998, the hydrothermal water was successfully drilled from the Shiziping geothermal field. In the process of prospecting the hydrothermal water, the authors adopted the geochemical method such as carbon and oxygen isotopes. The result indicates that the groundwater of different genetic types has different constitution characteristics of carbon and oxygen isotopes. This provides the important basis for finding out the forming conditions of underground hydrothermal water. So, it is prospective to study the growth characteristics of hydrothermal water with the carbon and oxygen isotopes of HCO 3 in groundwater

  17. Successful field trial of a multi-process phytoremediation system for remediation of petroleum impacted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Greenberg, B.M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)]|[Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation described a field trial of a new phytoremediation technology. The multi process phytoremediation system (MPPS) was designed for use in physical soil treatment and used seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The technology aerated the soil and photo-oxidized petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) by exposing them to the light. In this study, 2 natural non-pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas putida were applied to seeds prior to planting. PGPR was used to create conditions suitable for the biodegradation of PHC, while also preserving natural soil structure and texture. High levels of microbial biomass in the soil were achieved. The presentation also provided details of a field study conducted in Hinton, Alberta which established vegetation in the treatment area in order to reduce PHC levels. The area was contaminated with compost invert drilling mud (CIDM) that had previously and unsuccessfully been treated with a biopile. The treatment plan consisted of aeration, soil sampling, and seeding. Soil and vegetation sampling was also conducted. Results of the study showed the vegetation was well established using the technique, and reduced hydrocarbon levels by between 17 and 53 per cent. It was concluded that continued hydrocarbon reduction levels are anticipated using the technology. tabs., figs.

  18. Bioremediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater using Engineered Injection and Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. A.; Neupauer, R.; Ye, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Mays, D. C.; Curtis, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    During in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, a treatment chemical is injected into the contaminated groundwater to react with and degrade the contaminant, with reactions occurring where the treatment chemical contacts the contaminant. Traditional in-situ groundwater remediation relies on background groundwater flow for spreading of treatment chemicals into contaminant plumes. Engineered Injection and Extraction (EIE), in which time-varying induced flow fields are used to actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant plume, has been developed to increase contact between the contaminant and treatment chemical, thereby enhancing contaminant degradation. EIE has been investigated for contaminants that degrade through irreversible bimolecular reaction with a treatment chemical, but has not been investigated for a contaminant governed by reversible reactions. Uranium primarily occurs in its aqueous, mobile form, U(VI), in the environment but can be bioreduced to its sparingly soluble, immobile form, U(IV), by iron reducing bacteria stimulated by an acetate amendment. In this study, we investigate the ability of EIE to facilitate and sustain favorable conditions to immobilize uranium during remediation, and to prevent re-mobilization of uranium into the aqueous phase after active remediation has ended. Simulations in this investigation are conducted using a semi-synthetic model based on physical and chemical conditions at the Naturita Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in southwestern Colorado and the Old Rifle UMTRA site in western Colorado. The EIE design is optimized for the synthetic model using the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm.

  19. Hanford sitewide grounwater remediation - supporting technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy was issued in 1995 to establish overall goals for groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site. This strategy is being refined to provide more detailed justification for remediation of specific plumes and to provide a decision process for long-range planning of remediation activities. Supporting this work is a comprehensive modeling study to predict movement of the major site plumes over the next 200 years to help plan the remediation efforts. The information resulting from these studies will be documented in a revision to the Strategy and the Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Plan. To support the modeling work and other studies being performed to refine the strategy, this supporting technical information report has been produced to compile all of the relevant technical information collected to date on the Hanford Site groundwater contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, and description of the contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, description of the contaminant plumes, rate of movement based on the conceptual model and monitoring data, risk assessment, treatability study information, and current approach for plume remediation

  20. Feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    During the past two to three decades numerous studies reporting highly efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by plants have been published. The promises of phytoremediation has been great but till now the technology has not been widely applied and recognized, commercially...... and in a regulatory context, on par with other conventional soil and groundwater remediation technologies. This thesis elucidates the field of phytoremediation and addresses the lack of recognition of the technology. It aims to assesses the overall feasibility of phytoremediation and identify obstacles within...... the field. Further, it provides examples and suggestions of how to overcome these obstacles. The first part of the thesis scrutinizes the literature for data and experiences regarding application of phytoremediation and uncovers potential barriers and where the existing knowledge is insufficient. Further...

  1. Mycorrhizo-remediation of lead/zinc mine tailings using vetiver: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ching Chi; Shu, Wen Sheng; Khan, Adual G; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-01-01

    A field study of Pb/Zn mine tailings was conducted to assess the influence of AM fungi and refuse compost on phytoremediation using vetiver grass slips. Our investigation revealed that vetiver could thrive on Pb/Zn mine tailings. The addition of refuse compost resulted in biomass that was more than 3-times higher when compared with the control, and were mainly attributed to an improvement of soil properties, as well as better nutrient supply than untreated control. AMF inoculation also significantly increased the dry matter of vetiver by a rate of 8.1-13.8%. It was observed that concentrations of N and P in the shoots were significantly higher in mycorrhizal treatments than those without AMF inoculation. However, AMF inoculation significantly decreased the metal concentrations in root, but not in shoot. Based on the results, it seems clear that AMF can play an essential role in the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soils.

  2. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.W.; Dunham, S.J.; Dennis, P.G.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of lime and red mud (by-product of aluminium manufacturing) to reduce metal availability to Festuca rubra and to allow re-vegetation on a highly contaminated brown-field site. Application of both lime and red mud (at 3 or 5%) increased soil pH and decreased metal availability. Festuca rubra failed to establish in the control plots, but grew to a near complete vegetative cover on the amended plots. The most effective treatment in decreasing grass metal concentrations in the first year was 5% red mud, but by year two all amendments were equally effective. In an additional pot experiment, P application in combination with red mud or lime decreased the Pb concentration, but not total uptake of Pb in Festuca rubra compared to red mud alone. The results show that both red mud and lime can be used to remediate a heavily contaminated acid soil to allow re-vegetation. - Red mud was effective in immobilising heavy metals in soil

  3. Field evaluation of in situ remediation of a heavy metal contaminated soil using lime and red-mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, C.W. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dunham, S.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dennis, P.G. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao, F.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); McGrath, S.P. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.uk

    2006-08-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of lime and red mud (by-product of aluminium manufacturing) to reduce metal availability to Festuca rubra and to allow re-vegetation on a highly contaminated brown-field site. Application of both lime and red mud (at 3 or 5%) increased soil pH and decreased metal availability. Festuca rubra failed to establish in the control plots, but grew to a near complete vegetative cover on the amended plots. The most effective treatment in decreasing grass metal concentrations in the first year was 5% red mud, but by year two all amendments were equally effective. In an additional pot experiment, P application in combination with red mud or lime decreased the Pb concentration, but not total uptake of Pb in Festuca rubra compared to red mud alone. The results show that both red mud and lime can be used to remediate a heavily contaminated acid soil to allow re-vegetation. - Red mud was effective in immobilising heavy metals in soil.

  4. Permeation Dispersal of Treatment Agents for In Situ Remediation in Low Permeability Media: 1. Field Studies in Unconfined Test Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Smuin, D.R.; Korte, N.E.; Greene, D.W.; Pickering, D.A.; Lowe, K.S.; Strong-Gunderson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorocarbons like trichloroethylene (TCE) are common contaminants of concern at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and industrial sites across the US and abroad. These contaminants of concern are present in source areas and in soil and ground water plumes as dissolved or sorbed phase constituents as well as dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs). These DNAPL compounds can be released to the environment through a variety of means including leaks in storage tanks and transfer lines, spills during transportation, and land treatment of wastes. When DNAPL compounds are present in low permeability media (LPM) like silt and clay layers or deposits, there are major challenges with assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective in situ remediation technologies. This report describes a field demonstration that was conducted at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) Clean Test Site (CTS) to evaluate the feasibility of permeation and dispersal of reagents into LPM. Various reagents and tracers were injected at seven test cells primarily to evaluate the feasibility of delivery, but also to evaluate the effects of the injected reagents on LPM. The various reagents and tracers were injected at the PORTS CTS using a multi-port injection system (MPIS) developed and provided by Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc

  5. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report

  6. Proposed Plan for Interim Remedial Actions at the 100-NR-1 Source Sites Operable Unit and the 100-NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1998-02-01

    This Proposed Plan summary includes brief descriptions of the key issues for the 100-N Area contaminated soil and groundwater. This summary is intended as a simplified introduction to readers who might not be familiar with the contaminated site cleanup process or Hanford Site issues. The detailed Proposed Plan is attached to this summary. Some of the buildings and surrounding soils in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site were contaminated during operation of the nuclear reactors. The contamination poses a potential threat to public health and/or the environment. The potential threat to the public is exposure to people on or near the site to radiation and chemicals. The potential threat to the environment is contamination in the soil that has migrated to the groundwater and could eventually harm the Columbia River. Because of these potential threats, the Federal Government decided that the 100 Area was a high priority for cleanup and placed it on the National Priorities List

  7. Remediation of groundwater containing radionuclides and heavy metals using ion exchange and the AlgaSORB reg-sign biosorbent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiler, H.D.; Darnall, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Bio-Recovery Systems, Inc. (BRS) studied the application of an immobilized algal biomass, termed AlgaSORB reg-sign, which has high affinity for heavy metal ions to DOE-contaminated groundwaters. The material can be packed into columns similar to commercial ion exchange resins. Dilute solutions containing heavy metals are passed through columns where metals are absorbed by the AlgaSORB reg-sign resins. Once saturated, metal ions can be stripped from the resin biomass in a highly concentrated solution. Groundwaters contaminated with heavy metal ions from three different Department of Energy (DOE) sites: Savannah River, Hanford and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant were studied. The objective was to perform bench-scale treatability studies to establish treatment protocols and to optimize an AlgaSORB reg-sign/ion exchange technology system to remove and recover toxic metal ions from these contaminated groundwaters. The specialty ion exchange/AlgaSORB reg-sign resins tested in these studies show promise for selectively removing chromium, mercury and uranium from contaminated groundwater at DOE sites. The data show that effluents which satisfy the allowable metal ion limits are possible and most likely achievable. The use of these highly selective resins also offer advantages in terms of cost/benefit, risk and scheduling. Their high selectivity allows for high capacity and opportunities for recovery of removed constituents due to high pollutant concentration possible (3 to 4 orders of magnitude). Ion exchange is a proven technology which is easily automated and can be cost-effective, depending on the application

  8. Field pilot test of surfactant-enhanced remediation of trichloroethane DNAPL in a sand aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Butler, G.W.; Londergan, J.T.; Mariner, P.E.; Pickens, J.F.; Fountain, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sequence of lacustrine and outwash deposits beneath a vapor degreasing operation at the Paducah Gaseous Division Plant, Kentucky, is contaminated with trichloroethane due to leakage from a sewer/sump line. A plume of dissolved trichloroethane (TCE) extends throughout an area of approximately 3 km 2 in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) which is located between 20 and 30 meters below ground surface. It is suspected that some 40,000 liters of TCE might have escaped into the subsurface at Paducah, most of which is still present in the lacustrine deposits and the underlying RGA as DNAPL. A field test to confirm the presence of TCE DNAPL in the sandy, upper portion of the RGA around a monitoring well and to test the efficiency of the surfactant for TCE solubilization is described. The aqueous concentrations of TCE in this well have consistently been measured at 300--550 mg TCE/L over a period of three years. The use of Capillary and Bond numbers to estimate the improbability of mobilization of DNAPL due to the lowering of the interfacial tension is described. The multiphase, multicomponent simulator UTCHEM was used to simulate both the injection and extraction of the surfactant solution and the solubilization of the TCE by the surfactant micelles

  9. Field estimates of groundwater circulation depths in two mountainous watersheds in the western U.S. and the effect of deep circulation on solute concentrations in streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Tolley, Douglas G.; Wilson, John L.

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of groundwater circulation depths based on field data are lacking. These data are critical to inform and refine hydrogeologic models of mountainous watersheds, and to quantify depth and time dependencies of weathering processes in watersheds. Here we test two competing hypotheses on the role of geology and geologic setting in deep groundwater circulation and the role of deep groundwater in the geochemical evolution of streams and springs. We test these hypotheses in two mountainous watersheds that have distinctly different geologic settings (one crystalline, metamorphic bedrock and the other volcanic bedrock). Estimated circulation depths for springs in both watersheds range from 0.6 to 1.6 km and may be as great as 2.5 km. These estimated groundwater circulation depths are much deeper than commonly modeled depths suggesting that we may be forcing groundwater flow paths too shallow in models. In addition, the spatial relationships of groundwater circulation depths are different between the two watersheds. Groundwater circulation depths in the crystalline bedrock watershed increase with decreasing elevation indicative of topography-driven groundwater flow. This relationship is not present in the volcanic bedrock watershed suggesting that both the source of fracturing (tectonic versus volcanic) and increased primary porosity in the volcanic bedrock play a role in deep groundwater circulation. The results from the crystalline bedrock watershed also indicate that relatively deep groundwater circulation can occur at local scales in headwater drainages less than 9.0 km2 and at larger fractions than commonly perceived. Deep groundwater is a primary control on streamflow processes and solute concentrations in both watersheds.

  10. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees; Sultan, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed; Zaki, Abotalib; Sauck, William; Soliman, Farouk; Yan, Eugene; Elkadiri, Racha; Abouelmagd, Abdou

    2015-01-01

    of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways

  11. Field Evidence for Co-Metabolism of Trichloroethene Stimulated by Addition of Electron Donor to Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Mark E.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Radtke, Corey W.; Bill, Markus; Delwiche, Mark E.; Lee, M. Hope; Swift, Dana L.; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2010-05-17

    For more than 10 years, electron donor has been injected into the Snake River aquifer beneath the Test Area North site of the Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of stimulating microbial reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater. This has resulted in significant TCE removal from the source area of the contaminant plume and elevated dissolved CH4 in the groundwater extending 250 m from the injection well. The delta13C of the CH4 increases from 56o/oo in the source area to -13 o/oo with distance from the injection well, whereas the delta13C of dissolved inorganic carbon decreases from 8 o/oo to -13 o/oo, indicating a shift from methanogenesis to methane oxidation. This change in microbial activity along the plume axis is confirmed by PhyloChip microarray analyses of 16S rRNA genes obtained from groundwater microbial communities, which indicate decreasing abundances of reductive dechlorinating microorganisms (e.g., Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) and increasing CH4-oxidizing microorganisms capable of aerobic co-metabolism of TCE (e.g., Methylosinus trichosporium). Incubation experiments with 13C-labeled TCE introduced into microcosms containing basalt and groundwater from the aquifer confirm that TCE co-metabolism is possible. The results of these studies indicate that electron donor amendment designed to stimulate reductive dechlorination of TCE may also stimulate co-metabolism of TCE.

  12. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  13. Remedial Measures for Counterbalancing the After Effects of Green Revolution on the Georesources of Groundwater, Land and Soil in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Lunkad, S. K.

    2008-05-01

    In Haryana, one of the wheat granaries of India where water resources have depleted to a critical level (1050 m3 /year/person), groundwater alone has 53% share in the irrigation, the remaining 47% comes from canal system of glacier-fed rivers, viz., Yamuna and Satluj originating from Himalayas. The Green Revolution (1971-1990, intensive phase) enabled this small state to become an agro-economic state in northern alluvial plains of India. Though occupying 1.3 % geographical area and containing 2% of the population of India, it produces country's 13% wheat and about 3% quality rice besides other cereals, oil seeds, sugarcane and cotton. However, Haryana paid a heavy price for the impressive agricultural development- one-third of the irrigated land is salinity affected, water level declined by 3-12 m in twelve of its nineteen districts and excessive nitrate levels in the groundwater (114-1800 mg/l) have rendered the groundwater non-potable in many areas. Groundwater in the arid western Haryana is mostly saline (TDS > 4000 mg/l) and irrational canal irrigation has paradoxically raised the water-table by 3-9m in seven districts causing waterlogging over 2346 km2 land of which 251 km2 is fully waterlogged. In the land use pattern 131,000 ha prime cultivable land (about 3% of the total) has been lost to urbanization jeopardizing the FOOD SECURITY. One possible way to arrest the degradation of groundwater and soil, is to switch to dryland farming. This would involve change in the irrigation method as well as proper selection and rotation of food crops like barley, sorghum, maize, different types of beans (pulses) and oil seeds like groundnut, sunflower, mustard, etc. and restricted use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Dryland farming could go hand in hand with the plantation of fruit trees, grasses and medicinal plants suitable to this agro-climatic zone, and animal husbandry. The same considerations also hold good to the adjoining eastern Rajasthan.

  14. Field and Laboratory Tests of Chromium-51-EDTA and Tritium Water as a Double Tracer for Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.; Uunggren, K.; Forsberg, H. G.

    1963-01-01

    Since 1958 field experiments and laboratory tests have been made in a study of groundwater flow in different geological and mineralogical environments by the use of gamma-emitting tracers ana tritium water. The velocity of groundwater flow in soil is rather low, and tracers with medium or long half-life must be chosen to trace the movement. A stable EDTA-complex of Cr 51 (half-life 28 d) was developed for this purpose and used together with tritium water. With this double tracer it was possible to follow the groundwater flow by measurement of the gamma radiation from Cr 51 directly in the field and thereby to reduce the number of water samples for precise laboratory assessment. By comparison of the measured activities of Cr 51 and tritium it was possible to determine whether there was any retardation or loss of the chromium complex as a result of adsorption. Six field investigations, each of about two months' duration, have been made in glacifluvial sand and gravel. The results from these show that the chromium complex is transported as rapidly as the tritium water is, even at low concentrations (0. 01 ppm) of the complex. 17 field investigations of one to three months' duration with this double tracer have been carried out in various till (moraine) soils for a study of certain hydrological problems. Laboratory tests with soil and water from the various areas of field investigations have shown that the chromium complex does not hydrolyse at concentrations above 0.01 ppm. Further laboratory tests of the reliability of the chromium complex in different mineralogical environments are in progress. A number of investigations of groundwater flow through fissures and channels have abo been made. When the velocity of flow was assumed to be very high, Br 82 as bromide ion or Rhodamine-B, a fluorescent organic dye, were used. EDTA-Cr 51 and tritium water were, however, used when the velocity was considered low or when, as in karst, a great number of channels or large

  15. Application of boreal forest toxicity data in the decision-making process for contaminated soil clean-up remediation at oil and gas fields in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggins, R.; Princz, J.; Moody, M.; Olsgard-Dumanski, M.; Haderlein, L.; Moore, B.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a multi-year research project in which a broad range of boreal forest test methods for assessing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) toxicity in contaminated soil were used to show that clean-up decisions can be made on a field-wide basis through focused biological testing of typical drill sump and flare pit locations within an oil and gas field. Remediation at most sites will likely be limited to the Alberta soil eco-contact guidelines for PHC F2 and F3 fractions. Since Tier 1 eco-contact guidelines are derived using toxicity data from fresh crude and using agricultural plant species, it was more logical to follow a Tier 2 eco-contact pathway approach because most contamination was related to drilling sumps and flare pits containing highly weathered PHCs and species native to the boreal eco-zone of Canada. The site-specific remedial objective (SSRO) option within the Tier 2 guideline was used because of the large number of sites requiring remediation, and the similarity of sites within pre-determined Risk Assessment Zones. For representative contaminated soils, a SSRO was derived from the twenty-fifth percentile of the estimated species sensitivity distribution of all acceptable boreal plant, earthworm, springtail and mite test endpoints. The purpose of the project was to reduce soil volumes sent to landfill during site remediation by showing that residual impacts from weathered PHC in soil do not have damaging effects on boreal forest receptors following remediation. Data was included to show the value of this approach and the variability between sites and their effect on regionalizing a Tier 2 eco-contact guideline.

  16. Application of boreal forest toxicity data in the decision-making process for contaminated soil clean-up remediation at oil and gas fields in Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroggins, R.; Princz, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Moody, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Olsgard-Dumanski, M.; Haderlein, L. [WorleyParsons Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, B. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a multi-year research project in which a broad range of boreal forest test methods for assessing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) toxicity in contaminated soil were used to show that clean-up decisions can be made on a field-wide basis through focused biological testing of typical drill sump and flare pit locations within an oil and gas field. Remediation at most sites will likely be limited to the Alberta soil eco-contact guidelines for PHC F2 and F3 fractions. Since Tier 1 eco-contact guidelines are derived using toxicity data from fresh crude and using agricultural plant species, it was more logical to follow a Tier 2 eco-contact pathway approach because most contamination was related to drilling sumps and flare pits containing highly weathered PHCs and species native to the boreal eco-zone of Canada. The site-specific remedial objective (SSRO) option within the Tier 2 guideline was used because of the large number of sites requiring remediation, and the similarity of sites within pre-determined Risk Assessment Zones. For representative contaminated soils, a SSRO was derived from the twenty-fifth percentile of the estimated species sensitivity distribution of all acceptable boreal plant, earthworm, springtail and mite test endpoints. The purpose of the project was to reduce soil volumes sent to landfill during site remediation by showing that residual impacts from weathered PHC in soil do not have damaging effects on boreal forest receptors following remediation. Data was included to show the value of this approach and the variability between sites and their effect on regionalizing a Tier 2 eco-contact guideline.

  17. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Houk, T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  18. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3 1/2 year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc 99 ) (activities up to 926 pCi/L)

  19. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  20. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area

  1. Slow-release Permanganate Gel (SRP-G) for Groundwater Remediation: Spreading, Gelation, and Release in Porous and Low-Permeability Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. S.; Hastings, J.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like trichloroethylene (TCE) serve as the most common form of groundwater pollution in the world. Pore-plugging by the solid oxidation product MnO2 and limited lateral dispersion of the oxidant are two common problems with existing in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) schemes that could be alleviated through the development of a delayed gelation method for oxidant delivery. The objective of the current study was to further develop and optimize slow-release permanganate gel (SRP-G), a solution comprising colloidal silica and KMnO4, as a novel low-cost treatment option for large and dilute TCE plumes in groundwater. Batch tests showed that gelation could be delayed through manipulation of KMnO4 concentration, pH, and silica particle size of the SRP-G solution. In flow-through columns and flow-tanks filled with saturated sands, silica concentration had little effect on the gelation lag stage and release rate, but increasing silica concentration was associated with increasing release duration. When compared to a pure KMnO4 solution, visual observations and [MnO4-] measurements from flow tank tests demonstrated that the SRP-G prolonged the release duration and enhanced lateral spreading of the oxidant.

  2. Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat

  3. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts of Hanford Site hazardous substance releases to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The impacts are now being assessed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 via a remedial investigation. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River has been developed and issued to initiate the remedial investigation. The work plan establishes a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities began in October 2008 and are anticipated to continue into Fall 2009 over a 120 mile stretch of the Columbia River. Information gained from performing this remedial investigation will ultimately be used to help make final regulatory decisions for cleaning up Hanford Site contamination that exists in and along the Columbia River. (authors)

  4. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  5. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  6. The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt

  7. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  8. Combined action of low doses of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Fields, and Homeopathic Remedies of low dilution on Ionic Homeostasis of a Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadareishvili, G.

    2006-01-01

    It is known fact that low doses of ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields (EMF) of certain frequency, and a number of homeopathic remedies produce stimulating effect in the cellular ionic homeostasis. The objective of present study was investigation of combined, simultaneous action of these three factors. The mice fibroblasts served as cell source. With an aid of ion-selective electrodes the sum effect of the following factors was evaluated: low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy), EMF (45 Hz, 2 mT), and stimulated phosphoric acid (homeopathic preparation diluted at 10 -14 ). It was found that integral index of the ionic homeostasis during above action, was higher than after action of any of these factors separately. It is suggested that these data point at beneficial action of the homeopathic remedy and it should be considered when promoting the homeopathic means of therapy. (author)

  9. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.

    2015-08-04

    Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, is a historically rural area that in recent years has experienced an increase in population and in the construction of new housing units, most of which are not connected to a centralized wastewater treatment system. Increasing water use has raised concerns about the effect of development on the available groundwater resources in the area. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bernalillo County Public Works Natural Resource Services, used a water-budget approach to quantify the amount of potential groundwater recharge occurring from the domestic sewage (effluent) dosed to the sewage disposal field at two locations—sites A and B—in eastern Bernalillo County, N. Mex. The amount of effluent that is potentially available for groundwater recharge was determined as the mean daily volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field in excess of the mean daily volume of effluent loss from evapotranspiration from the disposal field.

  10. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contain a mixture of crude oil, gasoline, creosote and diesel is one of the most common groups of persistent organic pollutants. TPH enters into the ecosystem (soil, water and air) through leakage of underground storage tanks (LUST), accidental oil spills, transportation losses and industrial processes. Pollution associated with diesel oil and its refined products is of great concern worldwide due to its threats/damages for human and ecosystem health, soil structure and ground water quality. Extensive soils pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons results in extreme harsh surroundings, produce hydrophobic conditions and infertile soils that ultimately lead towards less plant and microorganisms growth. Among biological methods, bioremediation and phytoremediation are promising technologies that have both technical and ecological benefits as compared to convention methods. Within phytoremediation, rhizoremediation based on stimulation of degrading microorganism's population influenced by plant rhizospheric effect is known as main mechanism for phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Composting along with rhizodegradtion was used to remediate freshly spilled soils at Lysimeter station Siebersdof, Austria. Experiment was started in July 2013 and will be monitored up to September 2016. Field station has 12 Lysimeter in total; each has length, width and depth of 100 cm respectively. Each Lysimeter was filled with normal agricultural soil from Siebersdof (0-70 cm), sand (70-85 cm) and stones (85-100cm). Sand and stones were added to support the normal leaching and percolation of water as we collected leachate samples after regular intervals. After filling, commercial diesel oil (2% w/w of 0-70 cm soil) was spilled on top of each Lysimeter as accidental spill occurs in filed. Compost was added at 0-15 cm layer (5% w/w of soil) to stimulate plant as well as microorganisms growth. Whole Lysimeter station was divided into three treatments

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Ossineke Groundwater Contamination Site, Alpena County, Ossineke, MI. (First remedial action), June 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Ossineke Ground Water Contamination site is an area overlying a contaminated aquifer in Ossineke, Alpena County, Michigan. The site hydrogeology is characterized by an upper aquifer and lower confined aquifer, both of which supply drinking water to local residents. Historically there have been two contaminant source areas of concern within Ossineke. Area 1 is in the center of the Town of Ossineke where two gas stations are located, consisting of underground storage tanks, and a former automobile rustproofing shop. Area 2 is a laundry and dry cleaning facility that has an associated wash water pond containing chlorinated hydrocarbons and VOCs. The State advised all users of the upper aquifer to stop using their wells. In 1982, the State discovered that a snow plow had hit a gasoline pump causing an unknown amount of gasoline to spill and, subsequently, contaminate the basements of several businesses. In 1986, the State replaced residential wells affected by ground water contamination. Because the contaminants of concern have been confirmed to be related to petroleum releases from underground storage tanks, the Superfund program does not have the authority to address cleanup under CERLCLA. The selected remedial action for the site is that no further action

  12. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  13. Assessment of MTBE biodegradation in contaminated groundwater using 13C and 14C analysis: Field and laboratory microcosm studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Spence, Keith H.; Pickup, Roger; Spence, Michael J.; Shah, Nadeem; Mallinson, Helen E.H.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Carbon isotope fractionation for MTBE varies with dissolved oxygen concentration. → Carbon isotope fractionation can underestimate MTBE biodegradation at plume fringes. → Fractionation factors must be for specific biodegradation mechanisms and conditions. → Specific microbial populations influence carbon isotope fractionation in groundwater. - Abstract: Radiolabelled assays and compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) were used to assess methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in an unleaded fuel plume in a UK chalk aquifer, both in the field and in laboratory microcosm experiments. The 14 C-MTBE radiorespirometry studies demonstrated widespread potential for aerobic and anaerobic MTBE biodegradation in the aquifer. However, δ 13 C compositions of MTBE in groundwater samples from the plume showed no significant 13 C enrichment that would indicate MTBE biodegradation at the field scale. Carbon isotope enrichment during MTBE biodegradation was assessed in the microcosms when dissolved O 2 was not limiting, compared with low in situ concentrations (2 mg/L) in the aquifer, and in the absence of O 2 . The microcosm experiments showed ubiquitous potential for aerobic MTBE biodegradation in the aquifer within hundreds of days. Aerobic MTBE biodegradation in the microcosms produced an enrichment of 7 per mille in the MTBE δ 13 C composition and an isotope enrichment factor (ε) of -1.53 per mille when dissolved O 2 was not limiting. However, for the low dissolved O 2 concentration of up to 2 mg/L that characterizes most of the MTBE plume fringe, aerobic MTBE biodegradation produced an enrichment of 0.5-0.7 per mille, corresponding to an ε value of -0.22 per mille to -0.24 per mille. No anaerobic MTBE biodegradation occurred under these experimental conditions. These results suggest the existence of a complex MTBE-biodegrading community in the aquifer, which may consist of different aerobic species competing for MTBE and dissolved O 2

  14. Hydrochemistry and groundwater system of the Zerka Ma'in-Zara thermal field, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimawi, Omar; Salameh, Elias

    1988-03-01

    A groundwater flow model through the different geological successions from the Upper Cretaceous through the Lower Cretaceous Sandstone and older units is presented in this paper. The model is supported by the hydrochemical evolution of water types from the recharge areas in the highlands to discharge sites of thermal water at the slopes overlooking the Dead Sea. The thermal water discharged in the Zerka Ma'in-Zara areas consists of three end members mixed in different ratios with a component of old (many thousands of years) thermal water undersaturated in carbonate minerals and containing hundreds of milligrams per liter of free CO 2. The release of CO 2 gas upon discharge renders the water oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals which results in aragonite precipitation. The elevated temperature of the water in the reservoir (73-82°C) is attributed to the presence of a heat-storing layer topping the aquifer.

  15. Field-scale study of the influence of differing remediation strategies on trace metal geochemistry in metal mine tailings from the Irish Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, William T; Bird, Graham; Jacobs, Suzanne R; Devoy, Cora

    2016-03-01

    Mine tailings represent a globally significant source of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) to the environment. The management of large volumes of mine tailings represents a major challenge to the mining industry and environmental managers. This field-scale study evaluates the impact of two highly contrasting remediation approaches to the management and stabilisation of mine tailings. The geochemistry of the tailings, overlying amendment layers and vegetation are examined in the light of the different management approaches. Pseudo-total As, Cd and Pb concentrations and solid-state partitioning (speciation), determined via sequential extraction, were established for two Tailings Management Facilities (TMFs) in Ireland subjected to the following: (1) a 'walk-away' approach (Silvermines) and (2) application of an amendment layer (Galmoy). PHE concentrations in roots and herbage of grasses growing on the TMFs were also determined. Results identify very different PHE concentration profiles with depth through the TMFs and the impact of remediation approach on concentrations and their potential bioavailability in the rooting zone of grass species. Data also highlight the importance of choice of grass species in remediation approaches and the benefits of relatively shallow-rooting Agrostis capillaris and Festuca rubra varieties. In addition, data from the Galmoy TMF indicate the importance of regional soil geochemistry for interpreting the influence of the PHE geochemistry of capping and amendment layers applied to mine tailings.

  16. NORM remediation project of Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC) oil fields in Der Ezzor area, Syrian Arab Republic: Determination of NORM contaminated soil volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Aba, A.; Hamwi, A.; Hassan, M.

    2002-04-01

    DEZP Company has used to collect product water, scale and sludge in artificial pits. Run-off channel had been created to allow water to run-off into the desert. A radioactive contamination by NORM in DEZP oil fields (JAFRA) has occurred and quite significant area of land has been affected. As a part of the remediation project the volume of contaminated soil with NORM according to the Syrian criteria for clean up and disposal has been determined. Surface and core soil samples were collected from the contaminated areas and analyzed for 226 Ra. The results have shown that contamination has reached a depth of more than one meter in the surface water pit. The estimated contaminated soil that needs disposal according to the Syrian criteria was calculated and found to be about 3161 m 3 . Most of the contaminated soil was found to be in the surface water pit. In addition, the contamination in the mud pit and the run-off channel was rather small and could be treated on site. However, the obtained results can be used for preparation of the remediation plan where size of the disposal pit and on site treatment is defined. The plan should be submitted to the Syrian Regulatory Office for review and approval to initiation of the remediation work (author)

  17. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Vadose zone processes delay groundwater nitrate reduction response to BMP implementation as observed in paired cultivated vs. uncultivated potato rotation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Nyiraneza, J.; Murray, B. J.; Chapman, S.; Malenica, A.; Parker, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrate leaching from crop production contributes to groundwater contamination and subsequent eutrophication of the receiving surface water. A study was conducted in a 7-ha potato-grain-forages rotation field in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada during 2011-2016 to link potato rotation practices and groundwater quality. The field consists of fine sandy loam soil and is underlain by 7-9 m of glacial till, which overlies the regional fractured ;red-bed; sandstone aquifer. The water table is generally located in overburden close to the bedrock interface. Field treatments included one field zone taken out of production in 2011 with the remaining zones kept under a conventional potato rotation. Agronomy data including crop tissue, soil, and tile-drain water quality were collected. Hydrogeology data including multilevel monitoring of groundwater nitrate and hydraulic head and data from rock coring for nitrate distribution in overburden and bedrock matrix were also collected. A significant amount of nitrate leached below the soil profile after potato plant kill (referred to as topkill) in 2011, most of it from fertilizer N. A high level of nitrate was also detected in the till vadose zone through coring in December 2012 and through multilevel groundwater sampling from January to May 2014 in both cultivated and uncultivated field zones. Groundwater nitrate concentrations increased for about 2.5 years after the overlying potato field was removed from production. Pressure-driven uniform flow processes dominate water and nitrate transport in the vadose zone, producing an apparently instant water table response but a delayed groundwater quality response to nitrate leaching events. These data suggest that the uniform flow dominated vadose zone in agricultural landscapes can cause the accumulation of a significant amount of nitrate originated from previous farming activities, and the long travel time of this legacy nitrate in the vadose zone can result in substantially delayed

  20. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes

  1. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  2. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  3. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  4. A preliminary study on the feedback of heat transfer on groundwater flow in a Karst geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y.; Pang, Z.; Hu, S.; Pang, J.; Shao, H.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    In deep sedimentary basins, groundwater movement can significantly alter the heat flow pattern. At the same time, heat flux induced temperature change can reversely determine the flow regime through density dependent convection process. In Karst aquifers, the heterogeneity in the carbonate rocks makes the identification of this feedback much more complex. In this work, a preliminary study has been made on this feedback in Xiongxian geothermal field. The Karst aquifer in our site has an average thickness of about 1000 m, and is overlaid by over 400 m of quaternary clay, and subsequently 600 m of Neogene sandstone. Geothermal energy has been exploited in the site for space heating. During the heating period from Nov 15th to Mar 15th every year, hot water was extracted from the aquifer and re-injected after the heat extraction. A detailed temperature logging has been carried out in the field, both before and after the heating period, with the consideration that temperature distribution will be affected by the re-injection of cold water. The vertical distribution of temperature in the cap rock shows a constant positive gradient over depth. The heat flux at different locations has been calculated respectively. It is found to decline from southwest to northeast, with the highest value of 113.9 mW/m2 to the lowest of 80.6 mW/m2. This pattern can be well explained by the tectonic features. More interestingly, two inflection points appear on the temperature profile of the Karst layer, revealing strong influence from the cold re-injection water. Also, a 3℃ temperature difference was observed in the June and October measurement, which is related to the reservoir recovery. Currently, a 3D numerical model is being constructed, using the open-source software OpenGeoSys. Heat transport process is coupled with density dependent flow in a monolithic approach, to simulate both heat conduction and groundwater convection. This model will help to quantify the feedback from heat

  5. Part 2: A field study of enhanced remediation of Toluene in the vadose zone using a nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Weeks, E.P.; Friedel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a nitrate-rich nutrient solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene in the unsaturated zone. Three sand-filled plots were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During the control phase, toluene was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during this phase. A modified Hoagland nutrient solution, concentrated in 150 L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H2O2 in 150 L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, measured toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H 2O2), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only 5 days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing or soil-vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  7. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  8. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundertmark, Charles [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. and University of Phoenix (United States); Hoopes, Jack [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (United States); Flowers, Len [Roy F. Weston Company (United States); Jackson, David G [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  9. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundertmark, Charles; Hoopes, Jack; Flowers, Len; Jackson, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  10. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  11. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  12. Field note: irrigation of tree stands with groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ari M; Tammi, Carl E

    2009-07-01

    Coniferous and deciduous tree stands totaling 14 ha were recently planted on a closed landfill, and when mature, the stands are expected to be part of a natural treatment system for recovered groundwater. The trees would be irrigated at the rate of 189 L/min year-round with water containing 1,4-dioxane (trees. The water is moderately saline and contains elevated levels of manganese. This paper describes a concurrent series of preliminary studies, performed prior to the full-scale planting, to assess the feasibility of the phytoremediation system. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to identify tree species that can take up 1,4-dioxane and are tolerant of the water. Estimates were made of the area of the tree stand necessary to transpire the irrigation water plus precipitation. The landfill matrix was characterized in terms of its percolation rate and water holding capacity and based on those results salinity-modeling studies were carried out to estimate the fate and leaching potential of the various inorganic species that would accumulate in the root-zone of the trees. A pilot study, currently in progress on the landfill, suggested that the landfill cap is a suitable matrix for the establishment of large trees, and that the stands could be irrigated without the production of excess drainage.

  13. Elimination of chloro-and bromochloroCompounds from groundwater: Results of two field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopinke, F.-D.; Koehler, R.; Mackenzie, K. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leizig-Halle (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A technical process for treatment of groundwater contaminated with halogenated hydrocarbons was developed, based on three steps which included (i) adsorption and hydrolysis of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in the water phase using activated carbon, (ii) effective stripping of HOCs with nitrogen applying a membrane module under reduced pressure and (iii) the catalytic destruction of stripped HOCs over Pd catalysts in the gas phase. The gas-phase reaction showed several advantages compared to the reaction directly in water: at elevated temperatures (100-350 C) the reaction rate is significantly higher; even those HOCs which are practically inaccessible to reductive dehalogenation in the water phase (e.g. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) react with adequate rates; transport limitations in porous catalysts can be avoided due to the high diffusion rates in the gas phase; and finally, the reaction conditions preclude any interference form biological activities. The key step in the multi-stage approach is an effective stripping of the contaminated water with a minimum of inert strip gas flow. This can be achieved with a hollow fiber membrane module, based on a bundle of porous polypropylene capillaries. (orig.)

  14. The impact of groundwater velocity fields on streamlines in an aquifer system with a discontinuous aquitard (Inner Mongolia, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Yingwang; Xu, Hua

    2018-04-01

    Many numerical methods that simulate groundwater flow, particularly the continuous Galerkin finite element method, do not produce velocity information directly. Many algorithms have been proposed to improve the accuracy of velocity fields computed from hydraulic potentials. The differences in the streamlines generated from velocity fields obtained using different algorithms are presented in this report. The superconvergence method employed by FEFLOW, a popular commercial code, and some dual-mesh methods proposed in recent years are selected for comparison. The applications to depict hydrogeologic conditions using streamlines are used, and errors in streamlines are shown to lead to notable errors in boundary conditions, the locations of material interfaces, fluxes and conductivities. Furthermore, the effects of the procedures used in these two types of methods, including velocity integration and local conservation, are analyzed. The method of interpolating velocities across edges using fluxes is shown to be able to eliminate errors associated with refraction points that are not located along material interfaces and streamline ends at no-flow boundaries. Local conservation is shown to be a crucial property of velocity fields and can result in more accurate streamline densities. A case study involving both three-dimensional and two-dimensional cross-sectional models of a coal mine in Inner Mongolia, China, are used to support the conclusions presented.

  15. Field Evaluation Of Arsenic Transport Across The Ground-Water/Surface Water Interface: Ground-Water Discharge And Iron Oxide Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in ground water, surface water, and sediments at a Superfund Site in the northeastern United States (see companion presentation by K. G. Scheckel et al). Ground-water discharge into the study area was cha...

  16. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  17. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  19. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  20. A field comparison of multiple techniques to quantify groundwater - surface-water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Ward, Adam S; Hatch, Christine E; Wlostowski, Adam N; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Haggerty, Roy; Harvey, Judson; Cirpka, Olaf A; Brock, James T

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater–surface-water (GW-SW) interactions in streams are difficult to quantify because of heterogeneity in hydraulic and reactive processes across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The challenge of quantifying these interactions has led to the development of several techniques, from centimeter-scale probes to whole-system tracers, including chemical, thermal, and electrical methods. We co-applied conservative and smart reactive solute-tracer tests, measurement of hydraulic heads, distributed temperature sensing, vertical profiles of solute tracer and temperature in the stream bed, and electrical resistivity imaging in a 450-m reach of a 3rd-order stream. GW-SW interactions were not spatially expansive, but were high in flux through a shallow hyporheic zone surrounding the reach. NaCl and resazurin tracers suggested different surface–subsurface exchange patterns in the upper ⅔ and lower ⅓ of the reach. Subsurface sampling of tracers and vertical thermal profiles quantified relatively high fluxes through a 10- to 20-cm deep hyporheic zone with chemical reactivity of the resazurin tracer indicated at 3-, 6-, and 9-cm sampling depths. Monitoring of hydraulic gradients along transects with MINIPOINT streambed samplers starting ∼40 m from the stream indicated that groundwater discharge prevented development of a larger hyporheic zone, which progressively decreased from the stream thalweg toward the banks. Distributed temperature sensing did not detect extensive inflow of ground water to the stream, and electrical resistivity imaging showed limited large-scale hyporheic exchange. We recommend choosing technique(s) based on: 1) clear definition of the questions to be addressed (physical, biological, or chemical processes), 2) explicit identification of the spatial and temporal scales to be covered and those required to provide an appropriate context for interpretation, and 3) maximizing generation of mechanistic understanding and reducing costs of

  1. Developing a disposal and remediation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messier, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental release of wastes generated by the upstream oil and gas industry in Alberta can result in polluted soil and groundwater at several facilities across the province. Responsibility for decommissioning upstream oil and gas facilities falls under the jurisdiction of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP). This paper outlines a protocol that can serve as a framework for the development of a plan to dispose of oilfield waste and to remediate related contaminated soils. The components involved in developing a disposal and remediation plan for oilfield wastes are: (1) identifying the potential source of pollution and oilfield waste generation, (2) characterizing oilfield wastes, (3) determining the nature and extent of soil and groundwater pollution, (4) preparing a remedial action plan, (5) assessing the viability of various remediation options, and (6) preparing health and safety plan. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Critical review of decision support tools for sustain