WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater radioactive contamination

  1. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Atsunao Marui; Adrian H. Gallardo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damagedthree reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuc...

  2. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  3. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunao Marui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  4. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  8. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  9. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  10. Contain contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  11. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  12. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  13. Natural radioactivity in groundwater--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Chau, Nguyen; Dulinski, Marek; Jodlowski, Pawel; Nowak, Jakub; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Sleziak, Monika; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2011-12-01

    The issue of natural radioactivity in groundwater is reviewed, with emphasis on those radioisotopes which contribute in a significant way to the overall effective dose received by members of the public due to the intake of drinking water originating from groundwater systems. The term 'natural radioactivity' is used in this context to cover all radioactivity present in the environment, including man-made (anthropogenic) radioactivity. Comprehensive discussion of radiological aspects of the presence of natural radionuclides in groundwater, including an overview of current regulations dealing with radioactivity in drinking water, is provided. The presented data indicate that thorough assessments of the committed doses resulting from the presence of natural radioactivity in groundwater are needed, particularly when such water is envisaged for regular intake by infants. They should be based on a precise determination of radioactivity concentration levels of the whole suite of radionuclides, including characterisation of their temporal variability. Equally important is a realistic assessment of water intake values for specific age groups. Only such an evaluation may provide the basis for possible remedial actions.

  14. Tracey - a simulation model of trace element fluxes in soil-plant system for long-term assessment of a radioactive groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke (Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Eckersten, Henrik (Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Reinlert, Andre (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik (Dept. Land and WaterResources, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Ekstroem, Per-Anders; Avila, Rodolfo (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)); Greger, Maria (Dept. of Botany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    We developed a general trace element model called Tracey to simulate dynamically the possible accumulation of radionuclides as a result of an long-term radioactive contamination of groundwater in terrestrial ecosystems. The overall objectives of the study are to: 1) Develop and evaluate a multi-compartmental model that dynamically simulates the transport and accumulation of a radionuclide in the soil-plant system at a time scale relevant for risk assessment of nuclear fuel waste; and 2) Asses the possible accumulation of radionuclide in terrestrial ecosystems due to an eventual long-term continuous radioactive groundwater contamination. Specific objectives were to assess: - The proportion of the contamination accumulated and where it is stored in the ecosystem. - The importance of the plant uptake approach for accumulation of radionuclides. - The most important radionuclide properties and ecosystem characteristics for accumulation and losses. - The proportion of the contamination lost and how is it lost. - The circumstances which stimulated export of radionuclides to other ecosystems. The model presented here, called Tracey, is a stand-alone version to allow for long simulation periods relevant for the time scale of risk assessment of nuclear waste (i.e. several thousand years) with time steps as short as one day. Tracey is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclide are described for different plant parts and for several soil layers. Each layer includes pools of slowly and quickly decomposing litter, humus, solved and absorbed trace element. The trace element fluxes are assumed to be proportional to either water or carbon fluxes, these fluxes are simulated using the dynamic model CoupModel for fluxes of water, carbon, nitrogen and carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Two different model approaches were used to describe plant uptake of radionuclides. The one called passive uptake approach is driven by water uptake and the one called active

  15. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  16. Measurement of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in groundwater at a legacy radioactive waste site and its possible role in contaminant mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowling, Brett; Kinsela, Andrew S; Comarmond, M Josick; Hughes, Catherine E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Johansen, Mathew P; Payne, Timothy E

    2017-07-04

    At many legacy radioactive waste sites, organic compounds have been co-disposed, which may be a factor in mobilisation of radionuclides at these sites. Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a component of waste streams from the nuclear fuel cycle, where it has been used in separating actinides during processing of nuclear fuels. Analyses of ground waters from the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS) in eastern Australia were undertaken using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results indicate the presence of TBP several decades after waste disposal, with TBP only being detected in the immediate vicinity of the main disposal area. TBP is generally considered to degrade in the environment relatively rapidly. Therefore, it is likely that its presence is due to relatively recent releases of TBP, possibly stemming from leakage due to container degradation. The ongoing presence and solubility of TBP has the potential to provide a mechanism for nuclide mobilisation, with implications for long term management of LFLS and similar legacy waste sites. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioactive Seepage through Groundwater Flow from the Uranium Mines, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Abiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seepage of uranium from unlined tailing dams into the alluvial aquifer in the Gawib River floodplain in Namibia where the region solely relies on groundwater for its economic activities as a result of arid climatic condition. The study reviewed previous works besides water sample collection and analyses for major ions, metals and environmental isotopes in addition to field tests on physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Redox and T. Estimation of seepage velocity (true velocity of groundwater flow has been conducted in order to understand the extent of radioactive plume transport. The hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium results show that there is uranium contamination from the unlined uranium tailings in the Gawib shallow aquifer system which suggests high permeability of the alluvial aquifer facilitating groundwater flow in the arid region. The radioactive contaminants could spread into the deeper aquifer system through the major structures such as joints and faults. The contamination plume could also spread downstream into the Swakop River unless serious interventions are employed. There is also a very high risk of the plume to reach the Atlantic Ocean through seasonal flash floods that occurs in the area.

  18. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  19. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  20. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  1. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; HART Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  2. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  3. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  4. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  5. Natural radioactivity of groundwater in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuk Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and Th232 and gross alpha and beta activities were analyzed in more than 100 samples of groundwater in Serbia. The highest gross alpha activity was recorded at 1.33 Bq/L (average 0.12 Bq/L, while the highest beta activity was 5.43 Bq/L (average 0.68 Bq/L. The potassium isotope 40K exhibited the highest active concentration (2.6 Bq/L and was the largest contributor to the gross natural beta activity. Among the analyzed samples, 28 were found to have elevated beta activity concentrations, of which five samples also measured elevated alpha activity. All the groundwater samples that exhibited elevated radioactivity were of the HCO3-Na type and were genetically associated with granitic rocks. Their TDS levels and CO2 gas concentrations were also elevated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  6. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    are alluvium deposits (silt, sand and gravel) and the measured groundwater radioactivity (including 232Th, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 222Rn, gross-α and gross-β) indicates values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water. The results also show large difference in radioactivity fingerprints, in particular...... for 226Ra and 222Rn within the investigated aquifers. The data further indicate lower radioactivity in groundwater of the alluviums compared to the carbonate aquifers in the region. This feature makes the alluvium aquifers valuable reservoirs that should be carefully exploited as a source of groundwater....... As this is the first investigation on the radioactivity of groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the region, it suggests that other alluvial deposits, particularly those inland and far from the marine water intrusion or seepage from carbonate rocks would have low radioactivity fingerprints....

  7. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  8. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per

    2006-01-01

    relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of surface soil at Narssarssuk couldconstitute a small risk to humans visiting the location if radioactive particles are resuspended in the air so that they might be inhaled....

  9. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  10. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  11. Natural Radioactivity in Groundwater from the Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pery, N.; Vengosh, A.; Haqin, G.; Paytan, A.; Elhanani, S.; Pankratov, I.; Broshi, L.; Yungreiss, Z.; Gazit-Yaari, N.

    2004-12-01

    As most of the groundwater basins in the Middle East are being diminished or contaminated, exploitation of the deep aquifers referred as the "Nubian Sandstone" from the Paleozoic and Lower Cretaceous sandstone units is increasing. In many basins across the Sahara and Sahel regions, the Arabian peninsula, Gulf States, Jordan, and Israel the fossil groundwater are the only available water resource. Natural radioactivity is an important water quality factor of groundwater from this aquifer.Systematic analyses of radium isotopes (226Ra,228Ra,224Ra,223Ra) in over sixty groundwater samples from the Negev and Arava Valley, Israel, reveal that a large number of the pumping wells exceeds the international drinking water regulations as regulated by the USEPA and the European Community (EU). In the Lower Cretaceous Nubian sandstone (Kurnob Group) aquifer 26 out of the 29 (90%) investigated wells are having radium activity above the EU and the EPA regulations. Excluding the activity of the shorted-live 224Ra isotopes (half life of 3.6 days) the fraction of wells with activity above the EU regulation reduces to 79%. In the overlying Upper Cretaceous carbonate (Judea Group) aquifer the numbers of wells with activity exceeding the EU and EPA drinking regulations are 9 (39%) and 11 (48%) out of 23. In the carbonate aquifer we observed a linear correlation between 226Ra activity and salinity whereas in the sandstone aquifer the 228Ra isotopes is predominated and no relationship with salinity was found. Our results clearly indicate that high activity of radium, even low saline groundwater, play a key role in exploitation and water utilization for domestic and agriculture applications.

  12. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-09-02

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  13. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  15. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  16. Groundwater contamination and pollution in micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detay, M.; Alessandrello, E.; Come, P.; Groom, I.

    1989-12-01

    This paper is an overview of groundwater contamination and pollution in th e main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Belau (Palau). A strategy for the comprehensive protection of groundwater resources in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is proposed.

  17. Survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. R.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kang, M. J.; Cheong, K. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kwak, J. Y

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to survey and assess radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Based on survey and assessment, final goal is to improve the public health by radiation protection. Sampled foodstuffs items are collected from the markets : one group are imported foodstuffs and the other group are domestic foodstuffs producted around nuclear facilities. After pretreatments such as drying, ashing, and homogenization, all samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer system. The {sup 137}Cs radionuclide was only measured among the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of food code. All radionuclides of the domestic foodstuffs collected around nuclear facilities were below Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). But the activity concentrations of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushooms) from Russia ranged up to 171.27 (average value : 36.65) Bq/kg-fresh. In the case of blueberry jam, the radioactivity of {sup 137}Cs is higher than expected value. Other samples are below MDA except some spices. Based on the previous and present results, it should be strengthen to survey for Inontus obliquus (Chaga mushooms), of which the radioactivity shows the range from MDA up to 800.01 Bq/kg-fresh. It should assess the public radiation exposure via food chain because it has the excess provability of the maximum permitted level of food code, which is regulation of KFDA. The development method based on international standard would be used at radioactive analysis as well as education of practical workers and it could be applied as the basis data for amending the analysis method of food code. Our country only surveys gamma emitting radionuclides till now but international organization or foreign countries for example EU survey alpha and beta emitting radionuclides as well as gamma emitting radionuclides. So our country should also research necessity of survey for alpha and beta emitting

  18. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  19. Radioactive contamination, what actions for the polluted sites; Contamination radioactive, quelles actions pour les sites pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear safety authority and the direction of prevention of pollutions and risks have organised the first edition of the national colloquium: radioactive contamination: what actions for polluted sites. Four axes can be taken to follow this colloquium: prevention, outstanding tools to evaluate risks and rehabilitation, a better responsibility of operators and memory keeping. (N.C.)

  20. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.; and others

    2007-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs.

  1. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-12-07

    This report summarizes results from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during July, August, and September, 1956. Included are data on radioactive contamination in effluent gases, on vegetation, in the atmosphere, in Hanford wastes, in the Columbia River and related waters, in test wells, and in drinking water. (ACR)

  2. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  3. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  4. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M. [Centro de lnvestigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 11, ETS Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla, (Spain); Crespo, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  5. Influence of Anthropogenic Contamination on Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHAKAR M. RAO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Contamination is a serious concern in India. Major geogenic contaminants include fluoride, arsenic and iron, while common anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, metals, organic and microbial contamination. Besides, known point and diffuse sources, groundwater contamination from infiltration of pit toilet leachate is an emerging concern. The study area of this paper is Kolar district in Karnataka that is hot spot of fluoride contamination. The absence of fluoride contamination in Mulbagal town and the alterations in groundwater chemistry from infiltration of pit toilet leachate motivated the author to examine the possible linkages between anthropogenic contamination and fluoride concentration in groundwater of Mulbagal town. Analysis of the groundwater chemistry revealed that the groundwater in Mulbagal town is under saturated with respect to calcite that suppresses the disolution of fluorite and the fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The slightly acidic pH of the groundwater is considered responsible to facilitate calcite dissolution under saturation.

  6. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskova, Olga L.; Boguslavsky, Anatoly E. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptyug prosp. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  7. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  8. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-01-01

    .... We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health...

  9. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  10. Biological detectors of radioactive contamination in the Baltic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagge, P; Salo, A

    1967-01-01

    Some bottom and pelagic animals are described, which could be used as indicators of radioactive contamination in Baltic environments, and some preliminary data on their concentrating rates and factors...

  11. Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, Andrew B. [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: A.Cundy@brighton.ac.uk; Hopkinson, Laurence [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Whitby, Raymond L.D. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    Reactions involving iron play a major role in the environmental cycling of a wide range of important organic, inorganic and radioactive contaminants. Consequently, a range of environmental clean-up technologies have been proposed or developed which utilise iron chemistry to remediate contaminated land and surface and subsurface waters, e.g. the use of injected zero zero-valent iron nanoparticles to remediate organic contaminant plumes; the generation of iron oxyhydroxide-based substrates for arsenic removal from contaminated waters; etc. This paper reviews some of the latest iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation, their current state of development, and their potential applications and limitations.

  12. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  13. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km{sup 2}, the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km{sup 2} or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km{sup 2} are posted as surface contamination and 10 km{sup 2} are posted as underground contamination.

  14. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  15. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  16. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  17. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-15

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of {sup 239,240}Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq {sup 239,240}Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of

  18. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, April-June 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-10-28

    This report summarizes the results from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during April, May, and June, 1957. Included are data on contamination in effluent gases, on vegetation, in the atmosphere, in Hanford wastes, in the Columbia River and related waters, and in drinking water. (ACR)

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [NSTec

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  1. A comprehensive study of the spread of radioactive contamination in the geological medium near Lake Karachai, Chelyabinsk oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Malkovsky, V. I.; Tarasov, N. N.; Dikov, Yu. P.

    2010-02-01

    The spread of radioactive contamination in the subsurface medium near Lake Karachai is considered. The complexity of this process requires a comprehensive approach to its study. The source of radioactive contamination is overviewed. The map of faults in subsurface medium is considered in order to determine the prevailing direction of contaminated groundwater flow. Photometry in observation wells has been used for structural geological estimation of transport properties of the shallow aquifer, where contaminated groundwater is moving. This study was carried out along with hydrochemical logging, which makes it possible to estimate the dynamics of contamination of subsurface medium and vertical distribution of groundwater contamination. Special attention is paid to transport of radionuclides in the form of radiocolloid particles. Groundwater samples were taken from various depths corresponding to different contamination levels near Lake Karachai. The depth intervals of sampling were determined from the data of hydrochemical logging. Ultrafiltration through membranes with a specific pore size in combination with gamma spectrometry was used to characterize radionuclide transfer with colloidal particles differing in size. The local elemental composition of the radiocolloid surface was studied by Auger spectroscopy. The chemical composition and structure of radiocolloid particles were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with consecutive etching of the particle surface by argon ions for a certain depth. The data obtained indicate that radiocolloid particles are heterogeneous and an organic shell consisting of humic and fulvic acids and technogenic organic compounds coat their surface.

  2. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228Th}, and {sup 228}Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 228}Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  3. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  4. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  5. Contamination analysis of radioactive samples in focused ion beam instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelan, Audrey Ruth; Brey, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    The use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) instrument's to analyze and prepare samples that are radioactive requires attentiveness to the materials that are dislodged and free inside the chamber. Radioactive sputtered material must be understood even when observed at trace concentrations. Measurements using liquid scintillation counting and high purity germanium detectors were used to evaluate contamination on accessible surfaces inside a focused ion beam chamber that was used in the preparation of samples that were radioactive. The maximum removable contamination found was 0.27 0.4 Bq cm(-2), on the focused ion beam wall with 0.24 0.019 Bq cm(-2) on the door. Although these magnitudes of removable contamination are inconsequential for activation products, these same magnitudes of actinides, for example 239Pu, would represent 3.2% of an Annual Limit of Intake. This might be considered significant if one examines the relatively infrequent use of this device for the preparation of radioactive samples. Predicted activities of sputtered material were found using the software Transport of Ions in Matter, estimating that 0.003% of a radioactive samples activity is released into the FIB chamber. A used secondary electron detector's activity was measured to be 383.7 8.1 Bq. Preferential build-up of sputtered materials due to temperature or static charge gradients was considered. No temperature gradients were observed. Static charge gradients were measured inside the chamber varying between 0.057% below the mean to 34% higher than the mean. However, the magnitudes of contamination measured did not correlate to static charge gradients. Deposition in the chamber appears to have no mechanical cause but rather is sporadic however, measureable. Experience to date has been limited to samples of low activity; nevertheless, contamination inside the chamber was observed. Users should anticipate higher levels of readily dispersible radioactive contamination within the FIB as sample activity

  6. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

    2010-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 – 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

  7. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  8. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS` contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe {sup +6}) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern.

  9. Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

    Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

  10. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. STRIETELMEIER; M. ESPINOSA

    2001-01-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), extremely inexpensive, and easy to replace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels was discharged from this plant for many years. Recently, the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated in 1999 to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mM nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 {micro}M perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system.

  11. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. STRIETELMEIR; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), and extremely inexpensive and easy to emplace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels has been discharged from this plant for many years, until recently when the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated this past year to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier. will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mhl nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 {micro}M perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  13. [On the problem of biodiagnostics under conditions of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnova, O B; Shcheglov, A I; Stolbova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The possibilities of biodiagnostics methods (bioindication and bioassay) have been analyzed for conditions of radioactive contamination of natural ecosystems components. The prospects of using biodiagnostics data to address some practical radioecology problems are discussed. The data on dynamics of long-term indicators in the ecosystems contaminated after the Chernobyl accident are shown. The authors have formulated a number of provisions relating to the accumulative bioindication for structural components of forest ecosystems (arboreal and herbaceous vegetation, mosses, lichens, higher fungi).

  14. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of (137)Cs (90)Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of (137)Cs...

  15. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.i [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Cappella, F. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Dubovik, A.M. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); D' Angelo, S. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Galashov, E.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Grinyov, B.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Nagornaya, L.L. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Nozzoli, F. [INFN sezione Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Podviyanuk, R.B.; Polischuk, O.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Prosperi, D. [INFN sezione Roma ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-21

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO{sub 4} samples. One of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background {gamma} spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the best ZnWO{sub 4} samples are estimated to be less than 0.002 mBq/kg ({sup 228}Th and {sup 226}Ra), the total {alpha} activity is 0.18 mBq/kg. The {beta} active {sup 65}Zn and the {alpha} active {sup 180}W have been detected in ZnWO{sub 4} crystals. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of the ceramic components of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background {gamma} spectrometry. Some ideas for future improvement of the radiopurity level of ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators are briefly discussed.

  16. Groundwater and contaminant transport modelling at the Sydney Tar Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M. [Groundwater Insight Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada); Check, G. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada); Carey, G. [Environmental Inst. for Continuing Education, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Abbey, D. [Waterloo Hydrogeologic, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Baechler, F. [ADI Ltd., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The Muggah Creek Watershed, a tidal estuary located in Sydney, Nova Scotia, is known locally as the Tar Ponds. Over the past century, the Tar Ponds have accumulated contaminants in the contributing watershed from the iron, steel and coke manufacturing. There are sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A groundwater modelling program was developed to estimate current contaminant fluxes to the estuary and site streams, through groundwater. Attempts were made to incorporate a complex stratigraphic profile, where groundwater flow and contaminant transport is strongly controlled by shallow fractured bedrock, into the conceptual model developed for the site. This conceptual model for groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Sydney Tar Ponds site was presented. The complex flow patterns between bedrock and overburden, and between the bedrock units and surface water bodies were illustrated with model simulations. It was found that groundwater flow was dominated by discharge to the streams and the estuary. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  18. [Statistical prediction of radioactive contamination impacts on agricultural pasture lands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature data analysis, the rationale is given for the use of probabilistic approaches to solve the problems of estimation of a long-lived radionuclide uptake in animal products. Methods for statistical prediction of radioactive contamination consequences for agricultural pasture lands have been devised and implemented in the form of models and program modules. These offer the estimation of radionuclide transfer between the links of an agricultural chain, taking into account variability in the migration parameters, estimation of soil contamination limits based on the preset risk levels for the stuffs produced and statistical coordination of standards. An illustration is given of the application of the above methods using statistical characteristics of 137Cs migration parameters in the soil-plant-animal produce chain. Further trends have been formulated in the development of the risk concept as applied to the assessment of radioecological situations of radioactive contamination of the agricultural land.

  19. Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products during extraction and processing operations is a serious and a growing environmental problem in Nigeria. Consequently, a study of the use of activated carbon (AC) in the clean up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination to a more acceptable level. In the experiments described, crude-oil contamination of ground water was simulated under laboratory conditions using ground-wat...

  20. Inexact Socio-Dynamic Modeling of Groundwater Contamination Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contamination may alter the behaviors of the public such as adaptation to such a contamination event. On the other hand, social behaviors may affect groundwater contamination and associated risk levels such as through changing ingestion amount of groundwater due to the contamination. Decisions should consider not only the contamination itself, but also social attitudes on such contamination events. Such decisions are inherently associated with uncertainty, such as subjective judgement from decision makers and their implicit knowledge on selection of whether to supply water or reduce the amount of supplied water under the scenario of the contamination. A socio-dynamic model based on the theories of information-gap and fuzzy sets is being developed to address the social behaviors facing the groundwater contamination and applied to a synthetic problem designed based on typical groundwater remediation sites where the effects of social behaviors on decisions are investigated and analyzed. Different uncertainties including deep uncertainty and vague/ambiguous uncertainty are effectively and integrally addressed. The results can provide scientifically-defensible decision supports for groundwater management in face of the contamination.

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  2. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  3. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  4. Determining radioactive aerosol concentrations using a surface radioactive contamination measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, R; Johnova, K; Kozlovska, M; Otahal, P; Vosahlikova, I

    2015-06-01

    For experiments with dispersed radioactive aerosols in a radon-aerosol chamber (RAC), it is desirable to know the activity of the radioactive aerosols applied in the RAC. A COLIBRI TTC survey metre with an SABG-15+ probe (Canberra, USA) was purchased for this purpose. The probe is designed for surface contamination measurements, and it is intended to measure the activity of aerosols deposited on the filters during experiments in the RAC. Since the probe is calibrated in a different geometry, its response in the authors' experimental geometry was simulated by a Monte Carlo method. The authors present a Monte Carlo model using MCNPX and an experimental verification of this probe model.

  5. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Natural radioactivity and chemical concentrations in Egyptian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rafat M; Khalil, F A; El Fayoumi, M A K

    2011-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity in drinking water have been performed in many parts of the world, mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming water. A study of the radionuclide and chemical components in groundwater from Beni Suef Governate, Egypt has been carried out. Fifty water samples were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy to determine the 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K concentrations; major elements, pH, alkalinity, and conductivity were also measured. The specific activity values ranged from 0.008 to 0.040 Bq/l for 226Ra, from 0.003 to 0.019 Bq/l for 232Th, and from 0.025 to 0.344 Bq/l for 40K. The annual ingestions of these radionuclides, using local consumption rates (average over the whole population) of 1.5 l day(-1), were estimated to be 8.59, 4.86, and 83.47 Bq year(-1) for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The estimated values and weighted means of these radionuclides compare well with the world average. The estimated effective doses from drinking water were found to be 2.4 μSv year(-1) (226Ra), 1.1 μSv year(-1) (232Th), and 0.51 μSv year(-1) (40K). Contribution of these radionuclides to the committed effective dose from 1 year consumption of drinking water is estimated to be only 4%.

  7. [Quantitative method of representative contaminants in groundwater pollution risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-03-01

    In the light of the problem that stress vulnerability assessment in groundwater pollution risk assessment is lack of an effective quantitative system, a new system was proposed based on representative contaminants and corresponding emission quantities through the analysis of groundwater pollution sources. And quantitative method of the representative contaminants in this system was established by analyzing the three properties of representative contaminants and determining the research emphasis using analytic hierarchy process. The method had been applied to the assessment of Beijing groundwater pollution risk. The results demonstrated that the representative contaminants hazards greatly depended on different research emphasizes. There were also differences between the sequence of three representative contaminants hazards and their corresponding properties. It suggested that subjective tendency of the research emphasis had a decisive impact on calculation results. In addition, by the means of sequence to normalize the three properties and to unify the quantified properties results would zoom in or out of the relative properties characteristic of different representative contaminants.

  8. Innovative reactive barrier technologies for regional contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkel, P.; Weiβ, H.; Teutsch, G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    At many industrial sites inadequate waste disposal, leakages and war damages have led to severe groundwater contamination on a regional scale. Standard hydraulic groundwater remediation methods, such as pump-and-treat, in most cases do not lead to satisfactory results, due to the persistence of orga

  9. Innovative reactive barrier technologies for regional contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkel, P.; Weiβ, H.; Teutsch, G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    At many industrial sites inadequate waste disposal, leakages and war damages have led to severe groundwater contamination on a regional scale. Standard hydraulic groundwater remediation methods, such as pump-and-treat, in most cases do not lead to satisfactory results, due to the persistence of

  10. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination in a metropolitan redevelopment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Junki; Lee, Ju Young; Khim, Jeehyeong; Ji, Won Hyun

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess contaminated soil and groundwater for the urban redevelopment of a rapid transit railway and a new mega-shopping area. Contaminated soil and groundwater may interfere with the progress of this project, and residents and shoppers may be exposed to human health risks. The study area has been remediated after application of first remediation technologies. Of the entire area, several sites were still contaminated by waste materials and petroleum. For zinc (Zn) contamination, high Zn concentrations were detected because waste materials were disposed in the entire area. For petroleum contamination, high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and hydrocarbon degrading microbe concentrations were observed at the depth of 7 m because the underground petroleum storage tank had previously been located at this site. Correlation results suggest that TPH (soil) concentration is still related with TPH (groundwater) concentration. The relationship is taken into account in the Spearman coefficient (α).

  12. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

  13. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The continual monitoring of environmental radioactive levels in Fukushima, Japan following the nuclear plant accident in March 2011 provides our society with valuable information in two ways. First, the collected data can be used as an indicator to assess the progress of decontamination efforts. Secondly, the collected data also can be used to understand the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the environment which leads to further understanding of the landform processes. These two aspects are inseparable for us to understand the effects of radioactive contamination in a dynamic environmental system. During the summer of 2016, 27 soil core samples were collected on a farmer's land (rice paddies and forest) in Fukushima, about 20 km northwest of the nuclear plant. Each core was divided into 2.0 - 3.0 cm slices for the Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131 level measurement. The collected data is being analyzed from multiple perspectives: temporal, spatial, and geophysical. In the forest area, even on the same hillslope, multiple soil types and horizon depths were observed which indicates the challenges in assessing the subsurface radioactive isotope movements. It appears that although highly humic soils show higher or about the same level of radioactivity in the surface layers, as the depth increased, the radioactivity decreased more in those samples compared with more sandy soils. With regard to the direction a slope faces and the sampling altitudes, the correlation between those attributes and radioactivity levels is inconclusive at this moment. The altitude might have affected the fallout level on a single hillslope-basis. However, to determine the correlation, further sampling and the detailed analysis of vegetation and topography might be necessary. Where the surface soil was scraped and new soil was brought in, former rice paddy surface layers did show three-magnitude levels lower of radioactivity in the top layer when compared with forest soils. At the foot of forest

  14. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  15. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. 48 CFR 945.603-71 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Inventory 945.603-71 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR 109-45.50. ... contaminated personal property. 945.603-71 Section 945.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  17. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs. October-December 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-02-06

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, and December 1955. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, selfabsorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 5 refs.

  18. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilcher, G.E.; Soldat, J.K.; Carey, Z.E.

    1955-04-20

    This publication summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, and September 1954. Samples were collected by Regional Survey forces. These samples were analyzed by the Control Laboratory of the Control Unit. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, back-scatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by the Control Services group. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct smples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII which discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and its effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil and water. 9 refs.

  19. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-24

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, September, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VI. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 10 refs.

  20. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1955-10-10

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period July, August, and September, 1955. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 6 refs.

  1. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, April-June 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-08-07

    This document summarized the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period April, May, and June, 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  2. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, October-December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-02-25

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, and December, 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  3. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, October-December 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-28

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period October, November, December, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of sort half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VI. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 8 refs.

  4. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, January-March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.V.; Soldat, J.K.

    1956-05-28

    This document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period January, February, and March 1956. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radio-Analysis Laboratory forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 7 refs.

  5. Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, January-March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1957-06-17

    The document summarizes the results obtained from monitoring the Hanford environs for radioactive contamination during the period January, February, and March, 1957. Samples were collected by Regional Monitoring forces. These samples were analyzed by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Counting rates obtained from these analyses were corrected for geometry, backscatter, air-window absorption, source size, self-absorption, chemical yield, and collection efficiency by Radiological Chemical Analysis forces. Additional corrections for decay were applied to those samples in which significant amounts of short half-life beta particle emitters were found. The findings obtained from analyzing the direct samples were supplemented with readings obtained from portable and fixed instrumentation. The results obtained from the described efforts are presented in Sections I through VII. These sections discuss the amounts of active material discharged from plant facilities and their effect on the contamination of vegetation, air, soil, and water. 9 refs.

  6. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  7. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  8. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  9. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Socrates Jose P; Palad, Lorna Jean H; Enriquez, Eliza B; Garcia, Teofilo Y; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially (226)Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of (226)Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the (226)Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of (226)Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of (226)Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of (226)Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no (226)Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area.

  10. Memorandum of the Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum presents clarifying guidance for establishing protective cleanup levels for radioactive contamination at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites.

  11. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

    1996-12-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials.

  12. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use......Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south...... permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby...

  13. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  14. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafe A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC. The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  15. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafe, A; Mortazavi, S M J; Joharnia, A; Safaeyan, Gh H

    2016-09-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  16. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  17. [Risk assessment of quaternary groundwater contamination in Beijing Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Li, Yu; Xu, Liang; Li, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Qing; Xu, Miao-Juan

    2014-02-01

    Firstly, advances in investigation and evaluation of groundwater pollution in China in the last decade were presented, and several issues in the field which hinder the development of groundwater environment were pointed out. Then, four key concepts in risk assessment of groundwater pollution were briefly described with more emphasis on the difference between groundwater pollution assessment and groundwater quality assessment in this paper. After that, a method on risk assessment of groundwater pollution which included four indicators, the pollution assessment, the quality assessment, the vulnerability and the pollution load of groundwater, was presented based on the regional characteristics of Beijing Plain. Also, AHP and expert scoring method were applied to determine the weight of the four evaluation factors. Finally, the application of this method in Beijing Plain showed the area with high, relative high, medium, relative low and low risk of groundwater contamination was 1 232.1 km2, 699.3 km2, 1 951.4 km, 2 644 km2, and 133.2 km2, respectively. The study results showed that the higher risk in the western region was likely caused by the higher pollution load and its higher vulnerability, while the relatively high risk in the southeast of Beijing plain area, the Tongzhou District, is mainly caused by historical pollution sources.

  18. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, Adrian H., E-mail: adgallardo@geowater.com.au [CONICET (Argentina National Scientific and Technical Research Council), San Luis National University, FCFMyN, Department of Geology, San Luis 5700 (Argentina); Marui, Atsunao [AIST Geological Survey of Japan, Geo-Resources and Environment Institute, Groundwater Research Group, Ibaraki-ken, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. - Highlights: • Measures are being undertaken to manage groundwater contamination in Fukushima. • Methods focus on isolating the source and controlling the radionuclides migration. • Wastewater is being temporarily held in tanks for treatment. • Impervious walls inhibit the transport of contaminants toward the ocean. • Paving and pumping further mitigate the dispersion of pollutants by water.

  19. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  20. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  1. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  2. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future.

  3. 210Po in Nevada groundwater and its relation to gross alpha radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Polonium-210 (210Po) is a highly toxic alpha emitter that is rarely found in groundwater at activities exceeding 1 pCi/L. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells in Lahontan Valley in Churchill County in northern Nevada, United States, ranged from 0.01 ± 0.005 to 178 ± 16 pCi/L with a median activity of 2.88 pCi/L. Wells with high 210Po activities had low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.1 mg/L) and commonly had pH greater than 9. Lead-210 activities are low and aqueous 210Po is unsupported by 210Pb, indicating that the 210Po is mobilized from aquifer sediments. The only significant contributors to alpha particle activity in Lahontan Valley groundwater are 234/238U, 222Rn, and 210Po. Radon-222 activities were below 1000 pCi/L and were uncorrelated with 210Po activity. The only applicable drinking water standard for 210Po in the United States is the adjusted gross alpha radioactivity (GAR) standard of 15 pCi/L. 210Po was not volatile in a Nevada well, but volatile 210Po has been reported in a Florida well. Additional information on the volatility of 210Po is needed because GAR is an inappropriate method to screen for volatile radionuclides. About 25% of the samples had 210Po activities that exceed the level associated with a lifetime total cancer risk of 1× 10−4 (1.1 pCi/L) without exceeding the GAR standard. In cases where the 72-h GAR exceeds the uranium activity by more than 5 to 10 pCi/L, an analysis to rule out the presence of 210Po may be justified to protect human health even though the maximum contaminant level for adjusted GAR is not exceeded.

  4. Environmental impact of radionuclide migration in groundwater from a low-intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The radionuclide migration from a certain Chinese repository withlow-intermediate level radioactive solid waste is studied. The migration in groundwater is analyzed and computed in detail. Under presumption of normal releasing, or the bottom of the repository has been marinated for one month with precipitation reaching 600 mm once and a 6m aerated zone exists, a prediction for 7 radionuclides is conducted. It shows that the aerated zone is the primary barrier for migration. The migration for radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 63Ni, etc. will be retarded in it within 500 years. The concentration of 239Pu will be decreased by amount of 6 order. Only 3H and 14C can migrate through the aerated zone. The radionuclides that go through the aerated zone and enter the aquifer will exist in spring, stream and sea. Based on this, the intake dose by residents in different age group resulting from drinking contaminated spring water, eating seafood is calculated. The results showed that the impact of the repository to the key resident group is lower than the limit in national repository regulation standard. This complies with the repository management target.

  5. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Sonne, Anne Thobo;

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different...... distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity...... and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration...

  6. Distribution of Land Use to Purify Contaminated Groundwater by Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Tase, N.; Fukami, K.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nitrate results from over-fertilizing and/or inadequate disposal of livestock excreta has been large-scale problem in agricultural area. Because nitrate is primarily transported to streams via ground water flow, explaining actual condition of groundwater is needed to propose an effective measure for the conservation and restoration of sound nitrogen cycle in agricultural river catchments. The purpose of this research was to clarify a triangular relationship between the groundwater quality and flow system, river water quality and land use. The experimental field is located on a slope from Tsukuba tableland to bottomland, which is a part of Nishi- Yata River watershed in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The site area is about 0.0675 square kilometers and the altitude varies from 24 m to 19 m. Land use of tableland, bottomland and intermediate between them are forestland, paddy field and cropland, respectively. Groundwater quality and level were monitored for the year 2004. During the study period significant differences were not observed in groundwater ionic concentrations. Relative high concentrations of dissolved nitrate were detected in cropland (3 - 43 mg/l) and forestland (74 - 179 mg/l). It revealed that there was a purification zone in the paddy field and the area around its 2-4m and denitrification eliminates nitrate-nitrogen. The pressure head converted into hydraulics head, and the groundwater flow were calculated. According to the results, it seems that groundwater flow from tableland to the riverbed through bottomland. It is presumed that groundwater cultivated in cropland with chemical fertilizer pass through the purification zone of nitrate. On the other hand, it is assumed that groundwater containing nitrate originated from inadequate disposal of livestock excreta discharge from forestland does not pass through the depth of this spot. It is suggested that considering flow system of groundwater to manage distribution of land use

  7. Nitrate contamination risk assessment in groundwater at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela, Ducci

    2016-04-01

    Nitrate groundwater contamination is widespread in the world, due to the intensive use of fertilizers, to the leaking from the sewage network and to the presence of old septic systems. This research presents a methodology for groundwater contamination risk assessment using thematic maps derived mainly from the land-use map and from statistical data available at the national institutes of statistic (especially demographic and environmental data). The potential nitrate contamination is considered as deriving from three sources: agricultural, urban and periurban. The first one is related to the use of fertilizers. For this reason the land-use map is re-classified on the basis of the crop requirements in terms of fertilizers. The urban source is the possibility of leaks from the sewage network and, consequently, is linked to the anthropogenic pressure, expressed by the population density, weighted on the basis of the mapped urbanized areas of the municipality. The periurban sources include the un-sewered areas, especially present in the periurban context, where illegal sewage connections coexist with on-site sewage disposal (cesspools, septic tanks and pit latrines). The potential nitrate contamination map is produced by overlaying the agricultural, urban and periurban maps. The map combination process is very easy, being an algebraic combination: the output values are the arithmetic average of the input values. The groundwater vulnerability to contamination can be assessed using parametric methods, like DRASTIC or easier, like AVI (that involves a limited numbers of parameters). In most of cases, previous documents produced at regional level can be used. The pollution risk map is obtained by combining the thematic maps of the potential nitrate contamination map and the groundwater contamination vulnerability map. The criterion for the linkages of the different GIS layers is very easy, corresponding to an algebraic combination. The methodology has been successfully

  8. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination: Version 2.0 theory and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.

    1993-06-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (DOE, 1992). The code calculates the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. In Version 2.0, GWSCREEN has incorporated an additional source model to calculate the impacts to groundwater resulting from the release to percolation ponds. In addition, transport of radioactive progeny has also been incorporated. GWSCREEN has shown comparable results when compared against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.

  9. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Linking bacterial diversity and geochemistry of uranium-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kelly; Zholi, Alma; Frabutt, Dylan; Flood, Matthew; Floyd, Dalton; Tiquia, Sonia M

    2012-01-01

    To understand the link between bacterial diversity and geochemistry in uranium-contaminated groundwater, microbial communities were assessed based on clone libraries of 16S rDNA genes from the USDOE Oak Ridge Field Research Centre (FRC) site. Four groundwater wells (GW835, GW836, FW113-47 and FW215-49) with a wide range of pH (3 to 7), nitrate (44 to 23,400 mg L(-1)), uranium (0.73 to 60.36 mg L(-1)) and other metal contamination, were investigated. Results indicated that bacterial diversity correlated with the geochemistry of the groundwater. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. The highly contaminated well (FW113-47) had lower gene diversity than less contaminated wells (FW215-49, GW835 and GW836). The high concentrations of contaminants present in well FW113-47 stimulated the growth of organisms capable of reducing uranium (Shewanella and Pseudomonas), nitrate (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter and Xanthomonas) and iron (Stenotrophomonas), and which were unique to this well. The clone libraries consisted primarily of sequences closely related to the phylum Proteobacteria, with FW-113-47 almost exclusively containing this phylum. Metal-reducing bacteria were present in all four wells, which may suggest that there is potential for successful bioremediation of the groundwater at the Oak Ridge FRC. The microbial community information gained from this study and previous studies at the site can be used to develop predictive multivariate and geographical information system (GIS) based models for microbial populations at the Oak Ridge FRC. This will allow for a better understanding of what organisms are likely to occur where and when, based on geochemistry, and how these organisms relate to bioremediation processes at the site.

  11. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and the possible effects of a hypothetical radioactive water spill, Plainsboro Township, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J.C.; Spitz, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Princeton University, under contract to the Department of Energy , maintains a Tokamak fusion test reactor in New Jersey. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated groundwater flow and estimated the effects of a hypothetical spill of radioactive water at the site on the local groundwater system. The study included test drilling; aquifer testing; measurement of water levels, infiltration capacity, and stream discharge; and a simulation of the hypothetical spill. The Triassic Stockton Formation-a water supply aquifer composed primarily of jointed siltstone and sandstone-underlies the site. The aquifer is confined by overlying weathered bedrock and underlying unjointed rock. Weathered bedrock is overlain by unconsolidated, partially saturated material which ranges from 6 to 39 ft in thickness. Groundwater recharge is by lateral flow into the study area, stream leakage, and precipitation. Discharge is by pumpage, evapotranspiration, stream inflow, and lateral flow out of the study area. Transmissivity of the aquifer is about 1,740 sq ft/day, and the storage coefficient is about 0.0002. The average linear velocity of groundwater at the site ranges from 100 to 270 ft/yr depending on location and time of year. The velocity over a large part of the site is controlled by on-site pumpage. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for common ions, trace metals, and tritium. The analyses reported no concentrations of common ions or trace metals which exceeded the criteria for drinking water standards recommended by the EPA, except for some instances of moderately high concentrations of iron and manganese. Iron and manganese are common in groundwater and surface water in the area and are not indicative of an on-site source of contamination. Tritium concentrations in the collected samples were also considered representative of background levels and were well below the maximum concentration permitted by the EPA. The fate of spilled radioactive water after a hypothetical

  12. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  13. Remediation alternatives for low-level herbicide contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, R.M. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    In early 1995, an evaluation of alternatives for remediation of a shallow groundwater plume containing low-levels of an organic herbicide was conducted at BASF Corporation, a petrochemical facility located in Ascension Parish, Louisiana. The contaminated site is located on an undeveloped portion of property within 1/4 mile of the east bank of the Mississippi River near the community of Geismar. Environmental assessment data indicated that about two acres of the thirty acre site had been contaminated from past waste management practices with the herbicide bentazon. Shallow soils and groundwater between 5 to 15 feet in depth were affected. Maximum concentrations of bentazon in groundwater were less than seven parts per million. To identify potentially feasible remediation alternatives, the environmental assessment data, available research, and cost effectiveness were reviewed. After consideration of a preliminary list of alternatives, only two potentially feasible alternatives could be identified. Groundwater pumping, the most commonly used remediation alternative, followed by carbon adsorption treatment was identified as was a new innovative alternative known as vegetative transpiration. This alternative relies on the natural transpiration processes of vegetation to bioremediate organic contaminants. Advantages identified during screening suggest that the transpiration method could be the best remediation alternative to address both economic and environmental factors. An experiment to test critical factors of the vegetatived transpiration alternative with bentazon was recommended before a final decision on feasibility can be made.

  14. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul L.; Sonne, Anne T.; Balbarini, Nicola; Rosenberg, Louise; Binning, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different distributions of the contaminant plume concentration (Gaussian, homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution) are considered. The model considering the plume discharged through the bank of the river, with a uniform concentration distribution was the most appropriate for risk assessment due to its simplicity and limited data requirements. The dilution and volatilization model is able to predict the entire concentration field, and thus the mixing zone, maximum concentration and fully mixed concentration in the stream. It can also be used to identify groundwater discharge zones from in-stream concentration measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained with existing point source models, with a distributed source leading to a larger mixing length and different concentration field. The dilution model can also provide recommendations for sampling locations and the size of impact zones in streams. This is of interest for regulators, for example when developing guidelines for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

  15. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  16. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Hemme

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301 and contaminated groundwater (FW106 samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion (>55% of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1% lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. These results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.

  17. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-11

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 {micro}g/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 {micro}g/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 {micro}g/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted.

  18. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  19. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  20. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  1. Porosity, Dispersivity, and Contaminant Transport in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOIWO Juana P.

    2001-01-01

    Porosity (n) and Dispersivity (D) were modeled in relation to Solute Transport Time (t) in a saturated, homogeneous, isotropic, unconfined aquifer using the MOC model. It was noted that n and D have an important influence on solute transport time t in groundwater, with a consistently strong and direct relationship between n, D, and t. In the case of porosity, the relationship was found to be directly related to t when other aquifer properties remained unchanged. This was also mathematically argued using a form of the flow equation put forward by Henry Darcy (1856). Dispersivity on the other hand had somehow the same relationship with solute transport time t as porosity, but with much less effect. That is, higher dispersions lead to longer solute transport time within the aquifer system. This was because as the individual solute particles set off from the average seepage velocity, they traversed through longer distances due to tortuosity, mechanical mixing, diffusion, and microscopic heterogeneity latent in the porous media. Also when n and D were co- treated over t, n was noted to be dominant over D with regard t. This follows that the effect of porosity on solute transport time far out shadowed that of dispersivity. Stated in other words, the dispersivity of a substance in any porous medium is to a large extent a function of the porosity of that medium.

  2. Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

    2011-01-01

    A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

  3. Radioactive contamination in Croatia by phosphate fertilizer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bituh, Tomislav [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: tbituh@imi.hr; Marovic, Gordana [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: marovic@imi.hr; Franic, Zdenko [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: franic@imi.hr; Sencar, Jasminka [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: jsencar@imi.hr; Bronzovic, Maja [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Radiation Protection Unit, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: mvrtar@imi.hr

    2009-03-15

    The contents of natural radionuclides (radium, uranium and potassium) were measured in the area of a phosphate fertilizer factory in central Croatia, as a part of extended and still ongoing monitoring program of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia that is performed by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb. Activity concentrations in all analysed media (waste water, trickling water from piezometers, phosphogypsum deposit and final products) considerably fluctuated, especially in phosphogypsum and waste water. Mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in waste phosphogypsum was measured to be 483 {+-} 190 Bq kg{sup -1}. Based on that value, it was estimated that 4 million m{sup 3} of phosphogypsum that have been deposited up to now contain about 4.3 x 10{sup 12} Bq, i.e. about 200 g of {sup 226}Ra. However, effective dose for an adult that would be incurred by consumption of water from nearby wells was estimated to be 5.3 {+-} 1.3 {mu}Sv. The results show that {sup 226}Ra activities cause effective doses, which are below the recommended maximum as the estimated annual {sup 226}Ra effective dose does not exceed 0.1 mSv as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  4. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using nanocatalyst and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Seo, Hyunhee; Sun, Eunyoung; Kim, Inseon; Roh, Yul

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the remediation of trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater using both a nanocatalyst (bio-Zn-magnetite) and bacterium (similar to Clostridium quinii) in anoxic environments. Of the 7 nanocatalysts tested, bio-Zn-magnetite showed the highest TCE dechlorination efficiency, with an average of ca. 90% within 8 days in a batch experiment. The column tests confirmed that the application of bio-Zn-magnetite in combination with the bacterium achieved high degradation efficiency (ca. 90%) of TCE within 5 days compared to the nanocatalyst only, which degraded only 30% of the TCE. These results suggest that the application of a nanocatalyst and the bacterium have potential for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater in subsurface environments.

  5. Biostimulation-enhanced Biodegradation of Nitrobenzene in Contaminated Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yong-lei; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHANG Lei; GAO Huan-fang

    2012-01-01

    In this study,biostimulation technology was used for bioremediation of nitrobenzene-contaminated groundwater by adding a mixture of lactose and phosphate,peptone,and beef extract.During the process of biostimulation,the remediation effectiveness,microbial dehydrogenase activities and microbial densities were investigated;the varieties of microbial community structure and composition were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(PCR-DGGE) technique and the relative abundances of nitrobenzene-degrading gene(nbzA) were determined by fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR(RT-PCR).Findings show that the removal rate of nitrobenzene in groundwater could reach about 60% by biostimulation with lactose and phosphate,70% with peptone and 68% with beef extract.The microbial dehydrogenase activities and microbial densities were all improved obviously via biostimulation.The results of PCR-DGGE show that the microbial diversities were improved,and more than ten kinds of dominant microorganisms were detected after biostimulation.RT-PCR results show that the relative abundances of nbzA gene of microbes in groundwater were increased significantly,which indicated that biostimulation actually enhanced the growth of nitrobenzene-degrading bacteria.Therefore,biostimulation is a cost-effective and feasible bioremediation technique for nitrobenzene-contaminated groundwater.

  6. Investigating groundwater arsenic contamination using aquifer push-pull test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, A. R.; Jin, Q.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater of the Southern Willamette Basin, OR is contaminated with arsenic at concentrations as high as several ppm. A single-well push-pull test was conducted to investigate how microbial metabolisms control arsenic occurrence and levels in the bedrock aquifer of the area. During the experiments, a test solution containing ethanol was first injected into the aquifer. As the experiment progressed, dissolved gasses, groundwater, and sediment were sampled to monitor the variations in the chemical parameters, including the speciation of iron, sulfur, and arsenic, in the aquifer. Ethanol amendment stimulated a series of microbial metabolisms, including arsenate reduction, iron reduction, and sulfate reduction. Iron reduction released arsenic sorbed onto the aquifer sediments, increasing groundwater arsenic levels. Arsenate reduction converted arsenate to arsenite and, as a result, most arsenic occurred as arsenite in the groundwater. Results of the experiments demonstrate how different microbial functional groups influenced arsenic contamination in the area. These results also shed new light on potential bioremediation strategies in the area.

  7. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  8. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  9. Metaldehyde and its relationship with groundwater contamination and landfill leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, Max

    2014-01-01

    Increasing attention is directed towards many chemicals and microbial constituents which have not been historically considered as contaminants. These “emerging contaminants” are commonly derived from municipal, agricultural and industrial wastewater sources and pathways. Among others, metaldehyde, a widely used molluscicide, has been detected in groundwater at levels exceeding the 0.1 μg L-1[microgram per liter] limit required by the Water Framework Directive. This has raise...

  10. Mapping organic contaminant plumes in groundwater using spontaneous potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Sarah

    Increased water demands have raised awareness of its importance. One of the challenges facing water resource management is dealing with contaminated groundwater; delineating, characterizing and remediating it. In the last decade, spontaneous potentials have been proposed as a method for delineating degrading organic contaminant plumes in groundwater. A hypothesis proposed that the redox potential gradient due to degradation of contaminants generated an electrical potential gradient that could be measured at the ground surface. This research was undertaken to better understand this phenomenon and find under what conditions it occurs. Spontaneous potentials are electrical potentials generated by three sources that act simultaneously: electrokinetic, thermoelectric and electrochemical sources. Over contaminant plumes electrochemical sources are those of interest. Thermoelectric sources are negligible unless in geothermal areas, but we hypothesized that electrokinetic potentials could be impacted by contaminants altering sediment surface properties. We built and calibrated a laboratory apparatus to make measurements that allowed us to calculate streaming current coupling coefficients. We tested sediment from hydrocarbon impacted sites with clean and hydrocarbon polluted groundwater and found a measurable though inconsistent effect. Moreover, numerical modelling was used to demonstrate that the impact of these changes on field measurements was negligible. Spontaneous potential surveys were conducted on two field sites with well characterized degrading hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater. We did not find a correlation between redox conditions and spontaneous potential, even after the electrical measurements were corrected for anthropogenic noise. In order to determine why the expected signal was not seen, we undertook numerical modelling based on coupled fluxes using two hypothesized types of current: redox and diffusion currents. The only scenarios that produced

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  12. Investigating the contamination of accelerated radioactive beams with an ionization chamber at MINIBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Zidarova, Radostina

    2017-01-01

    My summer student project involved the operation and calibration of an ionization chamber, which was used at MINIBALL for investigating and determining the contamination in post-accelerated radioactive beams used for Coulomb excitation and transfer reaction experiments.

  13. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Subba Rao

    2014-06-01

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO$^{−}_{3}$, Cl−, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, NO$^{−}_{3}$ and F−, into two orthogonal principal components (PC1 and PC2), accounting for 75% of the total variance of the data matrix. PC1 has high positive loadings of EC, Na+, Cl−, SO$^{2−}_{4}$, Mg2+ and Ca2+, representing a salinity controlled process of geogenic (mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation), anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine (marine clay) origin. The PC2 loadings are highly positive for HCO$^{−}_{3}$, F−, pH and NO$^{−}_{3}$, attributing to the alkalinity and pollution controlled processes of geogenic and anthropogenic origins. The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin from upstream to downstream area with an increase in concentration of chemical variables, which is due to anthropogenic and marine origins with varying topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the groundwater quality shows a variation of chemical facies from Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+: HCO$^{−}_{3}$ > Cl− > SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > NO$^{−}_{3}$ > F− at high topography to Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+: Cl− > HCO$^{−}_{3}$ > SO$^{2−}_{4}$ > NO$^{−}_{3}$ > F− at low topography. With PCA, an effective tool for the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, a subset of explored wells is indexed for continuous monitoring to optimize the expensive effort.

  14. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  15. Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Tanahara, Akira; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The release of radioactive materials due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised concern regarding the biological impacts of ingesting radioactively contaminated diets on organisms. We previously performed an internal exposure experiment in which contaminated leaves collected from polluted areas were fed to larvae of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from Okinawa, which is one of the least polluted localities in Japan. Using the same experimental system, in the pr...

  16. Dalgety Bay: Managing the risks from historic radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, P. [Scottish Environment Protection Agency (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Discrete radioactive items have been detected on a public beach at Dalgety Bay, Fife near Edinburgh, Scotland since 1990. Dalgety Bay is a New town built on the site of a former military airfield which serviced and decommissioned planes between 1917 and 1959. In 2011, monitoring of the affected foreshore reported hundreds of radium sources on the beach with activities up to 76 MBq. Immediate actions included closure of part of the beach, additional signs and an intensification of the monitoring and recovery programme. In order to determine the potential source and magnitude of the problem a programme of investigation was commissioned by both SEPA and the UK's Ministry of Defence MoD. The investigation programme revealed that the coastline at parts of the bay was made largely of ash and clinker the result of burning of wastes at the time the air base was operational. The depth of these deposits is variable but at times can be metres thick and extent several metres inland. This made ground contained radium sources which were being exposed on the foreshore as marine action eroded the coastline. Current monitoring and recovery programmes continue to recover over 100 sources each month from the beach which is around 800 m long in entirety. The potential health consequences of encountering such a source ranged according to the potential exposure scenario. For walkers passing through the area the external doses are practically zero, however if people remove material either inadvertently or deliberately doses from skin contact can be significant. For the skin doses initial estimates of doses have indicated that the dose rates were around 1 Gray per hour per MBq (to 1 cm{sup 2} ) to the 70 micron skin thickness recommended by ICRP[1] (ICRP, 89). For ingestion doses can be in excess of 100 mSv. The major variables defining the committed effective dose are the initial activity and the diverse range in solubility which is from zero to 36%. The potential doses to date give

  17. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  18. Robust decision analysis for environmental management of groundwater contamination sites

    CERN Document Server

    Vesselinov, Velimir V; Katzman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to many other engineering fields, the uncertainties in subsurface processes (e.g., fluid flow and contaminant transport in aquifers) and their parameters are notoriously difficult to observe, measure, and characterize. This causes severe uncertainties that need to be addressed in any decision analysis related to optimal management and remediation of groundwater contamination sites. Furthermore, decision analyses typically rely heavily on complex data analyses and/or model predictions, which are often poorly constrained as well. Recently, we have developed a model-driven decision-support framework (called MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov) for the management and remediation of subsurface contamination sites in which severe uncertainties and complex physics-based models are coupled to perform scientifically defensible decision analyses. The decision analyses are based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT). We demonstrate the MADS capabilities by solving a decision problem related to optimal monitoring ...

  19. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  1. Multiple Factor Analysis and k-Means Clustering-Based Classification of the DOE Groundwater Contaminant Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Hazen, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    A proper classification of the plume characteristics is critical for selecting the most suitable characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. To perform a statistical analysis of the different groundwater plume characteristics, we used the DOE Groundwater Database, including 221 groundwater plumes located at 60 DOE sites. To classify the plume characteristics, we used a multiple factor analysis (MFA), including a principal component analysis (PCA) of quantitative plume characteristics and a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of qualitative plume characteristics. The input parameters used for the statistical analysis are: the presence of eight types of contaminant groups—chlorinated hydrocarbons, fuels, explosives, sulfates, nitrates, metals, tritium, and radioisotopes; a number and associations of contaminant groups; a contamination severity index (based on the association of contaminant groups and complexity of remediation); contaminant mass and plume volumes; groundwater depth and velocities; and climatic conditions. The input variables are also partitioned into the active and supplementary plume characteristics. Statistical results include the evaluation of the correlation matrix between the groups of variables and individual plume characteristics. From the results of the MFA, the first four factors can be used to describe the variability of the basic plume characteristics. The contaminant severity index and the number of contaminant groups provide a major contribution to the 1st factor; the types of contaminant groups and carbon tetrachloride concentrations provide the major contribution to the 2nd factor. The contribution of the supplementary data (climate and plume depth and velocity) is insignificant. The presence of radioactive contaminants is mostly related to the 1st factor; the presence of sulfates, and to a lesser degree the presence of nitrates and metals, is related to the 2nd factor. The strongest relationship is, as expected

  2. Emerging contaminants in urban groundwater sources in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Nkhuwa, D C W; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bell, R A; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Chibesa, M; Pedley, S

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic contaminants within the aquatic environment in Africa is currently unknown. This study provides early insights by characterising a broad range of emerging organic contaminants (n > 1000) in groundwater sources in Kabwe, Zambia. Groundwater samples were obtained during both the dry and wet seasons from a selection of deep boreholes and shallow wells completed within the bedrock and overlying superficial aquifers, respectively. Groundwater sources were distributed across the city to encompass peri-urban, lower cost housing, higher cost housing, and industrial land uses. The insect repellent DEET was ubiquitous within groundwater at concentrations up to 1.8 μg/L. Other compounds (n = 26) were detected in less than 15% of the sources and included the bactericide triclosan (up to 0.03 μg/L), chlorination by-products - trihalomethanes (up to 50 μg/L), and the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (up to 0.6 μg/L). Emerging contaminants were most prevalent in shallow wells sited in low cost housing areas. This is attributed to localised vulnerability associated with inadequate well protection, sanitation, and household waste disposal. The five-fold increase in median DEET concentration following the onset of the seasonal rains highlights that more mobile compounds can rapidly migrate from the surface to the aquifer suggesting the aquifer is more vulnerable than previously considered. Furthermore it suggests DEET is potentially useful as a wastewater tracer in Africa. There was a general absence of personal care products, life-style compounds, and pharmaceuticals which are commonly detected in the aquatic environment in the developed world. This perhaps reflects some degree of attenuation within the subsurface, but could also be a result of the current limited use of products containing emerging contaminants by locals due to unaffordability and unavailability. As development and population increases in Africa, it is

  3. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  4. Methodological guide: management of industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances; Guide methodologique: gestion des sites industriels potentiellement contamines par des substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    At the request of the Ministries of Health and the Environment, IPSN is preparing and publishing the first version of the methodological guide devoted to managing industrial sites potentially contaminated by radioactive substances. This guide describes a procedure for defining and choosing strategies for rehabilitating such industrial sites. (author)

  5. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  6. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  7. Remediation of subsurface and groundwater contamination with uranium from fuel fabrication facilities at Hanau (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, Olaf; Thierfeldt, Stefan [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Hummel, Lothar [TUV Sud AG, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents aspects of site decommissioning and clearance of a former fuel fabrication facility (development and production of fuel assemblies for research reactors and HTR) at Hanau (Germany). The main pathways for environmental contamination were deposition on soil surface and topsoil and pollution of deep soil and the aquifer by waste water channel leakage. Soil excavation could be done by classical excavator techniques. An effective removal of material from the saturated zone was possible by using advanced drilling techniques. A large amount of demolished building structure and excavated soil had to be classified. Therefore the use of conveyor detector was necessary. Nearly 100000 Mg of material (excavated soil and demolished building material) were disposed of at an underground mine. A remaining volume of 700 m{sup 3} was classified as radioactive waste. Site clearance started in 2006. Groundwater remediation and monitoring is still ongoing, but has already provided excellent results by reducing the remaining Uranium considerably. (authors)

  8. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  9. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  10. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. H...... from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter....

  11. Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Hamadan Nuclear Medicine Centers Using Wipe Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rostampour

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: In centers 1 and 2, most of the radioactive contamination occurred under the hood due to labeling of radiopharmaceuticals activity. Also, in center 3, the highest contamination rate belonged to patients’ corridor that could be due to frequent the area. According to this subject, necessary measures in this regard should be considered by the department responsible for health physics.

  12. Radioactive contamination of {sup 7}LiI(Eu) crystal scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.it [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Budakovsky, S.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F. [INFN sezione Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); D' Angelo, S. [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); and others

    2013-03-11

    The radioactive contamination of two 26 g samples of low background lithium iodide crystal scintillators doped by europium and enriched in {sup 7}Li to 99.9% ({sup 7}LiI(Eu)) has been investigated by scintillation method at the sea level, and by ultra-low background HPGe γ spectrometry deep underground. No radioactive contamination was detected. In particular, the contamination of the crystal scintillators by {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th does not exceed 1 mBq/kg, and the activity of {sup 40}K is less than 0.5 Bq/kg.

  13. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  14. Assessment of Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater in Korea Using a Mathematical Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Kim, M.; Lee, K.

    2005-12-01

    According to the nationwide groundwater monitoring system, nitrate is one of the major contaminants found in groundwater in Korea. Septic systems, animal waste and fertilizer are potential sources of nitrate contamination. There have been a growing number of studies on identification of the source of nitrate contamination of groundwater at agricultural sites, or analysis of the groundwater contamination at intensive livestock facilities. However, there have been a few studies on linkage between the surface loading of nitrate sources and the level of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study is to assess the groundwater contamination with nitrate resulted from current agricultural practices, and the potential impacts of changes in the practices on the groundwater contamination by using a mathematical model. An integrated modeling framework incorporating the nitrogen leaching model, LEACHN, and mass transport model, RT3D linked to MODFLOW was used to account for the fate and transport of nitrate through soil and groundwater. Data were collected from different areas so that they could represent the condition of agricultural sites in Korea. The groundwater nitrate contamination was assessed for different crops and soil types under varying fertilization rates and manure application.

  15. Screening of French groundwater for regulated and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Ollivier, Patrick; Togola, Anne; Baran, Nicole; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-15

    Nationwide screening of 411 emerging contaminants and other regulated compounds, including parent molecules and transformation products (TPs) having various uses and origins, was done at 494 groundwater sites throughout France during two sampling campaigns in the Spring and the Fall of 2011. One hundred and eighty substances (44% of the targeted compounds) were quantified in at least one sampling point. These included pharmaceuticals, industrial products, pesticides, their transformation products and other emerging compounds. Fifty-five compounds were quantified in more than 1% of the samples. Both regulated and emerging compounds were found. Among the unregulated compounds, acetaminophen, carbamazepine, perfluorinated compounds, dioxins/furans, tolyltriazole, bisphenol A, triazine transformation products, and caffeine were quantified in more than 10% of the samples analyzed. Concentrations exceeding the threshold of toxicological concern of 0.1 μg/L were found for tolyltriazole, bisphenol A and some of the triazine transformation products (DEDIA). These new results should help the water resource managers and environmental regulators develop sound policies regarding the occurrence and distribution of regulated and emerging contaminants in groundwater.

  16. Tools for modeling radioactive contaminants in chip materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, F.; Kaouache, A.; Saigné, F.; Touboul, A. D.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Warot, G.; Bruguier, O.

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive pollutants are naturally present in microelectronic device materials and can be an issue for the reliability of devices. The main concern is alpha emitters that produce high-energy particles (a few MeV) that ionize the semiconductor and then trigger soft errors. The question is to know what kinds of radionuclides are present in the device, their location in the device and the abundance of each species. In this paper we describe tools that are required to address the issue of radioactive pollutants in electronic devices.

  17. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  18. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  19. Recent advances in the bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Anastasios I; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A

    2005-02-01

    The biological treatment of groundwater is used primarily to remove electron donors from water sources, providing (biologically) stable drinking water, which preclude bacterial regrowth during subsequent water distribution. To the electron donors belong also the dissolved metal cations of ferrous iron and manganese, which are common contaminants found in most (anaerobic) groundwater. The removal of iron and manganese is usually accomplished by the application of chemical oxidation and filtration. However, biological oxidation has recently gained increased importance and application due to the existence of certain advantages, over the conventional physicochemical treatment. The oxidation of iron and manganese is accelerated by the presence of certain indigenous bacteria, the so-called "iron and manganese oxidizing bacteria." In the present paper, selected long-term experimental results will be presented, regarding the bioremediation of natural groundwater, containing elevated concentrations of iron and arsenic. Arsenic is considered as a primary pollutant in drinking water due to its high toxicity. Therefore, its efficient removal from natural waters intended for drinking water is considered of great importance. The application of biological processes for the oxidation and removal of dissolved iron was found to be an efficient treatment technique for the simultaneous removal of arsenic, from initial concentrations between 60 and 80 microg/l to residual (effluent) arsenic concentrations lower than the limit of 10 microg/l. The paper was focused on the removal of As(III) as the most common species in anaerobic groundwater and generally is removed less efficiently than the oxidized form of As(V). To obtain information for the mechanism of As(III) removal, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were applied and it was found that As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V), which enabled the high arsenic removal efficiency over a treatment period of 10 months.

  20. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  1. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  2. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  3. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic an

  4. Transport of reactive colloids and contaminants in groundwater: effect of nonlinear kinetic interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.; Leijnse, A.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Transport of reactive colloids in groundwater may enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater. Often, the interpretation of results of transport experiments is not a simple task as both reactions of colloids with the solid matrix and reactions of contaminants with the solid matrix and

  5. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  6. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  7. Local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium at a farm in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive cesium concentration in soil was measured at 27 sections with 5 points per section, and surface dose of ground was measured at 10 sections with 13 points per section at a farm in Fukushima to assess local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium. As for the cesium in soil, averages of the coefficient of variance (CV) and the maximum/minimum ratio in each section were 49% and 4.9, respectively. As for the surface dose, average of its CV in each section was 20% and the maximum/minimum ratio reached a maximum of 3.0. These findings suggest that exact evaluation of soil contamination with cesium is difficult. Small changes or differences in soil contamination may not be detected in studies of the environmental radioactivity.

  8. Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period April, May, June 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paas, H.J.; Singlevich, W.

    1950-04-03

    This report summarizes the measurements made for radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the quarter April through June 1949. This belated document is issued for the records to fill in the gap for the quarterly reports not issued in 1949 because of personnel shortage at that time. Although the data summarized in this report were already reported in the H. I. Evirons Reports for the months involved, it is still of value to study the data combining the three months of data which give better opportunity to evaluate the trends and patterns of the levels of radioactive contamination emanating from the various sources at the Hanford Works. This document discusses: meteorological data and radioactive contamination in vegetation, the atmosphere, rain, Hanford wastes, the Columbia River, and in drinking water and test wells.

  9. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bq g{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behaviour patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size. (author).

  10. An investigation of awareness on the Fukushima nuclear accident and Radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Chul; Song, Young Ju [Dept. of Consumer Safety, Korea Consumer Agency, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate Korean people's awareness about impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan and radioactive contamination caused by it. The respondents of the survey were 600 adults who resided in the Seoul metropolitan area. The survey results show that the majority of respondents were concerned about impact of radiation leakage that might have an effect on our environment. They were worried about radioactive contamination of foodstuffs, particularly fishery products and preferred to acquire information through TV(49.8%) or the Internet(31.3%). Meanwhile, respondents mentioned that the information on the Fukushima nuclear accident and radioactive contamination had not been sufficient and they didn't know well about the follow-up measures of the government on the accident. Most respondents answered that information on radioactive contamination levels and safety of foods and environment was most needed. The results of this study could be useful to enhance awareness on radioactivity and improve risk communication on nuclear power plant accidents.

  11. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, arsenic (As contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the population density is very high. The Terai inhabitants still use hand tube and dug wells (with hand held pumps that are bored at shallow to medium depth for their daily water requirements, including drinking water. The National Sanitation Steering Committee (NSSC, with the help of many other organizations, has completed arsenic blanket test in 25 districts of Nepal by analysing 737,009 groundwater samples. Several organizations, including academic institutions, made an effort to determine the levels of arsenic concentrations in groundwater and their consequences in Nepal. The results of the analyses on 25,058 samples tested in 20 districts, published in the status report of arsenic in Nepal (2003, demonstrated that the 23% of the samples were containing 10–50 µg/L of As, and the 8% of the samples were containing more than 50 µg/L of As. Recent status of over 737,009 samples tested, the 7.9% and 2.3% were contaminated by 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L, respectively of As. The present paper examines the various techniques available for the reduction of arsenic concentrations in Nepal in combination with the main results achieved, the socio-economic status and the strategies. This paper aims to comprehensively compile all existing data sets and analyze them scientifically, by trying to suggest a common sustainable approach for identifying the As contamination in the nation, that can be easily adopted by local communities for developing a sustainable society. The paper aims also to find probable solutions to quantify and mitigate As problem without any external support. The outcome of this paper will ultimately help to identify various ways for: identify risk areas; develop awareness; adopt

  12. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  13. Radioactivity in rocks and soil and interaction with groundwater in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamsi, Dalal; Murad, Ahmed; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin; El Saiy, Ayman

    2014-05-01

    Interaction of groundwater with soil and rocks changes the chemical composition of the water both spatially and temporally. In arid regions, surficial recharge of groundwater is generally limited to sporadic rainfall events which may cause rapid interaction between the recharge water and the aquifers materials. Among the elements that commonly increase in concentration as groundwater interact with the aquifer materials are the radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium and their decay chain products. Here, we present data on 235U, 238U, 232Th as well as 137Cs in some sediments and rock aquifers located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in southeastern Arabian Peninsula. The Quaternary sediments are composed of silt, sand and gravel with varying proportions of quartz, carbonates, feldspars, evaporites, while the carbonates are mainly limestones, dolomitic limestones, dolomite and calcareous mudstones. These carbonate rocks cover ages extending from 10-230 Myr. After complete digestion using fluoric and nitric acids and chemical separation, the isotopes were measured using ICP-MS. The 235U, 238U and 232Th concentrations ranges are 2.66-32.5 ng/g, 354.7-4453 ng/g and 13.2-1367 ng/g respectively in the carbonate rocks. In the sediments the concentrations are 4.6-17.5 ng/g for 235U, 631.7-2406 ng/g for 238U and 25.6-799.6 ng/g for 232Th. Although it is difficult to quantify the amounts of uranium isotopes that enter the hydrological system from the aquifers, it seems that in the presence of carboxyl ions, uranium forms highly soluble complexes which can be transported to large distances in groundwater. The variations in 232Th concentrations are probably controlled by the availability of sulfate salt rocks (like gypsum) interacting with thorium and forming soluble thorium compounds which can also explain the highly variable concentrations in groundwater.

  14. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van, E-mail: msbatalha@oi.com.b, E-mail: rvangenuchten@yahoo.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Bezerra, Camila Rosa, E-mail: camila.rosabz@gmail.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  15. Predicting geogenic arsenic contamination in shallow groundwater of south Louisiana, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningfang; Winkel, Lenny H E; Johannesson, Karen H

    2014-05-20

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) threatens the health of more than 140 million people worldwide. Previous studies indicate that geology and sedimentary depositional environments are important factors controlling groundwater As contamination. The Mississippi River delta has broadly similar geology and sedimentary depositional environments to the large deltas in South and Southeast Asia, which are severely affected by geogenic As contamination and therefore may also be vulnerable to groundwater As contamination. In this study, logistic regression is used to develop a probability model based on surface hydrology, soil properties, geology, and sedimentary depositional environments. The model is calibrated using 3286 aggregated and binary-coded groundwater As concentration measurements from Bangladesh and verified using 78 As measurements from south Louisiana. The model's predictions are in good agreement with the known spatial distribution of groundwater As contamination of Bangladesh, and the predictions also indicate high risk of As contamination in shallow groundwater from Holocene sediments of south Louisiana. Furthermore, the model correctly predicted 79% of the existing shallow groundwater As measurements in the study region, indicating good performance of the model in predicting groundwater As contamination in shallow aquifers of south Louisiana.

  16. The Present Situation and Countermeasures of Groundwater Contamination in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, Shizuo; Tang, Changyuan

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] Since 1982, thousands of groundwater pollution cases have been found in Japan. In order to improve the groundwater quality, Japan has developed strategies for protection of groundwater. In this paper, authors try to explain the present of groundwater use, groundwater pollution and remediation methods in Japan. From the results shown in this paper, it can be found that groundwater pollution problem has become very serious in Japan. Even many efforts have been made to improve the sit...

  17. Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation.

  18. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground

  19. A studies on characteristics of groundwater system in discontinuous rockmass for evaluation of safety on disposal site of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Kim, Kyu Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Lee, Chee Hyeong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    This study contains the development of numerical model of groundwater system and its application for the evaluation of safety in disposal site of radioactive waste. Through the identification of hydraulic properties, characteristics of discontinuity and selection of discontinuity model around LPG underground storage facility, the application of continuum model and discrete fracture network model was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater flow and solute transport.

  20. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-03-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  1. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-06-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  2. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  3. Natural radioactivity levels in granitic plutons and groundwaters in Southeast part of Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Gültekin, A H; Karahan, G; Celebi, N

    2005-08-01

    The present work investigated the radioactivity level of the granitoid plutons and its effect on the groundwaters in the southeast part of Eskisehir. Fourteen granitic samples from the Kaymaz and Sivrihisar plutons and 11 groundwater samples from the near vicinity of the pluton were analyzed. The activity concentrations measured for (238)U and (232)Th ranged from 43.59+/-2 to 651.80+/-24 Bq/kg, and 51.16+/-3 to 351.94+/-13 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentrations obtained for (40)K varied from 418.50+/-17 to 1618.03+/-66 Bq/kg. The absorbed dose rates in air outdoors ranged from 87.14 to 531.81 nGy/h. All the results obtained from the Kaymaz pluton are higher than those from the Sivrihisar. The U (ave. 16.6 ppm) and Th (ave. 49.9 ppm) values of the Kaymaz pluton are higher than the average concentrations of the magmatic rocks of granitic composition. These results are consistent with high dose rates of the pluton. The gross-alpha activities in the groundwater samples ranged from 0.009 to 1.64 Bq/l and the gross-beta activities from 0.006 to 0.89 Bq/l. The highest gross-alpha value was found in the sample taken from near the Kaymaz pluton. The concentrations of (222)Rn varied from 0.060 to 0.557 Bq/l.

  4. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as atool for decision makers and planners and constitutes a basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas....

  5. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  6. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  7. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  8. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T. [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I. [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A. [Scientific Production Association ``Typhoon``, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  9. Remediation of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs by biodegradable oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Kwon, Tae-Soon; Yang, Jung-Seok; Yang, Ji-Won

    2007-02-01

    Emulsion-based remediation with biodegradable vegetable oils was investigated as an alternative technology for the treatment of subsurface DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) such as TCE (trichloroethylene) and PCE (perchloroethylene). Corn and olive oil emulsions obtained by homogenization at 8000rpm for 15min were used. The emulsion droplets prepared with corn and olive oil gave a similar size distribution (1-10microm) and almost all of initially injected oil, >90%, remained in a dispersed state. In batch experiments, 2% (v/v) oil emulsion could adsorb up to 11,000ppm of TCE or 18,000ppm of PCE without creating a free phase. Results of one-dimensional column flushing studies indicated that contaminants with high aqueous solubility could be efficiently removed by flushing with vegetable oil emulsions. Removal efficiencies exceeded 98% for TCE and PCE with both corn and olive oil emulsions. The results of this study show that flushing with biodegradable oil emulsion can be used for the remediation of groundwater contaminated by DNAPLs.

  10. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talerko, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available 137Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The 137Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  11. Mesoscale modelling of radioactive contamination formation in Ukraine caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, Nikolai [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, 53 Melnikov Street, Kyiv 04050 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nick@rpi.kiev.ua

    2005-03-01

    This work is devoted to the reconstruction of time-dependent radioactive contamination fields in the territory of Ukraine in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident using the model of atmospheric transport LEDI (Lagrangian-Eulerian DIffusion model). The modelling results were compared with available {sup 137}Cs air and ground contamination measurement data. The {sup 137}Cs atmospheric transport over the territory of Ukraine was simulated during the first 12 days after the accident (from 26 April to 7 May 1986) using real aerological information and rain measurement network data. The detailed scenario of the release from the accidental unit of the Chernobyl nuclear plant has been built (including time-dependent radioactivity release intensity and time-varied height of the release). The calculations have enabled to explain the main features of spatial and temporal variations of radioactive contamination fields over the territory of Ukraine on the regional scale, including the formation of the major large-scale spots of radioactive contamination caused by dry and wet deposition.

  12. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  13. Radioactive Contamination Tenacity on Building Substrate – 17417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick; Boxall, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Radiological decontamination is an essential enterprise that has become more important over the last four decades due to unfortunate accidents and the threat of terrorist actions. Decontamination can be an effective, beneficial alternative for the cleanup of radiological contamination events; however, the costs and benefits need to be balanced against those for complete removal and demolition of contaminated areas or facilities. Demolition and removal are often the first options considered in such circumstances as decontamination may be thought of as slow and costly. Decontamination has advantages, including significant waste reduction over demolition. In areas with buildings of cultural or societal importance, demolition may not be an option. Three decontamination evaluation test series are the focus of this article: SIMCON 1 and 2 (i.e., simulated contamination), and Urban RDD (radiological dispersal device, i.e., a dirty bomb detonation). These test series revealed that different contaminants respond differently during decontamination. This was found to be true with both SIMCON and Urban RDD simulant tests. SIMCON 2 especially demonstrated that chemically different contaminants respond differently to different decontamination methods: cesium appears to be less tenacious (more easily removed) than zirconium using chemical methods. These differences were underscored by the Urban RDD tests where americium and cobalt tended to precipitate on high pH surfaces (such as concrete), making them easier to remove, while cesium and strontium were essentially unaffected by surface pH and were imbibed more strongly into the substrate pore structure. While authorities argue over the contributions of contaminant chemistry and substrate morphology, the clear answer is that each has a contribution to the tenacity of a contaminant. Knowing how these characteristics interact will make us better at decontamination in the field. This knowledge refutes the efforts of perhaps well

  14. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination; Caracterisation de mousses dulcaquicoles comme indicateurs de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    1994-12-16

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Building classification trees to explain the radioactive contamination levels of the plants; Construction d'arbres de discrimination pour expliquer les niveaux de contamination radioactive des vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, B

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this thesis is the development of a method allowing the identification of factors leading to various radioactive contamination levels of the plants. The methodology suggested is based on the use of a radioecological transfer model of the radionuclides through the environment (A.S.T.R.A.L. computer code) and a classification-tree method. Particularly, to avoid the instability problems of classification trees and to preserve the tree structure, a node level stabilizing technique is used. Empirical comparisons are carried out between classification trees built by this method (called R.E.N. method) and those obtained by the C.A.R.T. method. A similarity measure is defined to compare the structure of two classification trees. This measure is used to study the stabilizing performance of the R.E.N. method. The methodology suggested is applied to a simplified contamination scenario. By the results obtained, we can identify the main variables responsible of the various radioactive contamination levels of four leafy-vegetables (lettuce, cabbage, spinach and leek). Some extracted rules from these classification trees can be usable in a post-accidental context. (author)

  17. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  18. Survey on radioactive contamination in Beijing following the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Wan, Ling; Ma, Yongzhong; Li, Huijuan; Meng, Qinghua; Kong, Yuxia; Zhu, Weijie; Wu, Dapeng; Cui, Limeng

    2013-09-01

    The radioactive contamination in Beijing caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident was monitored. In this research, samples of air, rainwater, surface water and vegetables in Beijing were collected and measured to estimate the radioactive contamination levels in Beijing. During the period from the 15th to the 41st day after the first emission of radioactive material (first emission) from the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) on 12 March 2011, obvious radioactive contamination was found in the Beijing air samples. The maximum concentration of I-131 was 5.89 mBq m(-3) in the air samples detected on the 22nd day after the first emission, and the maximum concentration of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was found on the 20th day after the first emission. Except for one sample of rainwater, no artificial radionuclides associated with Fukushima were found in surface water. The measurement results showed that there was no harm to the health of local Beijing residents.

  19. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  20. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  1. On the Analytic Estimation of Radioactive Contamination from Degraded Alphas

    CERN Document Server

    Kadel, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The high energy spectrum of alpha particles emitted from a single isotope uniformly contaminating a bulk solid has a flat energy spectrum with a high end cutoff energy equal to the maximal alpha kinetic energy ($T_{\\alpha}$) of the decay. In this flat region of the spectrum, we show the surface rate $r_b\\text{\\,(Bq/keV-cm}^{2})$ arising from a bulk alpha contamination $\\rho_b$ (Bq/cm$^3$) from a single isotope is given by $r_b =\\rho_b \\Delta R/ 4 \\Delta E $, where $\\Delta E = E_1-E_2>0\\ $ is the energy interval considered (keV) in the flat region of the spectrum and $\\Delta R = R_2-R_1$, where $R_2$ ($R_1$) is the amount of the bulk material (cm) necessary to degrade the energy of the alpha from $T_{\\alpha}$ to $E_2$ ($E_1$). We compare our calculation to a rate measurement of alphas from $^{147}$Sm, ($15.32\\%\\,\\pm\\,0.03\\%$ of Sm($nat$) and half life of $(1.06\\,\\pm\\,0.01)\\times\\,10^{11} \\text{yr}$, and find good agreement, with the ratio between prediction to measurement of $100.2\\%\\pm 1.6\\%\\,\\text{(stat)}\\pm...

  2. Biotesting of radioactively contaminated forest soils using barley-based bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

  3. Radioactive contamination in liquid wastes discharged to ground at the separations facilities through December, 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurray, B.J.

    1967-02-15

    This document summarizes the amounts of radioactive contamination discharged to ground from chemical separations and laboratory facilities through December, 1966. Detailed data for individual disposal sites are presented on a month-to-month basis for the period of January through December, 1966. Previous publications of this series are listed in the bibliography and may be referred to for specific information on measurements and radioactivity totals prior to January, 1966. Several changes in crib nomenclature were made during 1965. These changes are noted on the individual tables so reference may be made to them in previous reports.

  4. Migration of contaminants in groundwater at a landfill: A case study. 2. Groundwater monitoring devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J. A.; Gillham, R. W.; Anderson, E. G.; Johnson, P. E.

    1983-05-01

    Six types of devices for groundwater monitoring were used on an experimental basis in the investigation of the plume of contamination in the unconfined sandy aquifer at the Borden landfill. These include: standpipe piezometers, water-table standpipes, an auger-head sampler, suction-type and positive-displacement-type multilevel point-samplers, and bundle-piezometers. With the exception of the first two, each of these devices provides a means of obtaining vertical sample profiles of groundwater from a single borehole. The auger-head sampler, which is a device that is attached to the cutting head of conventional continuous-flight hollow-stem augers, yields samples from relatively undisturbed aquifer zones as the augers are advanced downward in the borehole from one depth of sampling to another. This method is a rapid means of aquiring water-quality profiles for mapping the distribution of a contaminant plume. The other three profiling devices can be used to establish permanent networks for groundwater-quality monitoring. A suction-type multilevel sampler consists of twenty or more narrow polyethylene or polypropylene tubes contained in a PVC casing that is capped at the bottom. Each tube extends to a different depth and is attached to a small screened sampling point that extends through the casing to draw water from the aquifer when suction is applied. A positive-displacement multilevel sampler is similar except that each sampling point is connected to a positive-displacement pumping device located inside the PVC casing adjacent to the screen. Use of the suction-type multilevel sampler is limited to zones where the water table is less than the suction-lift depth of 8 or 9 m. The positive-displacement sampler can be used even if the water table is at a much greater depth. A bundle-piezometer consists of 1.2-cm O.D. flexible polyethylene tubes, each with a short screened section at the bottom, fastened as a bundle around a semi-rigid center-piezometer constructed of

  5. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  6. The radioactive contamination spots on the French territory; Les taches de contamination radioactive sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The principal objective of this work was to produce a document gathering and interpreting the available data about the land and food contamination consecutive to the Chernobyl accident, and giving an evaluation of the sanitary impact resulted from it, by focusing on the the most severe cases. To summarize the average dose received by French populations estimated in 1986 is between less than 0.025 mSv in the west of France and 0.4 mSv in the east. The doses equivalent to the thyroid in 1986 have been evaluated between 0.5 and 2 mSv with maximum values reaching 15 mSv for five years children. for some particular cases the doses calculated could reach values of 1.5 mSv in 1986 and 1 mSv in 1997 (exposure during a long time to contaminated areas and exclusive consumption of contaminated foods). By another way it could be justified to adopt an epidemiological inquiry relative to the thyroid cancers of child in some chosen areas of East of france ( Jura and Corsica for example), in order to answer to the interrogations of the populations and physicists though the doses estimated do not seem to lead to an observable risk excess. (N.C.)

  7. Monitoring ecological recovery in a stream impacted by contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Cada, G.F.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Past in-ground disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. A biological monitoring program initiated in 1984 has evaluated the effectiveness of the extensive remedial actions undertaken to address contamination sources. Elements of the monitoring program included toxicity testing with fish and invertebrates, bioaccumulation monitoring, and instream monitoring of streambed invertebrate and fish communities. In the mid 1980`s, toxicity tests on stream water indicated that the headwaters of the stream were acutely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates as a result of infiltration of a metal-enriched groundwater from ponds used to dispose of acid wastes. Over a twelve year period, measurable toxicity in the headwaters decreased, first becoming non-toxic to larval fish but still toxic to invertebrates, then becoming intermittently toxic to invertebrates. By 1997, episodic toxicity was infrequent at the site that was acutely toxic at the start of the study. Recovery in the fish community followed the pattern of the toxicity tests. Initially, resident fish populations were absent from reaches where toxicity was measured, but as toxicity to fish larvae disappeared, the sites in upper Bear Creek were colonized by fish. The Tennessee dace, an uncommon species receiving special protection by the State of Tennessee, became a numerically important part of the fish population throughout the upper half of the creek, making Bear Creek one of the most significant habitats for this species in the region. Although by 1990 fish populations were comparable to those of similar size reference streams, episodic toxicity in the headwaters coincided with a recruitment failure in 1996. Bioaccumulation monitoring indicated the presence of PCBs and mercury in predatory fish in Bear Creek, and whole forage fish contained elevated levels of cadmium, lead, lithium, nickel, mercury, and uranium.

  8. Development of analytical methods and survey of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. N.; Lee, C. W.; Choi, G. S.; Chung, G. H.; Kang, M. J.; Kim, H. R.; Park, D. W.; Choi, C. S.; Kwak, J. H.; Kwak, S. Y.

    2008-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a survey of the radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). Recently, CODEX added and departmentalised new monitoring radionuclides including alpha and beta radionuclides. The purpose and scope of this study is 1) the development of analysis method for gamma emitting radionuclides({sup 60}Co, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 192}Ir) and tritium radionuclides added at new CODEX version. 2) survey and analysis of radioactive contamination for foodstuffs collected from the open markets (the imported and domestic products including North Korea products). Based on deeply examination of the various international standard procedures, the new method for analyzing gamma emitting radionuclides({sup 60}Co, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 192}Ir) was developed and applied to radioactive analysis of the foodstuffs. 200 foodstuffs were analyzed(150 imported foodstuffs including 11 samples of North Korea product and 50 domestic foodstuffs). The 137Cs radionuclide among the regulation radionuclides({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of the Korea food code and the added radionuclides({sup 60}Co, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 192}Ir) at new CODEX version is only detected in the imported foodstuffs but its level is far below the maximum permitted level. This study also developed analytical methods for additional radionuclides(3H) of CODEX. In the normal case, it will be enough only to survey the radioactive contamination for foodstuffs using the regulation radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 131}I) of the Korea food code without the analysis of the added radionuclides at new CODEX version. However, when the radioactivity more than the regulation level is measured, the added

  9. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  10. Computational modelling of contaminants flow in groundwater in the Bom Jardim cemetery, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leonardy Sousa Lopes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of groundwater by degradation of buried corpses in cemeteries appears as a common reality in Brazil and worldwide. In the Fortaleza (CE, the Bom Jardim cemetery is a typical example of a contamination threat. The risk is mainly due to the fact that often the population utilizes the groundwater for different purposes. In this investigation, we analyzed the possibility of the Bom Jardim cemetery to contribute to microbiological contamination in the local aquifer. The software PMWIN PRO® was utilized to simulate the groundwater flow and to evaluate the transport of pathogenic microorganisms presented in a pollution plume. The numerical simulation of groundwater was achieved in steady state and was admitted the advective transport of pathogenic microorganisms. The results showed a slight possibility of microbiological contamination to exceed the boundaries of the cemetery.

  11. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  12. Potential of groundwater contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a sensitive bedrock aquifer (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Jana; Novakowski, Kent; Reiner, Eric J.; Kolic, Terry

    2012-03-01

    It is necessary to understand the presence, movement, and persistence of contaminants in aquifers to develop adequate groundwater protection plans. Fractured bedrock aquifers with thin overburden cover are very sensitive to contamination, and little is known about transport processes from the ground surface to depth in this setting. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are flame retardants, in a natural fractured bedrock aquifer in Canada proven to be sensitive to contamination. PBDEs, which had not been previously measured in groundwater in detail, were detected in the study aquifer at concentrations greater than those observed in surface-water bodies. Potential sources include manure, septic tanks, and the atmosphere. From this scoping study, it is evident that additional surveys of PBDE concentrations in groundwater are warranted, especially in settings with high potential source concentrations coupled with sensitive aquifers.

  13. Assessment of diesel contamination in groundwater using electromagnetic induction geophysical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul; Cooper, Jeffrey; Morris, Jeffrey; Urynowicz, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Determining hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater is typically accomplished through the installation of extensive monitoring wells. Issues of scale and site heterogeneities tend to introduce errors in delineating the extent of contamination and environmental impact. In this study, electromagnetic induction survey was investigated as an alternative technique for mapping petroleum contaminants in the subsurface. The surveys were conducted at a coal mining site near Gillette, Wyoming, using the EM34-XL ground conductivity meter. Data from this survey were validated with known concentrations of diesel compounds detected in groundwater from the study site. Groundwater data correlated well with the electromagnetic survey data, which was used to generate a site model to identify subsurface diesel plumes. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use electromagnetic survey techniques for mapping hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater. Results from this study indicate that this geophysical technique can be an effective tool for assessing subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon sources and plumes at contaminated sites.

  14. Bioremediation Of Groundwater Contaminated Wtih Gasoline Hydrocarbons And Oxygenates Using A Membrane-Based Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to operate a novel, field-scale, aerobic bioreactor and assess its performance in the ex situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank in Pascoag, RI. The groundwater contained elevated concentrat...

  15. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  16. Metropol, a computer code for the simulation of transport of contaminants with groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter FJ; Hassanizadeh SM; Leijnse A; Glasbergen P; Slot AFM

    1990-01-01

    In this report a description is given of the computer code METROPOL. This code simulates the three dimensional flow of groundwater with varying density and the simultaneous transport of contaminants in low concentration and is based on the finite element method. The basic equations for groundwater

  17. Uptake of radioactive and stable Co and Zn isotopes by barley plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. V.; Lavrent'eva, G. V.; Pivovarova, Yu. A.; Anisimov, V. S.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of Co and Zn on the accumulation of 60Co and 65Zn by plants was studied in experiments with growing barley on a soddy-podzolic soil and a chernozem containing the radionuclide and increasing concentrations (from the background level to a high degree of contamination) of the corresponding metal. The root uptake of 60Co was directly related to the soil contamination with Co and its accumulation in the plants, while an inverse relationship was observed between the activity of 65Zn in the plants and the content of Zn in the soil. It was concluded that the transfer of the radionuclide into the plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination depended, on the one hand, on the mobile reserve of the stable nuclide in the soil and the solid phase potential to release its ions into the soil solution and, on the other hand, on the requirement of the plants for this element and the uptake rate of its ions by the roots from the solution.

  18. Modeling approaches to management of nitrate contamination of groundwater in a heavily cultivated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E.; Park, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    A three-dimensional variably-saturated groundwater flow and reactive transport modeling framework was implemented to simulate nitrate contamination in a heavily cultivated area in Jeju volcanic Island. In the study area, two localized aquifer systems (perched and regional groundwater) exist due to distributions of impermeable clay layers beneath the perched groundwater. The approximate application rate of chemical fertilizers was surveyed to be 627.9 kg-N/ha per year, which is much higher than the average annual chemical fertilizer usage in Jeju Island, 172 kg-N/ha per year. Severe nitrate contamination has been observed in the perched groundwater system and such perched groundwater has influenced regional groundwater quality, through poorly cemented wall of the distributed throughout the region wells. For a part of managing plan of nitrate contamination in the island, a numerical modeling framework was developed for various scenarios associated with the factors affecting nitrate contamination in the study area (i.e., usage amount of chemical fertilizers, cultivated methods, grouting condition of wells). This work provides useful information to suggest effective ways to manage nitrate contamination of groundwater in the agricultural field. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0001120) and by BK21 project of Korean Government.

  19. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, H M; Cleveland, B T; Doucas, G; Gagnon, N; Jelley, N A; Kraus, C; Lawson, I T; Majerus, S; McGee, S R; Myers, A W; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Rosten, R C; Stonehill, L C; VanDevender, B A; Van Wechel, T D

    2011-01-01

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two `hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the He-3 proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  20. Four methods for determining the composition of trace radioactive surface contamination of low-radioactivity metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keeffe, H.M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Burritt, T.H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cleveland, B.T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Doucas, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gagnon, N. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Jelley, N.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Kraus, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Lawson, I.T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario, P3Y 1M3 (Canada); Majerus, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); McGee, S.R.; Myers, A.W. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Poon, A.W.P. [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Robertson, R.G.H., E-mail: rghr@u.washington.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rosten, R.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2011-12-11

    Four methods for determining the composition of low-level uranium- and thorium-chain surface contamination are presented. One method is the observation of Cherenkov light production in water. In two additional methods a position-sensitive proportional counter surrounding the surface is used to make both a measurement of the energy spectrum of alpha particle emissions and also coincidence measurements to derive the thorium-chain content based on the presence of short-lived isotopes in that decay chain. The fourth method is a radiochemical technique in which the surface is eluted with a weak acid, the eluate is concentrated, added to liquid scintillator and assayed by recording beta-alpha coincidences. These methods were used to characterize two 'hotspots' on the outer surface of one of the {sup 3}He proportional counters in the Neutral Current Detection array of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The methods have similar sensitivities, of order tens of ng, to both thorium- and uranium-chain contamination.

  1. Groundwater contaminant plume maps and volumes, 100-K and 100-N Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.

    2016-09-27

    This study provides an independent estimate of the areal and volumetric extent of groundwater contaminant plumes which are affected by waste disposal in the 100-K and 100-N Areas (study area) along the Columbia River Corridor of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council requested that the U.S. Geological Survey perform this interpolation to assess the accuracy of delineations previously conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in order to assure that the Natural Resource Damage Assessment could rely on these analyses. This study is based on previously existing chemical (or radionuclide) sampling and analysis data downloaded from publicly available Hanford Site Internet sources, geostatistically selected and interpreted as representative of current (from 2009 through part of 2012) but average conditions for groundwater contamination in the study area. The study is limited in scope to five contaminants—hexavalent chromium, tritium, nitrate, strontium-90, and carbon-14, all detected at concentrations greater than regulatory limits in the past.All recent analytical concentrations (or activities) for each contaminant, adjusted for radioactive decay, non-detections, and co-located wells, were converted to log-normal distributions and these transformed values were averaged for each well location. The log-normally linearized well averages were spatially interpolated on a 50 × 50-meter (m) grid extending across the combined 100-N and 100-K Areas study area but limited to avoid unrepresentative extrapolation, using the minimum curvature geostatistical interpolation method provided by SURFER®data analysis software. Plume extents were interpreted by interpolating the log-normally transformed data, again using SURFER®, along lines of equal contaminant concentration at an appropriate established regulatory concentration . Total areas for each plume were calculated as an indicator of relative environmental damage. These plume

  2. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H

    2004-11-15

    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  3. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  4. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  5. The sensitivity of different environments to radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, B L; Carini, F; Barabash, S; Berkovskyy, V; Brittain, J E; Chouhan, S; Eleftheriou, G; Iosjpe, M; Monte, L; Psaltaki, M; Shen, J; Tschiersch, J; Turcanu, C

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes modelling calculations carried out to determine the sensitivity of various rural and semi-natural environments to radionuclide contamination by (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (131)I released during a major nuclear accident. Depositions of 1000 Bq/m(3) were assumed for each radionuclide. Four broad types of environments were considered: agricultural, forest or tundra, freshwater aquatic, and coastal marine. A number of different models were applied to each environment. The annual dose to a human population receiving most or all of its food and drinking water from a given environment was taken as a broad measure of sensitivity. The results demonstrated that environmental sensitivity was highly radionuclide specific, with (137)Cs generally giving the highest doses during the first year, especially for adults, in terrestrial and freshwater pathways. However, in coastal marine environments, (131)I and (239)Pu were more significant. Sensitivity was time dependent with doses for the first year dominating those for the 2nd and 10th years after deposition. In agricultural environments the ingestion dose from (137)Cs was higher for adults than other age groups, whereas for (90)Sr and (131)I, the ingestion dose was highest for infants. The dependence of sensitivity on social and economic factors such as individual living habits, food consumption preferences, and agricultural practices is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobilization Of Polonium-210 In Naturally-Contaminated Groundwater, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R. L.; Stillings, L. L.; Cutler, N.

    2009-12-01

    Polonium-210 activities in groundwater rarely exceed about 40 mBq/L because it strongly binds to sediments. The recent discovery of natural 210Po at levels ranging from below 1 to 6,300±280 mBq/L in 62 drinking-water wells in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization from the aquifer sediments. The source of the 210Po is radioactive decay of uranium in sediments transported into the valley by erosion of granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada during the Pleistocene. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments (average 35 Bq/kg) and detailed analysis at a contaminated well indicates mobilization of 200 mBq/L) are associated with anoxic water (DO 9.0). Investigations in the 1980s by William Burnett and colleagues of naturally-contaminated wells in Florida showed that 210Po was mobilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria and remained in solution as long as sulfides did not accumulate above certain levels. Similarly, δ34SSO4 values in Lahontan Valley indicate that significant sulfate reduction has occurred in wells containing >200 mBq/L of 210Po, but sulfide is not accumulating and its concentrations are low (<0.03 mg/L) in 25 of 28 of those wells. In our working hypothesis, mobilization of 210Po in Lahontan Valley is linked to reduction of Mn oxides by sulfide in an anaerobic sulfur cycle (Figure 1). Such a sulfur cycle is consistent with the high pH, less than predicted δ18OSO4 values, low sulfide concentrations, and presence of elemental sulfur in the water. Results from the Nevada and Florida investigations suggest that 210Po contamination may be more widespread than previously recognized, occurring in groundwater near uranium-mine operations and other uranium containing sediments when sulfate-reducing conditions develop in the subsurface. Possible linkage of anaerobic S cycle, Mn reduction, and Po mobilization

  7. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, B.D.; Binning, Philip John; Sloan, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of calcite (CaCO3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process....... The paper focuses on two issues in the implementation of calcite permeable reactive barriers for remediating fluoride contaminated water: the impact of the groundwater chemical matrix and CO2 addition on fluoride removal. Column tests comparing pure NaF solutions, synthetic SPL solutions, and actual SPL...... leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal...

  8. Modelling groundwater contamination above a nuclear waste repository at Gorleben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2012-05-01

    The candidate repository for high-level nuclear waste in the Gorleben salt dome, Germany, is expected to host 8,550 tonnes of uranium in burnt fuel. It has been proposed that 5,440 waste containers be deposited at a depth of about 800 m. There is 260-280 m of siliciclastic cover sediments above the proposed repository. The potential groundwater contamination in the siliciclastic aquifer is simulated with the TOUGHREACT and TOUGH2-MP codes for a three-dimensional model with 290,435 elements. Two deterministic cases are simulated. The single-phase case considers the transport of radionuclides in the liquid phase only. The two-phase case accounts for hydrogen gas generated by the corrosion of waste containers and release of gaseous C-14. The gas release via a backfilled shaft is assumed to be steady (non-explosive). The simulation period is 2,000,000 years for the single-phase case and 7,000 years for the two-phase case. Only the radioactive dose in the two-phase case is higher than the regulatory limit (0.1 mSv/a).

  9. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  10. Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy prefere...

  11. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  12. Multiple Methods for Assessing the Dose to Skin Exposed to Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeau, J; Heinmiller, B E; Corrigan, M

    2017-04-28

    There is the possibility for a worker at a nuclear installation, such as a nuclear power reactor, a fuel production facility or a medical facility, to come in contact with radioactive contaminants. When such an event occurs, the first order of business is to care for the worker by promptly initiating a decontamination process. Usually, the radiation protection personnel performs a G-M pancake probe measurement of the contamination in situ and collects part or all of the radioactive contamination for further laboratory analysis. The health physicist on duty must then perform, using the available information, a skin dose assessment that will go into the worker's permanent dose record. The contamination situations are often complex and the dose assessment can be laborious. This article compares five dose assessment methods that involve analysis, new technologies and new software. The five methods are applied to 13 actual contamination incidents consisting of direct skin contact, contamination on clothing and contamination on clothing in the presence of an air gap between the clothing and the skin. This work shows that, for the cases studied, the methods provided dose estimates that were usually within 12% (1σ) of each other, for those cases where absolute activity information for every radionuclide was available. One method, which relies simply on a G-M pancake probe measurement, appeared to be particularly useful in situations where a contamination sample could not be recovered for laboratory analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  14. Decontamination effects of detergents on the market for radioactive surface contamination. Their comparative test (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Takasaki, Koji; Horiuchi, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Yasunaka, Hideo; Izumi, Yuichi [Japan Environment Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    There happens frequently radioactive surface contamination on human body and skin under radiation works in controlled area. The surface contamination should be removed from the body and the skin as soon as possible for radiation control and exposure management. Titanium oxide paste, which is reserved as detergent for radioactive surface contamination, has satisfactory results and reliability for decontamination effects. The titanium oxide paste, however, has a short preservation period, and must be exchanged and supplied every several months. Decontamination tests for 22 kinds of detergents on the market were carried out with swine skin and radiation materials, Cs-137 and Ru-106. Radiation solution of Cs-137 or Ru-106 was dropped on the swine skin sample, which was left for 5 min or 40 min as it is. Radioactivity of the sample was measured before and after washing of the detergents. Decontamination effects of the detergents for Cs-137 were similar to those for Ge-144 which were tested in the previous year. The decontamination effects for Ru-106, however, were remarkably lower than those for both cases of Cs-137 and Ge-144. (M. Suetake)

  15. NERIS workshop. Lasting contaminations and land development. After Fukushima: the possibility of a lasting radioactive contamination; Atelier NERIS. Contaminations durables et developpement des territoires. Apres Fukushima: l'eventualite d'une contamination radioactive durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The document contains the contributions proposed during a workshop and the content of discussions after these contributions. For the first day, case studies are thus reported and commented: land contamination in Japan after the Fukushima accident, the CENTRACO plant accident, medium and long term stakes within the context of a lasting contamination by pesticides (the case of chlordecone pollution in the French West Indies), the complex and multiple actor challenges in the case of long duration radiological contamination for land agriculture, a lasting contamination in urban environment (the case of Metaleurop). The second session addressed the conditions and means for preparedness of local actors to a lasting radioactive contamination: the Norwegian approach, how to take the post-accidental perspective into account in the local safeguard plans, the PRIME project (research project on radio-ecological sensitivity indices and multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial territory), the pilot radiation protection project of the Montbeliard district, the OPAL project (to provide the local information commissions with post-accidental zoning information on the different French nuclear sites)

  16. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  17. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  18. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  19. Vulnerability of groundwater to contamination in the municipality of Humaitá, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqueias Lima Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater has been used intensively throughout Brazil. In southern Amazonas state, the water supplies of some municipalities are derived exclusively from wells. Yet this region generally has no wastewater treatment, leading to potential contamination of the underground water. We classified and mapped the vulnerability of groundwater supplies to contamination in the urban and peri-urban area of Humaitá in southern Amazonas State. We used the GOD method (Groundwater occurrence; Overall Lithology of the unsaturated zone; Depth of the water table to score vulnerability classes. The results revealed the existence of average and high vulnerability of aquifer contamination in the area, indicating the fragility of the aquifer system that supplies the municipality, and showing the need for public policies aimed at the protection of the region’s groundwater resources.

  20. Optimal design of active spreading systems to remediate sorbing groundwater contaminants in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Amy N.; Neupauer, Roseanna M.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of in situ remediation to treat contaminated aquifers is limited by the degree of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant. In this study, candidate designs that actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant are generated using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Design parameters pertaining to the amount of treatment chemical and the duration and rate of its injection are optimized according to objectives established for the remediation - maximizing contaminant degradation while minimizing energy and material requirements. Because groundwater contaminants have different reaction and sorption properties that influence their ability to be degraded with in situ remediation, optimization was conducted for six different combinations of reaction rate coefficients and sorption rates constants to represent remediation of the common groundwater contaminants, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and toluene, using the treatment chemical, permanganate. Results indicate that active spreading for contaminants with low reaction rate coefficients should be conducted by using greater amounts of treatment chemical mass and longer injection durations relative to contaminants with high reaction rate coefficients. For contaminants with slow sorption or contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers, two different design strategies are acceptable - one that injects high concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a short duration or one that injects lower concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a long duration. Thus, decision-makers can select a strategy according to their preference for material or energy use. Finally, for scenarios with high ambient groundwater velocities, the injection rate used for active spreading should be high enough for the groundwater divide to encompass the entire contaminant plume.

  1. Radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms. Current measured values (State: 2013); Radioaktive Kontamination von Speisepilzen. Aktuelle Messwerte (Stand: 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabai, Eva; Hiersche, Lydia

    2015-01-15

    The report includes the current measured values (2013) of the radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms in Southern Germany (Cs137 and K-40) and discusses the relation radio-cesium intake and radiation exposure now and and the future.

  2. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  3. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  4. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a

  5. Chlorobenzene removal efficiencies and removal processes in a pilot-scale constructed wetland treating contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeckevelt, M.; Reiche, N.; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Low-chlorinated benzenes (CBs) are widespread groundwater contaminants and often threaten to contaminate surface waters. Constructed wetlands (CWs) in river floodplains are a promising technology for protecting sensitive surface water bodies from the impact of CBs. The efficiency and seasonal var...

  6. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a grou

  7. Behavioral response to contamination risk information in a spatially explicit groundwater environment: Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Michael, Holly A.; Duke, Joshua M.; Messer, Kent D.; Suter, Jordan F.

    2014-08-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of aquifer monitoring information in achieving more sustainable use of a groundwater resource in the absence of management policy. Groundwater user behavior in the face of an irreversible contamination threat is studied by applying methods of experimental economics to scenarios that combine a physics-based, spatially explicit, numerical groundwater model with different representations of information about an aquifer and its risk of contamination. The results suggest that the threat of catastrophic contamination affects pumping decisions: pumping is significantly reduced in experiments where contamination is possible compared to those where pumping cost is the only factor discouraging groundwater use. The level of information about the state of the aquifer also affects extraction behavior. Pumping rates differ when information that synthesizes data on aquifer conditions (a "risk gauge") is provided, despite invariant underlying economic incentives, and this result does not depend on whether the risk information is location-specific or from a whole aquifer perspective. Interestingly, users increase pumping when the risk gauge signals good aquifer status compared to a no-gauge treatment. When the gauge suggests impending contamination, however, pumping declines significantly, resulting in a lower probability of contamination. The study suggests that providing relatively simple aquifer condition guidance derived from monitoring data can lead to more sustainable use of groundwater resources.

  8. Use of Additives in Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews application of additives used in bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and fuels for groundwater and soil remediation. Soluble carbon substrates are applicable to most site conditions except aquifers with very high or very low groundwater flow. Slow-release ...

  9. PECULIARITIES OF CURRENT DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN LIVING IN THE TERRITORIES RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines peculiarities of current dose assessment for the children living in the territories radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident. The results of annual exposure dose assessment for the children of various age groups and adult population of three subject territories of the Russian Federation referred to the zones of radioactive contamination are presented. A comparison of obtained estimations is done.

  10. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  11. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse...... intensive diffuse sources (clean keeping of farm yards). It is important to determine the source type in order to make correct management decisions. This project aimed to identify and develop a set of indicators that can be used to determine whether pesticides detected in a groundwater sample (e...... differ. Therefore, a useful indicator for point sources was defined: if a groundwater sample has findings of ≥4 compounds, and/or at ≥ 2 compounds above 0.1g/l. Model results show that the breakthrough curves from point and diffuse sources differ, with diffuse sources resulting in flat breakthrough...

  12. Flourescence Humic Substances in Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAFI M. TAREQ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, only arsenic (As concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh were considered as having direct effects on the epidemical degrees of different types of diseases including arsenicosis, but the results of the present investigation indicated that fluorescence humic substance (HS is also an important component of dissolved organic matter in groundwater of Bangladesh. Therefore, it is suspected that both fluorescent HS and As in groundwater may have effects on the biological toxicity. The evidence of presence of high fluorescent HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur supports the above synergistic effect. The spatial distribution of fluorescence HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur indicated that the variations may be related to local hydrogeological conditions.

  13. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  14. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    of groundwater demands an improved understanding of the efficiency and limitations of microbially driven reactions on the degradation of pollutants in contaminated groundwater systems. In this context stable isotope approaches represent a powerful tool to evaluate and elucidate biogeochemical processes...... in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... cycling processes in contaminated aquifers relative to their importance for the biodegradation. The results show that sulfur cycling is an important process driving microbial degradation of contaminants in porous groundwater systems. For the anoxic plume core it appears that elemental sulfur is a key...

  15. Groundwater contaminant science activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2016-03-23

    Aquifers in New England provide water for human needs and natural ecosystems. In some areas, however, aquifers have been degraded by contaminants from geologic and human sources. In recent decades, the U.S. Geological Survey has been a leader in describing contaminant occurrence in the bedrock and surficial aquifers of New England. In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey has also studied the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants, the factors affecting the geographic distribution of contaminants, and the geochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate. This fact sheet describes some of the major science needs in the region related to groundwater contaminants and highlights recent U.S. Geological Survey studies that provide a foundation for future investigations.

  16. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  18. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univeristy, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural {sup 40}K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.

  19. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in the catchment of Goczałkowice reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2014-05-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2 , volume - 100 million m3 at a typical water level) is a very important source of drinking water for Upper Silesian agglomeration. At the catchment of the reservoir there are many potential sources of groundwater pollution (agriculture, bad practices in wastewater management, intensive fish farming). Thus local groundwater contamination, mainly by nitrogen compounds. The paper presents groundwater monitoring system and preliminary results of the research carried on at Goczałkowice reservoir and its catchment in 2010 - 2014 within the project "Integrated system supporting management and protection of dammed reservoir (ZiZoZap)'. The main objective for hydrogeologists in the project is to assess the role of groundwater in total water balance of the reservoir and the influence of groundwater on its water quality. During research temporal variability of groundwater - surface water exchange has been observed. Monitoring Network of groundwater quality consists of 22 observation wells (nested piezometers included) located around the reservoir - 13 piezometers is placed in two transects on northern and southern shore of reservoir. Sampling of groundwater from piezometers was conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were 255 mg/L, 0,16 mg/L and 3,48 mg/L, respectively. Surface water in reservoir (8 points) has also been sampled. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater are higher than in surface water. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations exceeding standards for drinking water were reported in 18% and 50% of monitored piezometers, respectively. High concentration of nitrate (exceeding more than 5 times maximal admissible concentration) have been a significant groundwater contamination problem in the catchment of the reservoir. Periodically decrease of surface water quality is possible. Results of hydrogeological research indicate substantial spatial

  20. Zero valent iron reduces toxicity and concentrations of organophosphate pesticides in contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Baun, Anders; Vastrup, Troels;

    2013-01-01

    The potential of zero valent iron (ZVI) for remediation of contaminated groundwater from an abandoned chemical disposal site was examined through batch and column experiments. The key contaminants were organophosphate pesticides but the chemical analysis also comprised additional 22 compounds...... including synthesis intermediates and degradation products of organophosphates. The ZVI treatment showed that all the contaminants were degraded with the exception of two diesters (phosphorothioates). The most rapid reduction was found for methyl parathion, ethyl parathion and malathion, which had first...

  1. Prediction of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination using Geographic Information System and Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Moqbul Hossain; Krishna Neaupane; Nitin Kumar Tripathi; Mongkut Piantanakulchai

    2013-01-01

    Ground water arsenic contamination is a well known health and environmental problem in Bangladesh. Sources of this heavy metal are known to be geogenic, however, the processes of its release into groundwater are poorly understood phenomena. In quest of mitigation of the problem it is necessary to predict probable contamination before it causes any damage to human health. Hence our research has been carried out to find the factor relations of arsenic contamination and develop an arsenic contam...

  2. On Limiting Behavior of Contaminant Transport Models in Coupled Surface and Groundwater Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Ervin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of work on models for coupling surface-water with groundwater flows which is at its core the Stokes-Darcy problem. The resulting (Stokes-Darcy fluid velocity is important because the flow transports contaminants. The analysis of models including the transport of contaminants has, however, focused on a quasi-static Stokes-Darcy model. Herein we consider the fully evolutionary system including contaminant transport and analyze its quasi-static limits.

  3. Evaluation of long-term (1960-2010) groundwater fluoride contamination in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sriroop; Ale, Srinivasulu

    2014-07-01

    Groundwater quality degradation is a major threat to sustainable development in Texas. The aim of this study was to elucidate spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater fluoride (F) contamination in different water use classes in 16 groundwater management areas in Texas between 1960 and 2010. Groundwater F concentration data were obtained from the Texas Water Development Board and aggregated over a decadal scale. Our results indicate that observations exceeding the drinking water quality threshold of World Health Organization (1.5 mg F L) and secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) (2 mg F L) of the USEPA increased from 26 and 19% in the 1960s to 37 and 23%, respectively, in the 2000s. In the 2000s, F observations > SMCL among different water use classes followed the order: irrigation (39%) > domestic (20%) > public supply (17%). Extent and mode of interaction between F and other water quality parameters varied regionally. In western Texas, high F concentrations were prevalent at shallower depths (Texas, higher F concentrations occurred at greater depths (>50 m) and were correlated with HCO and chloride anions. A spatial pattern has become apparent marked by "excess" F in western Texas groundwaters as compared with "inadequate" F contents in rest of the state. Groundwater F contamination in western Texas was largely influenced by groundwater mixing and evaporative enrichment as compared with water-rock interaction and mineral dissolution in the rest of the state.

  4. Global aquifers dominated by fossil groundwaters but wells vulnerable to modern contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Perrone, Debra; Befus, Kevin M.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Ferguson, Grant; Gleeson, Tom; Luijendijk, Elco; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Richard G.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-06-01

    The vulnerability of groundwater to contamination is closely related to its age. Groundwaters that infiltrated prior to the Holocene have been documented in many aquifers and are widely assumed to be unaffected by modern contamination. However, the global prevalence of these `fossil' groundwaters and their vulnerability to modern-era pollutants remain unclear. Here we analyse groundwater carbon isotope data (12C, 13C, 14C) from 6,455 wells around the globe. We show that fossil groundwaters comprise a large share (42-85%) of total aquifer storage in the upper 1 km of the crust, and the majority of waters pumped from wells deeper than 250 m. However, half of the wells in our study that are dominated by fossil groundwater also contain detectable levels of tritium, indicating the presence of much younger, decadal-age waters and suggesting that contemporary contaminants may be able to reach deep wells that tap fossil aquifers. We conclude that water quality risk should be considered along with sustainable use when managing fossil groundwater resources.

  5. Biostrategic Removal of Sulphur Contamination in Groundwater With Sulphur-Reducing Bacteria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Satapathy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture, excessive extraction of groundwater, and rise in the number of industries with inefficient waste disposal system have been some of the key factors in degradation of groundwater quality during the past years. Although groundwater is considered as a valuable natural resource, the quality control of this resource has systematically failed in India. Irrespective of rural or urban locations, the average sulphate contamination of groundwater in India has reached 90 to 150 mg/L. Such a borderline contamination concentration poses threat both to livelihood and to economy. In addition, the negative health effects of sulphate-contaminated drinking water can range from dermatitis to lung problems and skin cancer. The biostrategic manipulation of groundwater discussed in this article involves sulphate-reducing bacteria used in addition to a 3-step procedure involving constitutive aeration, filtration, and shock chlorination. With earlier use of a similar strategy in the United States and Europe proven to be beneficial, we propose a combinatorial and economical approach for processing of groundwater for removal of sulphur contamination, which still largely remains unnoticed and neglected.

  6. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability for Antropogenic and Geogenic Contaminants in Subwatershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, K.; Koh, D.; Chae, G.; Cheong, B.

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater is an important natural resource that providing drinking water to more than five million people in Korea. Nonpoint source nitrate was frequently observed contaminant and the investigation result for small potable water supply system that mainly consisted of 70 percent groundwater showed that about 5 percent of water samples exceeded potable water quality standards of Korea. The geogenic contanminants such as arsenic and fluoride also frequently observed contaminants in Korea. In order to protect groundwater and to supply safe water to public, we need to assess groundwater vulnerability and to know the cause of occurrence of contaminants. To achieve this goal, we executed groundwater investigation and assessment study for Keumsan subwatershed with 600km2 in Keum-river watershed. The geostatistical and GIS technique were applied to map the spatial distribution of each contaminants and to calculate vulnerability index. The results of logistic regression for nitrate indicated the close relationship with land use. The results of hydrogeochemical analyses showed that nitrates in groundwater are largely influenced by land use and had high values in granitic region with dense agricultural field and resident. The high nitrates are closely related to groundwater of greenhouse area where large amount of manure and fertilizer were usually introduced in cultural land. The soil in granitic region had high contents of permeable sand of weathered products of granite that play as a role of pathway of contaminants in agricultural land and resident area. The high values of bicarbonate are originated from two sources, limestone dissolution of Ogcheon belt and biodegradation organic pollutants from municipal wastes in granitic region with dense agriculture and residence. It is considered that the anomalous distribution of arsenic and fluoride is related to limestone and metasedimentry rock of Ogcheon belt with high contents of sulfide minerals and F bearing minerals. The

  7. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  8. A PLS-Based Weighted Artificial Neural Network Approach for Alpha Radioactivity Prediction inside Contaminated Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianguo Tuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range alpha detection (LRAD has been used to measure alpha particles emitting contamination inside decommissioned steel pipes. There exists a complex nonlinear relationship between input parameters and measuring results. The input parameters, for example, pipe diameter, pipe length, distance to radioactive source, radioactive source strength, wind speed, and flux, exhibit different contributions to the measuring results. To reflect these characteristics and estimate alpha radioactivity as exactly as possible, a hybrid partial least square back propagation (PLSBP neural network approach is presented in this paper. In this model, each node in the input layer is weighted, which indicates that different input nodes have different contributions on the system and this finding has been little reported. The weights are determined by the PLS. After this modification, a variety of normal three-layered BP networks are developed. The comparison of computational results of the proposed approach with traditional BP model and experiments confirms its clear advantage for dealing with this complex nonlinear estimation. Thus, an integrated picture of alpha particle activity inside contaminated pipes can be obtained.

  9. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  10. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  11. Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Paula J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Druschel, Gregory K.; Morales, Sergio E.; Hayden, Nancy; O'Grady, Patrick; Stevens, Lori

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and δ-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.

  12. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwarth, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...... dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial...... cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials...

  13. Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to assess the quality of groundwater in relation to heavy metal pollution and its implication on human health. ... Total Hardness, Iodide, Fluoride, Ferric (Fe+3), Nitrate (NO3), Manganese (Mn), Total Chlorine ...

  14. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  15. Groundwater contamination from an inactive uranium mill tailings pile: 1. Application of a chemical mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. F.; Delany, J. M.; Narasimhan, T. N.; Smith, A.

    1984-11-01

    Low-pH process waters contained in a number of inactive and abandoned uranium mill tailings in the United States represent potential sources of radionuclide and trace metal contamination of groundwater. Detailed investigations at a typical site at Riverton, Wyoming, indicate that chemical transport occurs from initial dewatering of the tailings, downward infiltration due to precipitation, and groundwater intrusion into the base of the tailings pile. Except for elevated uranium and molybdenum concentrations, current radionuclide and trace metal transport is limited by the near-neutral pH conditions of the groundwater. Significant reactions include the dissolution of calcite, production of CO2, and precipitation of gypsum and the hydroxides of iron and aluminum. A geochemical mixing model employing the PHREEQE computer code is used to estimate current rates of the groundwater contamination by tailings water. A maximum mixing of 1.7% of pore water is a factor of 2 less than steady state estimates based on hydraulic parameters.

  16. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and (137)Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ((137)Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  18. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  19. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are su...

  20. Influence of temporally variable groundwater flow conditions on point measurements and contaminant mass flux estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer, S; Dietrich, P

    2009-01-01

    is present, the concentration variability due to a fluctuating groundwater flow direction varies significantly within the control plane and between the different realizations. Determination of contaminant mass fluxes is also influenced by the temporal variability of the concentration measurement, especially......Monitoring of contaminant concentrations, e.g., for the estimation of mass discharge or contaminant degradation rates. often is based on point measurements at observation wells. In addition to the problem, that point measurements may not be spatially representative. a further complication may arise...... due to the temporal dynamics of groundwater flow, which may cause a concentration measurement to be not temporally representative. This paper presents results from a numerical modeling study focusing on temporal variations of the groundwater flow direction. "Measurements" are obtained from point...

  1. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbak, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protection's recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,000-10 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 10-1000, and it should be recalled that the

  2. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  3. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  4. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater. PMID:25374935

  5. A model of accumulation of radionuclides in biosphere originating from groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Jansson, Per-Erik; Karlberg, Louise [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. Land and Water Resources

    2006-03-15

    radioactive element is represented as a state variable in different plant parts (stem, leaves, roots and grain) and in soil layers as attached to soil organic matter fractions (litter and humus), solved in soil water solution and adsorbed to soil particles. The importance of the different plant uptake models and their parameterization for accumulation of radionuclides in the biosphere was demonstrated by a model application of a mature boreal forest for a 20 years period with an initial single pulse groundwater contamination. The passive uptake approach was used to demonstrate importance of root depth, allocation to leaves and different scaling to the water uptake rate. The active uptake approach was used to demonstrate the importance of adsorption fraction, bioavailability and optimum ratio of leaf carbon and radionuclide. After 20 years, 9% of the originally added radionuclide had accumulated in the biosphere when assuming no plant uptake. Corresponding numbers for passive and active uptake were 12-37% and 35-44% respectively. The percentages accumulated using passive uptake was most sensitive to tested range of rooting depth and ones using active uptake to tested range of optimum ratio of leaf carbon and radionuclide. We conclude that the introduced module was able to simulate different possible plant uptake mechanisms and hydrological conditions. Further dynamically modeling studies are important to analyze the effect of a continuous contamination on long term (10,000 years) accumulation in biosphere for various specific radionuclides, ecosystems and climatic conditions.

  6. Groundwater protection from cadmium contamination by permeable reactive barrier in Qian'an of Jilin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alkali Mohammed; Changlai XIAO; Chao DU

    2008-01-01

    This research studies the reliability of an activated carbon permeable reactive barrier in removing cadmium from a contaminated shallow aquifer. Laboratory tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium and kinetic adsorption properties of the activated carbon in cadmium-containing aqueous solutions. A 2D numerical model has been used to describe pollutant transport within a groundwater and the pollutant adsorption on the permeable reactive barrier (PRB). In particular, it has been considered the case of a PAB used to protect a lake or downstream from Cd (Ⅱ) contaminated groundwater. Numerical results show that the PAB can achieve a long-term efficiency by preventing lake or downstream pollution for several months.

  7. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  8. [Solute transport modeling application in groundwater organic contaminant source identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Pei; Liu, Jiu-Rong; Xin, Bao-Dong; He, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Investigation and numerical simulation, based on RT3D (reactive transport in 3-dimensions)were used to identify the source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in the groundwater of a city in the north of China and reverse the input intensity. Multiple regressions were applied to analyze the influenced factors of input intensity of PCE and TCE using Stepwise function in Matlab. The results indicate that the factories and industries are the source of the PCE and TCE in groundwater. Natural attenuation was identified and the natural attenuation rates are 93.15%, 61.70% and 61.00% for PCE, and 70.05%, 73.66% and 63.66% for TCE in 173 days. The 4 source points identified by the simulation have released 0.910 6 kg PCE and 95.693 8 kg TCE during the simulation period. The regression analysis results indicate that local precipitation and the thickness of vadose zone are the main factors influencing organic solution transporting from surface to groundwater. The PCE and TCE concentration are found to be 0 and 5 mg x kg(-1) from surface to 35 cm in vadose zone. All above results suggest that PCE and TCE in groundwater are from the source in the surface. Natural attenuation occurred when PCE and TCE transporting from the surface to groundwater, and the rest was transported to groundwater through vadose zone. Local precipitation was one of the critical factors influencing the transportation of PCE and TCE to aquifer through sand, pebble and gravel of the Quaternary.

  9. Persistence of a Groundwater Contaminant Plume after Hydraulic Source Containment at a Chlorinated-Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthieu, D. E.; Plaschke, M.; Carroll, K. C.; Brinker, F.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic containment is one approach available for management of source zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents and other organic liquids. The objective of this study was to characterize the behavior of a groundwater contaminant plume containing TCE and other organic contaminants after implementation of a source-containment operation at a site in Arizona. The plume is approximately 600 m long and 250 m wide, and it resides in a quasi three-layer system comprising a sand/gravel unit bounded on the top and bottom by relatively thick silty clayey layers. The system was monitored for 60 months beginning at start-up in 2007 to measure the change in contaminant concentrations within the plume, the change in plume area, the mass of contaminant removed, and the integrated contaminant mass discharge. Operation of two source-control wells appears to have established containment of the source area, which has resulted in isolation of the source from the contaminant plume. Concentrations of trichloroethene in groundwater pumped from the plume extraction wells have declined over the course of operation, as have concentrations for groundwater sampled from 45 monitoring wells located within the plume. The total contaminant mass discharge associated with operation of the plume extraction wells peaked at 0.23 kg/d, decreased significantly within one year, and thereafter began an asymptotic decline to a current value of approximately 0.03 kg/d. Despite an 87% reduction in contaminant mass and a comparable 87% reduction in contaminant mass discharge, the spatial area encompassed by the plume has decreased by only approximately 50%. This is much less than would be anticipated based on ideal flushing and mass-removal behavior. Trichloroethene concentrations in groundwater sampled from monitoring wells screened in the clayey units showed a composite decrease of less than 50%, compared to a ~90% reduction for the wells screened in the sand/gravel unit. This observation suggests that

  10. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  11. Radioactive contamination of edible mushrooms. Current measured values (State: 2014); Radioaktive Kontamination von Speisepilzen. Aktuelle Messwerte (Stand: 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabai, Eva; Hiersche, Lydia

    2015-09-15

    The report on the radioactive contamination of different wild edible mushrooms in southern Germany summarizes the actual situation in 2014 in comparison with the data since 2005. The mushrooms were fund in the regions contaminated as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl 1986. The data for Cs-137 and K-40 contamination of a large amount of wild edible mushrooms are tabulated for different sampling sites. Measured data of the years 2004 to 2013 are included.

  12. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies. PMID:27430163

  13. Statistical characterization of contaminated groundwater in the agricultural area by multivariative analysis and kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaown, D.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.

    2004-12-01

    The characterization of groundwater contamination at a hydrologically complex agricultural site in Youpori, Chooncheon (Korea) was undertaken by analyzing hydro-chemical data of groundwater within a statistical framework. The data show that high and correlated concentrations of Ca, Mg, and NO3 reflected the polluted nature of groundwater at the site. More than 39% of samples showed nitrate concentrations above the human affected value (3mg/L as NO3-N ), while about 25% samples exceeded the maximum acceptable level (10mg/L as NO3-N ) according to the EPA regulation. Multivariate analyses (factor and cluster analyses) were used to identify contaminant pathway, source and geochemical process. The geostatistical method was applied in order to delineate the spatial extent and variation of nitrate contamination. Factor and cluster analyses indicate that hydrochemical data can clearly characterize the non-point contamination over the area by agrochemical fertilizer as well as point-source pollution like manure spreading near barn or pigpen on groundwater. Nitrate-N, the critical species in the study area, was used to delineate the spatial spread of the contaminants using kriging in the study area.

  14. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Eged, K. [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  15. Evaluation of systemic exposure resulting from wounds contaminated by radioactive products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the systemic consequences of wounds contaminated by radioactive products. It is concerned exclusively with internal exposure. The issue of local dosimetry in the wound is not dealt with. The principal objective of the document is to help practitioners with the procedures that they have to follow. The interpretative model proposed is sufficiently general to be applied to all the different situations usually encountered. The model makes it possible to carry out a dosimetric estimation quickly after an incident. A follow-up over prolonged periods will sometimes be necessary, in particular for serious contaminations. Suggestions are made concerning the way in which data collected in this way should be interpreted. (author). 6 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  17. Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Tanahara, Akira; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-09-23

    The release of radioactive materials due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has raised concern regarding the biological impacts of ingesting radioactively contaminated diets on organisms. We previously performed an internal exposure experiment in which contaminated leaves collected from polluted areas were fed to larvae of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from Okinawa, which is one of the least polluted localities in Japan. Using the same experimental system, in the present study, we further examined the effects of low-level-contaminated diets on this butterfly. Leaves were collected from two localities in Tohoku (Motomiya (161 Bq/kg) and Koriyama (117 Bq/kg)); two in Kanto (Kashiwa (47.6 Bq/kg) and Musashino (6.4 Bq/kg)); one in Tokai (Atami (2.5 Bq/kg)); and from Okinawa (0.2 Bq/kg). In addition to the effects on the first generation, we examined the possible transgenerational effects of the diets on the next generation. In the first generation, the Tohoku groups showed higher rates of mortality and abnormalities and a smaller forewing size than the Okinawa group. The mortality rates were largely dependent on the ingested dose of caesium. The survival rates of the Kanto-Tokai groups were greater than 80%, but the rates in the Tohoku groups were much lower. In the next generation, the survival rates in the Tohoku groups were below 20%, whereas those of the Okinawa groups were above 70%. The survival rates in the second generation were independent of the locality of the leaves ingested by the first generation, indicating that the diet in the second generation was the determinant of their survival. Moreover, a smaller forewing size was observed in the Tohoku groups in the second generation. However, the forewing size was inversely correlated with the cumulative caesium dose ingested throughout the first and second generations, indicating that the diet in the first generation also influenced the forewing size of the second generation. Biological

  18. Microbial Degradation of Phenols and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Creosote-contaminated Groundwater Under Nitrate-reducing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture...

  19. Biological Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with Mixtures of Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    aquitard. Localized high points in the Navarro clay topography, sometimes restrict lateral flow of the groundwater and dry zones associated with this...Portier, R.J., Hoover, D.G., Friday, D.O. and Sicard , J.L., "Biodegradation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in an Immobilized Bed Reactor," Environ. Progress 9

  20. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  1. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  2. Potential for contamination during removal of radioactive seeds from surgically excised tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classic, K L; Brunette, J B; Carlson, S K

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a scalpel or electrocautery to remove radioactive sealed sources ("seeds") from surgically excised tissue could damage the seed and cause it to leak its radioactive contents. Attempts were made to cut or burn Oncura Model 6711 non-radioactive seeds while in pig muscle or on a stainless steel plate. Additionally, one active 125I seed was purposely charred using pressure with an electrocautery knife to see whether the casing could be damaged. Electron microscopy scanning was performed on the dummy seeds to determine if the integrity of the metal casing had been compromised. Two types of leak tests were performed on the active seed to verify the presence or absence of loose contamination. The seed casing was not damaged from either use of a scalpel or electrocautery when the seed was in tissue. The active seed was not found to be leaking after applying pressure with an electrocautery knife while the seed was on a stainless steel plate. We conclude that removal of active Model 6711 seeds from surgically excised tissue can be done safely with a scalpel or electrocautery because constant, firm pressure cannot be applied to the seed. This is likely true for seeds made of similar materials.

  3. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: andrea.petrucci@enea.it [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)

    2015-10-11

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  4. Groundwater resource vulnerability and spatial variability of nitrate contamination: Insights from high density tubewell monitoring in a hard rock aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Sekhar, M; Mohan Kumar, M S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Giriraja, P R; Praveenkumarreddy, Yerabham; Moger, Hemanth; Durand, Patrick; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Ruiz, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture has been increasingly relying on groundwater irrigation for the last decades, leading to severe groundwater depletion and/or nitrate contamination. Understanding the links between nitrate concentration and groundwater resource is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of irrigated systems. The Berambadi catchment (ORE-BVET/Kabini Critical Zone Observatory) in Southern India is a typical example of intensive irrigated agriculture and then an ideal site to study the relative influences of land use, management practices and aquifer properties on NO3 spatial distribution in groundwater. The monitoring of >200 tube wells revealed nitrate concentrations from 1 to 360mg/L. Three configurations of groundwater level and elevation gradient were identified: i) NO3 hot spots associated to deep groundwater levels (30-60m) and low groundwater elevation gradient suggest small groundwater reserve with absence of lateral flow, then degradation of groundwater quality due to recycling through pumping and return flow; ii) high groundwater elevation gradient, moderate NO3 concentrations suggest that significant lateral flow prevented NO3 enrichment; iii) low NO3 concentrations, low groundwater elevation gradient and shallow groundwater indicate a large reserve. We propose that mapping groundwater level and gradient could be used to delineate zones vulnerable to agriculture intensification in catchments where groundwater from low-yielding aquifers is the only source of irrigation. Then, wells located in low groundwater elevation gradient zones are likely to be suitable for assessing the impacts of local agricultural systems, while wells located in zones with high elevation gradient would reflect the average groundwater quality of the catchment, and hence should be used for regional mapping of groundwater quality. Irrigation with NO3 concentrated groundwater induces a "hidden" input of nitrogen to the crop which can reach 200kgN/ha/yr in hotspot areas, enhancing

  5. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bonnie L.; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate 0.7-12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change.

  6. Spatial interpolation methods and geostatistics for mapping groundwater contamination in a coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Vetrimurugan; Brindha, K; Sithole, Bongani; Lakshmanan, Elango

    2017-04-01

    Mapping groundwater contaminants and identifying the sources are the initial steps in pollution control and mitigation. Due to the availability of different mapping methods and the large number of emerging pollutants, these methods need to be used together in decision making. The present study aims to map the contaminated areas in Richards Bay, South Africa and compare the results of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation techniques. Statistical methods were also used for identifying contamination sources. Na-Cl groundwater type was dominant followed by Ca-Mg-Cl. Data analysis indicate that silicate weathering, ion exchange and fresh water-seawater mixing are the major geochemical processes controlling the presence of major ions in groundwater. Factor analysis also helped to confirm the results. Overlay analysis by OK and IDW gave different results. Areas where groundwater was unsuitable as a drinking source were 419 and 116 km(2) for OK and IDW, respectively. Such diverse results make decision making difficult, if only one method was to be used. Three highly contaminated zones within the study area were more accurately identified by OK. If large areas are identified as being contaminated such as by IDW in this study, the mitigation measures will be expensive. If these areas were underestimated, then even though management measures are taken, it will not be effective for a longer time. Use of multiple techniques like this study will help to avoid taking harsh decisions. Overall, the groundwater quality in this area was poor, and it is essential to identify alternate drinking water source or treat the groundwater before ingestion.

  7. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  8. Capacity of blood plasma is higher in birds breeding in radioactively contaminated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders P.; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Environmental pollution in general, and radioactive contamination in particular, may deeply affect host-parasite relationships and their consequences for the evolution of organisms. The nuclear accident that occurred more than 30 years ago in Chernobyl resulted in significant changes in diversity and richness of microbial communities that could influence characteristics of animal-bacteria interactions, including host immune responses and competitive interference by bacteria. Given the high mortality rate of birds breeding in radioactively contaminated zones, those with stronger defences against infections should experience significant fitness advantages. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we characterized antimicrobial capacity of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from different Ukrainian populations (subject to a gradient of ionizing radiation) against 12 bacterial species. We also quantified constitutive innate immunity, which is the non-specific first barrier of protection of hosts against microbial parasites. We found a positive association between specific antimicrobial capacity of individual hosts and radiation levels in breeding habitats even after controlling for other confounding variables such as sex and age. However, no significant relationship was found between immunocompetence (non-specific response) and background radiation. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that radiation selects for broad antimicrobial spectra of barn swallows, although not for all bacterial strains. We discuss these results in the framework of host-parasite evolution under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:28662048

  9. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2012-06-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas.

  11. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Dikarev, V.G.; Zyablitskaya Ye.Ya.; Oudalova, A.A.; Spirin, Ye. V; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external {beta}- and {gamma}-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute {gamma}-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years.

  12. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  13. Emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by radioactive material and management of the hospitalization path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Muni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The organization that has to face the radiological emergencies in a nuclear disaster or terroristic attack must be carefully planned. In the hospitals with a level one Emergency Department, it is possible to draw a pathway for the contaminated patients, based on internal resources and on the recommendations of the nuclear medicine associations (as AIMN – Associazione Italiana di Medicina Nucleare; SNM – Society of Nuclear Medicine. The “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” hospital in Alessandria is a modern hospital and is the reference of an extended area, for its many highly specialized departments. In this background, and in a hospital with a level one Emergency Department, there are three qualified departments, able to play a primary role in the emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by nuclear materials: Emergency Department, Nuclear Medicine Unit and Health Physics Unit. Therefore the Alessandria Hospital is suitable to admit patients potentially contaminated by radioactive material, to determ i n e the level of contamination, to decontaminate them in the emergency decontamination area, to hospitalise and treat them in the nuclear medicine rooms.

  14. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Fingerprinting groundwater pollution in catchments with contrasting contaminant sources using microorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne E; Lapworth, Dan J; Thomas, Jenny; Edwards, Laura

    2014-01-15

    Evaluating the occurrence of microorganics helps to understand sources and processes which may be controlling the transport and fate of emerging contaminants (ECs). A study was carried out at the contrasting instrumented environmental observatory sites at Oxford, on the peri-urban floodplain gravel aquifer of the River Thames and Boxford, in the rural valley of the River Lambourn on the chalk aquifer, in Southern England to explore the use of ECs to fingerprint contaminant sources and flow pathways in groundwater. At Oxford compounds were typical of a local waste tip plume (not only plasticisers and solvents but also barbiturates and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)) and of the urban area (plasticisers and mood-enhancing drugs such as carbamazepine). At Boxford the results were different with widespread occurrence of agricultural pesticides, their metabolites and the solvent trichloroethene, as well as plasticisers, caffeine, butylated food additives, DEET, parabens and trace polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of compounds used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products of different provenance in the environment could be distinguished, i) historical household and medical waste, ii) long-term household usage persistent in groundwater and iii) current usage and contamination from surface water. Co-contaminant and degradation products can also indicate the likely source of contaminants. A cocktail of contaminants can be used as tracers to provide information on catchment pathways and groundwater/surface water interactions. A prominent feature in this study is the attenuation of many EC compounds in the hyporheic zone. © 2013.

  16. Uncertainty quantification of adverse human health effects from continuously released contaminant sources in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    We propose a computationally efficient probabilistic modeling methodology to estimate the adverse effects on humans of exposure to contaminated groundwater. Our work is aligned with the standard suggested by the regulatory agencies and allows to propagate uncertainty from hydrogeological, toxicological and behavioral parameters to the final health risk endpoint. The problem under consideration consists of a contaminated aquifer supplying water to a population. Contamination stems from a continuous source that feeds a steady plume which constitutes the hazard source. This scenario is particularly suited for NAPL pollutants. The erratic displacement of the contaminant plume in groundwater, due to the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, is characterized within the Lagrangian stochastic framework which enables the complete probabilistic characterization of the contaminant concentration at an environmentally sensitive location. Following the probabilistic characterization of flow and transport, we quantify the adverse health effects on humans. The dose response assessment involves the estimation of the uncertain effects of the exposure to a given contaminant while accounting for the exposed individual's metabolism. The model integrates groundwater transport, exposure and human metabolism in a comprehensive probabilistic framework which allows the assessment of the risk probability through a novel simple analytical solution. Aside from its computational efficiency, the analytical features of the framework allows the assessment of uncertainty arising from the hydrogeological parameters.

  17. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures.

  18. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  19. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  20. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of TCE groundwater contamination to human and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Funder, Simon Goltermann; Finkel, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    management tools designed to work with sparse data sets from preliminary site assessments are needed which can explicitly link contaminant point sources with groundwater, surface water and ecological impacts. Here, a novel integrated modelling approach was employed for evaluating the impact of a TCE...... groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamics-based decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical volatilisation model for the stream...... of “effective” parameters in groundwater transport modelling. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk to either human or ecological receptors. The current work will be extended to additional...

  1. Applicability and Limits of Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater by Organic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taboure Aboubacar; Lin Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives in some ways a broad look at the Bioremediation Technology in the treatment of polluted groundwater. Environmentalists and Hydrologeologists around the world, especially in the developed countries welcomed this revolutionizing technique at a moment when other methods were becoming rather expensive and sources of secondary and more challenging pollution problems across sole fresh groundwater. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater is based on the use of bacteria which breakdown organic matters to more stable forms, which will not create nuisance or give off foul odors. The Applicability of this technology at a specific site lies in the understanding of the site's hydrogeologic, physiochemical backgrounds and the knowledge of the properties of the designated bacteria colonies, which would likely stabilize the contaminants. These are key points, which determine the success of the all process. Only, by complying with all those measures, Bioremediation can meet all the expectations.

  2. Heteroaromatic compounds and their biodegradation products in creosote-contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, S.S.; Arvin, E.; Mosbæk, H.

    1998-01-01

    Creosote contamination of groundwater in the vicinity of old gasworks and woodtreatment facilities is a well‐known problem. Risk assessments typically include measurements of mono‐ and poly‐aromatic compounds and phenols. The content of nitrogen‐, sulphur‐ and oxygen‐containing heteroaromatic com...

  3. Evidence for groundwater contamination by heavy metals through soil passage under acidifying conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkens, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported here is aimed at improving the knowledge of the mobility of the heavy metals cadmium and zinc in vulnerable soil types. We use the term vulnerable with reference to vulnerability of groundwater for contamination by soil leaching. At diffuse soil immissions of heavy metals, accu

  4. Edible Oil Barriers for Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Generic Numeric Cleanup Standards for Groundwater Type I and II Aquifers ..................................................................3 Table 3-1...emulsified oil on the aquifer permeability and continued changes in contaminant concentrations and biodegradation indicator parameters in the aquifer ...Methane concentrations increased indicating methanogenic conditions within the PRB. No significant changes were observed in the upgradient monitor

  5. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  6. Modeling nonpoint source nitrate contamination and associated uncertainty in groundwater of U.S. regional aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Lujan, C.

    2009-12-01

    Nonpoint source nitrate contamination in groundwater is spatially variable and can result in elevated nitrate concentrations that threaten drinking-water quality in many aquifers of the United States. Improved modeling approaches are needed to quantify the spatial controls on nonpoint source nitrate contamination and the associated uncertainty of predictive models. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, logistic regression models were developed to predict nitrate concentrations greater than background in recently recharged (less than 50 years) groundwater in selected regional aquifer systems of the United States; including the Central Valley, California Coastal Basins, Basin and Range, Floridan, Glacial, Coastal Lowlands, Denver Basin, High Plains, North Atlantic Coastal Plain, and Piedmont aquifer systems. The models were used to evaluate the spatial controls of climate, soils, land use, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and water-quality conditions on nitrate contamination. The novel model Raster Error Propagation Tool (REPTool) was used to estimate error propagation and prediction uncertainty in the predictive nitrate models and to determine an approach to reduce uncertainty in future model development. REPTool consists of public-domain, Python-based packages that implement Latin Hypercube sampling within a probabilistic framework to track error propagation in geospatial models and quantitatively estimate the prediction uncertainty of the model output. The presented nitrate models, maps, and uncertainty analysis provide important tools for water-resource managers of regional groundwater systems to identify likely areas and the spatial controls on nonpoint source nitrate contamination in groundwater.

  7. Influence Of Groundwater Discharge On Arsenic Contamination In Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of a discharging arsenic plume on sediment contaminant characteristics at a site adjacent to a landfill in northeastern Massachusetts. Site characterization included assessment of the hydrologic and chemical samples coll...

  8. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  9. Development and application of a novel method for regional assessment of groundwater contamination risk in the Songhua River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Erik; Sun, Yuanyuan; Lin, Mao; Kolditz, Olaf

    2017-12-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the groundwater contamination risk of Songhua River Basin by applying a novel approach of integrating public datasets, web services and numerical modelling techniques. To our knowledge, this study is the first to establish groundwater risk maps for the entire Songhua River Basin, one of the largest and most contamination-endangered river basins in China. Index-based groundwater risk maps were created with GIS tools at a spatial resolution of 30arc sec by combining the results of groundwater vulnerability and hazard assessment. Groundwater vulnerability was evaluated using the DRASTIC index method based on public datasets at the highest available resolution in combination with numerical groundwater modelling. As a novel approach to overcome data scarcity at large scales, a web mapping service based data query was applied to obtain an inventory for potential hazardous sites within the basin. The groundwater risk assessment demonstrated that contamination risk. These areas were mainly located in the vast plain areas with hotspots particularly in the Changchun metropolitan area. Moreover, groundwater levels and pollution point sources were found to play a significantly larger impact in assessing these areas than originally assumed by the index scheme. Moderate contamination risk was assigned to 27% of the aquifers, predominantly associated with less densely populated agricultural areas. However, the majority of aquifer area in the sparsely populated mountain ranges displayed low groundwater contamination risk. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that this novel method is valid for regional assessments of groundwater contamination risk. Despite limitations in resolution and input data consistency, the obtained groundwater contamination risk maps will be beneficial for regional and local decision-making processes with regard to groundwater protection measures, particularly if other data availability is limited. Copyright

  10. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D J; Baran, N; Stuart, M E; Manamsa, K; Talbot, J

    2015-08-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n=16), pesticides (n=14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n=12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings.

  11. Spatial distribution and health risk assessment for groundwater contamination from intensive pesticide use in arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Faraj, Turki

    2017-02-01

    Arid and semiarid areas face major challenges in the management of scarce groundwater. This valuable resource is under pressures of population, economic expansion, contamination and over-exploitation. This research investigates groundwater vulnerability to pesticide contamination in the Al-Kharj area of Saudi Arabia. It explores the spatial distribution of pesticide concentrations in groundwater and other relevant factors. Thin permeable soils, permeable aquifers and shallow water tables, which are prevalent in the area, are especially vulnerable to pesticides. Analyses of 40 groundwater samples were performed using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a GC column. The analysis was conducted to detect 32 pesticides from different chemical families, and a total of 22 pesticides were detected. All 40 water samples were positive for at least one of the pesticides studied. In total, 21 compounds were above the quantification limit and 10 of them exceeded the legal limit. Total pesticide levels ranged from 0.18 to 2.21 μg/L, and 68 % of the analyzed samples exceeded the maximum allowable pesticide concentrations established by the European Community. Comparison of the daily intake peak (DIP) and daily intake mean (DIM) relative to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) shows that groundwater contamination with pesticides is a serious problem. Prolonged exposure to pesticides can cause adverse effects to human health and the ecosystem. Spatial distribution maps of groundwater contamination were developed using GIS. These maps will help risk managers identify vulnerable sources and provide a relative assessment of pesticide hazards to human health and the environment.

  12. Vulnerability of deep groundwater in the Bengal Aquifer System to contamination by arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W.G.; Hoque, M.A.; Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.; Breit, G.N.; Ahmed, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow groundwater, the primary water source in the Bengal Basin, contains up to 100 times the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water guideline of 10g l 1 arsenic (As), threatening the health of 70 million people. Groundwater from a depth greater than 150m, which almost uniformly meets the WHO guideline, has become the preferred alternative source. The vulnerability of deep wells to contamination by As is governed by the geometry of induced groundwater flow paths and the geochemical conditions encountered between the shallow and deep regions of the aquifer. Stratification of flow separates deep groundwater from shallow sources of As in some areas. Oxidized sediments also protect deep groundwater through the ability of ferric oxyhydroxides to adsorb As. Basin-scale groundwater flow modelling suggests that, over large regions, deep hand-pumped wells for domestic supply may be secure against As invasion for hundreds of years. By contrast, widespread deep irrigation pumping might effectively eliminate deep groundwater as an As-free resource within decades. Finer-scale models, incorporating spatial heterogeneity, are needed to investigate the security of deep municipal abstraction at specific urban locations. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioactive contamination of dietary components of the roe deer in the forests of Zhytomirske Polesie of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Volodymyr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on radioactive contamination of dietary components of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in Zhytomirske Polesie (Ukraine. Studies were conducted on two research plots in forests with similar levels of radioactive contamination, 29 ± 8 kBq/m2 - 55 ± 17 kBq/m2, in mixed coniferous forests and mixed broadleaved forests, which are the dominant forest types of the area. The highest level of radionuclide accumulation was observed in young oak seedlings.

  14. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Application of zero-valence iron and palladized iron for treatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene and technetium-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muck, M.T.; Zutman, J.L.; Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Liang, L.; Gu, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Houk, T.C. [Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, OH (United States); Fernando, Q. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The overall goal of this portion of the project was to package one or more unit processes, as modular components in vertical and/or horizontal recirculation wells, for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [e.g., trichloroethene (TCE)] and radionuclides [e.g., technetium (Tc){sup 99}] in groundwater. The project was conceived, in part, because the coexistence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and radionuclides has been identified as the predominant combination of groundwater contamination in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Thus, a major component of the project was the development of modules that provide simultaneous treatment of hydrocarbons and radionuclides. The project objectives included: (1) evaluation of horizontal wells for inducing groundwater recirculation, (2) development of below-ground treatment modules for simultaneous removal of VOCs and radionuclides, and (3) demonstration of a coupled system (treatment module with recirculation well) at a DOE field site where both VOCs and radionuclides are present in the groundwater. This report is limited to the innovative treatment aspects of the program. A report on pilot testing of the horizontal recirculation system was the first report of the series (Muck et al. 1996). A comprehensive report that focuses on the engineering, cost and hydrodynamic aspects of the project has also been prepared (Korte et al. 1997a).

  15. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Application of zero-valence iron and palladized iron for treatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene and technetium-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muck, M.T.; Zutman, J.L.; Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Liang, L.; Gu, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Houk, T.C. [Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, OH (United States); Fernando, Q. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The overall goal of this portion of the project was to package one or more unit processes, as modular components in vertical and/or horizontal recirculation wells, for treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [e.g., trichloroethene (TCE)] and radionuclides [e.g., technetium (Tc){sup 99}] in groundwater. The project was conceived, in part, because the coexistence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and radionuclides has been identified as the predominant combination of groundwater contamination in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Thus, a major component of the project was the development of modules that provide simultaneous treatment of hydrocarbons and radionuclides. The project objectives included: (1) evaluation of horizontal wells for inducing groundwater recirculation, (2) development of below-ground treatment modules for simultaneous removal of VOCs and radionuclides, and (3) demonstration of a coupled system (treatment module with recirculation well) at a DOE field site where both VOCs and radionuclides are present in the groundwater. This report is limited to the innovative treatment aspects of the program. A report on pilot testing of the horizontal recirculation system was the first report of the series (Muck et al. 1996). A comprehensive report that focuses on the engineering, cost and hydrodynamic aspects of the project has also been prepared (Korte et al. 1997a).

  16. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems.

  17. [Simulation on remediation of benzene contaminated groundwater by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan-Ling; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Jia, Xiao-Yang

    2012-11-01

    Air sparging (AS) is one of the in situ remedial technologies which are used in groundwater remediation for pollutions with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, the field design of air sparging system was mainly based on experience due to the lack of field data. In order to obtain rational design parameters, the TMVOC module in the Petrasim software package, combined with field test results on a coking plant in Beijing, is used to optimize the design parameters and simulate the remediation process. The pilot test showed that the optimal injection rate was 23.2 m3 x h(-1), while the optimal radius of influence (ROI) was 5 m. The simulation results revealed that the pressure response simulated by the model matched well with the field test results, which indicated a good representation of the simulation. The optimization results indicated that the optimal injection location was at the bottom of the aquifer. Furthermore, simulated at the optimized injection location, the optimal injection rate was 20 m3 x h(-1), which was in accordance with the field test result. Besides, 3 m was the optimal ROI, less than the field test results, and the main reason was that field test reflected the flow behavior at the upper space of groundwater and unsaturated area, in which the width of flow increased rapidly, and became bigger than the actual one. With the above optimized operation parameters, in addition to the hydro-geological parameters measured on site, the model simulation result revealed that 90 days were needed to remediate the benzene from 371 000 microg x L(-1) to 1 microg x L(-1) for the site, and that the opeation model in which the injection wells were progressively turned off once the groundwater around them was "clean" was better than the one in which all the wells were kept operating throughout the remediation process.

  18. Identifying Possible Groundwater Contamination Sources at the Massachusetts Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupauer, R. M.; Wilson, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    Backward location and travel time probabilities can be used to determine the likely former locations (e.g., source location) of contamination in an aquifer. For a contaminant parcel that was detected in an aquifer, backward location probability describes its position at some time prior to sampling, and backward travel time probability describes the time prior to sampling that the contamination was at a known upgradient position. We use backward probabilities to obtain information about the possible sources of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation. The particular source had not previously been characterized, but a likely location had been identified. Using only four TCE samples from the central and terminal regions of the plume, we obtain location and travel time probabilities in three dimensions. The results reveal that one or more additional sources of TCE are likely.

  19. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  20. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  1. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel' , V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu' Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  2. Manual on restoration strategies for radioactive-contaminated sites. RESTRAT-TD 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Brendler, V.; Nordlinder, S.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Bousher, A

    1999-06-01

    This report is submitted as Technical Deliverable No. 14 against the requirements of the RESTRAT (Restoration Strategies for radioactively contaminated Sites and their Close Surroundings) Project. In this manual the methodology for ranking restoration options is explained and applied to example sites that are representative for major categories of contaminated sites. Potentially relevant techniques for restoration of contaminated sites are identified and characterised and the data collected included on a CD-ROM. For the ranking of the restoration options, a multi-attribute utility (MAU) type of analysis has been chosen with a view to the various categories of attributes that are being taken into account: radiological health detriment; economic costs; social factors. The methods of assessing the attributes and converting the attribute values into utility values for the scoring of the options are explained. The models applied for assessing the collective dose to the population and for the ranking of the remediation options (MAU analysis) are explained and the software included on two CD-ROMs added to the manual.

  3. Data Assimilation for Management of Industrial Groundwater Contamination at a Regional Scale

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the main sources for drinking water and agricultural activities. Various activities of both humans and nature may lead to groundwater pollution. Very often, pollution, or contamination, of groundwater goes undetected for long periods of time until it begins to a ect human health and/or the environment. Cleanup technologies used to remediate pollution can be costly and remediation processes are often protracted. A more practical and feasible way to manage groundwater contamination is to monitor and predict contamination and act as soon as there is risk to the population and the environment. Predicting groundwater contamination requires advanced numerical models of groundwater ow and solute transport. Such numerical modeling is increasingly becoming a reference criterion for water resources assessment and environmental protection. Subsurface numerical models are, however, subject to many sources of uncertainties from unknown parameters and approximate dynamics. This dissertation considers the sequential data assimilation approach and tackles the groundwater contamination problem at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Industrial concentration data are used to monitor and predict the fate of organic contaminants using a threedimensional coupled ow and reactive transport model. We propose a number of 5 novel assimilation techniques that address di erent challenges, including prohibitive computational burden, the nonlinearity and coupling of the subsurface dynamics, and the structural and parametric uncertainties. We also investigate the problem of optimal observational designs to optimize the location and the number of wells. The proposed new methods are based on the ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides an e cient numerical solution to the Bayesian ltering problem. The dissertation rst investigates in depth the popular joint and dual ltering formulations of the state-parameters estimation problem. New methodologies, algorithmically

  4. Both Phosphorus Fertilizers and Indigenous Bacteria Enhance Arsenic Release into Groundwater in Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Chun-Han; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-23

    Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen, and arsenic contamination in groundwater is a worldwide public health concern. Arsenic-affected areas are found in many places but are reported mostly in agricultural farmlands, yet the interaction of fertilizers, microorganisms, and arsenic mobilization in arsenic-contaminated aquifers remains uncharacterized. This study investigates the effects of fertilizers and bacteria on the mobilization of arsenic in two arsenic-contaminated aquifers. We performed microcosm experiments using arsenic-contaminated sediments and amended with inorganic nitrogenous or phosphorus fertilizers for 1 and 4 months under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results show that microcosms amended with 100 mg/L phosphorus fertilizers (dipotassium phosphate), but not nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate), significantly increase aqueous As(III) release in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. We also show that concentrations of iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are increased in the aqueous phase and that the addition of dipotassium phosphate causes a further increase in aqueous iron, potassium, and sodium, suggesting that multiple metal elements may take part in the arsenic release process. Furthermore, microbial analysis indicates that the dominant microbial phylum is shifted from α-proteobacteria to β- and γ-proteobacteria when the As(III) is increased and phosphate is added in the aquifer. Our results provide evidence that both phosphorus fertilizers and microorganisms can mediate the release of arsenic to groundwater in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. Our study suggests that agricultural activity such as the use of fertilizers and monitoring phosphate concentration in groundwater should be taken into consideration for the management of arsenic in groundwater.

  5. Municipal waste management and groundwater contamination processes in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Emilio Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Coronel Moldes, Argentina, waste management practices consist in municipal waste being tipped directly onto an area of sand dunes at the municipal waste disposal site (MWDS. Moreover, untreated liquid waste from septic tanks and latrines from urban areas are discharged in the same place. This co-disposal waste management is very common in many regions of Argentina and its impact on the groundwater of Coronel Moldes has not been evaluated. The study area is located in the vicinity of a MWDS in a flatlands environment that is typical of Argentina. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts on groundwater quality of current waste management practices in order to consider the requirement for new guidelines for sustainable groundwater management. Three groundwater monitoring wells were installed up-, across- and down-gradient of the MWDS. The principal aquifer is formed by sandy silt sediments (loess. Groundwater levels in the area of the MWDS are between 5.6 m and 7.8 m. The Vulnerability index indicates that groundwater in this area has a high vulnerability. Groundwater in the vicinity of the MWDS shows elevated electrical conductivity, high concentrations of Cl-, Na+, and HCO3- ions, COD, BOD5 and aerobic bacteria and less dissolved oxygen than the background values indicating the presence of organic matter. Municipal waste management represents a significant omission in current groundwater protection policy at Coronel Moldes. Strict supervision of solid and liquid municipal waste disposal needs to be instigated in order to ensure that the groundwater remains free of contamination and to allow a sustainable environmental management.

  6. Modelling the fate of oxidisable organic contaminants in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, D.A.; Prommer, H.; Miller, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface contamination by organic chemicals is a pervasive environmental problem, susceptible to remediation by natural or enhanced attenuation approaches or more highly engineered methods such as pump-and-treat, amongst others. Such remediation approaches, along with risk assessment or the pre...

  7. Assessing Alternative Endpoints for Groundwater Remediation at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    OSWER Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response OU operable unit PAH poly-aromatic hydrocarbon PCB poly-chlorinated biphenyl PCE...consisting of source treatment in three source areas (permanganate injections, molasses injections to enhance biodegradation , and vacuum-enhanced vapor...contaminated with wood treatment compounds and fuel oil (coal tar creosote, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs ), pentachlorophenol, arsenic, chromium, copper

  8. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso, West Africa: Predicting and verifying regions at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzler, Anja; Lalanne, Franck; Nikiema, Julien; Podgorski, Joel; Pfenninger, Numa; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-04-15

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater from crystalline basement rocks in West Africa has only been documented in isolated areas and presents a serious health threat in a region already facing multiple challenges related to water quality and scarcity. We present a comprehensive dataset of arsenic concentrations from drinking water wells in rural Burkina Faso (n=1498), of which 14.6% are above 10μg/L. Included in this dataset are 269 new samples from regions where no published water quality data existed. We used multivariate logistic regression with arsenic measurements as calibration data and maps of geology and mineral deposits as independent predictor variables to create arsenic prediction models at concentration thresholds of 5, 10 and 50μg/L. These hazard maps delineate areas vulnerable to groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso. Bedrock composed of schists and volcanic rocks of the Birimian formation, potentially harbouring arsenic-containing sulphide minerals, has the highest probability of yielding groundwater arsenic concentrations >10μg/L. Combined with population density estimates, the arsenic prediction models indicate that ~560,000 people are potentially exposed to arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Burkina Faso. The same arsenic-bearing geological formations that are positive predictors for elevated arsenic concentrations in Burkina Faso also exist in neighbouring countries such as Mali, Ghana and Ivory Coast. This study's results are thus of transboundary relevance and can act as a trigger for targeted water quality surveys and mitigation efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  10. Evidence for Groundwater Contamination Vulnerability in California?s Central Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Leif, R; Esser, B K; Singleton, M J

    2005-12-13

    The California Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has implemented a program to assess the susceptibility of groundwater resources. Advanced techniques such as groundwater age dating using the tritium-helium method, extensive use of oxygen isotopes of the water molecule ({delta}{sup 18}O) for recharge water provenance, and analysis of common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ultra-low levels are applied with the goal of assessing the contamination vulnerability of deep aquifers, which are frequently used for public drinking water supply. Over 1200 public drinking water wells have been tested to date, resulting in a very large, tightly spaced collection of groundwater ages in some of the heavily exploited groundwater basins of California. Smaller scale field studies that include shallow monitoring wells are aimed at assessing the probability that nitrate will be transported to deep drinking water aquifers. When employed on a basin-scale, groundwater ages are an effective tool for identifying recharge areas, defining flowpaths, and determining the rate of transport of water and entrained contaminants. De-convolution of mixed ages, using ancillary dissolved noble gas data, gives insight into the water age distribution drawn at a well, and into the effective dilution of contaminants such as nitrate at long-screened production wells. In combination with groundwater ages, low-level VOCs are used to assess the impact of vertical transport. Special studies are focused on the fate and transport of nitrate with respect to vulnerability of aquifers in agricultural and formerly agricultural areas.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain.

  12. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  13. Reduction of radioactive waste from remediation of uranium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Gook; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, Jong Won [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Great amounts of solid radioactive waste (second waste) and waste solution are generated from the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil. To reduce these, we investigated washing with a less acidic solution and recycling the waste solution after removal of the dominant elements and uranium. Increasing the pH of the washing solution from 0.5 to 1.5 would be beneficial in terms of economics. A high content of calcium in the waste solution was precipitated by adding sulfuric acid. The second waste can be significantly reduced by using sorption and desorption techniques on ampholyte resin S-950 prior to the precipitation of uranium at pH 3.0.

  14. Potential health risks from radioactive contamination of saltmarshes in NW England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubina; Plater, A J; Nolan, P J; Mauz, B; Appleby, P G

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the detection of Sellafield-derived (137)Cs and (241)Am in contaminated saltmarshes from North-West England, UK, with a view to assessing the radiological impacts from radioactivity stored within the sediment record. The surface activities from these radionuclides were found in the range between 73 and 851 Bq kg(-1) whereas peak activities ranging from 383 to 12690 Bq kg(-1) were found below the surface of the upper marsh at a depth of approximately 5-20 cm. Potential radioactive exposure to humans from these highly active radionuclides comes mainly from direct exposure and resuspended dust inhalation for different saltmarsh users, which may be exacerbated by the remobilisation of radionuclides resulting from saltmarsh erosion. The total annual minimum, maximum and 'best estimate' doses ranging from 11 to 972 μSv y(-1), fall below the ICRP-recommended annual dose limit, but the highest estimated total effective dose (972 μSv y(-1)) for a marsh user falls within 97% of the recommended dose limit and the highest 'best estimate' total annual doses of 110 and 307 μSv y(-1) for Dee estuary and Biggar marshes, respectively, are almost 3 and 4 times higher than the estimated doses that are based on existing surface activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  16. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  17. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  18. Recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap from the nuclear cycle and spin-off for other application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quade, U.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980ies, Siempelkamp foundry in Krefeld, Germany, developed a process to melt medium and slightly radioactive metals from decommissioning and maintenance works in nuclear power plants. Since 1989, in the CARLA melting plant which is licensed according to the German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV, metals are being molten which, for the largest part, can be reused. Since 1998, in a second plant, the GERTA melting plant, metals with a content of mercury up to 1 weight %, natural radioactivity up to 500 Bq/g and other chemical contaminations are being molten and completely decontaminated, so that these metals can be reused in the steel cycle. The following text is describing the melting process, acceptance criteria for contaminated scrap and recycling paths for the produced ingots and slags.

    La fundición Siempelkamp en Krefeld, Alemania, desarrolló, en los años 80, un proceso para fundir metales mediana y levemente radioactivos, procedentes de reparaciones o desmantelamiento de plantas nucleares. En la planta de fundición CARLA, que cumple los requisitos del decreto de protección contra radiaciones de la República Federal de Alemania, se funden metales desde 1989, de los cuales la mayor parte puede ser utilizada nuevamente. Desde 1998, en una segunda planta, fundición GERTA, se funden y descontaminan totalmente, metales de hasta un 1 % de peso de mercurio, con una radioactividad natural de hasta 500 Bq/g y con otros contaminantes químicos. De este modo los metales pueden ser nuevamente utilizados en el ciclo metálico. El texto adjunto describe el método para el fundido, los criterios para aceptar chatarra contaminada y las vías de utilización para los bloques de metal y escorias generadas en el proceso.

  19. The application of illite supported nanoscale zero valent iron for the treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, C; Landsberger, S; Li, Y L

    2017-09-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero valent iron I-NZVI was investigated as a remediation strategy for uranium contaminated groundwater from the former Cimarron Fuel Fabrication Site in Oklahoma, USA. The 1 L batch-treatment system was applied in the study. The result shows that 99.9% of uranium in groundwater was removed by I-NZVI within 2 h. Uranium concentration in the groundwater stayed around 27 μg/L, and there was no sign of uranium release into groundwater after seven days of reaction time. Meanwhile the release of iron was significantly decreased compared to NZVI which can reduce the treatment impact on the water environment. To study the influence of background pH of the treatment system on removal efficiency of uranium, the groundwater was adjusted from pH 2-10 before the addition of I-NZVI. The pH of the groundwater was from 2.1 to 10.7 after treatment. The removal efficiency of uranium achieved a maximum in neutral pH of groundwater. The desorption of uranium on the residual solid phase after treatment was investigated in order to discuss the stability of uranium on residual solids. After 2 h of leaching, 0.07% of the total uranium on residual solid phase was leached out in a HNO3 leaching solution with a pH of 4.03. The concentration of uranium in the acid leachate was under 3.2 μg/L which is below the EPA's maximum contaminant level of 30 μg/L. Otherwise, the concentration of uranium was negligible in distilled water leaching solution (pH = 6.44) and NaOH leaching solution (pH = 8.52). A desorption study shows that an acceptable amount of uranium on the residuals can be released into water system under strong acid conditions in short terms. For long term disposal management of the residual solids, the leachate needs to be monitored and treated before discharge into a hazardous landfill or the water system. For the first time, I-NZVI was applied for the treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. These results provide proof that I-NZVI has

  20. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chun-Ping, E-mail: chunping@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deal with a practical radioactive contamination in Taiwan Research Reactor spent fuel pool water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify the properties of radioactive contaminants and performance test for water treatment materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive solids were primary attributed by ruptured spent fuels, spent resins, and metal debris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radioactive ions were major composed by uranium and fission products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diatomite-based ceramic depth filter can simultaneously removal radioactive solids and ions. - Abstract: There were approximately 926 m{sup 3} of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, U, and {alpha}-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 {mu}m filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb {beta}-emitters, {alpha}-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously

  1. Evaluating Contaminant Flux from the Vadose Zone to the Groundwater in the Hanford Central Plateau. SX Tank Farms Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, contaminants were discharged to the subsurface through engineered waste sites in the Hanford Central Plateau. Additional waste was released through waste storage tank leaks. Much of the contaminant inventory is still present within the unsaturated vadose zone sediments. The nature and extent of future groundwater contaminant plumes and the growth or decline of current groundwater plumes beneath the Hanford Central Plateau are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to the groundwater. In general, contaminant transport is slow through the vadose zone and it is difficult to directly measure contaminant flux in the vadose zone. Predictive analysis, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, was applied using a structured, systems-based approach to estimate the future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions for the vadose zone and groundwater (Truex and Carroll 2013). The SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of the existing contaminant inventory in the vadose zone, observations of elevated moisture content in portions of the vadose zone, presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount and wide variety of data available for the site. Although the SX Tank Farm case study is most representative of conditions at tank farm sites, the study has elements that are also relevant to other types of disposal sites in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  2. A biogeochemical transport model to simulate the attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant fluxes across the groundwater-surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons originating from point sources are amongst the most prevalent contaminants of ground water and surface water resources. Riparian zones may play an important role in the attenuation of contaminant concentrations when contaminant plumes flow from groundwater to surface water...

  3. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  4. Groundwater arsenic contamination on the Ganges Delta: biogeochemistry, hydrology, human perturbations, and human suffering on a large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, Abu Bohran M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2005-02-01

    Over the last several decades, much of population of Bangladesh and West Bengal switched their water supply from surface water to groundwater. Tragically, much of the region's groundwater is dangerously contaminated by arsenic, and consumption of this water has already created severe health effects. Here we consider how groundwater flow may affect arsenic biogeochemistry and we compare the vertical patterns of groundwater chemistry at our intensive study site with the average values across the country. Detailed hydraulic data are presented from our field site that begins to characterize the groundwater flow system. To cite this article: C.F. Harvey et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  5. Draft Protocol for Controlling Contaminated Groundwater by Phytostabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-05

    Phytoextraction is usually associated with metal contaminants. Plants called hyperaccumulators absorb large amounts of metals in comparison to other... hyperaccumulation of metals have not been included. Applied Natural Sciences 4129 Tonya Trail Fairfield, OH 45011 Phone: 513-895-6061 Fax: 513-895-6062 Ecolotree...with or, in some cases, in place of mechanical cleanup methods. Phytoremediation can be used to clean up metals , pesticides, Draft Protocol for

  6. Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment: A Comparison of Parametric Systems and Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Sacco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater nitrate contamination is a source of rising concern that has been faced through the introduction of several regulations in different countries. However the methodologies used in the definition of Nitrate Vulnerable Zones are not included in the regulations. The aim of this work was to compare different methodologies, used to asses groundwater nitrate contamination risks, based on parametric systems or simulation modelling. The work was carried out in Piedmont, Italy, in an area characterised by intensive animal husbandry, high N load, a shallow water table and a coarse type of sub-soil sediments. Only N loads from agricultural non-point sources were considered. Different methodologies with different level of information have been compared to determine the groundwater nitrate contamination risk assessment: N load, IPNOA index, the intrinsic contamination risk from nitrates, leached N and N concentration of the soil solution estimated by the simulation model. The good correlation between the IPNOA index and the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk revealed that the parameters that describe the soil in this area did not lead to a different classification of the parcels. The intrinsic nitrate contamination risk was greatly influenced by N fertilisation, however the effect of the soils increased the variability in comparison to the IPNOA index. The leached N and N concentration in the leaching were closely correlated. The dilution effect of percolated water was almost negligible. Both methodologies were slightly correlated to the N fertilisation and the two indexes. The correlations related to the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk was higher than those related to IPNOA, and this means that the effect of taking into account soil parameters increases the correlation to the prediction of the simulation model.

  7. Advances in Dynamic Transport of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Vesper, D.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Hellweger, F.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems develop in soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by high permeability and well-developed conduit porosity. These systems provide important freshwater resources for human consumption and ecological integrity of streams, wetlands, and coastal zones. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination. As a result, karst aquifers serve as an important route for contaminants exposure to humans and wildlife. Transport of organic contaminants in karst ground-water occurs in complex pathways influenced by the flow mechanism predominating in the aquifer: conduit-flow dominated systems tend to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge point without much attenuation; diffuse-flow systems, on the other hand, can cause significant solute retardation and slow movement. These two mechanisms represent end members of a wide spectrum of conditions found in karst areas, and often a combination of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms is encountered, where both flow mechanisms can control the fate and transport of contaminants. This is the case in the carbonate aquifers of northern Puerto Rico. This work addresses advances made on the characterization of fate and transport processes in karst ground-water systems characterized by variable conduit and/or diffusion dominated flow under high- and low-flow conditions. It involves laboratory-scale physical modeling and field-scale sampling and historical analysis of contaminant distribution. Statistical analysis of solute transport in Geo-Hydrobed physical models shows the heterogeneous character of transport dynamics in karstic units, and its variability under different flow regimes. Field-work analysis of chlorinated volatile organic compounds and phthalates indicates a large capacity of the karst systems to store and transmit contaminants. This work is part of the program "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination

  8. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita m [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago; Heraty, Linnea J [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  9. Co-contamination of arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of unconsolidated aquifers under reducing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Hwi; Kim, Kangjoo; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2012-05-01

    The co-contamination of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) in shallow aquifers is frequently observed worldwide, and the correlations between those contaminants are different according to the redox conditions. This study geochemically explores the reasons for the co-contamination and for the redox-dependent correlations by investigating the groundwater of an alluvial aquifer in Korea. Geochemical signatures of the groundwater in the study area show that the As concentrations are enriched by the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides, and the correlations between As and F(-) concentrations are poor comparatively to those observed in the oxidizing aquifers. However, F(-) concentrations are strongly dependent on pH. Desorption/adsorption experiments using raw soils and citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite treated soils indicated that Fe-(hydr)oxides are the important As and F(-) hosts causing the co-contamination phenomenon. The weaker correlation between F(-) and As in reducing aquifers is likely to be associated with sulfate reduction, which removes As from groundwater without changing the F(-) concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods in Spain. Establishment of a common framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Montero, M.; Oltra, C.; Sala, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Gallego, E. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales - UPM-ETSII (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident with radiological consequences affecting the quality of foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and in general, consumer goods, the European Union and its Member States, have developed radiation protection general guidelines to manage such situations. In this context, there are recommendations and standards, at international (Codex Alimentarius -FAO/OMS-, IAEA) and regional levels (EURATOM Directives) based on activity concentrations in different products and maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs. These levels are based on certain assumptions about the consumption of contaminated products. However, the application of these guidelines is not easy, as shown after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Several factors converge in this situation. First, is the national regulation of each country, that can decide on the maximum radioactivity levels in food consumed within the country. Other is the misinterpretation of the guidelines that where originally developed for specific conditions. Finally, rejection attitudes of consumers and general public towards foodstuffs, feed-stuffs and goods according to their provenience, must also be taken into account. Aware of this reality, the European Union is funding within its 7. Framework Programme for R and D projects to help optimize European response to radiological emergencies, including those involving contaminated foodstuffs and consumer goods. Specifically, this is the overall objective of the PREPARE Project (Innovative Integrative Tools and Platforms to be Prepared for Radiological Emergencies and Post-Accident Response in Europe) within the framework of NERIS Platform (European Platform on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response and Recovery). PREPARE project is intended to develop strategies, guidelines and tools for the management of foodstuffs and consumer goods contaminated with radioactivity, considering not only the Public Administration, as

  11. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  12. Dug Well Recharge Method for Insitu Mitigation of Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, G.; Lakshmanan, E.; Gunalan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater with fluoride concentration exceeding 1.5 mg/l is not suitable for drinking water supply as it may cause health issues such as dental and skeletal fluorosis to humans. Several million people around the world has been affected by fluorosis. The objective of the study is to mitigate the problem of fluoride contamination in groundwater by increasing groundwater recharge through a dug well recharge system. The study was carried out in a part of Vaniyar river basin, northwest Tamil Nadu, India where fluorosis is prevalent. A cylindrical pit of 1m diameter and 1.5 m height was constructed during May 2014 at a distance of about 4 m from a dug well existing in this area. This cylindrical pit was divided into 3 compartments and one of them was filled with gravel and one with sand. The third compartment was kept empty for inspection and maintenance. The rainfall collected in a funnel shaped depression was allowed to pass through these compartments to discharge in the nearby dug well through a pipe. The concentration of the fluoride in groundwater from this well was had been monitoring on bi-monthly basis from the year 2012 to 2014. After construction of dug well recharge system, the groundwater level has raised by about 5 m and the fluoride concentration has decreased from 3.1 mg/l to 1.44 mg/l due to recharge. The concentration of fluoride and groundwater level is being monitored on daily basis from June 2014. It is evident that the recharge system constructed is working well and the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is within the permissible limit. The advantage of this dug well recharge system is its low cost and the ease of implementation. Thus this pilot study on dug well recharge system demonstrated it's potential in reducing the concentration of fluoride in groundwater which is more beneficial to the society as they cannot afford the well proven water treatment methods.

  13. Radioactive contaminants in the subsurface: the influence of complexing ligands on trace metal speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, W

    2007-07-01

    database used in Swiss radioactive waste disposal projects. Within the scope of this TDB project I reviewed extensively thermodynamic data for Th, Pd, Al, and solubility and metal complexation of silicates, the review considering not only U, Np, Pu, Am, Tc, Ni, Se and Zr, but also the major constituents of ground and surface waters, i.e. H, Na, K, Mg and Ca. The decision to evaluate the organic ligands oxalate, citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (edta) and {alpha}-isosaccharinate (isa) was based on two aspects, namely the importance of the ligands in radioactive waste problems, and the availability of experimental data. (ii) In many case studies involving inorganic and simple organic ligands a serious lack of reliable thermodynamic data is encountered. There, a new modeling approach to estimate the effects of these missing data was applied. This so called 'backdoor approach' begins with the question: 'What total concentration of a ligand is necessary to significantly influence the speciation, and hence the solubility, of a given trace metal?' Radioactive waste contains substantial amounts of ion-exchange resins from decontamination procedures. Degradation of these organic waste forms by radiolysis in a repository is a source of concern in radioactive waste management. Radiolytic degradation experiments with strong acidic ion exchange resins resulted in the formation of the complexing ligands oxalate and ligand X, whose structure could not be identified. In the case of anion exchange resins, ammonia and methylamines were detected. I assessed the influence of these ligands on radionuclide speciation in groundwater and cement pore water of a repository using the 'backdoor approach'. Prussian Blue, Fe{sup III}{sub 4} [Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}, and structurally related transition metal compounds like Ni{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] are used as cesium ion exchangers in decontamination procedures of liquid radioactive waste. The used ion exchangers

  14. The phyto-remediation of radioactively contaminated land - a feasible approach or just bananas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, Victoria A [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Soil is an essential component of all terrestrial ecosystems and is under increasing threat from human activity. Techniques available for removing radioactive contamination from soil and aquatic substrates are limited and often costly to implement; particularly over large areas. Frequently, bulk soil removal, with its attendant consequences, is a significant component of the majority of contamination incidents. Alternative techniques capable of removing contamination or exposure pathways without damaging or removing the soil are therefore of significant interest. An increasing number of old nuclear facilities are entering 'care and maintenance', with significant ground contamination issues. Phyto-remediation - the use of plants' natural metabolic processes to remediate contaminated sites is one possible solution. Its key mechanisms include phyto-extraction and phyto-stabilisation. These are analogues of existing remedial techniques. Further, phyto-remediation can improve soil quality and stability and restore functionality. Information on the application of phyto-remediation in the nuclear industry is widely distributed over an extended period of time and sources. It is therefore difficult to quickly and effectively identify which plants would be most suitable for phyto-remediation on a site by site basis. In response, a phyto-remediation tool has been developed to address this issue. Existing research and case studies were reviewed to understand the mechanisms of phyto-remediation, its effectiveness and the benefits and limitations of implementation. The potential for cost recovery from a phyto-remediation system is also briefly considered. An overview of this information is provided here. From this data, a set of matrices was developed to guide potential users through the plant selection process. The matrices take the user through a preliminary screening process to determine whether the contamination present at their site is amenable to phyto

  15. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  16. Information Management System Supporting a Multiple Property Survey Program with Legacy Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Ron; Chambers, Douglas; Wiatzka, Gerd; Dupre, Monica; Callough, Micah; Benson, John; Santiago, Erwin; van Veen, Walter

    2017-04-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative is a project mandated and funded by the Government of Canada to remediate properties with legacy low-level radioactive waste contamination in the Town of Port Hope, Ontario. The management and use of large amounts of data from surveys of some 4800 properties is a significant task critical to the success of the project. A large amount of information is generated through the surveys, including scheduling individual field visits to the properties, capture of field data laboratory sample tracking, QA/QC, property report generation and project management reporting. Web-mapping tools were used to track and display temporal progress of various tasks and facilitated consideration of spatial associations of contamination levels. The IM system facilitated the management and integrity of the large amounts of information collected, evaluation of spatial associations, automated report reproduction and consistent application and traceable execution for this project.x. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Airborne mapping of radioactive contamination. Results from a test in Finland, RESUME95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, S.; Smethurst, M.A. [Geological Survey of Norway (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Geological Survey of Norway participated in the exercise RESUME95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment 95) in Finland, during August 1995. The purpose of the exercise was to 1) test preparedness in the Nordic countries for accidents involving the release and dispersal of radioactive material, 2) compare results from the different teams participating in the exercise, 3) establish routines for the exchange of data and 4) investigate the possibility of international assistance in the event of nuclear accidents. The Geological Survey of Norway carried out a survey over three test areas (area I, II and III). All three areas were contaminated with man made radionuclides in the days following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. The Cesium-137 contamination level was reported to be about 50 kBq/m{sup 2} in area I, and this area was used for calibration. In area II mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration was carried out. Detection of hidden artificial radiation sources were the main purpose in area III. This report describes the exercise - RESUME95, field operations, calibration, mapping of Cesium-137 ground concentration and detection of hidden point sources. Results are presented as colour maps. (au).

  18. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  19. Characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater surrounding an illegal landfill (S. Giuliano, Venice, Italy) by principal component analysis and kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    Information on soil and groundwater contamination was used to develop a site conceptual model and to identify exposure scenarios. - The characterization of a hydrologically complex contaminated site bordering the lagoon of Venice (Italy) was undertaken by investigating soils and groundwaters affected by the chemical contaminants originated by the wastes dumped into an illegal landfill. Statistical tools such as principal components analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to obtain the spatial distribution of chemical contaminants. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} were used to trace the migration of the contaminants from the top soil to the underlying groundwaters. The chemical and hydrogeological available information was assembled to obtain the schematic of the conceptual model of the contaminated site capable to support the formulation of major exposure scenarios, which are also provided.

  20. Characterization and fingerprinting of soil and groundwater contamination sources around a fuel distribution station in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Macías, Felipe; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination around a fuel distribution station in Tomiño (NW Spain) was evaluated. For this purpose, top and subsoil (up to 6.4 m) and groundwater were sampled around the station, approximately in a 60-m radius. Samples were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS to identify and quantify volatile fuel organic compounds (VFOC) (MTBE, ETBE and BTEX) and diesel range organics (DRO). Analysis and fingerprinting data suggested that the contamination of soil and groundwater was provoked by a fuel leak from underground storage tanks. This was reflected by hydrocarbon indices and principal component analysis, which discriminated a direct source of contamination of the subsoil samples around the station. The contaminants probably migrated from tank nearby soils to surrounding soils and leached to groundwater, following a SW direction. Irrigation with contaminated groundwater provoked a severe contamination of topsoils, which were enriched with the lightest components of gasoline and diesel. Fingerprinting also revealed the continuity of the leak, reflected by the presence of volatiles in some samples, which principally appeared in fresh leaks. MTBE was detected in a very high concentration in groundwater samples (up to 690 μg L(-1)), but it was not detected in fresh gasoline. This also evidenced an old source of contamination, probably starting in the mid-1990s, when the use of MTBE in gasoline was regulated.

  1. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  2. Simulation of groundwater and nuclide transport in the near-field of the high-level radioactive waste repository with TOUGHREACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xun; YANG Zeping; ZHENG Zhihong; WU Hongmei

    2008-01-01

    In order to know the mechanism of groundwater transport and the variation of ion concentrations in the near-field of the high-level radioactive waste repository, the whole process was simulated by EOS3 module of TOUGHREACT. Generally, the pH and cation concentrations vary obviously in the near-field saturated zone due to interaction between groundwater and bentonite. Moreover, the simulated results showed that calcite precipitation could not cause obvious variations in the porosity of media in the near-filed if the chemical components and their concentrations of groundwater and bentonite pore water are similar to those used in this study.

  3. RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF MEDICINAL HERBS IN SOME GOMEL REGION DISTRICTS BORDERING ON THE TERRITORY OF BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sapegin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study results of radioactive contamination of medicinal herbs with 137 Cs in some Gomel region districts bordering on the territory of Bryansk region of Russia are given.168 plants of 88 species belonging to 76 genuses and 37 families and 16 soil samples have been analyzed. The most contaminated with 137 Cs medicinal herbs were found out in Chechersk and Vetka districts. Local contamination with radionuclide is typical for Dobrush and Korma districts of Gomel region.Safe use of medicinal herbs by the population is possible only under radiological control.

  4. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  5. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    in clay till geology and the impact on streams; 3) the characterization of the dominating anthropogenic stressors in headwater streams at catchment scale and 4) the development of a method for assessing the uncertainty in conceptual site models. Advances in risk assessment methods for contaminated sites...... carbon and ammonium) in the groundwater and the stream. Based on the results of the mass balance method, significant spatial heterogeneity was expected in the contaminant mass discharge pattern to Risby Stream. To obtain a better understanding of this impact, a detailed investigation was conducted....... The investigation involved an array of methods including studies of the site hydrogeology, groundwater and surface water discharge and landfill leachate composition and distribution. The methods included driven wells, seepage meters, grab samples, measurement of the temperature gradient in the stream bed...

  6. CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER IN SRIKAKULAM COASTAL BELT DUE TO SALT WATER INTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandra Mouli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many urban centers of the country are located on the coastal tract apart from thousands of villages and industrial settlements. Water resources in coastal areas assume a special significance since anydevelopmental activity will largely depend upon availability of fresh water to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural requirements.Thisincreases the dependency upon groundwater for meeting the freshwater demand. As the region is close to the coast, the variations in the levels of water table due to excess withdrawals from wells and bore wells will cause the intrusion of seawater into the groundwater. In the present paper deals with the study of saltwater intrusion in the coastal tract of Srikakulam district, on an areal basis. From the results obtained the variation in the effect of contamination with respect to distance from shore is studied and a comparison of the contamination in open wells and bore wells is also carried out.

  7. Measuring Groundwater and Contaminant Flux: Passive Flux Meter Field Applications and Issues with Alcohol Degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bondehagen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The passive flux meter (PFM developed at the University of Florida is an innovative device that is inserted into a well in order to measure groundwater and contaminant flux. The in-situ device consists of an activated carbon matrix impregnated with known amounts of alcohols that are desorbed at rates proportional to the groundwater flux through the device. After exposure the sorbent is extracted to quantify the contaminant mass intercepted and the resident alcohol mass remaining. Since the alcohols employed in bioactive sites are degradable, studies were conducted to investigate biodegradation issues and microbial acclimation times in field application. Also, silver-impregnated activated carbon was compared to unamended activated carbon in batch and column studies to determine silver ion effects on degradation. The studies confirm degradation and microbial acclimation occurrence, and demonstrate that silver impregnated activated carbon does inhibit degradation. Issues remain with biofilm/biofouling observed in the field as well as column studies.

  8. Foodstuff contamination and pattern of consumption by population of foremost radioactively contaminated territories in Ukraine during the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianets, M; Piven, N; Gunko, N; Korotkova, N; Sribna, V

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The goal of the study was to estimate, from the perspective and in terms of hygienic provisions, the level of local food contamination by 137Cs and their pattern of consumption by residents of foremost radionuclide contaminated territories of Ukraine (Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts) in the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster. Materials and methods. The article presents analytical data from the National Statistics Office of Ukraine concerning production and consumption of agricultural products in the territories of foremost severe radioactive contamination (TRC) i.e. Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts (provinces). Data on levels of food contamination (milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, wild mushrooms and berries) received from the regional radiological control centers (RCC) and sanitary and epidemiological agencies/bureaus (SEA) were analyzed. According to results of questionnaire survey of residents in TRC of investigated regions (oblasts) the public awareness of radioactive contamination levels in local food production, their level of consumption and the use of cooking measures to reduce internal dose were assayed. Analytical, mathematical, statistical, sociological, and software engineering methods were applied. Results and conclusions. It was found that in the country and in study areas as well there is more than a half decrease of milk and meat production and consumption, and almost half times increased production of potato. It was shown that locally produced food and wide use of wild berries and mushrooms are dominated in the diet of TRC residents in the remote period after the Chornobyl disaster. Ecological and hygienic monitoring of foodstuffs in TRC proves the probability of product consumption with high content of radioactive materials. Residents territories of the foremost severe radioactive contamination in Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts are aware about possible contamination of locally produced food with substances of Chornobyl origin

  9. The potential for groundwater contamination along basin margins in the arid west: Alluvial fans and lake features

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.; Oaks, Robert Q.; Peter T. Kolesar; Fisk, Edward P.

    1981-01-01

    Many towns of the arid west were built upon alluvial fans and upon sites underlain by Pleistocene lake deposits. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of these activities of man upon groundwater quality within these geological features. Emphasis was placed on shallow groundwater quality after it was determined that deep groundwater is rarely contaminated at such sites. A reconnaissance of...

  10. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  11. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  12. Use of multivariate indicator kriging methods for assessing groundwater contamination extents for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-05-01

    Multivariate geostatistical approaches have been applied extensively in characterizing risks and uncertainty of pollutant concentrations exceeding anthropogenic regulatory limits. Spatially delineating an extent of contamination potential is considerably critical for regional groundwater resources protection and utilization. This study used multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) to determine spatial patterns of contamination extents in groundwater for irrigation and made a predicted comparison between two types of MVIK, including MVIK of multiplying indicator variables (MVIK-M) and of averaging indicator variables (MVIK-A). A cross-validation procedure was adopted to examine the performance of predicted errors, and various probability thresholds used to calculate ratios of declared pollution area to total area were explored for the two MVIK methods. The assessed results reveal that the northern and central aquifers have excellent groundwater quality for irrigation use. Results obtained through a cross-validation procedure indicate that MVIK-M is more robust than MVIK-A. Furthermore, a low ratio of declared pollution area to total area in MVIK-A may result in an unrealistic and unreliable probability used to determine extents of pollutants. Therefore, this study suggests using MVIK-M to probabilistically determine extents of pollutants in groundwater.

  13. Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ = 0.005 μg/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 μL) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 μg/L in groundwater (n = 60), <0.005-30.2 μg/L in surface water (n = 11), and 0.063-0.393 μg/L in tap water (n = 3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 μg/L), further investigation on human health is warranted.

  14. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  15. Organic Contaminants in Riverine and Groundwater Systems: Aspects of the Anthropogenic Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, Jan

    This book summarizes a selection of organic-geochemical investigations, which deal with the characterization and environmental behaviour of organic contaminations of German river and groundwater systems. The aim is to resume and present an overview of comprehensive current research activities, which have been published diversely in specialised scientific journals and, are therefore not easily available in a concise and clearly arranged way. Important topics include comprehensive non-target screening as well as isotope analysis of contaminants in water and sediments, detailed characterisation of bound residues, recording river ine pollution histories and an extensive application of the anthropogenic marker approach.

  16. Groundwater redox conditions and conductivity in a contaminant plume from geoelectrical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naudet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mapping of the electrical conductivity and of the redox potential of the groundwater is important in delineating the shape of a contaminant plume. A map of redox potential in an aquifer is indicative of biodegradation of organic matter and of concentrations of redox-active components; a map of electrical conductivity provides information on the mineralisation of the groundwater. Both maps can be used to optimise the position of pumping wells for remediation. The self-potential method (SP and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT have been applied to the contaminant plume associated with the Entressen landfill in south-east France. The self-potential depends on groundwater flow (electrokinetic contribution and redox conditions ('electro-redox' contribution. Using the variation of the piezometric head in the aquifer, the electrokinetic contribution is removed from the SP signals. A good linear correlation (R2=0.85 is obtained between the residual SP data and the redox potential values measured in monitoring wells. This relationship is used to draw a redox potential map of the overall contaminated site. The electrical conductivity of the subsoil is obtained from 3D-ERT analysis. A good linear correlation (R2=0.91 is observed between the electrical conductivity of the aquifer determined from the 3D-ERT image and the conductivity of the groundwater measured in boreholes. This indicates that the formation factor is nearly homogeneous in the shallow aquifer at the scale of the ERT. From this correlation, a map of the pore water conductivity of the aquifer is obtained. Keywords: self-potential, redox potential, electrical resistivity tomography, fluid conductivity, contaminant plume

  17. Evidence for groundwater contamination by heavy metals through soil passage under acidifying conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkens, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported here is aimed at improving the knowledge of the mobility of the heavy metals cadmium and zinc in vulnerable soil types. We use the term vulnerable with reference to vulnerability of groundwater for contamination by soil leaching. At diffuse soil immissions of heavy metals, accumulation is often supposed to occur mainly in the topsoil. Binding of heavy metals in this soil compartment is relatively strong, because of de presence of soil organic matter, clay-minerals and se...

  18. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  19. A BIOTIC CONTROL PERSPECTIVE ON NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER FROM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Jon D.; Schlapfer, Felix

    2001-01-01

    Agronomists consider the continuity and nutrient capturing properties of cover crops as important determinants of nutrient cycling in agricultural systems. Managing for these biotic control functions can help limit nutrient loss and groundwater contamination between main crop harvests. This simulation study highlights the potential role of cover crop management in a welfare economics framework. The objective is to find the optimal combination of nutrient input to the main crop, the extent of ...

  20. Assessing the vulnerability of a karst groundwater system to contamination by pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies is a serious problem and a potential threat to public health. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products are identified as an environmental risk and concern has been raised about their environmental presence and fate. These compounds are present in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in concentrations of up to several µg/L, and they have frequently been detected in surface waters and groundwater systems. A popular method for wastewater disposal in karst areas is the injection of wastewater into open sinkholes. Subsequently, the wastewater infiltrates rapidly along conduits and through the fractured karst aquifer. This is a major contributing factor to the contamination of karst aquifers. To address the vulnerability of such systems against relatively mobile organic micropollutants, we investigated the occurrence of two pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen) in combination with the groundwater heterogeneity and flow pathways in the aquifer. Groundwater samples and effluents of three WWTPs were repeatedly collected during a field campaign in the Franconian Alb karst system which is located in southern Germany. These results were coupled with hydrogeological investigations such as tracer tests, application of environmental isotopes (3H), and modeling. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) both pharmaceuticals are mobile in the karst aquifer and thus represent a risk for contamination of karst water, (ii) the transport of pharmaceuticals in the fractured system with mean transit times of some years affects the karst groundwater contamination, and (iii) long-term wastewater injection containing organic micropollutants into karst ecosystems may contribute to water quality deterioration over years.

  1. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gibson, T. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well.

  2. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater: Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  3. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater: Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the level

  4. Contaminação de águas subterrâneas por pesticidas: avaliação preliminar Groundwater contamination by pesticides: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A discussion about groundwater contamination is presented in this work. Contamination by agricultural activity, more specifically by pesticides is emphasized. Indirect and direct estimates could be used to predict pesticide behavior in soil, and consequently, to evaluate the potential of groundwater contamination. These results could be applied to advise about the possibility of groundwater contamination by pesticides, and to provide subsidies for making decisions more quickly and efficiently.

  5. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p ~8, reflecting the pH-dependence of their mobilization. Based on the

  6. Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by solar-driven membrane distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Ajay K.; Sen, Mou [Environment and Membrane Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 India (India); Martin, Andrew R. [Department of Energy Technology, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Pal, Parimal, E-mail: parimalpal2000@yahoo.co [Environment and Membrane Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 India (India)

    2010-03-15

    Experimental investigations were carried out on removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by employing a new flat-sheet cross flow membrane module fitted with a hydrophobic polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane. The new design of the solar-driven membrane module in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configuration successfully produced almost 100 per cent arsenic-free water from contaminated groundwater in a largely fouling-free operation while permitting high fluxes under reduced temperature polarization. For a feed flow rate of 0.120 m{sup 3}/h, the 0.13 mum PVDF membrane yielded a high flux of 74 kg/(m{sup 2} h) at a feed water temperature of 40 deg. C and, 95 kg/m{sup 2} h at a feed water temperature of 60 deg. C. The encouraging results show that the design could be effectively exploited in the vast arsenic-affected rural areas of South-East Asian countries blessed with abundant sunlight particularly during the critical dry season. - Solar-driven membrane distillation has the potential of removing arsenic from contaminated groundwater.

  7. Ecosystem perspective of groundwater arsenic contamination in India and relevance in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu

    2010-08-01

    Millions of people living in India are at risk by consuming arsenic contaminated groundwater. Several technological solutions have failed to address the problem due to segmental approaches, resulting in human suffering for a period of three decades. The article is based on an analysis of arsenic-related health problems from an ecosystem perspective through a primary survey conducted in five arsenic affected villages in the state of West Bengal and review of existing research and policy documents. Although modern agricultural practices and drinking water policies have resulted in arsenic contamination of groundwater, current mitigation policy is essentially confined to biomedical approaches, which includes potable water supply and medical care. The study also shows that existing disparity, difficulty in coping, inaccessibility to health service and potable water supply and lack of participation in decision making have resulted in more suffering among the poor. On the other hand, spreading of arsenic contamination in the ecosystem remains unabated. Foods grown in the affected area have emerged as additional sources of exposure to humans. There is lack of evidence of any perceivable benefits due to sustainable agriculture, as present nature of agriculture practice is essentially driven by crop yield only. Further research is needed to generate credible evidence of alternative agriculture paradigms that may eventually reduce body burden of arsenic through reduced dependency on groundwater.

  8. Permeable Asphalt: A New Tool to Reduce Road Salt Contamination of Groundwater in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Michael E; Angel, Derek R; Robbins, Gary A; McNaboe, Lukas A

    2016-08-30

    Chloride contamination of groundwater in urban areas due to deicing is a well-documented phenomenon in northern climates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of permeable pavement on degraded urban groundwater. Although low impact development practices have been shown to improve stormwater quality, no infiltration practice has been found to prevent road salt chlorides from entering groundwater. The few studies that have investigated chlorides in permeable asphalt have involved sampling directly beneath the asphalt; no research has looked more broadly at surrounding groundwater conditions. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient of an 860 m(2) permeable asphalt parking lot at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut). Water level and specific conductance were measured continuously, and biweekly samples were analyzed for chloride. Samples were also analyzed for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). Analysis of variance analysis indicated a significantly (p asphalt in impacted urban environments with high ambient chloride concentrations can be beneficial to shallow groundwater quality, although these results may not be generalizable to areas with low ambient chloride concentrations.

  9. Predicting redox-sensitive contaminant concentrations in groundwater using random forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Juckem, Paul F.; Miller, Matthew P.; Austin, Brian P.

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning techniques were applied to a large (n > 10,000) compliance monitoring database to predict the occurrence of several redox-active constituents in groundwater across a large watershed. Specifically, random forest classification was used to determine the probabilities of detecting elevated concentrations of nitrate, iron, and arsenic in the Fox, Wolf, Peshtigo, and surrounding watersheds in northeastern Wisconsin. Random forest classification is well suited to describe the nonlinear relationships observed among several explanatory variables and the predicted probabilities of elevated concentrations of nitrate, iron, and arsenic. Maps of the probability of elevated nitrate, iron, and arsenic can be used to assess groundwater vulnerability and the vulnerability of streams to contaminants derived from groundwater. Processes responsible for elevated concentrations are elucidated using partial dependence plots. For example, an increase in the probability of elevated iron and arsenic occurred when well depths coincided with the glacial/bedrock interface, suggesting a bedrock source for these constituents. Furthermore, groundwater in contact with Ordovician bedrock has a higher likelihood of elevated iron concentrations, which supports the hypothesis that groundwater liberates iron from a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon of Ordovician age. Application of machine learning techniques to existing compliance monitoring data offers an opportunity to broadly assess aquifer and stream vulnerability at regional and national scales and to better understand geochemical processes responsible for observed conditions.

  10. Evaluation of the fate of arsenic-contaminated groundwater at different aquifers of Thar coalfield Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jamshed; Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Mariam S; Ullah, Naeem; Brahman, Kapil D; Arain, Sadaf S; Panhwar, Abdul H

    2015-12-01

    In present study, the ground water at different aquifers was evaluated for physicochemical parameters, iron, total arsenic, total inorganic arsenic and arsenic species (arsenite and arsenate). The samples of groundwater were collected at different depths, first aquifer (AQ1) 50-60 m, second aquifer (AQ2) 100-120 m, and third aquifer (AQ3) 200-250 m of Thar coalfield, Pakistan. Total inorganic arsenic was determined by solid phase extraction using titanium dioxide as an adsorbent. The arsenite was determined by cloud point extraction using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate as a chelating reagent, and resulted complex was extracted by Triton X-114. The resulted data of groundwater were reported in terms of basic statistical parameters, principal component, and cluster analysis. The resulted data indicated that physicochemical parameters of groundwater of different aquifers were exceeded the World Health Organization provisional guideline for drinking water except pH and SO4(2-). The positive correlation was observed between arsenic species and physicochemical parameters of groundwater except F(-) and K(+), which might be caused by geochemical minerals. Results of cluster analysis indicated that groundwater samples of AQ1 was highly contaminated with arsenic species as compared to AQ2 and AQ3 (p > 0.05).

  11. Radioactive contamination in Norwegian fish and seafood 1960-2013: time trends and geographical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Svaeren, Ingrid; Liebig, Penny Lee [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Brungot, Anne Lene; Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Norwegian marine waters are home to some of the world's richest fishing grounds. In 2011, Norway was the world's twelfth largest fishery nation, and the world's second largest exporter of seafood. Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish and seafood is therefore of major importance to Norwegian consumers and the fishery industry. Monitoring of radioactive pollution in Norwegian fish and seafood has been ongoing in various ways since the early 1960's. During the 1960's, different species of fish from the Barents Sea were analysed for 'total mean beta activity minus potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)'. Although not directly comparable to current measurements, these were probably the highest observed concentrations in fish during the whole monitoring period. Contamination levels decreased substantially during the late 1960's as a result of the decrease in global fallout, biological elimination of the radioactive elements and the short physical half-lives of some beta-emitters. Monitoring was more or less terminated in the following years, and little data exists from the 1970's and early 1980's, though monitoring was resumed following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Today, different species of commercially important fish and crustacean species (as well as other species), are sampled on a regular basis from the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and Norwegian fjords. The samples are analysed mainly for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and, additionally, a selection of the samples are analysed for technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu) and polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po). This study summarizes results from the monitoring during the period 1960 to 2013. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood from Norwegian marine waters have been generally low during the past 20 to 25 years (up to 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}(fresh weight) in different species of fish in the

  12. Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Eva M., E-mail: eva.seeger@ufz.de [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kuschk, Peter; Fazekas, Helga [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Hoelderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tuebingen (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment performance was achieved by the plant root mat. Concentration decrease in the planted gravel filter/plant root mat, respectively, amounted to 81/99% for benzene, 17/82% for MTBE, and 54/41% for ammonia-N at calculated inflow loads of 525/603 mg/m{sup 2}/d, 97/112 mg/m{sup 2}/d, and 1167/1342 mg/m{sup 2}/d for benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N. Filter additives did not improve contaminant depletion, although sorption processes were observed and elevated iron(II) formation indicated iron reduction. Bacterial and stable isotope analysis provided evidence for microbial benzene degradation in the CW, emphasizing the promising potential of this treatment technique. - Highlights: > BTEX compounds contaminated groundwater can be efficiently treated by CWs. > The removal efficiency depended on CW type, season and contaminant. > The plant root mat revealed better treatment results than the gravel filter CW. > Best results achieved by the plant root mat (99% benzene concentration decrease). > Stable isotope analysis and MPN indicated high benzene remediation potential. - Gravel bed constructed wetlands and a plant root mat system efficiently eliminated fuel hydrocarbons (benzene, MTBE) and ammonia-N from groundwater at a pilot-scale.

  13. Migration of contaminants in groundwater at a landfill: A case study. 1. Groundwater flow and plume delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, D. S.; Cherry, J. A.; Gillham, R. W.; Sudicky, E. A.

    1983-05-01

    A landfill-derived contaminant plume with a maximum width of ˜600 m, a length of ˜700 m and a maximum depth of 20 m in an unconfined sand aquifer was delineated by means of a monitoring network that includes standpipe piezometers, multilevel point-samplers and bundle-piezometers. The extent of detectable contamination caused by the landfill, which began operation in 1940 and which became inactive in 1976, was determined from the distributions of chloride, sulfate and electrical conductance in the sand aquifer, all of which have levels in the leachate that are greatly above those in uncontaminated groundwater. The maximum temperature of groundwater in the zone of contamination beneath the landfill is 12°C, which is 4-5°C above background. The thermal plume in the aquifer extends ˜150 m downgradient from the centre of the landfill. A slight transient water-table mound exists beneath the landfill in the late spring and summer in response to snowmelt and heavy rainfall. Beneath the landfill, the zone of leachate contamination extends to the bottom of the aquifer, apparently because of transient downward components of hydraulic gradient caused by the water-table mound and possibly because of the higher density and lower viscosity of the contaminated water. Values of hydraulic conductivity, which show variations due to local heterogeneity, were obtained from slug tests of piezometers, from pumping tests and from laboratory tests. Because of the inherent uncertainty in the aquifer parameter values, the 38-yr. frontal position of the plume calculated using the Darcy equation with the assumption of plug flow can differ from the observed frontal position by many hundreds of metres, although the use of mean parameter values produces a close agreement. The width of the plume is large relative to the width of the landfill and can be accounted for primarily by variable periods of lateral east- and westward flow caused by changes in water-table configuration due to the

  14. Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the

  15. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

  16. Isotopic and Radioactivity Fingerprinting of Groundwater in the United Arab Emirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Aldahan, A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    distance precipitation recharge source, indicates a concentration of 222Rn and 226Ra 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than the groundwater of the carbonate rocks. The range of variability for gross alpha is similar, but the gross beta activity indicates only 1 order of magnitude difference between the two...

  17. Groundwater Contamination with NO3-N in a Wheat-Corn Cropping System in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The North China Plain, where summer corn (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the major crops grown, is a major agricultural area in China. Permeable soils make the region susceptible to groundwater pollution by NO3-N, which is applied to fields in large amounts of more than 400 kg NO3-N ha-1 as fertilizer. A field experiment was established in 2002 to examine the relationship among N fertilization rate, soil NO3-N, and NO3-N groundwater contamination. Two adjacent fields were fertilized with local farmers' N fertilization rate (LN) and double the normal application rate (HN), respectively, and managed under otherwise identical conditions. The fields were under a traditional summer corn/winter wheat rotation. Over a 22-month period, we monitored NO3-N concentrations in both bulk soil and soil pore water in 20-40 cm increments up to 180 cm depth. We also monitored NO3-N concentrations in groundwater and the depth of the groundwater table. No significant differences in soil NO3-N were observed between the LN and HN treatment. We identified NO3-N plumes moving downward through the soil profile. The HN treatment resulted in significantly higher groundwater NO3-N, relative to the LN treatment, with groundwater NO3-N consistently exceeding the maximum safe level of 10 mg L-1, but groundwater NO3-N above the maximum safe level was also observed in the LN treatment after heavy rain. Heavy rain in June, July, and August 2003 caused increased NO3-N leaching through the soil and elevated NO3-N concentrations in the groundwater. Concurrent rise of the groundwater table into NO3-N-rich soil layers also contributed to the increased NO3-N concentrations in the groundwater. Our results indicate that under conditions of average rainfall, soil NO3-N was accumulated in the soil profile. The subsequent significantly higherthan-average rainfalls continuously flushed the soil NO3-N into deeper layers and raised the groundwater table, which caused continuous

  18. Groundwater contamination mechanism in a geothermal field: a case study of Balcova, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Niyazi; Simşek, Celalettin; Gunduz, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The Balcova Geothermal Field (BGF) located in Izmir, Turkey is situated on an east-west directed graben plain within which the hot waters surface from a fault zone that cuts the Mesozoic aged Bornova Flysch. Due to the low permeability and porosity of the Bornova Flysch, the geothermal water cycles along the immediate vicinity of the Agamemnon fault and mixes with cold waters at different depths of this fractured zone. Within the scope of this study, the mixing patterns and the groundwater contamination mechanisms are analyzed by, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical methods. Based on the results of this research, it has been found out that the hot geothermal water and the cold regional groundwater resources of the surficial aquifer mix within the fractured zone in Bornova Flysch and within the Quaternary alluvium aquifer due to natural and anthropogenic activities including (i) the natural upward movement of geothermal fluid along the fault line, (ii) the accelerated upward seepage of geothermal fluid from faulty constructed boreholes drilled in the area, (iii) the faulty reinjection applications; and, (iv) the uncontrolled discharge of waste geothermal fluid to the natural drainage network. As a result of these activities, the cold groundwater reserves of the alluvial aquifer are contaminated thermally and chemically in such a way that various toxic chemicals including arsenic, antimony and boron are introduced to the heavily used surficial aquifer waters hindering their use for human consumption and agricultural irrigation. Furthermore, the excessive pumping from the surficial aquifer as well as the reduced surface water inflow into BGF due to the dam constructed on Ilica Creek intensify the detrimental effects of this contamination. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the groundwater pollution in BGF will expand and reach to the levels of no return unless a series of preventive measures is taken immediately.

  19. Groundwater contamination mechanism in a geothermal field: A case study of Balcova, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Niyazi; Şimşek, Celalettin; Gunduz, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The Balcova Geothermal Field (BGF) located in Izmir, Turkey is situated on an east-west directed graben plain within which the hot waters surface from a fault zone that cuts the Mesozoic aged Bornova Flysch. Due to the low permeability and porosity of the Bornova Flysch, the geothermal water cycles along the immediate vicinity of the Agamemnon fault and mixes with cold waters at different depths of this fractured zone. Within the scope of this study, the mixing patterns and the groundwater contamination mechanisms are analyzed by, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical methods. Based on the results of this research, it has been found out that the hot geothermal water and the cold regional groundwater resources of the surficial aquifer mix within the fractured zone in Bornova Flysch and within the Quaternary alluvium aquifer due to natural and anthropogenic activities including (i) the natural upward movement of geothermal fluid along the fault line, (ii) the accelerated upward seepage of geothermal fluid from faulty constructed boreholes drilled in the area, (iii) the faulty reinjection applications; and, (iv) the uncontrolled discharge of waste geothermal fluid to the natural drainage network. As a result of these activities, the cold groundwater reserves of the alluvial aquifer are contaminated thermally and chemically in such a way that various toxic chemicals including arsenic, antimony and boron are introduced to the heavily used surficial aquifer waters hindering their use for human consumption and agricultural irrigation. Furthermore, the excessive pumping from the surficial aquifer as well as the reduced surface water inflow into BGF due to the dam constructed on Ilica Creek intensify the detrimental effects of this contamination. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the groundwater pollution in BGF will expand and reach to the levels of no return unless a series of preventive measures is taken immediately.

  20. Assessment of metal contamination in groundwater and soils in the Ahangaran mining district, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Behzad; Mehrabani, Shiva; Rafiei, Behrouz; Yaghoubi, Behrouz

    2015-12-01

    In this study, 28 groundwater and 13 soil samples from Ahangaran mining district in Hamedan Province, west of Iran were collected to evaluate the level of contamination. Average concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb, and Ni in groundwater samples were 1.39, 3.73, 2.18, 9.37, 2.35, 4.44, and 5.50 μg/L (wet season), and 11.64, 4.92, 4.32, 14.77, 5.43, 4.12, and 0.98 μg/L (dry season), respectively. Results of groundwater samples analysis showed that the average of analyzed metals in the wet and dry seasons were below the permissible limits, except As in the dry season which displays concentrations that exceed US EPA water quality criteria recommended for drinking water. Also, the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values in each sampling station were less than the critical index limit and were suitable for drinking. Factor analysis revealed that variables influential to groundwater quality in one season may not be as important in another season. Average concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in soil samples were 2.61, 31.44, 0.51, 55.90, 1284.9, 21.26, and 156.04 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results of the geoaccumulation index (I geo) showed the following decreasing order: Pb > Zn > Cu > As > Sb > Cd > Ag. Potential ecological risk index (RI) suggests that the contamination in the investigated area is moderate to very high risk and the ranking of the contaminants in decreasing order is Ag > Sb > Pb > Cd > As > Cu > Zn.

  1. Anthropogenic influences on groundwater in the vicinity of a long-lived radioactive waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2017-07-01

    The groundwater flow system in the Culebra Dolomite Member (Culebra) of the Permian Rustler Formation is a potential radionuclide release pathway from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only deep geological repository for transuranic waste in the United States. In early conceptual models of the Culebra, groundwater levels were not expected to fluctuate markedly, except in response to long-term climatic changes, with response times on the order of hundreds to thousands of years. Recent groundwater pressures measured in monitoring wells record more than 25 m of drawdown. The fluctuations are attributed to pumping activities at a privately-owned well that may be associated with the demand of the Permian Basin hydrocarbon industry for water. The unprecedented magnitude of drawdown provides an opportunity to quantitatively assess the influence of unplanned anthropogenic forcings near the WIPP. Spatially variable realizations of Culebra saturated hydraulic conductivity and storativity were used to develop groundwater flow models to estimate a pumping rate for the private well and investigate its effect on advective transport. Simulated drawdown shows reasonable agreement with observations (average Model Efficiency coefficient = 0.7). Steepened hydraulic gradients associated with the pumping reduce estimates of conservative particle travel times across the domain by one-half and shift the intersection of the average particle track with the compliance boundary by more than two kilometers. The value of the transient simulations conducted for this study lie in their ability to (i) improve understanding of the Culebra groundwater flow system and (ii) challenge the notion of time-invariant land use in the vicinity of the WIPP.

  2. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research; Control de la contaminacion radiactiva superficial en el ambito de la investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-11-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  5. Radioactive contamination of the marine environment: Uptake and distribution of3H in Dunaliella bioculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, S.; Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-03-01

    The marine flagellate Dunaliella bioculata, which is easily cultivated under laboratory conditions, is a suitable organism for assessing the importance of the radioactive contamination by3H bound to organic molecules. We have studied the uptake of the following tritiated precursors: thymidine-methyl-3H, adenine-2-3H, uridine-5-3H, l-leucine-4-3H, glycine-2-3H, l-arginine-3.4-3H, 1-aspartic acid-2. 3-3H, 1-phenylalanine-2.3-3H, D-glucose-2-3H and D-glucose-6-3H. Under the experimental conditions (2000 lux; incubation time 30 min), all tritiated molecules are taken up by D. bioculata. Their intracellular concentration may reach that of the external medium. However, leucine and adenine accumulate in the algae: their respective concentrations are 10 and 100 times higher than in the culture medium. The molecular distribution of3H has been studied by various biochemical techniques and by sieve chromatography on sepharose 4B. It has been found that more l-leucine-4-3H is incorporated into acid and acetone soluble substances than into proteins. Adenine-2-3H is mainly incorporated into macromolecules of biological significance (RNA, DNA). CsCl gradient centrifugation has shown that the total DNA of Dunaliella is constituted by a major (ϖ=1.707 g/cm3) and by a minor (ϖ=1.693 g/cm3) component.

  6. In-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, J S; McKeever, S W S

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y, and sup 9 sup 9 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm sup 3) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y but is unsuitable for measuring sup 9 sup 9 Tc in soil. The second objective ...

  7. Determination of the depth of localized radioactive contamination by 137Cs and 60Co in sand with principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jamie C; Mellor, Matthew; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2011-10-01

    A method to determine the depth of buried localized radioactive contamination nonintrusively and nondestructively using principal component analysis is described. The γ-ray spectra from two radionuclides, cesium-137 and cobalt-60, have been analyzed to derive the two principal components that change most significantly as a result of varying the depth of the sources in a bespoke sand-filled phantom. The relationship between depth (d) and the angle (θ) between the first two principal component coefficients has been derived for both cases, viz. d(Φ) = x + y log(e) Φ where x and y are constants dependent on the shielding material and the γ-ray energy spectrum of the radioactivity in question, and φ is a function of θ. The technique enables the depth of a localized radioactive source to be determined nonintrusively in the range 5 to 50 mm with an accuracy of ±1 mm.

  8. Development of Enhanced Remedial Techniques for Petroleum Fuel and Related Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-10

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with Earth Tech and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was to identify proper sites with soils and/or groundwater contaminated by petroleum constituents and MTBE. Biodegradation rates would have been quantitatively assessed in both laboratory and field tests to achieve the optimal destruction of contaminants of concern. WRI and Earth Tech identified a site contaminated with high concentrations of methanol associated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was assessed and a remediation project plan was prepared; however, the site was soon acquired by a new company. An agreement between Earth Tech, WRI, and the new site owners could not be reached; therefore, a work was performed to identify a new project site. Task 33 was terminated and the available funding was redeployed to other Tasks after receiving approval from the U.S. DOE task manager.

  9. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface...... and the sub-surface infiltration system seemed to be equally good at retaining pollution. This indicates that the runoff sludge found in such infiltration systems plays an important role both as a source and a sorbent for stormwater contaminants. The study does not point at a considerable risk for groundwater...

  10. Groundwater contamination with 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and perspectives for its microbial removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Horemans, Benjamin; Raes, Bart

    2017-01-01

    degradation pathways, kinetics and degrader genes, and research has recently been presented on the application of strain Aminobacter sp. MSH1 for the purification of BAM-contaminated water. The aim of the present review was to provide insight into the issue of BAM contamination and to report on the current...... groundwater by deploying dedicated BAM-degrading bacteria in DWTP sand filters. Only a few bacterial strains with the capability to degrade BAM have been isolated, and of these, only three isolates belonging to the Aminobacter genus are able to mineralise BAM. Considerable effort has been made to elucidate...... status and knowledge with regard to the application of microorganisms for purification of BAM-contaminated water resources. This paper discusses the prospects and challenges for bioaugmentation of DWTP sand filters with specific BAM-degrading bacteria and identifies relevant perspectives for future...

  11. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  12. Lateral Gene Transfer in a Heavy Metal-Contaminated-Groundwater Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Hemme

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling the drivers controlling the response and adaptation of biological communities to environmental change, especially anthropogenic activities, is a central but poorly understood issue in ecology and evolution. Comparative genomics studies suggest that lateral gene transfer (LGT is a major force driving microbial genome evolution, but its role in the evolution of microbial communities remains elusive. To delineate the importance of LGT in mediating the response of a groundwater microbial community to heavy metal contamination, representative Rhodanobacter reference genomes were sequenced and compared to shotgun metagenome sequences. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequence analysis indicated that Rhodanobacter populations were highly abundant in contaminated wells with low pHs and high levels of nitrate and heavy metals but remained rare in the uncontaminated wells. Sequence comparisons revealed that multiple geochemically important genes, including genes encoding Fe2+/Pb2+ permeases, most denitrification enzymes, and cytochrome c553, were native to Rhodanobacter and not subjected to LGT. In contrast, the Rhodanobacter pangenome contained a recombinational hot spot in which numerous metal resistance genes were subjected to LGT and/or duplication. In particular, Co2+/Zn2+/Cd2+ efflux and mercuric resistance operon genes appeared to be highly mobile within Rhodanobacter populations. Evidence of multiple duplications of a mercuric resistance operon common to most Rhodanobacter strains was also observed. Collectively, our analyses indicated the importance of LGT during the evolution of groundwater microbial communities in response to heavy metal contamination, and a conceptual model was developed to display such adaptive evolutionary processes for explaining the extreme dominance of Rhodanobacter populations in the contaminated groundwater microbiome.

  13. In situ Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Groundwater by Permeable Reactive Barrier with Hydrothermal Palygorskite as Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sheng-yu; ZHANG Yu-ling; SU Xiao-si; ZHANG Ying

    2013-01-01

    The permeable reactive barrier(PRB) has proven to be a cost-effective technique to remediate the petroleum contaminated groundwater at a northeast field site in China.In this study,the geology,hydrogeology and contamination characterization of the field site were investigated and the natural hydrothermal palygorskite was chosen as a reactive medium.Furthermore,the adsorption of the total petroleum hydrocarbons(TPH) in the groundwater onto hydrothermal palygorskite and the adsorption kinetics were investigated.The results indicate that the removal rates of TPH,benzene,naphthalene and phenantharene could all reach up to 90% by hydrothermal palygorskite with a diameter of 0.25-2.00 mm that had been thermally pretreated at 140 ℃.The adsorption of TPH onto hydrothermal palygorskite after pretreatment followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm,suggesting that the theoretic adsorption capacity of hydrothermal palygorskite for adsorbate could be 4.2 g/g.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM),infrared spectroscopy(IR),X-ray diffraction(XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy(XRF) were carried out to analyze the adsorption mechanism.The results reveal that hydrothermal palygorskite is a fibrous silicate mineral enriched in Mg and A1 with large surface area and porosity.The dense cluster acicular and fibrous crystal of hydrothermal palygorskite,and its effect polar group —OH played an important role in the physical and chemical adsorption processes of it for contaminants.This study has demonstrated hydrothermal palygorskite is a reliable reactive medium for in situ remediation of petroleum contaminated groundwater at field sites.

  14. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination in groundwater resources, however, can create a substantial labor and cost burden for Southeast Asian countries. Therefore, modeling approaches for As concentration using conventional on-site measurement data can be an alternative to quantify the As contamination. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of four different models; specifically, multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the combination of principal components and an artificial neural network (PC-ANN) in the prediction of As concentration, and to provide assessment tools for Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The modeling results show that the prediction accuracy of PC-ANN (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients: 0.98 (traning step) and 0.71 (validation step)) is superior among the four different models. This finding can be explained by the fact that the PC-ANN not only solves the problem of collinearity of input variables, but also reflects the presence of high variability in observed As concentrations. We expect that the model developed in this work can be used to predict As concentrations using conventional water quality data obtained from on-site measurements, and can further provide reliable and predictive information for public health management policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive

  16. RAFT: A simulator for ReActive Flow and Transport of groundwater contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilakapati, A

    1995-07-01

    This report documents the use of the simulator RAFT for the ReActive flow and Transport of groundwater contaminants. RAFT can be used as a predictive tool in the design and analysis of laboratory and field experiments or it can be used for the estimation of model/process parameters from experiments. RAFT simulates the reactive transport of groundwater contaminants in one, two-, or three-dimensions and it can model user specified source/link configurations and arbitrary injection strategies. A suite of solvers for transport, reactions and regression are employed so that a combination of numerical methods best suited for a problem can be chosen. User specified coupled equilibrium and kinetic reaction systems can be incorporated into RAFT. RAFT is integrated with a symbolic computational language MAPLE, to automate code generation for arbitrary reaction systems. RAFT is expected to be used as a simulator for engineering design for field experiments in groundwater remediation including bioremediation, reactive barriers and redox manipulation. As an integrated tool with both the predictive ability and the ability to analyze experimental data, RAFT can help in the development of remediation technologies, from laboratory to field.

  17. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  18. Use of LCA as decision support for the selection of remedial strategies for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    little attention in established life cycle impact assessment methodologies. Often groundwater is included in a general freshwater compartment, is simply disregarded, or is only functioning as a sink for contaminant emissions. When applying LCA for decision support for contaminated site remediation...

  19. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakir Md. Yunus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs under four domains: (1 extent of arsenic contamination; (2 health consequences; (3 mitigation and technologies and (4 future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  20. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  1. Hydrochemical modeling and assessment of groundwater contamination in northwest Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to investigate groundwater geochemical characteristics, and to assess the effects of groundwater contamination in northwest Sinai, Egypt. A geographic information system, geochemical modeling, and statistical analyses tools were used. Twenty-five groundwater samples from a Quaternary aquifer were sampled. These water samples were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the hydrochemical characteristic as well as the anthropogenic processes of groundwater pollution. On the basis of these analyses, the geochemical parameters and the anomalous concentration of different elements enable the characterization of salinity sources of the brackish waters and the suspected sources of polluted water. Pollution sources are represented by waste disposal and agricultural activities as well as the probable upward leakage of highly saline water from the deeper aquifers and the saltwater intrusion. Pollution risk is high when the depth of the water table is shallow (0.3 to 15.0 m) and the aquifer has high hydraulic conductivity and poor matrix buffering capacity.

  2. Comparing Modeled and Measured Mercury Speciation in Contaminated Groundwater: Importance of Dissolved Organic Matter Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Bischoff, Cornelia; Biester, Harald

    2016-07-19

    In addition to analytical speciation, reliable Hg species modeling is crucial for predicting the mobility and toxicity of Hg, but geochemical speciation codes have not yet been tested for their prediction accuracy. Our study compares analyses of Hg species in highly Hg-contaminated groundwater (Hgtot: 0.02-4 μmol·L(-1)) at three sites with predictions of Hg speciation obtained from three geochemical codes (WHAM, Visual MINTEQ, PHREEQC) with and without implementation of Hg complexation by dissolved organic matter (DOM). Samples were analyzed for chemical composition, elemental, inorganic, and DOM-bound Hg (Hg(0), Hginorg, HgDOM). Hg-DOM complexation was modeled using three approaches: binding to humic/fulvic acids, binding to thiol-groups, or a combination of both. Results of Hg(0) modeling were poor in all scenarios. Prediction accuracy for Hginorg and HgDOM strongly depended on the assumed DOM composition. Best results were achieved when weaker binding sites, simulated by WHAMs DOM submodel, were combined with strongly binding thiol groups. Indications were found that thiol-DOM ratios in groundwater are likely to be lower than in surface water, highlighting the need for analytical thiol quantification in groundwater DOM. This study shows that DOM quality is a crucial parameter for prediction of Hg speciation in groundwater by means of geochemical modeling.

  3. Particulate Pyrite Autotrophic Denitrification (PPAD) for Remediation of Nitrate-contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, L. C.; Henderson, M.; Feng, C.; Ergas, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid movement of human civilization towards urbanization, industrialization, and increased agricultural activities has introduced a large amount of nitrate into groundwater. Nitrate is a toxic substance discharged from groundwater to rivers and leads to decreased dissolved oxygen and eutrophication. For this experiment, an electron donor is needed to convert nitrate into non-toxic nitrogen gas. Pyrite is one of the most abundant minerals in the earth's crust making it an ideal candidate as an electron donor. The overall goal of this research was to investigate the potential for pyrite to be utilized as an electron donor for autotrophic denitrification of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Batch studies of particulate pyrite autotrophic denitrification (PPAD) of synthetic groundwater (100 mg NO3--N L-1) were set up with varying biomass concentration, pyrite dose, and pyrite particle size. Reactors were seeded with mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (VSS) from a biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment facility. PPAD using small pyrite particles (treatment and promoted the utilization of pyrite in the field of environmental remediation.

  4. Integrated methodology for assessing the HCH groundwater pollution at the multi-source contaminated mega-site Bitterfeld/Wolfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycisk, Peter; Stollberg, Reiner; Neumann, Christian; Gossel, Wolfgang; Weiss, Holger; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    A large-scale groundwater contamination characterises the Pleistocene groundwater system of the former industrial and abandoned mining region Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Eastern Germany. For more than a century, local chemical production and extensive lignite mining caused a complex contaminant release from local production areas and related dump sites. Today, organic pollutants (mainly organochlorines) are present in all compartments of the environment at high concentration levels. An integrated methodology for characterising the current situation of pollution as well as the future fate development of hazardous substances is highly required to decide on further management and remediation strategies. Data analyses have been performed on regional groundwater monitoring data from about 10 years, containing approximately 3,500 samples, and up to 180 individual organic parameters from almost 250 observation wells. Run-off measurements as well as water samples were taken biweekly from local creeks during a period of 18 months. A kriging interpolation procedure was applied on groundwater analytics to generate continuous distribution patterns of the nodal contaminant samples. High-resolution geological 3-D modelling serves as a database for a regional 3-D groundwater flow model. Simulation results support the future fate assessment of contaminants. A first conceptual model of the contamination has been developed to characterise the contamination in regional surface waters and groundwater. A reliable explanation of the variant hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) occurrence within the two local aquifer systems has been derived from the regionalised distribution patterns. Simulation results from groundwater flow modelling provide a better understanding of the future pollutant migration paths and support the overall site characterisation. The presented case study indicates that an integrated assessment of large-scale groundwater contaminations often needs more data than only from local

  5. Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kameesy, S U; Salama, E

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive contamination in air dust particles of Cairo atmosphere from the Fukushima accident was detected by the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique. Analysis of the spectra obtained by using an High-Purity Germanium detector showed that there were some traces of (131)I and (134, 137)Cs. Estimate and study of concentration of those radionuclides were done over a period of about 5 months after the accident. Comparison with corresponding results in different countries all over the world has been performed.

  6. Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

    2005-05-15

    Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These

  7. Lateral Gene Transfer in a Heavy Metal-Contaminated-Groundwater Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemme, Christopher L; Green, Stefan J; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Prakash, Om; Pettenato, Angelica; Chakraborty, Romy; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Jordan, I King; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Kostka, Joel E; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-04-05

    Unraveling the drivers controlling the response and adaptation of biological communities to environmental change, especially anthropogenic activities, is a central but poorly understood issue in ecology and evolution. Comparative genomics studies suggest that lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a major force driving microbial genome evolution, but its role in the evolution of microbial communities remains elusive. To delineate the importance of LGT in mediating the response of a groundwater microbial community to heavy metal contamination, representative Rhodanobacter reference genomes were sequenced and compared to shotgun metagenome sequences. 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon sequence analysis indicated that Rhodanobacter populations were highly abundant in contaminated wells with low pHs and high levels of nitrate and heavy metals but remained rare in the uncontaminated wells. Sequence comparisons revealed that multiple geochemically important genes, including genes encoding Fe(2+)/Pb(2+) permeases, most denitrification enzymes, and cytochrome c553, were native to Rhodanobacter and not subjected to LGT. In contrast, the Rhodanobacter pangenome contained a recombinational hot spot in which numerous metal resistance genes were subjected to LGT and/or duplication. In particular, Co(2+)/Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) efflux and mercuric resistance operon genes appeared to be highly mobile within Rhodanobacter populations. Evidence of multiple duplications of a mercuric resistance operon common to most Rhodanobacter strains was also observed. Collectively, our analyses indicated the importance of LGT during the evolution of groundwater microbial communities in response to heavy metal contamination, and a conceptual model was developed to display such adaptive evolutionary processes for explaining the extreme dominance of Rhodanobacter populations in the contaminated groundwater microbiome. Lateral gene transfer (LGT), along with positive selection and gene duplication, are the three main

  8. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters.

  9. Food after Fukushima--Japan's regulatory response to the radioactive contamination of its food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Gijs; Kobayashi, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident in Fukushima triggered a process of regulatory action, inspections, and market restrictions that has deeply affected the Japanese food market. When higher than permissible levels of radioactivity entered the food chain, the Japanese Government had to take strong measures to protect consumers. At the same time, it had to explore ways to avoid disproportionate penalties on the producers from the affected region. This article examines Japan's regulatory response to the nuclear accident and the legal instruments the government accordingly employed. Our analysis follows four regulatory steps that were taken by the government to safeguard the food chain: the establishment of maximum permissible levels for radioactive levels in food; the adoption of guidelines on how to monitor these levels; the restriction of the distribution and consumption of excessively contaminated food and, finally, where and when possible, the lifting of these restrictions. This article discusses how the Food and Drug Administration has come to adopt informal guidance (agency advice that influences regulated entities but does not carry the force and effect of law) as its primary method of policymaking, as opposed to more formalized procedures like notice-and-comment rulemaking or case-specific adjudication. Using major developments in administrative law and modifications to FDA's regulatory regime as milestones, the article traces how and why FDA's use of informal guidance to fulfill its statutory mandate has changed over the past century. Along the way, the article identifies important doctrinal questions that persist today, namely (1) whether informal advisory opinions bind FDA and (2) the degree of judicial deference guidance documents should receive under the Supreme Court's decisions in Chevron and Mead. The article attempts to resolve these doctrinal ambiguities. It then undertakes a normative analysis of FDA's increasing reliance on informal guidance, and conclude that

  10. Assessment of groundwater pathways and contaminant transport in Florida and Georgia using multiple chemical and microbiological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Florida, especially in the northern part of the state, and southwestern Georgia is characterized by a predomin