WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater pumping case

  1. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  2. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  3. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  4. Open-loop groundwater heat pumps development for large buildings. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Civita, Massimo Vincenzo [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Territorio, dell' Ambiente e delle Geotecnologie (DITAG), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    A study of the feasibility of providing the heating and cooling needs of the new, large commercial building near Turin, Italy, by means of an open-loop indirect groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system is described. A finite element subsurface flow and transport simulator (FEFLOW) was used to investigate possible configurations of extraction and injection wells for five different scenarios. Modelling results confirmed the hydrogeological capacity of the site to provide the necessary amount of groundwater and associated energy with limited environmental impact. Injection of warmer (or cooler) water in the aquifer creates a thermal plume whose dimensions and geometry depend on the properties of the subsurface formations, particularly their thermal dispersivity values. The study suggests that there are several possible well configurations that could support the GWHP system without adversely affecting the aquifer. (author)

  5. Fuzzy optimization in hydrodynamic analysis of groundwater control systems: Case study of the pumping station "Bezdan 1", Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater control system was designed to lower the water table and allow the pumping station “Bezdan 1” to be built. Based on a hydrodynamic analysis that suggested three alternative solutions, multicriteria optimization was applied to select the best alternative. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method was used, based on triangular fuzzy numbers. An assessment of the various factors that influenced the selection of the best alternative, as well as fuzzy optimization calculations, yielded the “weights” of the alternatives and the best alternative was selected for groundwater control at the site of the pumping station “Bezdan 1”. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176022, TR-33039 i br. III-43004

  6. The impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In order to assess the impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow groundwater ... thermal transfer systems that use the ground water as a ... Abbreviations: GWHPs, Groundwater heat pumps; GHGs, ... Areas (Mm2).

  7. Impact of Spatial Pumping Patterns on Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenges exist to manage groundwater resources while maintaining a balance between groundwater quantity and quality because of anthropogenic pumping activities as well as complex subsurface environment. In this study, to address the impact of spatial pumping pattern on groundwater management, a mixed integer nonlinear multi-objective model is formulated by integrating three objectives within a management framework to: (i) maximize total groundwater withdrawal from potential wells; (ii) minimize total electricity cost for well pumps; and (iii) attain groundwater level at selected monitoring locations as close as possible to the target level. Binary variables are used in the groundwater management model to control the operative status of pumping wells. The NSGA-II is linked with MODFLOW to solve the multi-objective problem. The proposed method is applied to a groundwater management problem in the complex Baton Rouge aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana. Results show that (a) non-dominated trade-off solutions under various spatial distributions of active pumping wells can be achieved. Each solution is optimal with regard to its corresponding objectives; (b) operative status, locations and pumping rates of pumping wells are significant to influence the distribution of hydraulic head, which in turn influence the optimization results; (c) A wide range of optimal solutions is obtained such that decision makers can select the most appropriate solution through negotiation with different stakeholders. This technique is beneficial to finding out the optimal extent to which three objectives including water supply concern, energy concern and subsidence concern can be balanced.

  8. A Case Study from Southwest Germany. Shifting of Groundwater Age During One Year Pumping Test and Comparison of Isotope Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Eichinger, L.; Heidinger, M.; Schneider, J. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Funk, E. [Buero fuer Hydrogeologie, Staufen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    A two in one well in southwest Germany, separately tapping aquifers in the formations of Muschelkalk and Keuper, was tested in a one year pumping test. The waters were continuously analysed for chemical and isotopic composition (major ions, {sup 3}H, {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr) and trace gases (CFC, SF{sub 6}). The analytical results of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr showed a shift in the composition of 25% young, {sup 3}H-bearing water to a proportion of 50% young water after half a year of pumping. The residence time of the young water of about 10 to 20 years remained the same. The shift is also visible in the increasing contents of nitrate and chloride. Though the analytical results of SF{sub 6} showed the same shift, SF{sub 6} - most probably influenced by crystalline gravel - indicates a residence time of the young water of less than one year. The CFCs, on the other hand, point to lower proportions of young water as they are influenced by degradation processes and/or adsorption. Though both aquifers are effectively separated from each other, the same shifting of age structure can be observed. (author)

  9. Recovery of light nonaqueous-phase liquids without groundwater pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.E.; Prince-Larsen, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines recovery of light nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPL) encountered in the subsurface at a remote natural gas facility. Remediation of LNAPL in the subsurface usually begins with dual pumping of LNAPL and groundwater. However, regulations required that only LNAPL be recovered. Methods were sought for recovering LNAPL from groundwater without pumping groundwater to the surface. Alternative methods of LNAPL recovery, using a variety of skimming pumps, included: LNAPL recovery from large-diameter wells; LNAPL recovery from trenches; LNAPL recovery from small-diameter wells; and vacuum-enhanced recovery of LNAPL while skimming with a belt skimmer. Based on the goals of the site owner and the costs associated with each alternative examined, the recommended method for recovering LNAPL without groundwater pumping was recovery of LNAPL while skimming with a belt skimmer. This paper discusses both the advantages and limitations of this technique

  10. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  12. The effectiveness of groundwater pumping as a restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, C.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1991-05-01

    An in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of pumping groundwater for aquifer restoration was conducted based on: (1) performance records for 16 sites where pumping with the objective of aquifer restoration has been implemented for periods of 2 to 12 years, and (2) recent theoretical and modeling studies. The reduction of aquifer concentrations is the primary indicator of effectiveness of groundwater extraction. However, other indicators of effectiveness such as plume containment, mass reduction, and achievement of specific cleanup goals were also components of the evaluation. Based on our review of performance records and recent theoretical studies, the following can be concluded regarding the use of groundwater pumping for aquifer restoration: (1) Pumping is effective for contaminant mass reduction, plume containment and extraction of groundwater for point-of-use treatment. Its use for attaining these objectives should be encouraged. (2) Groundwater pumping is ineffective for restoring aquifers to health-based levels. This reality needs to be explicitly recognized by regulators. (3) The primary contributors to the ineffectiveness of pumping in meeting cleanup goals are the time-dependent decrease in the rate of desorption of contaminants from contaminated soils and the existence of immobile contaminants either in the non-aqueous phase or trapped in zones of low permeability. (4) Remedial time frames of 2 years to 30 years were predicted at the sites reviewed. Regulators currently maintain that 20 to 40 years may be needed to reach health-based cleanup goals. However, recent modeling studies estimate pump and treat time frames of 100 to 1000 years. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Analysis of energy requirement in the irrigation sector and its application in groundwater over-pumping control at a local scale - A case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kinzelbach, W.; Yao, H.; Hagmann, A.; Li, N.; Steiner, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Plain is one of the most important agricultural regions which relies heavily on groundwater pumping for irrigation powered by electric energy. This region is also facing a severe problem of groundwater over-pumping. Stopping groundwater depletion by controlling pumping for irrigation may harm the agricultural production and affect the interests of the electricity utility who is a direct participant in the irrigation management. Water-saving infrastructures such as sprinklers can be effective means for water conservation but are often difficult to implement due to farmers' unwillingness to pay for the additional electricity consumption. Understanding this food-energy-water nexus is fundamental to implement effective and practical strategies for groundwater over-pumping control in the North China Plain. However, this understanding can be obscured by the missing groundwater pumping monitoring and a lack of access to specific energy data for irrigation use as well as the field observations of pump efficiency. Taking the example of a typical agricultural county (Guantao) in the North China Plain with irrigation pumps generally powered by electricity, this study is focused on the analysis of the energy requirement in the irrigation sector and its application in developing strategies for groundwater over-pumping control at the county scale. 1) Field measurements from pumping tests are used to adjust the pumps' theoretical characteristics. A simple empirical equation is derived to estimate the energy use rate for irrigation given the depth of the groundwater table. Field measurements show that pump efficiency is around 30% in the tested region. 2) We hypothesize that the inter-annual variability of rural energy consumption is caused by the randomness in annual precipitation. This assumption is examined and then applied to separate the energy consumption for irrigation from the total rural energy consumption. 3) Based on the groundwater pumping rate

  15. Effect of Groundwater Pumping on Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sherif

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many aquifers around the globe are located in coastal areas and are thus subjected to the seawater intrusion phenomenon. The growth of population in coastal areas and the conjugate increase in human, agricultural, and industrial activities have imposed an increasing demand for freshwater. This increase in water demand is often covered by extensive pumping of fresh groundwater, causing subsequent lowering of the water table (or piezometric head and upsetting the dynamic balance between freshwater and saline water bodies. The classical result of such a development is seawater intrusion. This paper presents a review for the seawater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers. The effect of pumping activities on the seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer of Egypt is investigated. It was concluded that any additional pumping should be located in the middle Delta and avoided in the eastern and western sides of the Delta.

  16. Pump Hydro Energy Storage systems (PHES) in groundwater flooded quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been evoked. However, these flooded quarries are generally connected to unconfined aquifers. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent aquifers. Conversely, water exchanges between the quarry and the aquifer may also influence the water level fluctuations in the lower reservoir. Using numerical modelling, this study investigates the interactions between generic flooded open pit quarries and adjacent unconfined aquifers, during various pump-storage cyclic stresses. The propagation of sinusoidal stresses in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry are studied. Homogeneous rock media and the presence of fractures in the vicinity of the quarry are considered. Results show that hydrological quarry - rock interactions must be considered with caution, when implementing pump - storage systems. For rock media characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and porosity values, water volumes exchanges during cycles may affect significantly the amplitude of the water level fluctuations in the quarry, and as a consequence, the instantaneous electricity production. Regarding the impact of the pump - storage cyclic stresses on the surrounding environment, the distance of influence is potentially high under specific conditions, and is enhanced with the occurrence of rock heterogeneities, such as fractures. The impact around the quarry used as a lower reservoir thus appears as an important constraining factor regarding the feasibility of pump - storage systems, to be assessed carefully if groundwater level fluctuations around the quarry

  17. Groundwater heat pump performance improvement with pre-coolers and pump modification: Final report for the 1985-86 SOMED (School of Mines and Energy Development) project year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1986-09-30

    Improved performance of groundwater heat pumps can be realized with a more effective and efficient utilization of the thermal properties of shallow groundwater. These systems circulate water from aquifers through water source heat pumps to achieved high efficiencies and capacities. This project concludes that a 10 to 15 percent cooling performance improvement can be realized by pre-cooling the room air with the 55/sup 0/ to 67/sup 0/F groundwater available in large portions of the Southeast. Proper design of these pre-coolers eliminates unnecessary auxiliary energy requirements. The efficiency of the overall system can be further improved with modifications to current methods of water circulation system design. Pressure requirements are minimized by maintaining a low unit inlet pressure (8 psig maximum), removing unnecessary loop restrictions and injection below the water table. Standard submersible water pumps exceed the resulting required size for residential groundwater heat pumps. Simple modifications can be made by the manufacturer to correct this problem. The result is an overall 15 to 40 percent performance improvement over high efficiency air source heat pumps with a simple payback of between 0 to 10 years in most cases.

  18. Effects of groundwater pumping in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott

    2012-01-01

    USGS developed a groundwater-flow model of the Upper Floridan aquifer in lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin in southwest Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida to determine the effect of agricultural groundwater pumping on aquifer/stream flow within the basin. Aquifer/stream flow is the sum of groundwater outflow to and inflow from streams, and is an important consideration for water managers in the development of water-allocation and operating plans. Specifically, the model was used to evaluate how agricultural pumping relates to 7Q10 low streamflow, a statistical low flow indicative of drought conditions that would occur during seven consecutive days, on average, once every 10 years. Argus ONETM, a software package that combines a geographic information system (GIS) and numerical modeling in an Open Numerical Environment, facilitated the design of a detailed finite-element mesh to represent the complex geometry of the stream system in the lower basin as a groundwater-model boundary. To determine the effects on aquifer/stream flow of pumping at different locations within the model area, a pumping rate equivalent to a typical center-pivot irrigation system (50,000 ft3/d) was applied individually at each of the 18,951 model nodes in repeated steady-state simulations that were compared to a base case representing drought conditions during October 1999. Effects of nodal pumping on aquifer/stream flow and other boundary flows, as compared with the base-case simulation, were computed and stored in a response matrix. Queries to the response matrix were designed to determine the sensitivity of targeted stream reaches to agricultural pumping. Argus ONE enabled creation of contour plots of query results to illustrate the spatial variation across the model area of simulated aquifer/streamflow reductions, expressed as a percentage of the long-term 7Q10 low streamflow at key USGS gaging stations in the basin. These results would enable water managers

  19. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Hubbard, S.S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this paper is to provide new insights into processes affecting riverbank filtration (RBF). We consider a system with an inflatable dam installed for enhancing water production from downstream collector wells. Using a numerical model, we investigate the impact of groundwater pumping and dam operation on the hydrodynamics in the aquifer and water production. We focus our study on two processes that potentially limit water production of an RBF system: the development of an unsaturated zone and riverbed clogging. We quantify river clogging by calibrating a time-dependent riverbed permeability function based on knowledge of pumping rate, river stage, and temperature. The dynamics of the estimated riverbed permeability reflects clogging and scouring mechanisms. Our results indicate that (1) riverbed permeability is the dominant factor affecting infiltration needed for sustainable RBF production; (2) dam operation can influence pumping efficiency and prevent the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed only under conditions of sufficient riverbed permeability; (3) slow river velocity, caused by dam raising during summer months, may lead to sedimentation and deposition of fine-grained material within the riverbed, which may clog the riverbed, limiting recharge to the collector wells and contributing to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed; and (4) higher river flow velocities, caused by dam lowering during winter storms, scour the riverbed an thus increase its permeability. These insights can be used as the basis for developing sustainable water management of a RBF system.

  20. A city scale study on the effects of intensive groundwater heat pump systems on heavy metal contents in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Garrido, Eduardo; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Lázaro, Jesús Mateo; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; Huggenberger, P; Calvo, Miguel Ángel Marazuela

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the increasing use of shallow geothermal resources, hydraulic, thermal and chemical impacts affecting groundwater quality can be observed with ever increasing frequency (Possemiers et al., 2014). To overcome the uncertainty associated with chemical impacts, a city scale study on the effects of intensive geothermal resource use by groundwater heat pump systems on groundwater quality, with special emphasis on heavy metal contents was performed. Statistical analysis of geochemical data obtained from several field campaigns has allowed studying the spatiotemporal relationship between temperature anomalies in the aquifer and trace element composition of groundwater. The relationship between temperature and the concentrations of trace elements resulted in weak correlations, indicating that temperature changes are not the driving factor in enhancing heavy metal contaminations. Regression models established for these correlations showed a very low reactivity or response of heavy metal contents to temperature changes. The change rates of heavy metal contents with respect to temperature changes obtained indicate a low risk of exceeding quality threshold values by means of the exploitation regimes used, neither producing nor enhancing contamination significantly. However, modification of pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity correlated with the concentrations of heavy metals. In this case, the change rates of heavy metal contents are higher, with a greater risk of exceeding threshold values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Integral Pumping Tests to estimate the influence of losing streams on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2009-05-01

    Urban streams receive effluents of wastewater treatment plants and untreated wastewater during combined sewer overflow events. In the case of losing streams substances, which originate from wastewater, can reach the groundwater and deteriorate its quality. The estimation of mass flow rates Mex from losing streams to the groundwater is important to support groundwater management strategies, but is a challenging task. Variable inflow of wastewater with time-dependent concentrations of wastewater constituents causes a variable water composition in urban streams. Heterogeneities in the structure of the streambed and the connected aquifer lead, in combination with this variable water composition, to heterogeneous concentration patterns of wastewater constituents in the vicinity of urban streams. Groundwater investigation methods based on conventional point sampling may yield unreliable results under these conditions. Integral Pumping Tests (IPT) can overcome the problem of heterogeneous concentrations in an aquifer by increasing the sampled volume. Long-time pumping (several days) and simultaneous sampling yields reliable average concentrations Cav and mass flow rates Mcp for virtual control planes perpendicular to the natural flow direction. We applied the IPT method in order to estimate Mex of a stream section in Leipzig (Germany). The investigated stream is strongly influenced by combined sewer overflow events. Four pumping wells were installed up- and downstream of the stream section and operated for a period of five days. The study was focused on four inorganic (potassium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate) and two organic (caffeine and technical-nonylphenol) wastewater constituents with different transport properties. The obtained concentration-time series were used in combination with a numerical flow model to estimate Mcp of the respective wells. The difference of the Mcp's between up- and downstream wells yields Mex of wastewater constituents that increase

  2. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  3. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Hubbard, Susan; Finsterle, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide new insights into processes affecting riverbank filtration (RBF). We consider a system with an inflatable dam installed for enhancing water production from downstream collector wells. Using a numerical model, we investigate the impact of groundwater pumping and dam operation on the hydrodynamics in the aquifer and water production. We focus our study on two processes that potentially limit water production of an RBF system: the development of an unsaturated zone and riverbed clogging. We quantify river clogging by calibrating a time-dependent riverbed permeability function based on knowledge of pumping rate, river stage, and temperature. The dynamics of the estimated riverbed permeability reflects clogging and scouring mechanisms. Our results indicate that (1) riverbed permeability is the dominant factor affecting infiltration needed for sustainable RBF production; (2) dam operation can influence pumping efficiency and prevent the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed only under conditions of sufficient riverbed permeability; (3) slow river velocity, caused by dam raising during summer months, may lead to sedimentation and deposition of fine-grained material within the riverbed, which may clog the riverbed, limiting recharge to the collector wells and contributing to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed; and (4) higher river flow velocities, caused by dam lowering during winter storms, scour the riverbed and thus increase its permeability. These insights can be used as the basis for developing sustainable water management of a RBF system. Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  4. Effects of groundwater pumping on the sustainability of a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cooper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study Region: We analyzed the effects of groundwater pumping on a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Study Focus: Groundwater pumping from mountain meadows is common in many regions of the world. However, few quantitative analyses exist of the hydrologic or ecological effects of pumping. New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Daily hydraulic head and water table variations at sampling locations within 100 m of the pumping well were strongly correlated with the timing and duration of pumping. The effect of pumping varied by distance from the pumping well, depth of the water table when the pumping started, and that water year's snow water equivalent (SWE. Pumping in years with below average SWE and/or early melting snow pack, resulted in a water table decline to the base of the fen peat body by mid summer. Pumping in years with higher SWE and later melting snowpack, resulted in much less water level drawdown from the same pumping schedule. Predictive modeling scenarios showed that, even in a dry water year like 2004, distinct increases in fen water table elevation can be achieved with reductions in pumping. A high water table during summers following low snowpack water years had a more significant influence on vegetation composition than depth of water table in wet years or peat thickness, highlighting the impact of water level drawdown on vegetation. Keywords: Fen, Groundwater pumping, Modeling, Mountain meadow, Water table, Wetlands

  5. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  6. Solar-based groundwater pumping for irrigation: Sustainability, policies, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closas, Alvar; Rap, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand for solar-powered irrigation systems in agriculture has spurred a race for projects as it potentially offers a cost-effective and sustainable energy solution to off-grid farmers while helping food production and sustaining livelihoods. As a result, countries such as Morocco and Yemen have been promoting this technology for farmers and national plans with variable finance and subsidy schemes like in India have been put forward. By focusing on the application of solar photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems in groundwater-fed agriculture, this paper highlights the need to further study the impacts, opportunities and limitations of this technology within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus. It shows how most policies and projects promoting solar-based groundwater pumping for irrigation through subsidies and other incentives overlook the real financial and economic costs of this solution as well as the availability of water resources and the potential negative impacts on the environment caused by groundwater over-abstraction. There is a need to monitor groundwater abstraction, targeting subsidies and improving the knowledge and monitoring of resource use. Failing to address these issues could lead to further groundwater depletion, which could threaten the sustainability of this technology and dependent livelihoods in the future. - Highlights: • Solar pumping projects require assessing environmental and financial sustainability. • Subsidies for solar pumping need to be tied to groundwater pumping regulations. • Solar irrigation projects need to consider groundwater availability and depletion. • Data and monitoring are needed to improve water resource impact assessments.

  7. Groundwater Pumping and Streamflow in the Yuba Basin, Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D. R.; Fogg, G. E.; Wallender, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water transfers during drought in California's Sacramento Valley can lead to increased groundwater pumping, and as yet unknown effects on stream baseflow. Two existing groundwater models of the greater Sacramento Valley together with localized, monitoring of groundwater level fluctuations adjacent to the Bear, Feather, and Yuba Rivers, indicate cause and effect relations between the pumping and streamflow. The models are the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and C2VSIM developed by Department of Water Resources. Using two models which have similar complexity and data but differing approaches to the agricultural water boundary condition illuminates both the water budget and its uncertainty. Water budget and flux data for localized areas can be obtained from the models allowing for parameters such as precipitation, irrigation recharge, and streamflow to be compared to pumping on different temporal scales. Continuous groundwater level measurements at nested, near-stream piezometers show seasonal variations in streamflow and groundwater levels as well as the timing and magnitude of recharge and pumping. Preliminary results indicate that during years with relatively wet conditions 65 - 70% of the surface recharge for the groundwater system comes from irrigation and precipitation and 30 - 35% comes from streamflow losses. The models further indicate that during years with relatively dry conditions, 55 - 60% of the surface recharge for the groundwater system comes from irrigation and precipitation while 40 - 45% comes from streamflow losses. The models irrigation water demand, surface-water and groundwater supply, and deep percolation are integrated producing values for irrigation pumping. Groundwater extractions during the growing season, approximately between April and October, increase by almost 200%. The effects of increased pumping seasonally are not readily evident in stream stage measurements. However, during dry time

  8. Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin (Indonesia) as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, Ahmad; Hosono, Takahiro; Ide, Kiyoshi; Kagabu, Makoto; Iskandar, Irwan; Effendi, Agus J.; Hutasoit, Lambok M.; Shimada, Jun

    2017-12-01

    In the Bandung basin, Indonesia, excessive groundwater pumping caused by rapid increases in industrialization and population growth has caused subsurface environmental problems, such as excessive groundwater drawdown and land subsidence. In this study, multiple hydrogeochemical techniques and numerical modeling have been applied to evaluate the recharge processes and groundwater age (rejuvenation). Although all the groundwater in the Bandung basin is recharged at the same elevation at the periphery of the basin, the water type and residence time of the shallow and deep groundwater could be clearly differentiated. However, there was significant groundwater drawdown in all the depression areas and there is evidence of groundwater mixing between the shallow and deep groundwater. The groundwater mixing was traced from the high dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) concentrations in some deep groundwater samples and by estimating the rejuvenation ratio (R) in some representative observation wells. The magnitude of CFC-12 concentration, as an indicator of young groundwater, showed a good correlation with R, determined using 14C activity in samples taken between 2008 and 2012. These correlations were confirmed with the estimation of vertical downward flux from shallower to deeper aquifers using numerical modeling. Furthermore, the change in vertical flux is affected by the change in groundwater pumping. Since the 1970s, the vertical flux increased significantly and reached approximately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s, as it compensated the groundwater pumping. This study clearly revealed the processes of groundwater impact caused by excessive groundwater pumping using a combination of hydrogeochemical methods and modeling.

  9. Groundwater-pumping optimization for land-subsidence control in Beijing plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanhuan; Andrews, Charles B.; Tian, Fang; Cao, Guoliang; Luo, Yong; Liu, Jiurong; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-01-01

    Beijing, in the North China plain, is one of the few megacities that uses groundwater as its main source of water supply. Groundwater accounts for about two-thirds of the city's water supply, and during the past 50 years the storage depletion from the unconsolidated aquifers underlying the city has been >10.4 billion m3. By 2010, groundwater pumping in the city had resulted in a cumulative subsidence of greater than 100 mm in an area of about 3,900 km2, with a maximum cumulative subsidence of >1,200 mm. This subsidence has caused significant social and economic losses in Beijing, including significant damage to underground utilities. This study was undertaken to evaluate various future pumping scenarios to assist in selecting an optimal pumping scenario to minimize overall subsidence, meet the requirements of the Beijing Land Subsidence Prevention Plan (BLSPP 2013-2020), and be consistent with continued sustainable economic development. A numerical groundwater and land-subsidence model was developed for the aquifer system of the Beijing plain to evaluate land subsidence rates under the possible future pumping scenarios. The optimal pumping scenario consistent with the evaluation constraints is a reduction in groundwater pumping from three major pumping centers by 100, 50 and 20%, respectively, while maintaining an annual pumping rate of 1.9 billion m3. This scenario's land-subsidence rates satisfy the BLSPP 2013-2020 and the pumping scenario is consistent with continued economic development. It is recommended that this pumping scenario be adopted for future land-subsidence management in Beijing.

  10. Groundwater-pumping optimization for land-subsidence control in Beijing plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanhuan; Andrews, Charles B.; Tian, Fang; Cao, Guoliang; Luo, Yong; Liu, Jiurong; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-01

    Beijing, in the North China plain, is one of the few megacities that uses groundwater as its main source of water supply. Groundwater accounts for about two-thirds of the city's water supply, and during the past 50 years the storage depletion from the unconsolidated aquifers underlying the city has been >10.4 billion m3. By 2010, groundwater pumping in the city had resulted in a cumulative subsidence of greater than 100 mm in an area of about 3,900 km2, with a maximum cumulative subsidence of >1,200 mm. This subsidence has caused significant social and economic losses in Beijing, including significant damage to underground utilities. This study was undertaken to evaluate various future pumping scenarios to assist in selecting an optimal pumping scenario to minimize overall subsidence, meet the requirements of the Beijing Land Subsidence Prevention Plan (BLSPP 2013-2020), and be consistent with continued sustainable economic development. A numerical groundwater and land-subsidence model was developed for the aquifer system of the Beijing plain to evaluate land subsidence rates under the possible future pumping scenarios. The optimal pumping scenario consistent with the evaluation constraints is a reduction in groundwater pumping from three major pumping centers by 100, 50 and 20%, respectively, while maintaining an annual pumping rate of 1.9 billion m3. This scenario's land-subsidence rates satisfy the BLSPP 2013-2020 and the pumping scenario is consistent with continued economic development. It is recommended that this pumping scenario be adopted for future land-subsidence management in Beijing.

  11. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  12. Numerical modeling of remediation of groundwater in a wellfield of in-situ leaching of uranium by pump-and-treat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Junwen; Shi Wenge; Yang Yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the hydrogeological conditions at the investigated site, the coupled mathematic model about the flow and the contaminant transportation in groundwater was established. The software Visual MODflow, the most popular simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transportation, was used to study the contaminants distribution in groundwater during pumping at different pumping rates, and to determine the pumping well arrangement and optimal pumping rate, which directs the remediation of contaminated groundwater by the pump-and-treat system. (authors)

  13. Quantifying the energy required for groundwater pumping across a regional aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Shugert, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater pumping can be a substantial source of energy expenditure, particularly in semiarid regions with large depths to water. In this study we assessed the energy required for groundwater pumping in the Denver Basin aquifer system, a group of sedimentary rock aquifers used for municipal water supply in Colorado. In recent decades, declining water levels in the Denver Basin aquifers has resulted in increased pumping lifts and higher energy use rates. We quantified the spatially variable energy intensity for groundwater pumping by analyzing spatial variations in the lift requirement. The median energy intensities for two major aquifers were 1.2 and 1.8 kWh m-3. Considering typical municipal well production rates and household water use in the study area, these results indicate that the energy cost associated with groundwater pumping can be a significant fraction (>20%) of the total electricity consumption for all household end uses. Pumping at this scale (hundreds of municipal wells producing from deep aquifers) also generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Analytical wellfield modeling conducted as part of this study clearly demonstrates how multiple components of the lift impact the energy requirement. Results provide guidance for water management strategies that reduce energy expenditure.

  14. Experimental design for estimating unknown groundwater pumping using genetic algorithm and reduced order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2013-10-01

    An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provide maximum information about unknown groundwater pumping in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design uses a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. The formulated optimization problem is non-convex and contains integer variables necessitating a combinatorial search. Given a realistic large-scale model, the size of the combinatorial search required can make the problem difficult, if not impossible, to solve using traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used to perform the global search; however, because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem still may be infeasible to solve. As a result, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimensionality. Then, the information matrix in the full model space can be searched without solving the full model. Results from a small-scale test case show identical optimal solutions among the GA, integer programming, and exhaustive search methods. This demonstrates the GA's ability to determine the optimal solution. In addition, the results show that a GA with POD model reduction is several orders of magnitude faster in finding the optimal solution than a GA using the full model. The proposed experimental design algorithm is applied to a realistic, two-dimensional, large-scale groundwater problem. The GA converged to a solution for this large-scale problem.

  15. Multi-scale modeling of the environmental impact and energy performance of open-loop groundwater heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacovelli, A.; Guelpa, E.; Verda, V.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater heat pumps are expected to play a major role in future energy scenarios. Proliferation of such systems in urban areas may generate issues related to possible interference between installations. These issues are associated with the thermal plume produced by heat pumps during operation and are particularly evident in the case of groundwater flow, because of the advection heat transfer. In this paper, the impact of an installation is investigated through a thermo-fluid dynamic model of the subsurface which considers fluid flow in the saturated unit and heat transfer in both the saturated and unsaturated units. Due to the large extension of the affected area, a multiscale numerical model that combines a three-dimensional CFD model and a network model is proposed. The thermal request of the user and the heat pump performances are considered in the multi-scale numerical model through appropriate boundary conditions imposed at the wells. Various scenarios corresponding to different operating modes of the heat pump are considered. - Highlights: • A groundwater heat pump of a skyscraper under construction is considered. • The thermal plume induced in the groundwater is evaluated using a multi-scale model. • The multi-scale model is constituted by a full 3D model and a network model. • Multi-scale permits to study large space for long time with low computational costs. • In some cases thermal plume can reduce the COP of other heat pumps of 20%

  16. Effects of Dual-Pump Recovery on Crude-Oil Contamination of Groundwater, Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Lounsbury, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 1979 a crude-oil pipeline ruptured near Bemidji, Minnesota spilling about 1.7 million liters of crude oil onto a glacial-outwash deposit. Initial remediation efforts in 1979-80 removed about 75% of this oil. In 1983 the U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions began research to study the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In 1998 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requested that the pipeline company remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. A dual-pump recovery system was installed using five wells to remove the free-phase oil. Each well had an oil skimming pump as well as a deeper pump in the groundwater, which was used to create a cone of depression in the water table near the well. The oil/water mixture from the skimming pump was pumped to a treatment facility where the oil was separated for later removal from the site. Pumped wastewater was injected into an upgradient infiltration gallery. Despite large public and private expenditures on development and implementation of this type of remediation system, few well-documented field-scale case studies have been published. The renewed remediation presented an opportunity to document how the dissolution, biodegradation, vapor transport, and other processes changed as the site transitioned from natural attenuation to a condition of pump-and-treat remediation and back again following termination of the remediation. Impacts of the remediation were evaluated in part using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in groundwater, and concentrations of methane and other gases in the unsaturated zone. The remediation from 1999 - 2004 resulted in removal of about 114,000 liters of crude oil from the site, or about 27% of the total that remained following the initial remediation in 1979-80. Although the renewed remediation decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of remediation

  17. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  18. Defining an optimum pumping-time requirement for sampling ground-water wells on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    The objective was to determine the optimum time period necessary to pump water from a well before a representative sample of the ground water can be obtained. It was assumed that a representative sample has been collected if the concentration of chemical parameters is the same in a number of samples taken consecutively, so that the concentration of parameters does not vary with time of collection. Ground-water samples used in this project were obtained by pumping selected wells on the Hanford Site. At each well, samples were taken at two minute intervals, and on each sample various chemical analyses were performed. Samples were checked for pH, sulfate, iron, specific conductivity, chloride, nitrate and alkalinity. The data showed that pH, alkalinity, sulfate and specific conductivity levels stabilized almost immediately after pumping of the well began. In many wells, the chloride and nitrate levels were unstable throughout the 38-minute sampling period. Iron levels, however, did not behave in either fashion. The concentration of iron in the samples was high when pumping began but dropped rapidly as pumping continued. The best explanation for this is that iron is flushed from the sides of the casing into the well when pumping begins. After several minutes of pumping, most of the dissolved iron is washed from the well casing and the iron concentration reaches a stable plateau representative of the iron concentration in the ground water.Since iron concentration takes longest to stabilize, the optimum pumping time for a well is based on the iron stabilization time for that well

  19. The thermal consequences of river-level variations in an urban groundwater body highly affected by groundwater heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñe, Enric; Schneider, Eduardo Garrido; Sánchez-Navarro, José Ángel; Mateo-Lázaro, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    The extensive implementation of ground source heat pumps in urban aquifers is an important issue related to groundwater quality and the future economic feasibility of existent geothermal installations. Although many cities are in the immediate vicinity of large rivers, little is known about the thermal river-groundwater interaction at a kilometric-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the thermal impact of river water recharges induced by flood events into an urban alluvial aquifer anthropogenically influenced by geothermal exploitations. The present thermal state of an urban aquifer at a regional scale, including 27 groundwater heat pump installations, has been evaluated. The thermal impacts of these installations in the aquifer together with the thermal impacts from "cold" winter floods have also been spatially and temporally evaluated to ensure better geothermal management of the aquifer. The results showed a variable direct thermal impact from 0 to 6 °C depending on the groundwater-surface water interaction along the river trajectory. The thermal plumes far away from the riverbed also present minor indirect thermal impacts due to hydraulic gradient variations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Groundwater Pumping on Freshwater-Saltwater Interface Fluctuations in a Coastal Aquifer of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, S. H.; Ha, K.

    2017-12-01

    It is necessary to monitor the variation of freshwater-saltwater interface for the sustainable use of groundwater resources in coastal areas. In the present study, we developed a device to measure the location of the freshwater-saltwater interface based on the concept of the neutral buoyancy and installed it in a coastal aquifer of the western sea, South Korea. To evaluate the impact of pumping on the groundwater and saltwater-freshwater interface level, we designed nine different pumping scenarios and monitored the groundwater and saltwater-freshwater interface levels of pumping well and two observation wells. The result of monitoring groundwater level shows that the response of observation wells to the pumping is relatively fast and high, however, the response of freshwater-saltwater interface occurred when the pumping rate and duration are over 25m3/day and 48hours, respectively. For the prediction and simulation of the groundwater level fluctuation under groundwater pumping events, we designed a artificial neural network based time series model considering rainfall, tide, and pumping rate as input components. The result of the prediction shows that the correlation coefficient between observed and estimated groundwater levels is as high as 0.7. It is expected that the result of this research can provide useful information for the effective management of groundwater resources in the study area.

  1. Impact of mixing chemically heterogeneous groundwaters on the sustainability of an open-loop groundwater heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burté, L.; Farasin, J.; Cravotta, C., III; Gerard, M. F.; Cotiche Baranger, C.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal systems using shallow aquifers are commonly used for heating and cooling. The sustainability of these systems can be severely impacted by the occurrence of clogging process. The geothermal loop operation (including pumping of groundwater, filtering and heat extraction through exchangers and cooled water injection) can lead to an unexpected biogeochemical reactivity and scaling formation that can ultimately lead to the shutdown of the geothermal doublet. Here, we report the results of investigations carried out on a shallow geothermal doublet (dynamic). Hydrochemical data collected at the pumping well showed that groundwater was chemically heterogeneous long the 11 meters well screen. While the aquifer was dominantly oxic, a localized inflow of anoxic water was detected and evaluated to produce about 40% of the total flow . The mixture of chemically heterogeneous water induced by pumping lead to the oxidation of reductive species and thus to the formation of biogenic precipitates responsible for clogging. The impact of pumping waters of different redox potential and chemical characteristics was quantified by numerical modeling using PHREEQC. These results shows that natural chemical heterogeneity can occur at a small scale in heterogeneous aquifers and highlight the importance of their characterization during the production well testing and the geothermal loop operation in order to take preventive measures to avoid clogging.

  2. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  3. Pumping and recovery test analysis of groundwater Well in Martajasah, Bangkalan, Madura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi Gunawan Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Martajasah is one of the villages in Bangkalan Region, Madura, which have difficulty of fresh water. This area has a lot of potential that can be developed, particularly the potential of religious tourism. To increase the utilization potential of the region and support the public healthy, in 2007 PPGN - BATAN cooperated with the Government of Bangkalan has made one (I) exploration/production groundwater - wells with the expectation it can meet a demand of fresh water in the Martajasah Village area. To determine the capacity of the wells, the maximum discharge pumping and the optimum discharge pumping from the wells pumping test it is necessary should be conducted, which includes step draw down pumping test, constant rate pumping test and recovery test. The purpose of this activity is to determine amount of well loss, loss of aquifer, well hydraulics equations and the value of the efficiency of wells to determine the optimum and maximum discharge wells and calculate the value of transmissivity / transmissivity (T) from the aquifer. The scope of these activities include the preparation of working equipment, testing of all equipment, measurement of static groundwater table, pumping test, and analysis of pumping test. Based on the result from step draw down test, well hydraulics equations obtained Sw = 0.0079 Q + 0.000003 Q 2 , so that according to the well hydraulics equations are than obtained a maximum pumping discharge (Q max ) = 3.9 liters / second (336.7 m 3 ) / days) with the well efficiency (E) = 89%, so the optimum pumping discharge (Q opt )=3.455 liters / second = 298.52 m 3 /day. Based on the result from constant rate pumping test and recovery test showed adequate transmissivity of wells, i e T = 136.5 m 2 / day = 5.6875 m 2 / hour = 0.094 m 2 /minute. (author)

  4. Sampling of dissolved gases in deep groundwater pumped to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, J.

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop method for sampling dissolved gases in groundwater pumped out from borehole. In this report the developed method called Simple gas collector (YKK) and the first results gained are described. Samples were collected from five sampling sections. First test samplings were made from multipackered deep borehole (OL-KR1/523,2-528,2 m). The rest of samples were sampled during prepumping of PAVE-samplings. All samples were analysed with mass spectrometer. Gas composition results were very reproducible but gas concentration results varied in some sampling sections. Achieved results were compared with gas results of groundwater samples taken with PAVE-equipment. YKK-results were mainly comparable to PAVE-results, although differences were observed in both gas composition and concentration results. When gas concentration is small ( 2 O) gas compositions are very comparable and when concentration is high compositions differs between YKK- and PAVE-results. Gas concentration values were very comparable when the groundwater samples contained gases a lot, but the differences were relatively higher, when the gas amount in the groundwater sample was small. According to the survey you can get comparable information of dissolved gases in groundwater with YKK-method. The limit of using this method is that pumped groundwater must be oversaturated with gases in sampling conditions. (orig.)

  5. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  6. Pumping Drainage Well Layout and Optimum Capacity Design to Lower Groundwater Table in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shourian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High groundwater levels in urban areas pose major problems in construction and mining projects. A typical and effective solution in these situations is to dig drainage wells to lower the water table to the desired level through an appropriate pumping strategy. Although the method is efficient, the operating costs are relatively high and it is, therefore, of great importance to optimize the groundwater pumping system to save costs. In this paper, a simulation-based optimization approach is exploited to minimize the total costs through optimizing the layout and capacity of pumping wells. For this purpose, MODFLOW, the groundwater simulation software, is used to investigate aquifer behavior under pumping wells and the well-known Firefly Optimization Algorithm is exploited to find the optimal well layout and capacity. The proposed FOA-MODFLOW model is tested on the small urban ancient Grand Mosque region in Kerman City, southeast of Iran, to minimize the cost of the draining project. Experimental results indicate that the proposed cost-effective design noticeably outperforms the one proposed by the consulting engineers in terms of both the number of drilled wells and the associated pumping costs. The optimal strategy observes the constraints and demands by constructing only two wells with a total pumping rate of 5503 m3/day and a water table drawdown of more than 1.5 m provided the ground subsidence is within the allowable limit of less than 80 mm. Additionally, examination of the values obtained for the various design parameters shows that the proposed strategy is the best and its sensitivity to maximum permissible water level and pumping rates is highest as compared with other similar designs.

  7. Seasonal coefficient of performance for ground source heat pump and groundwater one in Białystok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    European Economic Area (EEA) states declare to contain greenhouse gases emissions at 20% by 2020, whereas European Union (EU) does 40% before 2030, which result in encouragement to apply low-carbon technologies. Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOPnet) are obtained using temperature measurement done by The Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) at the weather station in Bialystok for ten-year period. The first variant is ground source heat pump (GSHP) and the second one is groundwater source heat pump (WSHP) which can be equipped with separating heat exchanger (SHE) optionally. In both cases heat is generated for heating system only. Ground temperature is determined from Baggs (1983) formula using Oleśkowicz-Popiel et. al. (2002) adaptation to Polish climate and substituting the local constants achieved by Biernacka (2010). Water temperature in a groundwater basin is obtained from Kowalski (2007) equation. Estimation is done in each hour of heating season. All COP values are higher than 3.5 required by EU (2013). SCOPnet are as follows: 6.12, 5.86, 5.03 for WSHP, WSHP+SHE, GSHP respectively. Insomuch as WSHP needs only two boreholes it is recommended to the areas beneath ones a groundwater basin is located.

  8. Seasonal coefficient of performance for ground source heat pump and groundwater one in Białystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area (EEA states declare to contain greenhouse gases emissions at 20% by 2020, whereas European Union (EU does 40% before 2030, which result in encouragement to apply low-carbon technologies. Coefficient of Performance (COP and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOPnet are obtained using temperature measurement done by The Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB at the weather station in Bialystok for ten-year period. The first variant is ground source heat pump (GSHP and the second one is groundwater source heat pump (WSHP which can be equipped with separating heat exchanger (SHE optionally. In both cases heat is generated for heating system only. Ground temperature is determined from Baggs (1983 formula using Oleśkowicz-Popiel et. al. (2002 adaptation to Polish climate and substituting the local constants achieved by Biernacka (2010. Water temperature in a groundwater basin is obtained from Kowalski (2007 equation. Estimation is done in each hour of heating season. All COP values are higher than 3.5 required by EU (2013. SCOPnet are as follows: 6.12, 5.86, 5.03 for WSHP, WSHP+SHE, GSHP respectively. Insomuch as WSHP needs only two boreholes it is recommended to the areas beneath ones a groundwater basin is located.

  9. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  10. 200-ZP-1 phase II and III IRM groundwater pump and treat site safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. John, C.H.

    1996-07-01

    This safety plan covers operations, maintenance, and support activities related to the 200-ZP-1 Phase II and III Ground Water Pump- and-Treat Facility. The purpose of the facility is to extract carbon tetrachloride contaminated groundwater underlying the ZP-1 Operable Unit; separate the contaminant from the groundwater; and reintroduce the treated water to the aquifer. An air stripping methodology is employed to convert volatile organics to a vapor phase for absorption onto granular activated carbon. The automated process incorporates a variety of process and safety features that shut down the process system in the event that process or safety parameters are exceeded or compromised

  11. Numerical groundwater-flow modeling to evaluate potential effects of pumping and recharge: implications for sustainable groundwater management in the Mahanadi delta region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sasmita; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based groundwater models are useful to understand complex aquifer systems and make predictions about their response to hydrological changes. A conceptual model for evaluating responses to environmental changes is presented, considering the hydrogeologic framework, flow processes, aquifer hydraulic properties, boundary conditions, and sources and sinks of the groundwater system. Based on this conceptual model, a quasi-three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was designed using MODFLOW to simulate the groundwater system of Mahanadi River delta, eastern India. The model was constructed in the context of an upper unconfined aquifer and lower confined aquifer, separated by an aquitard. Hydraulic heads of 13 shallow wells and 11 deep wells were used to calibrate transient groundwater conditions during 1997-2006, followed by validation (2007-2011). The aquifer and aquitard hydraulic properties were obtained by pumping tests and were calibrated along with the rainfall recharge. The statistical and graphical performance indicators suggested a reasonably good simulation of groundwater flow over the study area. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater level is most sensitive to the hydraulic conductivities of both the aquifers, followed by vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining layer. The calibrated model was then employed to explore groundwater-flow dynamics in response to changes in pumping and recharge conditions. The simulation results indicate that pumping has a substantial effect on the confined aquifer flow regime as compared to the unconfined aquifer. The results and insights from this study have important implications for other regional groundwater modeling studies, especially in multi-layered aquifer systems.

  12. Insulin Pump Malfunction During Hospitalization: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, Eileen R; Wyne, Kathleen L; Buschur, Elizabeth O; McDaniel, Jodi; Dungan, Kathleen

    2016-06-01

    Insulin pump malfunctions and failures continue to occur; however, more severe malfunctions such as the "runaway pump" phenomenon are rarely reported. This article describes two cases of pump malfunction in which pump users appear to have received an unsolicited bolus of insulin resulting in severe episodes of hypoglycemia during hospitalization. Both cases of insulin pump malfunction occurred in the inpatient setting at a large academic medical center in the United States. An analysis of the corresponding insulin pump downloads was performed. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database was searched for similar cases involving Medtronic (Northridge, CA) insulin pumps using the terms "pump," "infusion," "insulin AND malfunction AND Medtronic." The two cases described show remarkable similarities, each demonstrating a severe hypoglycemic event preceded by an infusion site change followed by an alarm. In both cases a rapid spraying of insulin was reported. The insulin pump downloads validated much of the patients' and medical staff's descriptions of events. The FDA's MAUDE database search revealed 425 cases meeting our search term criteria. All cases were reviewed. Seven cases were identified involving independent movement of the reservoir piston. The cases detailed are the first to describe an insulin pump malfunction of this nature in the hospital setting involving unsolicited insulin boluses leading to severe hypoglycemia. The cases are particularly compelling in that they were witnessed by medical personnel. Providers and patients should receive instruction education on the recognition and management of insulin pump malfunction.

  13. (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khoramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheriyoun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a Biofilter System for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Gas (Case Study: Wastewater Pump Station of Khorramabad Abstract The biofilter system is one of the methods commonly used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide as the main source of odors emitted from wastewater facilities. The system is based on using the contaminant material as bedding to feed microorganisms. To achieve the desirable removal efficiency, it is, therefore, essential to create the proper conditions for the bacteria to grow on the bedding. In this study, a pilot-scale biofilter made of compost and woodchip (with a compost/woodchip ratio of 5:1 was used as the bedding material at Khorrmabad wastewater pumping station to investigate the performance of the system under real conditions. The experiment was carried out over 75 days during which time the input and output H2S concentrations were measured on a regular basis. Moisture was adjusted between 40% and 60% throughout the experiment to provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth. The results showed that the concentration of H2S emitted from the pumping station during 24 hours varied greatly between 0 and 48 PPM. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biological bedding was recorded at 2.874 g/m3.hr and the mean efficiency of H2S removal including the startup time was 89%. The mean performance efficiency during the biological activity after the startup was recorded at 98%.

  14. Changes in Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Groundwater during Long-Term Pumping Test in Brestovica Karst Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the experimental pumping test, which was carried out in the dry summer period in August 2008 for 30 days, was to assess the groundwater resource quantity which could be pumped at the time of the highest water needs for the Slovene Coast and Karst areas. Further, we wanted to test the chemical status of groundwater to assure its suitability for further use and to assess the influence of the Soca River aquifer on this karst aquifer

  15. Changes in Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Groundwater During a Long Term Pumping Test in Brestovica Karst Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezga, K.; Urbanc, J. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    A pumping test of the Klarici water supply near Brestovica was performed in August 2008, in order to determine the karst groundwater resource capacity. Groundwater was pumped for a month with a total capacity of 470 L/s. During the experiment, sampling for chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and surface water was carried out. Intensive pumping in dry meteorological conditions caused a lowering of the water table and changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of pumped water. Local meteoric waters are infiltrated into the aquifer at a lower mean altitude; therefore the {delta}{sup 18}O is enriched with the heavy oxygen isotope. The duration of pumping resulted in changes in the isotopic composition of oxygen due to a greater impact of the intergranular Soca River aquifer on the karst aquifer. On the basis of isotope composition it was possible to quantify the impact of the Soca River on the karst aquifer. (author)

  16. Responses of the sustainable yield of groundwater to annual rainfall and pumping patterns in the Baotou Plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; LONG, Y., Sr.; Wei, Y.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Serious water deficits and deteriorating environmental quality are threatening the sustainable socio-economic development and the protection of the ecology and the environment in North China, especially in Baotou City. There is a common misconception that groundwater extraction can be sustainable if the pumping rate does not exceed the total natural recharge in a groundwater basin. The truth is that the natural recharge is mainly affected by the rainfall and that groundwater withdrawal determines the sustainable yield of the aquifer flow system. The concept of the sustainable yield is defined as the allowance pumping patterns and rates that avoid adverse impacts on the groundwater system. The sustainable yield introduced in this paper is a useful baseline for groundwater management under all rainfall conditions and given pumping scenarios. A dynamic alternative to the groundwater sustainable yield for a given pumping pattern and rate should consider the responses of the recharge, discharge, and evapotranspiration to the groundwater level fluctuation and to different natural rainfall conditions. In this study, methods for determining the sustainable yield through time series data of groundwater recharge, discharge, extraction, and precipitation in an aquifer are introduced. A numerical simulation tool was used to assess and quantify the dynamic changes in groundwater recharge and discharge under excessive pumping patterns and rates and to estimate the sustainable yield of groundwater flow based on natural rainfall conditions and specific groundwater development scenarios during the period of 2007 to 2014. The results of this study indicate that the multi-year sustainable yield only accounts for about one-half of the average annual recharge. The future sustainable yield for the current pumping scenarios affected by rainfall conditions are evaluated quantitatively to obtain long-term groundwater development strategies. The simulation results show that sufficient

  17. Transient effects on groundwater chemical compositions from pumping of supply wells at the Nevada National Security Site, 1951-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    . Analysis of chemical trends in this report primarily rely on specific conductance measurements and major ion concentrations, data considered to be the most accurate and reliable over the entire time span of investigation. The analysis uses parametric and non-parametric evaluations to provide a statistical basis for trend identification. Trace element and isotope data are examined for consistency, but typically are too inaccurate or infrequent to provide a reliable long term basis for trend evaluation. Groundwater withdrawal records compiled in a companion report are included graphically in this report to allow qualitative comparisons between water quality and pumping history. Data for each supply well include (1) a borehole description and summary of pumping history, (2) a description of water-quality parameters, (3) an evaluation of temporal variations of specific conductance and major ion concentrations, and (4) an examination of supporting information from trace element and isotope data. A range of responses are observed for individual supply wells that likely include the effects of both aquifer dynamics and changing borehole conditions. Data from most wells show little or no evidence for temporal variation in water-quality parameters indicating that aquifers at the Nevada National Security Site are capable of producing large volumes of compositionally uniform water over many years of pumping. A smaller number of wells show evidence of transient changes. Wells that have ceased pumping commonly show compositions that shift toward lower concentrations in subsequent bailed samples, which indicates that more dilute water entered the well over time due to either leakage of meteoric water into the well casing or more wide-spread recharge into the shallow phreatic zone. Wells that show systematic changes in water compositions during episodes of pumping commonly have multiple open intervals whose contributions to water in the well may change over time due to hydraulic

  18. Simulation of groundwater flow and pumping scenarios for 1900–2050 near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jason M.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2017-10-31

    /d; Scenario 5—minimize MPW surface-water purchase from the Charleston Water System by adding supply wells and increasing withdrawals from the Middendorf aquifer from 3.9 Mgal/d (in 2015) to 12.16 Mgal/d; and Scenario 6—same as Scenario 1, but with he addition of quarterly model stress periods to simulate seasonal variations in the groundwater withdrawals. Results from the simulations indicated further decline of groundwater levels creating cones of depressions near pumping wells in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2015 and 2050 for all six scenarios.Simulation results from Scenario 1 showed an average decline of about 150 feet in the groundwater levels of the MPW production wells. Simulated hydrographs for two area observation wells illustrate the gradual decline in groundwater levels with overall changes in water-level altitudes of –92 and –33 feet, respectively. Simulated groundwater altitudes at a hypothetical observation well located in the MPW well field declined 121 feet between 2015 and 2050.Scenarios 2 and 3 have the same pumping rates as Scenario 1 for the MPW production wells; however, a single hypothetical pumping well was added in the Middendorf aquifer near the town of Moncks Corner, South Carolina. This hypothetical pumping well has a withdrawal rate of 0.5 Mgal/d for Scenario 2 and 1.5 Mgal/d for Scenario 3. A comparison to the 2050 Scenario 1 simulation indicates groundwater altitudes for Scenarios 2 and Scenario 3 are 3 feet and 8 feet lower, respectively, at the MPW production wells.Scenario 4 simulates the maximum pumping capacity of 10.16 Mgal/d for the MPW network of production wells. Simulated 2050 groundwater altitudes for this simulation declined to –359 feet. Simulated hydrographs for two observation wells show groundwater-level declines of 116 and 41 feet, respectively. Simulated differences in groundwater altitudes at a hypothetical observation well located in the MPW well field indicate a water

  19. Aquifer pumping test report for the burn site groundwater area of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ferry, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Aquifer Pumping Test Report for the Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern is being submitted by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration to describe the results of the aquifer pumping test program and related field activities that were completed at the BSG Area of Concern. This report summarizes the results of the field work and data analyses, and is being submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau, as required by the April 14, 2016 letter, Summary of Agreements and Proposed Milestones Pursuant to the Meeting of July 20, 2015, (NMED April 2016).

  20. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  1. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  2. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  3. Groundwater quota versus tiered groundwater pricing : two cases of groundwater management in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse, Eefje; Qu, Wei; Bluemling, B.; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in monitoring groundwater extraction cause groundwater regulations to fail worldwide. In two counties in north-west China local water authorities have installed smart card machines to monitor and regulate farmers’ groundwater use. Data from a household survey and in-depth interviews are

  4. Remediation of BTEX contaminated groundwater: best technology assessment between pump&treat and bioremediation by oxygen injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Baldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX dissolved in the groundwater and migrated from a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL source in an alluvial aquifer required a remedial action to be taken by the responsible party as established by the Italian regulation (Legislative Decree 152/06 and subsequent amendments. For such purpose, field investigations were conducted on site in order to define the site conceptual model and to identify the appropriate remediation technology to be applied. The remediation design was developed by means of a flow and reactive transport mathematical model, applied to saturated media, using the numerical codes MODFLOW and RT3D. Groundwater field observations showed evidence of occurring BTEX biodegradation processes by bacteria naturally present in the aquifer. Since such specific bacterial activity would be significantly enhanced by the injection of free oxygen in the aquifer, the performance of traditional pump and treat systems (P&T was assessed and compared with cost/efficiency of reactive oxygen bio-barrier technology (OD. The results showed a clear advantage in terms of cost/efficiency with the application of the OD. This presents an overall cost of about 30% of the P&T installation and maintenance, and it reaches remedial target in a shorter timeframe. Moreover, the system is also applicable as a bioremediation technology in case of Environmental Emergency Measures (MISE. The site examined is part of an industrial plant located in Central Italy.

  5. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker

  6. Effects of changes in pumping on regional groundwater-flow paths, 2005 and 2010, and areas contributing recharge to discharging wells, 1990–2010, in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2017-06-06

    A previously developed regional groundwater flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in pumping rates on groundwater-flow paths and extent of recharge discharging to wells for a contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater in the vicinity of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was found to be contaminated with organic compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), in 1979. At the time contamination was discovered, groundwater from the underlying fractured bedrock (shale) aquifer was the main source of supply for public drinking water and industrial use. As part of technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the Remedial Investigation of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site from 2000 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a model of regional groundwater flow to describe changes in groundwater flow and contaminant directions as a result of changes in pumping. Subsequently, large decreases in TCE concentrations (as much as 400 micrograms per liter) were measured in groundwater samples collected by the EPA from selected wells in 2010 compared to 2005‒06 concentrations.To provide insight on the fate of potentially contaminated groundwater during the period of generally decreasing pumping rates from 1990 to 2010, steady-state simulations were run using the previously developed groundwater-flow model for two conditions prior to extensive remediation, 1990 and 2000, two conditions subsequent to some remediation 2005 and 2010, and a No Pumping case, representing pre-development or cessation of pumping conditions. The model was used to (1) quantify the amount of recharge, including potentially contaminated recharge from sources near the land surface, that discharged to wells or streams and (2) delineate the areas contributing recharge that discharged to wells or streams for the five conditions.In all simulations, groundwater divides differed from

  7. Thermal Impact Assessment of Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHPs: Rigorous vs. Simplified Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Piga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHPs are increasingly adopted for air conditioning in urban areas, thus reducing CO2 emissions, and this growth needs to be managed to ensure the sustainability of the thermal alteration of aquifers. However, few studies have addressed the propagation of thermal plumes from open-loop geothermal systems from a long-term perspective. We provide a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, performed with numerical finite-element simulations, to assess how the size of the thermally affected zone is driven by hydrodynamic and thermal subsurface properties, the vadose zone and aquifer thickness, and plant setup. In particular, we focus the analysis on the length and width of thermal plumes, and on their time evolution. Numerical simulations are compared with two simplified methods, namely (i replacing the time-varying thermal load with its yearly average and (ii analytical formulae for advective heat transport in the aquifer. The former proves acceptable for the assessment of plume length, while the latter can be used to estimate the width of the thermally affected zone. The results highlight the strong influence of groundwater velocity on the plume size and, especially for its long-term evolution, of ground thermal properties and of subsurface geometrical parameters.

  8. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) 99 Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD

  9. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) [sup 99]Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  10. Big Data Processing for a Central Texas Groundwater Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, A.; Rivera, O.; Martínez, A.; Lewis, D. H.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Fuentes, G.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    As computational methods improve, scientists are able to expand the level and scale of experimental simulation and testing that is completed for case studies. This study presents a comparative analysis of multiple models for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer. Several numerical simulations using state-mandated MODFLOW models ran on Stampede, a High Performance Computing system housed at the Texas Advanced Computing Center, were performed for multiple scenario testing. One goal of this multidisciplinary project aims to visualize and compare the output data of the groundwater model using the statistical programming language R to find revealing data patterns produced by different pumping scenarios. Presenting data in a friendly post-processing format is covered in this paper. Visualization of the data and creating workflows applicable to the management of the data are tasks performed after data extraction. Resulting analyses provide an example of how supercomputing can be used to accelerate evaluation of scientific uncertainty and geological knowledge in relation to policy and management decisions. Understanding the aquifer behavior helps policy makers avoid negative impact on the endangered species, environmental services and aids in maximizing the aquifer yield.

  11. Sizing rules for the pressure design of pump casings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflalo, C.; Barbarulo, R.; Courcot, M.; Marolles, M. de; Douarin, M.; Grandemange, J.M.; Martin, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the theoretical and experimental studies undertaken by AFCEN (French Society for Design and Construction Rules for nuclear island components) and SCP (French Union of Pump Manufacturers) in order to develop sizing rules for the pressure design of radially split pump casings. Shape factors used in simplified design formulas have been developed for different configurations using results of finite element analyses and experimental extensometric analyses. (orig.)

  12. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  13. Study on Law of Groundwater Evolution under Natural and Artificial Forcing with Case study of Haihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinjun; Gan, Hong; Wang, Lin; Bi, Xue; Du, Sisi

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of groundwater is one of the key problems of water cycle study. It is a result of joint effect of natural condition and human activities, but until now the driving forces of groundwater system evolution were not fully understood due to the complexity of groundwater system structures and the uncertainty of affecting factors. Geology, precipitation and human activity are the main factors affecting the groundwater system evolution and interact each other, but the influence of such three factors on groundwater system are not clarified clearly on a macroscopic scale. The precipitation changes the volume of water recharge and the groundwater pumping effect the discharge of groundwater. Another important factor influencing balance of groundwater storage is the underlaying that affects the renewablility of groundwater. The underlaying is decided mainly by geological attributes but also influenced by human activited. The macroscopic environment of groundwater evolves under the natural and anthropic factors. This paper study the general law of groundwater evolution among the factors based on the case study in Haihe River Basin, a typical area with dramatic groundwater change under natural precipitation attenuation and gradually increase of water suuply. Haihe River Basin is located in north-China, covers an area of 320,041 km2 with over 40% plain areas. The plain area of Haihe Basin is densely populated with many large and medium-sized cities, including metropolis of Beijing and Tianjin, and concentrated irrigated areas, playing important roles in China's economy and food production. It is the unique basin where groundwater occupies majority of total water supply in China. Long-term groundwater over-exploitation causes a series of ecological and environmental problems that threats the sustainable development. In this paper, the historical process of groundwater balance in Haihe Basin is divided into three phases by decrease of rainfall and increase of water

  14. Validation of groundwater modelling for DDT and petroleum hydrocarbons at Border Pump Station and Rainy Hollow, northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, M.; Bright, D.; Hartshorne, B.

    2001-01-01

    Border Station and Rainy Hollow are inactive booster pumping stations along the Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline in northern British Columbia. An emergency site cleanup was conducted in 1994 after canisters containing DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro phenyl)ethane] were discovered buried in a dump. A detailed site investigation showed that hydrocarbons and DDT were present in soil and groundwater. The major contaminants of concern were DDTs in surface soil, DDTs in subsurface soils and groundwater, and light hydrocarbons in subsurface soils and groundwater. Remedial action took place in the summer of 1997. The canisters, along with soils and other contaminated materials, were excavated and shipped off-site for disposal. A conceptual groundwater model was developed to predict future contaminant releases to the nearby Klehini River. A monitoring program was initiated to validate the groundwater model. From 1997 to 2000, the groundwater was sampled analyzed annually for DDT, metals and hydrocarbons. Results indicated a striking overall consistency in the concentrations of DDT and hydrocarbons in both groundwater and surface water samples, confirming the validity of the 1996 model predictions. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  15. Three cases of radiation esophagitis controlled with proton pump inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Ryuji; Saito, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki [Kumamoto Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Radiation esophagitis sometimes interrupts the radiation therapy due to swallowing pain and dysplasia. We experienced three cases of radiation-induced esophagitis controlled with proton pump inhibitor (PPI). These cases suggested etiologic relationship radiation esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We should consider PPI as treatment option for radiation esophagitis. (author)

  16. Tidal pumping as a driver of groundwater discharge to a back barrier salt marsh ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M. L.; Viso, R. F.; Peterson, R. N.; Hill, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) typically consists of both terrestrial groundwater and recirculated seawater and has been shown to be a significant pathway of dissolved substances to the coastal zone. The fresh and saline water mixture in the subsurface creates a salinity gradient that can impact biogeochemical processes. Located along the South Atlantic Bight, Georgia's coastline is an approximately 100-mile stretch of complex primary and secondary barrier islands resulting from geologic interactions driven by long-term sea level rise and retreat, accretion, seasonal tidal events, storm overwash, and wave driven erosion. Our study site is located in the Duplin River near Sapelo Island, GA and is part of the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Long Term Ecosystem Research (GCE-LTER) program. This area is considered mesotidal (2-4m) and tidal pumping may be a dominating process in controlling SGD rates. The Duplin River is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through Doboy Sound to the south. To the north, the river terminates in extensive salt marsh and therefore has no overland freshwater input. Previous studies show a salinity gradient within the Duplin River indicating that SGD must be present as a source of brackish water. To place constraints on SGD processes, we employ a combination of geochemical and geophysical techniques to determine the magnitude of SGD in the Duplin River. Together these techniques permit a more complete understanding of the groundwater system. Three time series stations at the upper, mid and lower reaches of the Duplin River were deployed in June of 2013 to measure groundwater influences during daily and fortnightly tidal cycles. At each station, continuous radon-222 measurements were conducted at 30 minute intervals along with measurements of water level, temperature and conductivity using standard hydrological data loggers. During this period, eight time series resistivity profiles using a 56 electrode (110m long) cable were recorded to

  17. Enhancement of in situ biodegradation of organic compounds in groundwater by targeted pump and treat intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, S.F.; Baker, K.M.; Bottrell, S.H.; Rolfe, S.A.; McNamee, P.; Forrest, F.; Duffield, P.; Wilson, R.D.; Fairburn, A.W.; Cieslak, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumping reduces contaminant toxicity below levels which stimulate in situ biodegradation. • Pumping increases the mixing of background oxidants into the plume for anaerobic respiration. • Bacterial sulphate reduction is very sensitive to contaminant concentrations. • Stable isotope analysis confirms the contribution of different biodegradation processes. • Targeted pump and treatment can enhance the natural attenuation of complex plumes. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the value of targeted pump and treatment (PAT) to enhance the in situ biodegradation of organic contaminants in groundwater for improved restoration. The approach is illustrated for a plume of phenolic compounds in a sandstone aquifer, where PAT is used for hydraulic containment and removal of dissolved phase contaminants from specific depth intervals. Time-series analysis of the plume hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of dissolved species (δ 34 S-SO 4 , δ 13 C-CH 4 , δ 13 C-TDIC (TDIC = Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon)) in groundwater samples from high-resolution multilevel samplers were used to deduce changes in the relative significance of biodegradation processes and microbial activity in the plume, induced by the PAT system over 3 years. The PAT system has reduced the maximum contaminant concentrations (up to 6800 mg L −1 total phenols) in the plume by 50% to ∼70% at different locations. This intervention has (i) stimulated in situ biodegradation in general, with an approximate doubling of contaminant turnover based on TDIC concentration, which has increased from <200 mg L −1 to >350 mg L −1 , (ii) enhanced the activity of SO 4 -reducing microorganisms (marked by a declining SO 4 concentration with corresponding increase in SO 4 -δ 34 S to values >7–14‰ V-CDT relative to background values of 1.9–6.5‰ V-CDT ), and (iii) where the TDIC increase is greatest, has changed TDIC-δ 13 C from values of −10 to −15‰ V-PDB to ∼−20‰ V

  18. Composition of Groundwater Bacterial Communities before and after Air Surging in a Groundwater Heat Pump System According to a Pyrosequencing Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal energy of groundwater has aroused increasing interest as a solution to climate change. The groundwater heat pumps (GWHP system using groundwater is the most environmentally friendly system to date and has been examined in several studies. However, biological clogging by microorganisms negatively affects the thermal efficiency of the GWHP system. In this study, we employed air surging, the most popular among well management methods, and pyrosequencing to analyze the genetic diversity in bacteria before and after air surging in a geothermal well. Furthermore, the diversity of dominant bacterial genera and those related to clogging were evaluated. The bacterial diversity of the groundwater well increased after air surging. Nevertheless, the proportion of bacterial genera thought to be related to microbiological clogging decreased. In cooling and heating systems based on the geothermal energy of groundwater, the wells should be maintained regularly by air surging to reduce efficiency problems caused by microbiological clogging and to prevent secondary damage to human health, e.g., pneumonia due to human pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter.

  19. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  20. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  1. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  2. Optimizing the design of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)

  3. Pump shaft failures - a compendium of case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bernt, F

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available During operation, pump shafts usually suffer from degradation as a result of corrosion and/or mechanical degradation, usually in the form of fatigue failures. In many cases corrosion precedes fatigue failure and can actually accelerate the rate...

  4. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  5. Neural Network approach to assess the thermal affected zone around the injection well in a groundwater heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Verda, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    The common use of well doublets for groundwater-sourced heating or cooling results in a thermal plume of colder or warmer re-injected groundwater known as the Thermal Affected Zone(TAZ). The plumes may be regarded either as a potential anthropogenic geothermal resource or as pollution, depending on downstream aquifer usage. A fundamental aspect in groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant design is the correct evaluation of the thermally affected zone that develops around the injection well. Temperature anomalies are detected through numerical methods. Crucial elements in the process of thermal impact assessment are the sizes of installations, their position, the heating/cooling load of the building, and the temperature drop/increase imposed on the re-injected water flow. For multiple-well schemes, heterogeneous aquifers, or variable heating and cooling loads, numerical models that simulate groundwater and heat transport are needed. These tools should consider numerous scenarios obtained considering different heating/cooling loads, positions, and operating modes. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are widely used in this field because they offer the opportunity to calculate the time evolution of the thermal plume produced by a heat pump, depending on the characteristics of the subsurface and the heat pump. Nevertheless, these models require large computational efforts, and therefore their use may be limited to a reasonable number of scenarios. Neural networks could represent an alternative to CFD for assessing the TAZ under different scenarios referring to a specific site. The use of neural networks is proposed to determine the time evolution of the groundwater temperature downstream of an installation as a function of the possible utilization profiles of the heat pump. The main advantage of neural network modeling is the possibility of evaluating a large number of scenarios in a very short time, which is very useful for the preliminary analysis of future multiple

  6. Suburban heat island effect in groundwater energy utilisation in Nordic climate - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Teppo

    2017-04-01

    We present the preliminary results from the initial thermogeological characterization of Finland's first-ever planned large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) facility. The site is located in the Asko area (Lahti), at a latitude of 60°59'N. In particular, emphasis is put on the results from an aquifer's pumping test performed in July / August 2016 to investigate the potential implication of suburban heat island (SUHI) effect to ATES system on the naturally cold groundwater area. The site has been under geological investigation since July 2015. At a regional scale, the groundwater's natural temperature is about 5.8- 6°C. However, preliminary measurements during the investigations revealed that local groundwater temperature ranged between 7.5 to 8.7 °C in Asko area. The highest temperature was observed underneath buildings, suggesting that higher-than-average temperature is most likely influenced due to anthropogenic heat flux into the ground. The pumping test was performed for 39 days, of which 28 days with groundwater withdrawal and 11 days of heads recovery. The pumped volumes range from 350 to 540 m3/d leading the total volume of 10400 m3 of groundwater. Groundwater temperatures were continuously measured from pumping test well and two observation piezometers during the entire test. The results indicated that aquifer's temperature remained nearly constant being between 7.4 to 7.9 °C during the test period. Heat pulses with temperature variation of 0.1 to 0.3 °C were observed in the pumping well and nearest monitoring well (19 meters from pumping well) during the pumping test and recovery phase. We estimate that the pulses were due to rapidly changed groundwater flowing conditions and pulse indicate "new groundwater" flow to the well. Overall, the preliminary test suggests that groundwater temperature are expected to remain elevated during the ATES system operation. Elevated temperature due the SUHI effect increases groundwater heating potential

  7. Joint Calibration of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) with Tidal Pumping: Modeling Variable-density Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Coastal Aquifer of Apalachee Bay, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hu, B.; Burnett, W.; Santos, I.

    2008-05-01

    Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) as an unseen phenomenon is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making quantification difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, and temporally variable, and thus makes the estimation of its magnitude and components is a challenging enterprise. A two-dimensional hydrogeological model is developed to the near-shore environment of an unconfined aquifer at a Florida coastal area in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Intense geological survey and slug tests are set to investigate the heterogeneity of this layered aquifer. By applying SEAWAT2000, considering the uncertainties caused by changes of boundary conditions, a series of variable-density-flow models incorporates the tidal-influenced seawater recirculation and the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone under the dynamics of tidal pattern, tidal amplitude and variation of water table. These are thought as the contributing factors of tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient which are the driven forces of SGD. A tidal-influenced mixing zone in the near-shore aquifer shows the importance of tidal mechanism to flow and salt transport in the process of submarine pore water exchange. Freshwater ratio in SGD is also analyzed through the comparison of Submarine Groundwater Recharge and freshwater inflow. The joint calibration with other methods (natural tracer model and seepage meter) is also discussed.

  8. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  9. Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers - The radially symmetric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Traditionally, pumping-test-analysis methodology has been limited to applications involving aquifers whose properties are assumed uniform in space. This work attempts to assess the applicability of analytical methodology to a broader class of units with spatially varying properties. An examination of flow behavior in a simple configuration consisting of pumping from the center of a circular disk embedded in a matrix of differing properties is the basis for this investigation. A solution describing flow in this configuration is obtained through Laplace-transform techniques using analytical and numerical inversion schemes. Approaches for the calculation of flow properties in conditions that can be roughly represented by this simple configuration are proposed. Possible applications include a wide variety of geologic structures, as well as the case of a well skin resulting from drilling or development. Of more importance than the specifics of these techniques for analysis of water-level responses is the insight into flow behavior during a pumping test that is provided by the large-time form of the derived solution. The solution reveals that drawdown during a pumping test can be considered to consist of two components that are dependent and independent of near-well properties, respectively. Such an interpretation of pumping-test drawdown allows some general conclusions to be drawn concerning the relationship between parameters calculated using analytical approaches based on curve-matching and those calculated using approaches based on the slope of a semilog straight line plot. The infinite-series truncation that underlies the semilog analytical approaches is shown to remove further contributions of near-well material to total drawdown. In addition, the semilog distance-drawdown approach is shown to yield an expression that is equivalent to the Thiem equation. These results allow some general recommendations to be made concerning observation-well placement for pumping

  10. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  11. Shallow, non-pumped wells: a low-energy alternative for cleaning polluted groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2013-07-01

    This modeling study evaluated the capability of non-pumped wells with filter media for preventing contaminant plumes from migrating offsite. Linear configurations of non-pumped wells were compared to permeable reactive barriers in simulated shallow homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers. While permeable reactive barriers enabled faster contaminant removal and shorter distances of contaminant travel, non-pumped wells also prevented offsite contaminant migration. Overall, results of this study suggest that discontinuous, linear configurations of non-pumped wells may be a viable alternative to much more costly permeable reactive barriers for preventing offsite contaminant travel in some shallow aquifers.

  12. California’s Groundwater Regime: The Cadiz Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sizek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent California legislation has promised solutions to longstanding problems in groundwater management through an emphasis on management of groundwater itself, rather than on the rights of overlying property owners. In this short communication, I argue that the promises of scientific management relies on property law and jurisdiction and therefore that scientific claims about the water itself are less important than private property claims in the case of a Cadiz Inc.’s proposed groundwater extraction project in Southeastern California. While private property in land insulates Cadiz Inc. (Los Angeles, CA, USA from political contestation, opposition to the project has increasingly focused on the right to transport and transfer water through lands not held by Cadiz Inc. This legal strategy points to how California groundwater law is still fundamentally ruled by private property in land, which shifts the grounds of environmental politics from extraction itself to the transport of extracted materials. This case serves as a good example of the intersection of political ecology and legal geography.

  13. Numerical Simulation on the Performance of a Mixed-Flow Pump under Various Casing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dazhuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the reactor coolant pump and high flow-rate circulating pump, the requirements on the compactness of the structure, safety, and hydraulic performance are particularly important. Thus, the mixed-flow pump with cylindrical casing is adopted in some occasions. Due to the different characteristics between the special cylindrical casing and the common pump casing, the influence of the special casing on a mixed-flow pump characteristics was numerically investigated to obtain better performance and flow structure in the casing. The results show that the models with cylindrical casing have much worse head and efficiency characteristics than the experimental model, and this is caused by the flow in the pump casing. By moving the guide vanes half inside the pump casing, the efficiency gets improved while the low pressure zone at the corner of outlet pipe and pump casing disappeared. When the length of pump casing increases from the size equal to the diameter of outlet pipe to that larger than it, the efficiency drops obviously and the flow field in the outlet pipe improved without curved flow. In addition, the length of the pump casing has greater impacts on the pump performance than the radius of it.

  14. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  15. Optimization of a Centrifugal Boiler Circulating Pump's Casing Based on CFD and FEM Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Zuo; Shuhong Liu; Yizhang Fan; Yulin Wu

    2014-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the economic efficiency of boiler circulating pumps in manufacturing process from the manufacturers' point of view. The possibility of optimizing the pump casing with respect to structural pressure integrity and hydraulic performance was discussed. CFD analyses of pump models with different pump casing sizes were firstly carried out for the hydraulic performance evaluation. The effects of the working temperature and the sealing ring on the hydraulic efficiency were...

  16. Development of suitability maps for ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hikari; Itoi, Ryuichi [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Inatomi, Tadasuke [YBM Co. Ltd., Kishiyama 589-10 Kitahata, Karatsu 847-1211 (Japan); Uchida, Youhei [Geological Survey of Japan, AIST Tsukuba Central 7, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The thermophysical properties of subsurface materials (soils, sediments and rocks) and groundwater flow strongly affect the heat exchange rates of ground heat exchangers (GHEs). These rates can be maximized and the installation costs of the ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems reduced by developing suitability maps based on local geological and hydrological information. Such maps were generated for the Chikushi Plain (western Japan) using field-survey data and a numerical modeling study. First, a field-wide groundwater model was developed for the area and the results matched against measured groundwater levels and vertical temperature profiles. Single GHE models were then constructed to simulate the heat exchange performance at different locations in the plain. Finally, suitability maps for GCHP systems were prepared using the results from the single GHE models. Variations in the heat exchange rates of over 40% revealed by the map were ascribed to differences in the GHE locations, confirming how important it is to use appropriate thermophysical data when designing GCHP systems. (author)

  17. Application of Flow and Transport Optimization Codes to Groundwater Pump and Treat Systems- VOLUME 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minsker, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent studies completed by the EPA and the Navy indicate that the majority of pump and treat systems are not operating as designed, have unachievable or undefined goals, and have not been optimized since installation...

  18. Groundwater heat pumps with turbines for the return water; Grundwasser-Waermepumpe mit Rueckgabe-Turbinierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, M.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on improvements in the efficiency of a ground water heat pump installation in an office building. The water return well was equipped with a turbine. In this installation, the ground water is pumped up from a depth of 45 meters which means that a lot of electricity is needed for the pumping of the water. Coefficients of performance of the system are quoted for the situation with and without the turbine. The conversion of a pump for use as a turbine is commented on. The construction of a specially developed turbine with reduced electricity consumption is suggested. Seasonal performance data of the system is provided in tabular form.

  19. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  20. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  1. Modeling the effects of the variability of temperature-related dynamic viscosity on the thermal-affected zone of groundwater heat-pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Thermal perturbation in the subsurface produced in an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant is a complex transport phenomenon affected by several factors, including the exploited aquifer's hydrogeological and thermal characteristics, well construction features, and the temporal dynamics of the plant's groundwater abstraction and reinjection system. Hydraulic conductivity has a major influence on heat transport because plume propagation, which occurs primarily through advection, tends to degrade following conductive heat transport and convection within moving water. Hydraulic conductivity is, in turn, influenced by water reinjection because the dynamic viscosity of groundwater varies with temperature. This paper reports on a computational analysis conducted using FEFLOW software to quantify how the thermal-affected zone (TAZ) is influenced by the variation in dynamic viscosity due to reinjected groundwater in a well-doublet scheme. The modeling results demonstrate non-negligible groundwater dynamic-viscosity variation that affects thermal plume propagation in the aquifer. This influence on TAZ calculation was enhanced for aquifers with high intrinsic permeability and/or substantial temperature differences between abstracted and post-heat-pump-reinjected groundwater.

  2. Ground-water temperature of the Wyoming quadrangle in central Delaware : with application to ground-water-source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Arthur L.

    1982-01-01

    Ground-water temperature was measured during a one-year period (1980-81) in 20 wells in the Wyoming Quadrangle in central Delaware. Data from thermistors set at fixed depths in two wells were collected twice each week, and vertical temperature profiles of the remaining 18 wells were made monthly. Ground-water temperature at 8 feet below land surface in well Jc55-1 ranged from 45.0 degrees F in February to 70.1 degrees F in September. Temperature at 35 feet below land surface in the same well reached a minimum of 56.0 degrees F in August, and a maximum of 57.8 degrees F in February. Average annual temperature of ground water at 25 feet below land surface in all wells ranged from 54.6 degrees F to 57.8 degrees F. Variations of average temperature probably reflect the presence or absence of forestation in the recharge areas of the wells. Ground-water-source heat pumps supplied with water from wells 30 or more feet below land surface will operate more efficiently in both heating and cooling modes than those supplied with water from shallower depths. (USGS)

  3. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  4. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) {sup 99}Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  5. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail: macwbs@cau.edu.cn

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  6. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  7. Hydrodynamic and hydrochemicalcharacterization of groundwater in agricultural area (case of Agafay farm-Western Haouz) Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiani, Salma; El mandour, Abdennabi; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Khalil, Nourdine; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Khabba, Said; Hamaoui, Addi; Kamal, Safia

    2016-04-01

    Water resources play an important role in the socio-economic development of the Haouz plain. The agriculture and tourism are two essential components of this development. They represent more than 85% of the water consumption of the Tensift catchment. Under a semi-arid climate, according to hydric stress water used for irrigation essential for most crops, comes from pumping in groundwater from the unconfined aquifer of the Haouz. The use of groundwater for irrigation causes problems of soil degradation by the intensification of salinization processes, sodisation or alkalizing at several degrees. These situations are closely related to the natural characteristics of the environment (soil and climate) and the modalities of water management dedicated for irrigation highly affected by water quality. It is in this sense that the study was conducted in an irrigated citrus orchard drip, located in the western part of Haouz at 35 km of Marrakesh. The aim of this study is to characterize the area on hydrogeological and hydrochemical point of view, on the basis of a measurement and sampling campaign of thirty wells corresponding to June 2014. The piezometric map shows parallel flow lines oriented northwest. The aquifer recharge is ensured by lateral flow from the High Atlas and by the infiltration from surface water from Chichaoua, Assif El Mal and N'fis rivers. The low amount of flow rate recorded and measured in the vicinity of the study area at the sensing points are relative to the rise of Paleozoic substratum which reduces the recharge of the aquifer. On the hydrochemical level, groundwater quality is generally good (86% of cases). The strong mineralization is concentrated mainly in irrigated areas downstream along the flow direction of the aquifer and at the Guemassa substratum.

  8. Study on the distribution of streaming potential while groundwater pumping up; Chikasui no kumiage ni tomonau ryudo den`i hassei ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H; Shima, H; Sakurai, K [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes effectiveness of water channel prospecting by means of streaming potential method. To investigate the distribution of streaming potential on the ground surface while groundwater pumping up, some laboratory experiments were performed. A system was constructed, in which fluid is flowed in an experimental cistern from its both ends and self-flowed through a strainer pipe fixed for flowing out the fluid at the center of the cistern. Streaming potential with the flowing of the fluid was observed. Positive streaming potential waveform was generated with the flowing of the fluid, and the potential increased with approaching the strainer pipe. A groundwater pumping test facility was used as a field test site. There was a positive maximal point of potential distribution at about 30 m far from the pumping well in the southeast direction. The potential gradually decreased in the eastern part from the maximal point. The potential steeply decreased in the northwest direction from the pumping well. From these experiments, it was found that the groundwater flow and underground structures can be reflected by the distribution of streaming potential, and that the present method is effective for water channel prospecting. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS): a synthetic case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, E.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) can provide valuable data to constrain and calibrate groundwater flow and transport models. With this non-invasive geophysical technique, measurements of water content and hydraulic conductivity can be obtained. We developed a hydrogeophyiscal forward method, which...... calculates the MRS-signal generated by an aquifer pump test. A synthetic MRS-dataset was subsequently used to determine the hydrogeological parameters in an inverse parameter estimation approach. This was done for a virtual pump test with a partially and a fully penetrating well. With the MRS data we were...

  10. Numerical modelling of groundwater flow to understand the impacts of pumping on arsenic migration in the aquifer of North Bengal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of regional-scale groundwater flow of North Bengal Plain have been carried out with special emphasis on the arsenic (As)-rich alluvium filled gap between the Rajmahal hills on the west and the Garo hills on the east. The proposed concern of this modelling arose from development that has led to large water table declines in the urban area of English Bazar block, Malda district, West Bengal and possible transport of As in the near future from the adjacent As-polluted aquifer. Groundwater occurs under unconfined condition in a thick zone of saturation within the Quaternary alluvial sediments. Modelling indicates that current pumping has significantly changed the groundwater flowpaths from pre-development condition. At the present pumping rate, the pumping wells of the urban area may remain uncontaminated till the next 25 yrs, considering only pure advection of water but some water from the As-polluted zone may enter wells by 50 yrs. But geochemical and other processes such as adsorption, precipitation, redox reaction and microbial activity may significantly retard the predicted rate by advective transport. In the rural areas, majority of the water pumped from the aquifer is for irrigation, which is continuously re-applied on the surface. The near-vertical nature of the flowpaths indicates that, where As is present or released at shallow depths, it will continue to occur in pumping wells. Modelling also indicates that placing all the pumping wells at depths below 100 m may not provide As-free water permanently.

  11. Advanced heat pumps and their economic aspects. The case for super heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Akira; Akiya, Takaji

    1996-01-01

    The results of the economic evaluation of the Super Heat Pump Energy Accumulation System project in Japan are reviewed. It is reported that although the initial costs of super heat pumps are higher than those of conventional systems, the calculated operating costs of a unit thermal energy produced by a super heat pump is reduced considerably. All the various system concepts with thermal/chemical storage were evaluated economically with the exception of the high temperature thermal storage systems using salt ammonia complexes and solvation. These latter systems were not further developed as pilot plants. It is advocated to accelerate the introduction of super heat pumps by facilitating their market introduction. Actual clathrate chemical storage systems have shown that the annual costs are comparable to those of an ice storage system. Clathrate systems will find their way in the market. It is concluded that most of the super heat pump systems and clathrate storage systems will be economic in the future. A big challenge however still exists in further improving the cost effectiveness of heat storage in tanks by reducing their size dramatically (to 1/10th)

  12. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  13. Why is the Groundwater Level Rising? A Case Study Using HARTT to Simulate Groundwater Level Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Danis, Cara; Paffard, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater from a shallow unconfined aquifer at a site in coastal New South Wales has been causing recent water logging issues. A trend of rising groundwater level has been anecdotally observed over the last 10 years. It was not clear whether the changes in groundwater levels were solely natural variations within the groundwater system or whether human interference was driving the level up. Time series topographic images revealed significant surrounding land use changes and human modification to the environment of the groundwater catchment. A statistical model utilising HARTT (multiple linear regression hydrograph analysis method) simulated the groundwater level dynamics at five key monitoring locations and successfully showed a trend of rising groundwater level. Utilising hydrogeological input from field investigations, the model successfully simulated the rise in the water table over time to the present day levels, whilst taking into consideration rainfall and land changes. The underlying geological/land conditions were found to be just as significant as the impact of climate variation. The correlation coefficient for the monitoring bores (MB), excluding MB4, show that the groundwater level fluctuation can be explained by the climate variable (rainfall) with the lag time between the atypical rainfall and groundwater level ranging from 4 to 7 months. The low R2 value for MB4 indicates that there are factors missing in the model which are primarily related to human interference. The elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are the result of long term cumulative land use changes, instigated by humans, which have directly resulted in detrimental changes to the groundwater aquifer properties.

  14. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, phase 2, east-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Carlson, Carl S.

    2015-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Framingham, Massachusetts, has investigated the potential of proposed groundwater withdrawals at the Birch Road well site to affect nearby surface water bodies and wetlands, including Lake Cochituate, the Sudbury River, and the Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in east-central Massachusetts. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a Phase 1 numerical groundwater model of a complex glacial-sediment aquifer to synthesize hydrogeologic information and simulate potential future pumping scenarios. The model was developed with MODFLOW-NWT, an updated version of a standard USGS numerical groundwater flow modeling program that improves solution of unconfined groundwater flow problems. The groundwater model and investigations of the aquifer improved understanding of groundwater–surface-water interaction and the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface-water bodies and wetlands in the study area. The initial work also revealed a need for additional information and model refinements to better understand this complex aquifer system.

  15. The environmental impact of groundwater heat pump used for air conditioning. Feedback from the ImPAC Lyon study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezelgues-Courtade, S.; Durst, P.; Garnier, F.; Ignatiadis, I.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project ImPAC Lyon was to evaluate the thermal, physico-chemical and microbiological impacts potentially associated to a groundwater heat pump (GSHP). It is based on two experimental parts: one in laboratory and the other on land (8. district of Lyon). The main results indicate that: - on land, no physical and microbiological disturbances were revealed in the conditions of the study (range of temperature; 16-24 deg. C). Only thermal disturbances were observed; - the experimental approach of laboratory displayed in this study (range of temperature: 15-25 deg. C) indicates a certain influence of the temperature on the native bacterial microflora, but not enough to compromise the ecosystem balance, However, other environmental conditions have to be studied (T >25 deg. C and T< 15 deg. C, different redox conditions); - behaviour of pathogenic bacteria and organic pollutants in the presence of thermal modifications could not be observed in Lyon (no pollutions observed). It will also have to be studied in new projects; - the bad sizing of ta plant (which seems to be a significant practice in urban areas with little space) could lead to thermal disturbances and a progressive heating of the aquifer at an inter-annual scale. In these conditions, it seems necessary to pursue the works begun in Lyon by treating the other ranges of temperatures. (authors)

  16. Characteristic groundwater level regimes in the capture zones of radial collector wells and importance of identification (Case study of Belgrade Groundwater Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Đorđije

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the operating modes of radial collector wells reveals that the pumping levels in the well caissons are very low relative to the depth/elevation of the laterals, which is a common occurrence at Belgrade Groundwater Source. As a result, well discharge capacities vary over a broad range and groundwater levels in the capture zones differ even when the rate of discharge is the same. Five characteristic groundwater level regimes are identified and their origin is analyzed using representative wells as examples. The scope and type of background information needed to identify the groundwater level regime are presented and an interpretation approach is proposed for preliminary assessment of the aquifer potential at the well site for providing the needed amount of groundwater. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI176022, br. TR33039 i br. III43004

  17. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  18. Groundwater sampling at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from the borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, H.; Hatanpaeae, E.; Ahokas, H.

    2007-05-01

    A long-term pumping test at borehole OL-KR6 at Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2006, four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 125-130 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The groundwater samples were taken in stages using PAVE equipment. The water types found in the groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from depths of 98.5-100.5 m and 125-130 m) and Na-Cl (for samples from depths of 135-137 m and 422-425 m). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000 mg/l), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/l). This study presents the sampling methods and analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6, and draws a comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained from the long-term pumping test conducted between 2001-2006. In situ EC results and EC results measured in laboratory are in quite good agreement. At sampling depth, 422-425 m, EC increased between 2004-2006. At a depth of 423 m, much variation in situ EC-values indicates that routes of groundwater may change during long-term pumping due to the limited storages of different aquifers or the heterogeneity of the content of groundwater in different locations in the bedrock. The minor systematic difference between in situ and sampling EC at a depth of 136 m was probably due to the different flow fields during flow logging and water sampling. The dominant gas in the groundwater samples was nitrogen. Carbon dioxide was the second dominant gas, except for the

  19. Optimization of a Centrifugal Boiler Circulating Pump's Casing Based on CFD and FEM Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the economic efficiency of boiler circulating pumps in manufacturing process from the manufacturers' point of view. The possibility of optimizing the pump casing with respect to structural pressure integrity and hydraulic performance was discussed. CFD analyses of pump models with different pump casing sizes were firstly carried out for the hydraulic performance evaluation. The effects of the working temperature and the sealing ring on the hydraulic efficiency were discussed. A model with casing diameter of 0.875D40 was selected for further analyses. FEM analyses were then carried out on different combinations of casing sizes, casing wall thickness, and materials, to evaluate its safety related to pressure integrity, with respect to both static and fatigue strength analyses. Two models with forging and cast materials were selected as final results.

  20. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  1. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  2. Impacts of heavy groundwater pumping on hydrogeological conditions in Libya: Past and present development and future prognosis on a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgzeli, Yousef M.; Ondovčin, Tomáš; Hrkal, Zbyněk; Krásný, Jiří; Mls, Jiří

    2013-06-01

    Elgzeli, Y.M., Ondovčin, T., Hrkal, Z., Krasny, J. and Mls, J. 2011. Impacts of heavy groundwater pumping on hydrogeological conditions in Libya: Past and present development and future prognosis on a regional scale. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 283-296. Warszawa. Libya, like many other regions with arid climates, suffers from inadequate water resources to cover all the needs of this rapidly developing country. Increasing amounts of water are needed to supply the population, as well as for agricultural irrigation and industrial use. As groundwater is the main water source in the country, it represents a natural resource of the highest economic and social importance. Conceptual and numerical models were implemented on a regional scale to show how the natural situation has changed following heavy groundwater abstraction during the last decades in the northwestern part of the country. The results of the numerical model indicated that the current zones of depression of the piezometric surface could have been caused by smaller withdrawn amounts than previously estimated. The differences in the assessed withdrawn groundwater volumes seem to be quite high and might have a considerable influence on the future possibilities of groundwater use in the study region.

  3. Fully integrated physically-based numerical modelling of impacts of groundwater extraction on surface and irrigation-induced groundwater interactions: case study Lower River Murray, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghmand, S.; Beecham, S.; Hassanli, A.

    2013-07-01

    Combination of reduction in the frequency, duration and magnitude of natural floods, rising saline water-table in floodplains and excessive evapotranspiration have led to an irrigation-induced groundwater mound forced the naturally saline groundwater onto the floodplain in the Lower River Murray. It is during the attenuation phase of floods that these large salt accumulations are likely to be mobilised and will discharge into the river. The Independent Audit Group for Salinity highlighted this as the most significant risk in the Murray-Darling Basin. South Australian government and catchment management authorities have developed salt interception schemes (SIS). This is to pump the highly saline groundwater from the floodplain aquifer to evaporation basins in order to reduce the hydraulic gradient that drives the regional saline groundwater towards the River Murray. This paper investigates the interactions between a river (River Murray in South Australia) and a saline semi-arid floodplain (Clarks Floodplain) significantly influenced by groundwater lowering (Bookpurnong SIS). Results confirm that groundwater extraction maintain a lower water-table and more fresh river water flux to the saline floodplain aquifer. In term of salinity, this may lead to less amount of solute stored in the floodplain aquifer. This occurs through two mechanisms; extracting some of the solute mass from the system and changing the floodplain groundwater regime from a losing to gaining one. Finally, it is shown that groundwater extraction is able to remove some amount of solute stored in the unsaturated zone and mitigate the floodplain salinity risk.

  4. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater chemistry in Japan. Evaluation of the base case groundwater data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, P.F.; Apted, M.J. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-05-01

    The groundwater chemistry is one of important geological environment for performance assessment of high level radioactive disposal system. This report describes the results of geostatistical analysis of groundwater chemistry in Japan. Over 15,000 separate groundwater analyses have been collected of deep Japanese groundwaters for the purpose of evaluating the range of geochemical conditions for geological radioactive waste repositories in Japan. The significance to issues such as radioelement solubility limits, sorption, corrosion of overpack, behavior of compacted clay buffers, and many other factors involved in safety assessment. It is important therefore, that a small, but representative set of groundwater types be identified so that defensible models and data for generic repository performance assessment can be established. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to categorize representative deep groundwater types from this extensive data set. PCA is a multi-variate statistical analysis technique, similar to factor analysis or eigenvector analysis, designed to provide the best possible resolution of the variability within multi-variate data sets. PCA allows the graphical inspection of the most important similarities (clustering) and differences among samples, based on simultaneous consideration of all variables in the dataset, in a low dimensionality plot. It also allows the analyst to determine the reasons behind any pattern that is observed. In this study, PCA has been aided by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), in which statistical indices of similarity among multiple samples are used to distinguish distinct clusters of samples. HCA allows the natural, a priori, grouping of data into clusters showing similar attributes and is graphically represented in a dendrogram Pirouette is the multivariate statistical software package used to conduct the PCA and HCA for the Japanese groundwater dataset. An audit of the initial 15,000 sample dataset on the basis of

  5. Managing Groundwater Recharge and Pumping for Late Summer Streamflow Increases: Quantifying Uncertainty Using Null Space Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, D. G., III; Foglia, L.; Harter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Late summer and early fall streamflow decreases caused by climate change and agricultural pumping contribute to increased water temperatures and result in large disconnected sections during dry years in many semi-arid regions with Mediterranean climate. This negatively impacts aquatic habitat of fish species such as coho and fall-run Chinook salmon. In collaboration with local stakeholders, the Scott Valley Integrated Hydrologic Model (SVIHMv3) was developed to assess future water management scenarios with the goal of improving aquatic species habitat while maintaining agricultural production in the valley. The Null Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) method available in PEST was used to quantify the range of predicted streamflow changes for three conjunctive use scenarios: 1) managed aquifer recharge (MAR), 2) in lieu recharge (ILR, substituting surface-water irrigation for irrigation with groundwater while flows are available), and 3) MAR + ILR. Random parameter sets were generated using the calibrated covariance matrix of the model, which were then recalibrated if the sum of squared residuals was greater than 10% of the original sum of squared weighted residuals. These calibration-constrained stochastic parameter sets were then used to obtain a distribution of streamflow changes resulting from implementing the conjunctive use scenarios. Preliminary results show that while the range of streamflow increases using managed aquifer recharge is much narrower (i.e., greater degree of certainty) than in lieu recharge, there are potentially much greater benefits to streamflow by implementing in lieu recharge (although also greater costs). Combining the two scenarios provides the greatest benefit for increasing late summer and early fall streamflow, as most of the MAR streamflow increases are during the spring and early summer which ILR is able to take advantage of. Incorporation of uncertainty into model predictions is critical for establishing and maintaining stakeholder trust

  6. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  7. Numerical simulation on dimension decrease for annular casing of one centrifugal boiler circulation pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y Z; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Wu, Y L; Sha, Y J

    2012-01-01

    Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as R i0 ) while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 R i0 . CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 R i0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 R i0 . FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.

  8. Numerical simulation on dimension decrease for annular casing of one centrifugal boiler circulation pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. Z.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Sha, Y. J.

    2012-11-01

    Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as "Ri0") while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 Ri0. CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 Ri0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 Ri0. FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.

  9. Sulfur isotopic study of sulfate in the aquifer of Costa de Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico) in relation to upward intrusion of saline groundwater, irrigation pumping and land cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szynkiewicz, Anna; Medina, Miguel Rangel; Modelska, Magdalena; Monreal, Rogelio; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater from the Costa de Hermosillo aquifer has been used extensively for irrigation over the past 60 a in the Sonora region of northwestern Mexico resulting in salinization of fresh groundwater resources. Salinization of groundwater is most pronounced on the western/coastal side of the aquifer, with an aerial extent of 26.7 km 2 , where maximum values are reported for conductivity (31 mS/cm) and Cl - concentrations (16,271 mg/L). Salinization is likely to increase if groundwater pumping continues at levels comparable to the present time. Upward incursion of marine water into the aquifer is inferred from δ 2 H (-7.2 per mille ) and δ 18 O (+1.6 per mille ) compositions of groundwater samples with the highest conductivity. Compared to modern seawater in the Gulf of California, ratios of SO 4 /Cl and Cl/Br are small (0.01 and 33, respectively) and the S isotopic composition of SO 4 2- is high (+32.7%) in the most saline portions of the Costa de Hermosillo. This saline groundwater is inferred to result from an earlier phase of dissimilatory bacterial SO 4 2- reduction coupled to decomposition of organic matter in marine blue clays deposited during the Miocene/Pliocene transgression. The isotopic composition of present-day surface discharge from agricultural fields is substantially enriched in 32 S due to widespread application of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fertilizers and potential mobilization of S from mineral resources. Surface water discharging from irrigated fields has δ 34 S values ranging from -2.1 to 3.3 per mille which are distinctly different from groundwater and surface water in adjacent non-agricultural areas with δ 34 S values ranging from 5.2 to 13.5 per mille . Prolonged irrigation pumping that promotes the incursion of air to the subsurface could enhance the weathering of S-bearing minerals such as magmatic sulfides, producing 32 S-enriched SO 4 2-

  10. Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Recharge (Case Study: Sefid Dasht Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samin ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the issue of climate change and its related problems are fundamental crisis in water resource management. On the other hand, considering that groundwater is the most important water resources, determination of the effects of climate change on groundwater and estimation the amount of their recharge will be necessary in the future. Materials and Methods: In this research, to analyze the effects of climate change scenarios on groundwater resources, a case study has been applied to the Sefid Dasht Plain located in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province in Iran. One of the three Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM which is called HadCM3, under the emission scenarios A2 and B1 is used to predict time series of climate variables of temperature and precipitation in the future. In order to downscale the data for producing the regional climate scenarios, LARS-WG model has been applied. Also, IHACRES model is calibrated and used for simulation of rainfall - runoff with monthly temperature, precipitation and runoff data. The predicted runoff and precipitation production in future have been considered as recharge parameters in the ground water model and the effects of climate change scenarios on the ground water table has been studied. To simulate the aquifer, GMS software has been used. GMS model is calibrated in both steady and unsteady state for one year available data and verification model has been performed by using the calibration parameters for four years. Results and Discussion: Results of T- test shows that LARS-WG model was able to simulate precipitation and temperature selected station appropriately. Calibration of IHACRES model indicated the best performance with τw=6 و f=7.7 and the results shows that IHACRES model simulated minimum amount of runoff appropriately. Although it didn’t simulate the maximum amount of runoff accurately, but its performance and Nash coefficient is acceptable. Results indicate

  11. Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.

  12. Innovative reactive barrier technologies for regional contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkel, P.; Weiβ, H.; Teutsch, G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    At many industrial sites inadequate waste disposal, leakages and war damages have led to severe groundwater contamination on a regional scale. Standard hydraulic groundwater remediation methods, such as pump-and-treat, in most cases do not lead to satisfactory results, due to the persistence of

  13. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  14. Controlling groundwater through smart card machines : The case of water quotas and pricing mechanisms in Gansu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse, Eefje; Bluemling, B.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1970s, intensive groundwater abstraction by smallholder farmers has led to falling groundwater levels and related problems in many parts of North China. The 2002 revised Water Law urges local authorities to regulate groundwater use in regions of overdraft. This GRIPP Case Profile documents

  15. Groundwater quality in arid regions: The case of Hassi Messaoud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After chemical quality study, it has been realized that the groundwater of Hassi Messaoud region isn't drinking one according to WHO and Algerian standards for drinking water. This water is highly mineralized and very hard and its major concentrations are often higher than recommended standards, so it requires treatment ...

  16. Pump and treat may be the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A. H.; Truax, S. K.; Conrad, D.

    1997-01-01

    A case history of a 'pump and treat' system, designed to remediate chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater resulting from historic leaking of six underground storage tanks, was described. The objective of this paper was two-fold: (1) to call into question the findings of some earlier studies which claimed that 'pump and treat' will not work to remediate impacted groundwater in a timely or cost-effective manner, and (2) to demonstrate that under certain circumstances, at some sites, groundwater 'pump and treat' may be the most appropriate, lowest cost remediation alternative. The paper also demonstrates the applicability of horizontal wells and methods to use soil venting in the saturated zone as opposed to its traditional use in the vadose zone. Details of the design parameters, system characteristics and operation are provided. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Analysis on the Change in Shallow Groundwater Level based on Monitoring Electric Energy Consumption - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wolfgang, K.; Steiner, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater has been over-pumped for irrigation in the North China Plain in the past decades causing a drastic decrease in the groundwater level. Shallow groundwater can be recharged by rainfall, and the aquifer could be rehabilitated for sustainable use. However, understanding and maintaining the balance of the aquifer - including climatic as well as anthropogenic influences - are fundamental to enable such a sustainable groundwater management. This is still severely obstructed by a lack of measurements of recharge and exploitation. A project to measure groundwater pumping rate at the distributed scale based on monitoring electric energy consumption is going on in Guantao County (456 km2) located in the southern part of the North China Plain. Considerably less costly than direct measurements of the pumping rate, this approach enables us to (a) cover a larger area and (b) use historic electricity data to reconstruct water use in the past. Pumping tests have been carried out to establish a relation between energy consumption and groundwater exploitation. Based on the results of the pumping tests, the time series of the pumping rate can be estimated from the historical energy consumption and serves as the input for a box model to reconstruct the water balance of the shallow aquifer for recent years. This helps us to determine the relative contribution of recharge due to rainfall as well as drawdown due to groundwater pumping for irrigation. Additionally, 100 electric meters have been installed at the electric transformers supplying power for irrigation. With insights gained from the pumping tests, real-time monitoring of the groundwater exploitation is achieved by converting the measured energy consumption to the water use, and pumping control can also be achieved by limiting the energy use. A monitoring and controlling system can then be set up to implement the strategy of sustainable groundwater use.

  18. Characterization of microbial communities distributed in the groundwater pumped from deep tube wells in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi; Chapagain, Saroj Kumar; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Mori, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Kazama, Futaba

    2012-03-01

    Although groundwater is a major water supply source in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, it is known that the groundwater has significant microbial contamination exceeding the drinking water quality standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and that this has been implicated in causing a variety of diseases among people living in the valley. However, little is known about the distribution of pathogenic microbes in the groundwater. Here, we analysed the microbial communities of the six water samples from deep tube wells by using the 16S rRNA gene sequences based culture-independent method. The analysis showed that the groundwater has been contaminated with various types of opportunistic microbes in addition to fecal microbes. Particularly, the clonal sequences related to the opportunistic microbes within the genus Acinetobacter were detected in all samples. As many strains of Acinetobacter are known as multi-drug resistant microbes that are currently spreading in the world, we conducted a molecular-based survey for detection of the gene encoding carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamase (bla(oxa-23-like) gene), which is a key enzyme responsible for multi-drug resistance, in the groundwater samples. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two specific primer sets for amplifying bla(oxa-23-like) gene indicated that two of six groundwater samples contain multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter.

  19. Optimized remedial groundwater extraction using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater extraction systems are typically installed to remediate contaminant plumes or prevent further spread of contamination. These systems are expensive to install and maintain. A traditional approach to designing such a wellfield uses a series of trial-and-error simulations to test the effects of various well locations and pump rates. However, the optimal locations and pump rates of extraction wells are difficult to determine when objectives related to the site hydrogeology and potential pumping scheme are considered. This paper describes a case study of an application of linear programming theory to determine optimal well placement and pump rates. The objectives of the pumping scheme were to contain contaminant migration and reduce contaminant concentrations while minimizing the total amount of water pumped and treated. Past site activities at the area under study included disposal of contaminants in pits. Several groundwater plumes have been identified, and others may be present. The area of concern is bordered on three sides by a wetland, which receives a portion of its input budget as groundwater discharge from the pits. Optimization of the containment pumping scheme was intended to meet three goals: (1) prevent discharge of contaminated groundwater to the wetland, (2) minimize the total water pumped and treated (cost benefit), and (3) avoid dewatering of the wetland (cost and ecological benefits). Possible well locations were placed at known source areas. To constrain the problem, the optimization program was instructed to prevent any flow toward the wetland along a user-specified border. In this manner, the optimization routine selects well locations and pump rates so that a groundwater divide is produced along this boundary

  20. A case of groundwater depletion in Balochistan, Pakistan: Enter into the void

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: In Kuchlagh the loss of opportunities in high value horticulture were cushioned by emerging urban employment, by developing agriculture in other parts of the Province or by simply ‘chasing the water table deeper’, i.e. investment in pumping from the hard rock layers underneath the alluvial aquifer. This suggests that if groundwater depletion occurs in a single isolated place it may not necessarily lead to human disaster or trigger a turn-around as the loss of resources may be compensated by other intervening opportunities.

  1. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  2. First step to understand the importance of new deep aquifer pumping regime in groundwater system in a developing country, Kwale, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Nuria; Folch, Albert; Lane, Mike; Thomas, Mike; Sasaka, Willie; Wara, Calvince; Banje, Said; Olago, Dan; Katuva, Jacob; Thomson, Patrick; Hope, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The population growth in the world carries on the one hand, an increased demand of fresh water and on the other hand, a decrease of quality and quantity of this resource. To avoid this deterioration it is essential doing a good management of surface water and groundwater, specially the second one, which has become the major source of water supply for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries (UNEP 1999). This groundwater management starts with an accurate hydrogeological characterization of aquifer systems, mainly in that aquifer systems in which is changing the abstraction regime. In this context of population growth and new abstraction regimes on aquifer system is where the project "Gro for Good: Groundwater Risk for Growth and Development" is founded by UPGro. This interdisciplinary project has the main goal to design, test and transfer to the society an innovative Groundwater Risk Management Tool to improve and get by new governance transformations the balance between economic growth, groundwater sustainability (in terms of quality and quantity) and human development (http://upgro.org/consortium/gro-for-good/). The study area is located on the south eastern coast of Kenya, in Kwale County. The Kwale coastal groundwater system formed by a shallow and deep aquifer systems has long served urban water demands and an established tourism industry but now faces unprecedented ground and surface water resource demands especially from KISCOL's (5,500 hectares of irrigated sugarcane) and the country's largest mining operation (Base Titanium Ltd.). Despite both companies have drilled deep boreholes around the study area (416 km2) to extract groundwater from deep aquifer; no major pumping activity has started yet, allowing baseline evaluation. Scattered around the study are 440 handpumps providing drinking water to over 90,000 people. The relationship between the shallow and deep aquifers remains uncertain and so, the future influence on groundwater

  3. Groundwater simulation and management models for the upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Wagner, Brian J.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    the pumped water comes from groundwater storage over a broad geographic area even after two decades. Moreover, because the effects are spread out over a broad area, the impacts to individual features are much smaller than in the case of nearby pumping. Simulations show that the discharge features most affected by pumping in the area of the Bureau of Reclamation's Klamath Irrigation Project are agricultural drains, and impacts to other surface-water features are small in comparison. A groundwater management model was developed that uses techniques of constrained optimization along with the groundwater flow model to identify the optimal strategy to meet water user needs while not violating defined constraints on impacts to groundwater levels and streamflows. The coupled groundwater simulation-optimization models were formulated to help identify strategies to meet water demand in the upper Klamath Basin. The models maximize groundwater pumping while simultaneously keeping the detrimental impacts of pumping on groundwater levels and groundwater discharge within prescribed limits. Total groundwater withdrawals were calculated under alternative constraints for drawdown, reductions in groundwater discharge to surface water, and water demand to understand the potential benefits and limitations for groundwater development in the upper Klamath Basin. The simulation-optimization model for the upper Klamath Basin provides an improved understanding of how the groundwater and surface-water system responds to sustained groundwater pumping within the Bureau of Reclamation's Klamath Project. Optimization model results demonstrate that a certain amount of supplemental groundwater pumping can occur without exceeding defined limits on drawdown and stream capture. The results of the different applications of the model demonstrate the importance of identifying constraint limits in order to better define the amount and distribution of groundwater withdrawal that is sustainable.

  4. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  5. Rare case-series of electrocautery burn following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Niazi, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: With an increasing number of off-pump coronary artery surgery procedures in high-risk patients with coagulopathy, including renal failure, hepatic failure and anticoagulant drug-using patients, the frequency of related complications such as repeated exploration for bleeding is also increasing. The associated co-morbidity and repeated use of electrocautery in postoperative bleeding leaves patients susceptible to electrocautery ulcers. In this case series, rare cases of cautery burn with unique causative mechanisms are described. PMID:23669602

  6. [Incorrect programming of a target controlled infusion pump. Case SENSAR of the trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a patient who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement. During general anaesthesia maintenance, the patient received a remifentanyl infusion via a target controlled infusion (TCI) system. The infusion pump that was prepared to deliver the infusion showed malfunction at the beginning of the surgery, so it was quickly replaced with a second pump. After a few minutes into the surgery, the patient presented with hypotension refractory to treatment. The remifentanyl syringe also emptied faster than expected. On reviewing the TCI pump, it was found that it was erroneously programmed for propofol instead of remifentanyl, thus the patient had received a very high dose of remifentanyl that was probably the cause of the haemodynamic disturbances. The incident was an error in equipment use, facilitated by hurry, lack of checking of the equipment prior to its use, and the complex and unclear design of the devices' screens. After analysis of this incident, all TCI pumps were reviewed, and all the programs for infrequently used drugs were deleted. Furthermore, 2 pumps were selected for exclusive use in the cardiac surgery theatre, one with propofol-only programming, and the other with remifentanyl-only programming, both clearly marked and situated in fixed places in that theatre. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij C. Jha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs on carbon nanotubes (CNTs has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE, the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-07-21

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  9. Iron Isotope Variations in Reduced Groundwater and in Drinking Water Supplies: A Case Study of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.

    2004-12-01

    In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and δ 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a δ 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater

  10. Hydrodynamic analysis of the interaction of two operating groundwater sources, case study: Groundwater supply of Bečej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polomčić Dušan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing groundwater source 'Vodokanal' for the public water supply of Bečej city in Serbia tapping groundwater from three water-bearing horizons over 15 wells with summary capacity of 100 l/s. Near the public water source of Bečej exists groundwater source 'Soja Protein' for industry with current capacity of 12 l/s which tapped same horizons. In the coming period is planned to increase summary capacity of this groundwater source up to 57 l/s. Also, the increase of summary city's source capacity is planned for 50 l/s in the next few years. That is means an increase of groundwater abstraction for an additional 84 % from the same water-bearing horizons. Application of hydrodynamic modeling, based on numerical method of finite difference will show the impact of increasing the total capacity of the source 'Soja Protein' on the groundwater level in groundwater source 'Vodokanal' and effects of additional decrease in groundwater levels, in all three water-bearing horizons, on the wells of the 'Vodokanala' groundwater source due to operation of industrial source. It was done 7 variant solutions of the extensions of groundwater sources and are their effects for a period of 10 years with the aim of the sustainable management of groundwater.

  11. Release of arsenic to deep groundwater in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, linked to pumping-induced land subsidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Laura E; Gorelick, Steven M; Zebker, Howard A; Fendorf, Scott

    2013-08-20

    Deep aquifers in South and Southeast Asia are increasingly exploited as presumed sources of pathogen- and arsenic-free water, although little is known of the processes that may compromise their long-term viability. We analyze a large area (>1,000 km(2)) of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, in which arsenic is found pervasively in deep, Pliocene-Miocene-age aquifers, where nearly 900 wells at depths of 200-500 m are contaminated. There, intensive groundwater extraction is causing land subsidence of up to 3 cm/y as measured using satellite-based radar images from 2007 to 2010 and consistent with transient 3D aquifer simulations showing similar subsidence rates and total subsidence of up to 27 cm since 1988. We propose a previously unrecognized mechanism in which deep groundwater extraction is causing interbedded clays to compact and expel water containing dissolved arsenic or arsenic-mobilizing solutes (e.g., dissolved organic carbon and competing ions) to deep aquifers over decades. The implication for the broader Mekong Delta region, and potentially others like it across Asia, is that deep, untreated groundwater will not necessarily remain a safe source of drinking water.

  12. Which is the best oxidant for complexed iron removal from groundwater: The Kogalym case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Overbeck, P.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A short overview of the significance of a preoxidation stage groundwater treatment is presented. As an example the case of complexed iron removal from Kogalym groundwater (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) using different preoxidants (ozone, oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and potassium permanganate) is discussed. The key problem is stable di- and trivalent iron-organic complexes in groundwater which after aeration tend to pass through the hydroanthracite-sand gravity filters. The total organic carbon (TOC) content in raw groundwater is in the range of 3.2-6.4 mg/L, total iron content 2.7-6.0 mg/L and divalent iron content 2.4-4.0 mg/L. Separation from Kogalym groundwater by XAD-16 adsorbent humic matter fraction was homogeneous, with only 1 peak on the chromatogram with maximum Rt = 10.75 min and corresponding molecular mass 1911 ({lt} 2000). The final developed treatment technology is based on the water oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) optimization according to the iron system pE-pH diagram and consists of intensive aeration of raw water in the Gas-Degas Treatment (GDT) unit with the following sequence: filtration through the hydroanthracite and special anthracite Everzit, with intermediate enrichment of water with pure oxygen between the filtration stages.

  13. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  14. Monitoring and Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Vegetation Health in Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M. M.; Ulrich, C.; Howard, J.; Sweet, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater management is important for preserving our economy, society, and environment. Groundwater supports important habitat throughout California, by providing a reliable source of water for these Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs). Groundwater is particularly important in California since it supplies an additional source of water during the dry summer months and periods of drought. The drought and unsustainable pumping practices have, in some areas, lowered groundwater levels causing undesirable results to ecosystems. The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act requires local agencies to avoid undesirable results in the future, but the location and vulnerabilities of the ecosystems that depend on groundwater and interconnected surface water is often poorly understood. This presentation will feature results from a research study conducted by The Nature Conservancy and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that investigated how changes in groundwater availability along an interconnected surface water body can impact the overall health of GDEs. This study was conducted in California's Central Valley along the Cosumnes River, and situated at the boundary of a high and a medium groundwater basin: South American Basin (Sacramento Hydrologic Region) and Cosumnes Basin (San Joaquin Hydrologic Region). By employing geophysical methodology (electrical resistivity tomography) in this study, spatial changes in groundwater availability were determined under groundwater-dependent vegetation. Vegetation survey data were also applied to this study to develop ecosystem health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation. Health indicators for groundwater-dependent vegetation were found to directly correlate with groundwater availability, such that greater availability to groundwater resulted in healthier vegetation. This study provides a case study example on how to use hydrological and biological data for setting appropriate minimum thresholds and

  15. Performances of solar water pumping system using helical pump for a deep well: A case study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K.O.; Joraid, A.A.; Alamri, S.N.; Jaber, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best performance of helical pump has been reached for a deep well. ► Very high potential of solar energy at Saudi Arabia. ► Performance of solar water pumping system for a deep well of 120 m. ► We get the best efficiency of helical pump for the head of 80 m. ► The best configuration of PV generator (24 panels) has been obtained. - Abstract: The photovoltaic water pumping systems (PVWPS) constitute a potential option to draw down water in the remote desert locations for domestic usage and livestock watering. However, the widespread of this technique requires accurate information and experiences in such system sizing and installation. The aim of this work is to determine an optimum photovoltaic (PV) array configuration, adequate to supply a DC Helical pump with an optimum energy amount, under the outdoor conditions of Madinah site. Four different PV array configurations have been tested (6S × 3P, 6S × 4P, 8S × 3P and 12S × 2P). The tests have been carried for a head of 80 m, under sunny daylight hours, in a real well at a farm in Madinah site. The best results have been obtained for two PV array configurations (6S × 4P) and (8S × 3P) which are suitable to provide the optimum energy. Powered by the selected PV array configurations, the helical pump (SQF2.5-2) delivered a maximum daily average volume of water needed (22 m 3 /day).

  16. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  17. Use of case-based reasoning to enhance intensive management of patients on insulin pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Frank L; Shubrook, Jay H; Marling, Cynthia R

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop case-based decision support software to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on insulin pump therapy. While the benefits of good glucose control are well known, achieving and maintaining good glucose control remains a difficult task. Case-based decision support software may assist by recalling past problems in glucose control and their associated therapeutic adjustments. Twenty patients with T1DM on insulin pumps were enrolled in a 6-week study. Subjects performed self-glucose monitoring and provided daily logs via the Internet, tracking insulin dosages, work, sleep, exercise, meals, stress, illness, menstrual cycles, infusion set changes, pump problems, hypoglycemic episodes, and other events. Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring system at weeks 1, 3, and 6. Clinical data were interpreted by physicians, who explained the relationship between life events and observed glucose patterns as well as treatment rationales to knowledge engineers. Knowledge engineers built a prototypical system that contained cases of problems in glucose control together with their associated solutions. Twelve patients completed the study. Fifty cases of clinical problems and solutions were developed and stored in a case base. The prototypical system detected 12 distinct types of clinical problems. It displayed the stored problems that are most similar to the problems detected, and offered learned solutions as decision support to the physician. This software can screen large volumes of clinical data and glucose levels from patients with T1DM, identify clinical problems, and offer solutions. It has potential application in managing all forms of diabetes.

  18. A GIS analysis of the relationship between sinkholes, dry-well complaints and groundwater pumping for frost-freeze protection of winter strawberry production in Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Aurit

    Full Text Available Florida is riddled with sinkholes due to its karst topography. Sometimes these sinkholes can cause extensive damage to infrastructure and homes. It has been suggested that agricultural practices, such as sprinkler irrigation methods used to protect crops, can increase the development of sinkholes, particularly when temperatures drop below freezing, causing groundwater levels to drop quickly during groundwater pumping. In the strawberry growing region, Dover/Plant City, Florida, the effects have caused water shortages resulting in dry-wells and ground subsidence through the development of sinkholes that can be costly to maintain and repair. In this study, we look at how frost-freeze events have affected West Central Florida over the past 25 years with detailed comparisons made between two cold-years (with severe frost-freeze events and a warm year (no frost-freeze events. We analyzed the spatial and temporal correlation between strawberry farming freeze protection practices and the development of sinkholes/dry well complaints, and assessed the economic impact of such events from a water management perspective by evaluating the cost of repairing and drilling new wells and how these compared with using alternative crop-protection methods. We found that the spatial distribution of sinkholes was non-random during both frost-freeze events. A strong correlation between sinkhole occurrence and water extraction and minimum temperatures was found. Furthermore as temperatures fall below 41°F and water levels decrease by more than 20 ft, the number of sinkholes increase greatly (N >10. At this time alternative protection methods such as freeze-cloth are cost prohibitive in comparison to repairing dry wells. In conclusion, the findings from this study are applicable in other agricultural areas and can be used to develop comprehensive water management plans in areas where the abstraction of large quantities of water occur.

  19. A GIS analysis of the relationship between sinkholes, dry-well complaints and groundwater pumping for frost-freeze protection of winter strawberry production in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurit, Mark D; Peterson, Robert O; Blanford, Justine I

    2013-01-01

    Florida is riddled with sinkholes due to its karst topography. Sometimes these sinkholes can cause extensive damage to infrastructure and homes. It has been suggested that agricultural practices, such as sprinkler irrigation methods used to protect crops, can increase the development of sinkholes, particularly when temperatures drop below freezing, causing groundwater levels to drop quickly during groundwater pumping. In the strawberry growing region, Dover/Plant City, Florida, the effects have caused water shortages resulting in dry-wells and ground subsidence through the development of sinkholes that can be costly to maintain and repair. In this study, we look at how frost-freeze events have affected West Central Florida over the past 25 years with detailed comparisons made between two cold-years (with severe frost-freeze events) and a warm year (no frost-freeze events). We analyzed the spatial and temporal correlation between strawberry farming freeze protection practices and the development of sinkholes/dry well complaints, and assessed the economic impact of such events from a water management perspective by evaluating the cost of repairing and drilling new wells and how these compared with using alternative crop-protection methods. We found that the spatial distribution of sinkholes was non-random during both frost-freeze events. A strong correlation between sinkhole occurrence and water extraction and minimum temperatures was found. Furthermore as temperatures fall below 41°F and water levels decrease by more than 20 ft, the number of sinkholes increase greatly (N >10). At this time alternative protection methods such as freeze-cloth are cost prohibitive in comparison to repairing dry wells. In conclusion, the findings from this study are applicable in other agricultural areas and can be used to develop comprehensive water management plans in areas where the abstraction of large quantities of water occur.

  20. Use of nuclear techniques in the study of artificial recharge of groundwater: case of groundwater table in Kairouan plane in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamouda, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    aquifers.Second:There is mixing of the age of water and this of its quality. In case of intensive pumping by farmers, the quality of shallow water table has the same characteristics as the deep ground water table. However, in case of low use of the shallow water table by the farmer, the age of the water is very small. These results can be used to better manage the ground water resources in Tunisia (author)

  1. Shear Evaluation by Quantitative Flow Visualization Near the Casing Surface of a Centrifugal Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyuki; Konishi, Yoshiaki; Masuzawa, Toru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Endo, Seiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    To clarify the correlation between high-shear flow and hemolysis in blood pumps, detail shear velocity distribution was quantified by an experimental method with a model centrifugal blood pump that has a series data of hemolysis tests and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Particular attention was paid to the shear velocity near the casing surface in the volute where the high shear causes in circumferentially wide region that is considerable to cause high hemolysis. Three pump models were compared concern with the radial gap width between the impeller and casing (the radial volute width) also with the outlet position whereas the impeller geometry was identical. These casing geometries were as follows: model 1-the gap width is standard 3mm and the outlet locates to make a smooth geometrical connection with the volute, model 2-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute, and model 3-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to hardly make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute but be similar radial position with that of model 1. Velocity was quantified with a particle tracking velocimetry that is one of the quantitative flow visualization techniques, and the shear velocity was calculated. Results showed that all large shear velocity existed within the layers of about 0.1mm from the casing surface and that those layers were hardly affected by a vane passage even if the gap width is 0.5mm. They also showed that the maximum shear velocity appeared on the casing surface, and the shear velocities of models 2 and 3 were almost twice as large as that of model 1. This finding is in full corresponding with the results of hemolysis tests which showed that the hemolysis levels of both models 2 and 3 were 1.5 times higher than that of model 1. These results suggest that detailed high-shear evaluation near the casing surface in the volute is one of the most important keys in estimating the

  2. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Predrag R.; Čalenić Aleksandar I.; Polomčić Dušan M.; Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric bor...

  3. Modeling the impact of the nitrate contamination on groundwater at the groundwater body scale : The Geer basin case study (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouyere, S.; Orban, P.; Hérivaux, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the next decades, groundwater managers will have to face regional degradation of the quantity and quality of groundwater under pressure of land-use and socio-economic changes. In this context, the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive require that groundwater be managed at the scale of the groundwater body, taking into account not only all components of the water cycle but also the socio-economic impact of these changes. One of the main challenges remains to develop robust and efficient numerical modeling applications at such a scale and to couple them with economic models, as a support for decision support in groundwater management. An integrated approach between hydrogeologists and economists has been developed by coupling the hydrogeological model SUFT3D and a cost-benefit economic analysis to study the impact of agricultural practices on groundwater quality and to design cost-effective mitigation measures to decrease nitrate pressure on groundwater so as to ensure the highest benefit to the society. A new modeling technique, the ‘Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell’ approach has been developed for large scale modeling purposes. The principle of this method is to fully couple different mathematical and numerical approaches to solve groundwater flow and solute transport problems. The mathematical and numerical approaches proposed allows an adaptation to the level of local hydrogeological knowledge and the amount of available data. In combination with long time series of nitrate concentrations and tritium data, the regional scale modelling approach has been used to develop a 3D spatially distributed groundwater flow and solute transport model for the Geer basin (Belgium) of about 480 km2. The model is able to reproduce the spatial patterns of nitrate concentrations together nitrate trends with time. The model has then been used to predict the future evolution of nitrate trends for two types of scenarios: (i) a “business as usual scenario

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of primary pump casing by means of focussing probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombret, Ph.; Cermak, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in laboratory on ultrasonic defect detection capabilities in primary pump casings and welds, in the framework of the joint research programme appointed by Framatome, EdF, CEA and Westinghouse, and devoted to improving the ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components. Several transducers, including focussing probes and transmitter-receivers, were designed and compared on two 180 mm thick blocks strictly representative of the statically cast casing and of the electroslag welding, and containing various artificial and simulated reflectors. Detection trial results show that focussing probes can achieve fair sensitivity levels even through the full thickness, and appear promising as for on-site applications of this technique. 5 refs

  5. Non-pumping reactive wells filled with mixing nano and micro zero-valent iron for nitrate removal from groundwater: Vertical, horizontal, and slanted wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa; Tosco, Tiziana; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2018-03-01

    Non-pumping reactive wells (NPRWs) filled by zero-valent iron (ZVI) can be utilized for the remediation of groundwater contamination of deep aquifers. The efficiency of NPRWs mainly depends on the hydraulic contact time (HCT) of the pollutant with the reactive materials, the extent of the well capture zone (Wcz), and the relative hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and reactive material (Kr). We investigated nitrate removal from groundwater using NPRWs filled by ZVI (in nano and micro scales) and examined the effect of NPRWs orientations (i.e. vertical, slanted, and horizontal) on HCT and Wcz. The dependence of HCT on Wcz for different Kr values was derived theoretically for a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer, and verified using particle tracking simulations performed using the semi-analytical particle tracking and pathlines model (PMPATH). Nine batch experiments were then performed to investigate the impact of mixed nano-ZVI, NZVI (0 to 2 g l-1) and micro-ZVI, MZVI (0 to 4 g l-1) on the nitrate removal rate (with initial NO3-=132 mg l-1). The NPRWs system was tested in a bench-scale sand medium (60 cm length × 40 cm width × 25 cm height) for three orientations of NPRWs (vertical, horizontal, and slanted with inclination angle of 45°). A mixture of nano/micro ZVI, was used, applying constant conditions of pore water velocity (0.024 mm s-1) and initial nitrate concentration (128 mg l-1) for five pore volumes. The results of the batch tests showed that mixing nano and micro Fe0 outperforms these individual materials in nitrate removal rates. The final products of nitrate degradation in both batch and bench-scale experiments were NO2-, NH4+, and N2(gas). The results of sand-box experiments indicated that the slanted NPRWs have a higher nitrate reduction rate (57%) in comparison with vertical (38%) and horizontal (41%) configurations. The results also demonstrated that three factors have pivotal roles in expected HCT and Wcz, namely the contrast between the hydraulic

  6. DEA (data envelopment analysis)-assisted supporting measures for ground coupled heat pumps implementing in Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, L.; Colantoni, A.; Castellucci, S.; Carlini, M.; Vecchione, L.; Savuto, E.; Pallozzi, V.; Di Carlo, A.; Bocci, E.; Moneti, M.; Cocchi, S.; Boubaker, K.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing of the energy consumption is producing serious global warming issues. Mainly most of greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries come from building equipments. In this context, GCHPs (ground coupled heat pumps) are candidate solution as air conditioning systems in buildings due to their higher efficiency compared to conventional devices. Actually, ground coupled heat pump systems are widely, recognized among the most efficient and comfortable used systems. Nevertheless, economic efficiency of the ground coupled heat pumps has to be proved. In this study, DEA (data envelopment analyses) method is applied to a real case in Italy. - Highlights: • Original investigation in terms of energy demands in buildings. • Gathering conjoint classical and scientific analyses. • Presenting original DEA (data envelopment analysis) economic optimization scheme analyses. • Outlining economical feasibility of an efficient low enthalpy-geothermal plant with GCHP (ground coupled heat pump) exchangers.

  7. Open-heart surgery using a centrifugal pump: a case of hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yuichi; Tomioka, Hideyuki; Saso, Masaki; Azuma, Takashi; Saito, Satoshi; Aomi, Shigeyuki; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2016-08-26

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetic, frequently familial hemolytic blood disease characterized by varying degrees of hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, and jaundice. There are few reports on adult open-heart surgery for patients with hereditary spherocytosis. We report a rare case of an adult open-heart surgery associated with hereditary spherocytosis. A 63-year-old man was admitted for congestive heart failure due to bicuspid aortic valve, aortic valve regurgitation, and sinus of subaortic aneurysm. The family history, the microscopic findings of the blood smear, and the characteristic osmotic fragility confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis. Furthermore, splenectomy had not been undertaken preoperatively. The patient underwent a successful operation by means of a centrifugal pump. Haptoglobin was used during the cardiopulmonary bypass, and a biological valve was selected to prevent hemolysis. No significant hemolysis occurred intraoperatively or postoperatively. There are no previous reports of patients with hereditary spherocytosis, and bicuspid aortic valve. We have successfully performed an adult open-heart surgery using a centrifugal pump in an adult patient suffering from hereditary spherocytosis and bicuspid aortic valve.

  8. Catheter Migration After Implantationan Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion Pump for Severe Spasticity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Chou Li

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intrathecal baclofen infusion pump implantation complicated by migration of the catheter tip. A 55-year-old man required an intrathecal baclofen infusion for severe spasticity 4 years after a cervical spinal cord injury with incomplete tetraparesis. Twelve months after initial implantation of the device, the patient began to experience a recurrence of trunk tightness and spasticity. Subsequent X-ray and computed tomography evaluations of the catheter system revealed pooling of contrast medium outside of the intrathecal distribution in the lumbar subcutaneous region of the back and therefore migration of the pump catheter tip. At surgical revision, emphasis was placed on minimizing the length of catheter outside of the spine and securing the catheter in the supraspinous fascia with a right-angled anchor. The distance between the anchors and the entry point of the catheter into the supraspinous fascia was also reduced to prevent slipping when the patient bends forward. After surgery, the patient's spasticity improved and, 1 year later, he has experienced no further complications during follow-up, requiring an average baclofen dose of 150 mg/day. Here, we describe several surgical methods intended to secure the intrathecal catheter and prevent catheter migration. Other complications related to catheter failure are also highlighted.

  9. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  10. Increasing the success rate of groundwater exploration in developing nation using geophysical methods: Case of a small community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiorho, S. A.; Omole, D.; Aizebeokhai, A.

    2016-12-01

    About 35 percent of Nigeria's population of the more than 180 M relies on groundwater. Due to the lack of an adequate water supply system within Ogun State, many homes result to drilling their own private wells. Most groundwater is sourced from shallow wells (less than 30 m) and is often of poor water quality. The number of borehole failures is also alarming. Several entrepreneurs have seized on the lack of adequate water supply to drill for groundwater. Several of these wells have either failed or are not adequate for the purposed use of the water. There also appears to be no proper coordination of the citing of these wells. To increase the success rates of the boreholes, the use of geophysical methods amongst others is recommended. This study examines the exploration for groundwater and water quality in Ogun State in Nigeria, using Ota as an example. Ogun State has both significant surface and groundwater resources. However, due to the indiscriminate and lack of proper waste disposal, the vast majority of the surface waters and shallow well waters are impaired making them unsuitable for many users. To access a deeper groundwater source, a geophysical survey was performed to assist in finding a possible location for a borehole. A geophysical survey using the vertical electric sounding (VES) with Schlumberger configuration was carried out. The data shows that there are five layers within the proposed borehole site. Based on the data, it was suggested that a well be placed at a depth between 65-75 m (213-246 ft.). The borehole was drilled to 67m. This depth, from the literature, corresponds to the Abeokuta formation. A pump was installed at 66 m (217 ft.) depth and the first 50 feet of the borehole was grouted to prevent surface water from getting into the hole. A pumping test was performed for about two hours. While this was noteworthy, the data is not made available to any centralized body. No water chemistry was undertaken and more still needs to be done with

  11. Stable groundwater quality in deep aquifers of Southern Bangladesh: The case against sustainable abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, P.; McArthur, J.M.; Hoque, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In forty six wells > 150 m deep, from across the arsenic-polluted area of south-central Bangladesh, groundwater composition remained unchanged between 1998 and 2011. No evidence of deteriorating water quality was found in terms of arsenic, iron, manganese, boron, barium or salinity over this period of 13 years. These deep tubewells have achieved operating lives of more than 20 years with minimal institutional support. These findings confirm that tubewells tapping the deep aquifers in the Bengal Basin provide a safe, popular, and economic, means of arsenic mitigation and are likely to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, concerns remain about the sustainability of a resource that could serve as a source of As-safe water to mitigate As-pollution in shallower aquifers in an area where tens of millions of people are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic in well water. The conjunction of the stable composition in deep groundwater and the severe adverse health effects of arsenic in shallow groundwater lead us to challenge the notion that strong sustainability principles should be applied to the management of deep aquifer abstraction in Bangladesh is, the notion that the deep groundwater resource should be preserved for future generations by protecting it from adverse impacts, probably of a minor nature, that could occur after a long time and might not happen at all. Instead, we advocate an ethical approach to development of the deep aquifer, based on adaptive abstraction management, which allows possibly unsustainable exploitation now in order to alleviate crippling disease and death from arsenic today while also benefiting future generations by improving the health, education and economy of living children. - Highlights: • Tens of millions of people in Bangladesh are affected by arsenic pollution of groundwater. • Deep wells in potentially non-renewable aquifers are the dominant form of mitigation. • Water quality in these aquifers has remained stable for 13

  12. Stable groundwater quality in deep aquifers of Southern Bangladesh: The case against sustainable abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenscroft, P., E-mail: pravenscroft@unicef.org [UNICEF, BSL Office Complex, Minto Road, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); McArthur, J.M.; Hoque, M.A. [Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    In forty six wells > 150 m deep, from across the arsenic-polluted area of south-central Bangladesh, groundwater composition remained unchanged between 1998 and 2011. No evidence of deteriorating water quality was found in terms of arsenic, iron, manganese, boron, barium or salinity over this period of 13 years. These deep tubewells have achieved operating lives of more than 20 years with minimal institutional support. These findings confirm that tubewells tapping the deep aquifers in the Bengal Basin provide a safe, popular, and economic, means of arsenic mitigation and are likely to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, concerns remain about the sustainability of a resource that could serve as a source of As-safe water to mitigate As-pollution in shallower aquifers in an area where tens of millions of people are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic in well water. The conjunction of the stable composition in deep groundwater and the severe adverse health effects of arsenic in shallow groundwater lead us to challenge the notion that strong sustainability principles should be applied to the management of deep aquifer abstraction in Bangladesh is, the notion that the deep groundwater resource should be preserved for future generations by protecting it from adverse impacts, probably of a minor nature, that could occur after a long time and might not happen at all. Instead, we advocate an ethical approach to development of the deep aquifer, based on adaptive abstraction management, which allows possibly unsustainable exploitation now in order to alleviate crippling disease and death from arsenic today while also benefiting future generations by improving the health, education and economy of living children. - Highlights: • Tens of millions of people in Bangladesh are affected by arsenic pollution of groundwater. • Deep wells in potentially non-renewable aquifers are the dominant form of mitigation. • Water quality in these aquifers has remained stable for 13

  13. Innovation-enabling policy and regime transformation towards increased energy efficiency: The case of the circulator pump industry in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2015-01-01

    When new energy efficient products are struggling with their commercialisation and diffusion into widespread applications you would typically expect policy-makers and green lead-users to guide the way. This paper examines the case of the hot water circulator pump industry in Europe, where parts...... of the industry envisioned and worked for a voluntary energy label, bringing technological innovation, new business and energy savings of approx. 85% for each new circulator pump. The case study explores the complexities of innovation processes where technology, market, actors and policy co-evolve over time...

  14. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive chronic cough without acid reflux: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobata Kouichi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because 24-h esophageal pH monitoring is quite invasive, the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD-associated cough has usually been made based merely on the clinical efficacy of treatment with proton pump inhibitor (PPI. Case presentation We recently encountered two patients with PPI-responsive chronic non-productive cough for whom switching from bronchodilators and glucocorticosteroids to PPI resulted in improvement of cough. The cough returned nearly to pre-administration level a few weeks after discontinuation of PPI. Though GERD-associated cough was suspected, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring revealed that the cough rarely involved gastric acid reflux. Following re-initiation of PPI, the cough disappeared again. Conclusion PPI may improve cough unrelated to gastric acid reflux.

  15. Evaluating Contaminant Flux from the Vadose Zone to the Groundwater in the Hanford Central Plateau. SX Tank Farms Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, contaminants were discharged to the subsurface through engineered waste sites in the Hanford Central Plateau. Additional waste was released through waste storage tank leaks. Much of the contaminant inventory is still present within the unsaturated vadose zone sediments. The nature and extent of future groundwater contaminant plumes and the growth or decline of current groundwater plumes beneath the Hanford Central Plateau are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to the groundwater. In general, contaminant transport is slow through the vadose zone and it is difficult to directly measure contaminant flux in the vadose zone. Predictive analysis, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, was applied using a structured, systems-based approach to estimate the future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions for the vadose zone and groundwater (Truex and Carroll 2013). The SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of the existing contaminant inventory in the vadose zone, observations of elevated moisture content in portions of the vadose zone, presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount and wide variety of data available for the site. Although the SX Tank Farm case study is most representative of conditions at tank farm sites, the study has elements that are also relevant to other types of disposal sites in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  16. Groundwater overexploitation: why is the red flag waved? Case study on the Kairouan plain aquifer (central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Riaux, Jeanne

    2017-09-01

    In many parts of the world, groundwater users regularly face serious resource-depletion threat. At the same time, "groundwater overexploitation" is massively cited when discussing groundwater management problems. A kind of standard definition tends to relegate groundwater overexploitation only as a matter of inputs and outputs. However, a thorough state-of-the-art analysis shows that groundwater overexploitation is not only a matter of hydrogeology but also a qualification of exploitation based on political, social, technical, economic or environmental criteria. Thus, an aquifer with no threat to groundwater storage can rightly be considered as overexploited because of many other prejudicial aspects. So, why is groundwater overexploitation so frequently only associated with resource-depletion threat and so rarely related to other prejudicial aspects? In that case, what really lies behind the use of the overexploitation concept? The case of the Kairouan plain aquifer in central Tunisia was used to analyze the way that the overexploitation message emerges in a given context, how groundwater-use stakeholders (farmers, management agencies and scientists) each qualify the problem in their own way, and how they see themselves with regard to the concept of overexploitation. The analysis shows that focusing messages on overexploitation conceals the problems encountered by the various stakeholders: difficulties accessing water, problems for the authorities in controlling the territory and individual practices, and complications for scientists when qualifying hydrological situations. The solutions put forward to manage overexploitation are at odds with the problems that arise locally, triggering tensions and leading to misunderstandings between the parties involved.

  17. Ground source heat pump performance in case of high humidity soil and yearly balanced heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schibuola, Luigi; Tambani, Chiara; Zarrella, Angelo; Scarpa, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GSHPs are simulated in case of humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer. • Humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer imply higher compactness of GSHPs. • Resulting GSHPs are compared with other traditional and innovative HVAC systems. • GSHPs score best, especially in case of inverter-driven compressors. - Abstract: Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are spreading also in Southern Europe, due to their high energy efficiency both in heating and in cooling mode. Moreover, they are particularly suitable in historical cities because of difficulties in the integration of heating/cooling systems into buildings subjected to historical preservation regulations. In these cases, GSHP systems, especially the ones provided with borehole heat exchangers, are a suitable solution instead of gas boilers, air-cooled chillers or cooling towers. In humid soils, GSHP systems are even more interesting because of their enhanced performance due to higher values of soil thermal conductivity and capacity. In this paper, GSHP systems operating under these boundary conditions are analyzed through a specific case study set in Venice and related to the restoration of an historical building. With this analysis the relevant influences of soil thermal conductivity and yearly balanced heat transfer in the design of the borehole field are shown. In particular, the paper shows the possibility to achieve higher compactness of the borehole field footprint area when yearly balanced heat transfer in the borehole field is expected. Then, the second set of results contained in the paper shows how GSHP systems designed for high humidity soils and yearly balanced heat loads at the ground side, even if characterized by a compact footprint area, may still ensure better performance than other available and more common technologies such as boilers, air-cooled chillers, chillers coupled with cooling towers and heat pumps and chillers coupled with lagoon water. As a consequence

  18. Reflectivity of stimulated back scattering in a homogeneous-slab medium in the case of negligible pump-wave damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.S.; Cho, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    As to the backscatter instability which is one of nonlinear three-wave resonant interactions, the reflectivity(r) in the case of homogeneous-slab medium is calculated, assuming all the three wavepackets negligible damping caused by medium. The expression has turned out such that r = tanh 2 KAsub(p)L, where K, Asub(p), and L are the constant coupling coefficient, the constant pump-wave amplitude, and the thickness of the medium engaged in the interaction each. When this result is interpreted in terms of the stimulated Brillouin back-scattering in a so-called underdense plasma in controlled fusion, we find the reflectivity twice as large as that by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, and unfitting to former experiments in the independence on the incident laser-light intensity. We see the incompatibility rise chiefly from neglecting the damping of pump-wave in the plasma. In contrast to the former results by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, our result might be regarded as that for cases of negligible pump-wave damping, in general stimulated back-scattering phenomena. (author)

  19. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition : The case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Verhoeven, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Methods : Starting from a

  20. Groundwater quality and hydrogeological characteristics of Malacca state in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi Sharif Moniruzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and aquifer productivity of Malacca catchment in Peninsular Malaysia are presented in this article. Pumping test data were collected from 210 shallow and 17 deep boreholes to get well inventory information. Data analysis confirmed that the aquifers consisting of schist, sand, limestone and volcanic rocks were the most productive aquifers for groundwater in Malacca state. GIS-based aquifer productivity map was generated based on bedrock and discharge capacity of the aquifers. Aquifer productivity map is classified into three classes, namely high, moderate and low based on discharge capacity. Groundwater potential of the study area is 35, 57 and 8% of low, moderate and high class respectively. Fifty two shallow and 14 deep aquifer groundwater samples were analyzed for water quality. In some cases, groundwater quality analysis indicated that the turbidity, total dissolved solids, iron, chloride and cadmium concentrations exceeded the limit of drinking water quality standards.

  1. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  2. Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Antonio, A.; Mahlknecht, J.; Tamez-Meléndez, C.; Ramos-Leal, J.; Ramírez-Orozco, A.; Parra, R.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater chemistry and isotopic data from 40 production wells in the Atemajac and Toluquilla valleys, located in and around the Guadalajara metropolitan area, were determined to develop a conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing. Stable water isotopes (δ2H, δ18O) were used to trace hydrological processes and tritium (3H) to evaluate the relative contribution of modern water in samples. Multivariate analysis including cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to elucidate distribution patterns of constituents and factors controlling groundwater chemistry. Based on this analysis, groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal groundwater, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. Cold groundwater is characterized by low temperature, salinity, and Cl and Na concentrations and is predominantly of Na-HCO3-type. It originates as recharge at "La Primavera" caldera and is found predominantly in wells in the upper Atemajac Valley. Hydrothermal groundwater is characterized by high salinity, temperature, Cl, Na and HCO3, and the presence of minor elements such as Li, Mn and F. It is a mixed-HCO3 type found in wells from Toluquilla Valley and represents regional flow circulation through basaltic and andesitic rocks. Polluted groundwater is characterized by elevated nitrate and sulfate concentrations and is usually derived from urban water cycling and subordinately from agricultural return flow. Mixed groundwaters between cold and hydrothermal components are predominantly found in the lower Atemajac Valley. Twenty-seven groundwater samples contain at least a small fraction of modern water. The application of a multivariate mixing model allowed the mixing proportions of hydrothermal fluids, polluted waters and cold groundwater in sampled water to be evaluated. This study will help local water authorities to identify and dimension groundwater contamination, and act accordingly. It may be broadly applicable to

  3. Ecohydrological Responses to Diversion of Groundwater: Case Study of a Deep-Rock Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Collinder, Per; Berglund, Sten; Maartensson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Planning and license applications concerning groundwater diversion in areas containing water-dependent or water-favored habitats must take into account both hydrological effects and associated ecological consequences. There is at present no established methodology to assess such ecohydrological responses. Thus, this paper describes a new stepwise methodology to assess ecohydrological responses to groundwater diversion from, e.g., water-drained pits, shafts, tunnels, and caverns in rock below the groundwater table. The methodology is illustrated using the planned deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in central Sweden as a case study, offering access to a unique hydrological and ecological dataset. The case study demonstrates that results of ecohydrological assessments can provide useful inputs to planning of monitoring programs and mitigation measures in infrastructure projects. As a result of the assessment, artificial water supply to wetlands is planned in order to preserve biological diversity, nature values, and vulnerable species

  4. Sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater control and remediation: Case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.; Jowett, R.; Gamble, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waterloo Barrier trademark steel sheet piling (patents pending) incorporates a cavity at each interlocking joint that is flushed clean and injected with sealant after the piles have been driven into the ground to form a vertical cutoff wall. The installation and sealing procedures allow for a high degree of quality assurance and control. Bulk wall hydraulic conductivities of 10 -8 to 10 -10 cm/sec have been demonstrated at field installations. Recent case histories are presented in which Waterloo Barrier trademark cutoff walls are used to prevent off-site migration of contaminated groundwater or soil gases to adjacent property and waterways. Full enclosures to isolate DNAPL source zones or portions of contaminated aquifers for pilot-scale remediation testing will also be described. Monitoring data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waterloo Barrier trademark in these applications

  5. Coastal forests and groundwater: Using case studies to understand the effects of drivers and stressors for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Callahan; Devendra Amatya; Peter Stone

    2017-01-01

    Forests are receiving more attention for the ecosystem goods and services they provide and the potential change agents that may affect forest health and productivity. Highlighting case examples from coastal forests in South Carolina, USA, we describe groundwater processes with respect to stressors and potential responses of a wetland-rich forested landscape,...

  6. Hanford statewide groundwater flow and transport model calibration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.; Panday, S.; Denslow, C.; Fecht, K.; Knepp, A.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents the results of the development and calibration of a three-dimensional, finite element model (VAM3DCG) for the unconfined groundwater flow system at the Hanford Site. This flow system is the largest radioactively contaminated groundwater system in the United States. Eleven groundwater plumes have been identified containing organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Because groundwater from the unconfined groundwater system flows into the Columbia River, the development of a groundwater flow model is essential to the long-term management of these plumes. Cost effective decision making requires the capability to predict the effectiveness of various remediation approaches. Some of the alternatives available to remediate groundwater include: pumping contaminated water from the ground for treatment with reinjection or to other disposal facilities; containment of plumes by means of impermeable walls, physical barriers, and hydraulic control measures; and, in some cases, management of groundwater via planned recharge and withdrawals. Implementation of these methods requires a knowledge of the groundwater flow system and how it responds to remedial actions

  7. The isotope altitude effect reflected in groundwater: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko; Cerar, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotope data of oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) in groundwater from 83 sampling locations in Slovenia and their interpretation. The isotopic composition of water was monitored over 3 years (2009-2011), and each location was sampled twice. New findings on the isotopic composition of sampled groundwater are presented, and the data are also compared to past studies regarding the isotopic composition of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in Slovenia. This study comprises: (1) the general characteristics of the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater in Slovenia, (2) the spatial distribution of oxygen isotope composition (δ(18)O) and d-excess in groundwater, (3) the groundwater isotope altitude effect, (4) the correlation between groundwater d-excess and the recharge area altitude of the sampling location, (5) the relation between hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in groundwater in comparison to the global precipitation isotope data, (6) the groundwater isotope effect of distance from the sea, and (7) the estimated relation between the mean temperature of recharge area and δ(18)O in groundwater.

  8. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  9. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    indications of the reversal began in the early 1960s with a trend in loss of streamflow leakage coupled with the first consistent inflow from storage. While groundwater pumped out of the alluvial aquifer was derived primarily from storage, pumpage out of the middle Claiborne aquifer was derived primarily from other aquifers (up to 15 percent from the alluvial aquifer), followed by flow from storage and net recharge. The potential consequences of climate change have been identified as a major concern facing the sustainability of the Nation's groundwater resources. To address this concern, two climate simulations were developed through the use of the MERAS model by extending the simulation period by 30 years to the year 2038 using extrapolated precipitation based on frequency analysis of historic climate cycles. There is little difference between the dry and wet scenarios in terms of percent water-level change. Both scenarios resulted in 14.6 to 13.9 percent of the area containing more than 100 feet of decline, 14.5 to 13.8 percent containing between 75 and 100 feet of decline, and 15.8 to 15.7 percent containing 51 to 75 feet of decline in the alluvial aquifer. The middle Claiborne aquifer water-level changes also were similar between the two scenarios. These scenarios indicate that even with a 25-percent increase in precipitation from that of the dry scenario, there is little difference in the resultant water levels. This is in large part because of the magnitude of differences between changes in net recharge and changes in pumping. When compared to the volume of water pumped out of the system, the effect of this change in net recharge is negligible. The groundwater-level monitoring network used to construct the 2007 middle Claiborne aquifer potentiometric surface was used as an example case to demonstrate statistical technique and to evaluate the importance of individual groundwater-level observations. To calculate the importance of each water-level observation to a

  10. Particle image velocimetry measurement of complex flow structures in the diffuser and spherical casing of a reactor coolant pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of turbulent flow in the reactor coolant pump (RCP is a premise of the optimal design of the RCP. Flow structures in the RCP, in view of the specially devised spherical casing, are more complicated than those associated with conventional pumps. Hitherto, knowledge of the flow characteristics of the RCP has been far from sufficient. Research into the nonintrusive measurement of the internal flow of the RCP has rarely been reported. In the present study, flow measurement using particle image velocimetry is implemented to reveal flow features of the RCP model. Velocity and vorticity distributions in the diffuser and spherical casing are obtained. The results illuminate the complexity of the flows in the RCP. Near the lower end of the discharge nozzle, three-dimensional swirling flows and flow separation are evident. In the diffuser, the imparity of the velocity profile with respect to different axial cross sections is verified, and the velocity increases gradually from the shroud to the hub. In the casing, velocity distribution is nonuniform over the circumferential direction. Vortices shed consistently from the diffuser blade trailing edge. The experimental results lend sound support for the optimal design of the RCP and provide validation of relevant numerical algorithms. Keywords: Diffuser, Flow Structures, Particle Image Velocimetry, Reactor Coolant Pump, Spherical Casing, Velocity Distribution

  11. The characteristic and influence factors of extinction depth of shallow groundwater on the high-latitude region: a case study on the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua

    2018-03-01

    Accurate estimation of extinction depth of shallow groundwater (EDSG) and identification of its influence factors are important for sustainable management of groundwater resources, ecological protection, and human health in intensively irrigated region. In this study, the ratio of actual groundwater depth and EDSG (RAE) method was used to understand the spatial variability of EDSG in the Sanjiang Plain, one of China's largest grain production bases and China's largest inland freshwater wetland region. The study showed a large spatial variation of EDSG in the region. Spatially, the sites, which were in the northeast and center had the deepest and the shallowest EDSG, whereby, indicate that it has higher and lower pumping potential capacity. Many factors including climate, soil parameters, vegetation and topography affected the EDSG. We also identified an area of 3.86 × 10 10  m 2 , which accounting for 35.3% of the entire Sanjiang Plain, has exceeded the ESGD by over exploited for years. Knowledge of the variation and influence factors of EDSG for a certain plant system and the current shallow groundwater condition in the higher latitude region can be a key to the development of preventive actions for large quantity pumping groundwater and protection regional and sustainable development of irrigated agriculture.

  12. Failure analysis of a repairable system: The case study of a cam-driven reciprocating pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald D.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis supplies a statistical and economic tool for analysis of the failure characteristics of one typical piece of equipment under evaluation: a cam-driven reciprocating pump used in the submarine's distillation system. Comprehensive statistical techniques and parametric modeling are employed to identify and quantify pump failure characteristics. Specific areas of attention include: the derivation of an optimal maximum replacement interval based on costs, an evaluation of the mission reliability for the pump as a function of pump age, and a calculation of the expected times between failures. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate current maintenance practices of time-based replacement and examine the consequences of different replacement intervals in terms of costs and mission reliability. Tradeoffs exist between cost savings and system reliability that must be fully understood prior to making any policy decisions.

  13. Pump-and-treat is not the only solution to aquifer remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odermatt, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently surveyed remediation technologies used at petroleum-contaminated sites in 22 states. About 96 percent of underground storage tank (UST) corrective action sites used some form of pump-and-treat technology to remediate contaminated groundwater. However, using only pump-and-treat technology is not a cost-effective approach to aquifer remediation. Pump-and-treat may be more appropriate for containing plumes or for use in initial emergency response actions at sites and massive NAPL releases to groundwater. As of 1990, 68 percent of Superfund records of decision selected pump-and-treat as the final remedy for aquifer remediation. However, of 13 sites where the remedial alternative objective was to restore the aquifer to health-based levels, only one pump-and-treat method has succeeded. Except in cases where human health and the environment are threatened, long-term active technologies, such as pump-and-treat, may not be warranted. Groundwater monitoring and possible wellhead treatment may be perceived as time-consuming processes; however, at many sites, this long-term approach may be far less costly and just as effective as other long-term strategies based on exclusive use of pump-and-treat technology

  14. Control of groundwater in surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. O.

    1982-03-01

    The presence of groundwater in surface mining operations often creates serious problems. The most important is generally a reduction in stability of the pit slopes. This is caused by pore water pressures and hydrodynamic shock due to blasting which reduce the shear strength and seepage pressures, water in tension cracks and increased unit weight which increase the shear stress. Groundwater and seepage also increase the cost of pit drainage, shipping, drilling and blasting, tyre wear and equipment maintenance. Surface erosion may also be increased and, in northern climates, ice flows on the slopes may occur. Procedures have been developed in the field of soil mechanics and engineering of dams to obtain quantitative data on pore water pressures and rock permeability, to evaluate the influence of pore water and seepage pressures on stability and to estimate the magnitude of ground-water flow. Based on field investigations, a design can be prepared for the control of groundwater in the slope and in the pit. Methods of control include the use of horizontal drains, blasted toe drains, construction of adits or drainage tunnels and pumping from wells in or outside of the pit. Recent research indicates that subsurface drainage can be augmented by applying a vacuum or by selective blasting. Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the groundwater changes created by drainage. Typical case histories are described that indicate the approach used to evaluate groundwater conditions.

  15. Estimation of free-hydrocarbon recovery from dual-pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Free-product hydrocarbon which floats on the water table may be recovered using single-pump and dual-pump systems. The factors that affect the long-term free-product recovery using dual-pump systems include the free-product thickness as measured in monitoring wells, the ground-water pumping rate, hydrocarbon density and viscosity, and the soil permeability. This paper presents a simple model for prediction of free-product recovery using dual-pump systems. The model predicts the long-term rather than short-term recovery rates, and lends itself to spreadsheet calculations on microcomputers. A particularly simple form arises for cases where the drawdown is small. An application for estimating recovery from a dual-pump system is presented, and limitations of the model are summarized

  16. GIS-based groundwater vulnerability modelling: A case study of the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld Coalfields in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, E.; Fourie, F.; Gomo, M.; Coetzee, H.

    2018-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the popular mineral systems approach has been used successfully for the exploration of various mineral commodities at various scales owing to its scientific soundness, cost effectiveness and simplicity in mapping the critical processes required for the formation of deposits. In the present study this approach was modified for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability. In terms of the modified approach, water drives the pollution migration processes, with various analogies having been derived from the mineral systems approach. The modified approach is illustrated here by the discussion of a case study of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution in the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields of the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa. Many AMD cases have been reported in these provinces in recent years and are a cause of concern for local municipalities, mining and environmental agencies. In the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields, several areas have been mined out while mining has not yet started in others, hence the need to identify groundwater regions prone to AMD pollution in order to avoid further impacts on the groundwater resources. A knowledge-based fuzzy expert system was built using vulnerability factors (energy sources, ligands sources, pollutant sources, transportation pathways and traps) to generate a groundwater vulnerability model of the coalfields. Highly vulnerable areas were identified in Witbank coalfield and the eastern part of the Ermelo coalfield which are characterised by the presence of AMD sources, good subsurface transport coupled with poor AMD pollution trapping properties. The results from the analysis indicate significant correlations between model values and both groundwater sulphate concentrations as well as pH. This shows that the proposed approach can indeed be used as an alternative to traditional methods of groundwater vulnerability assessment. The methodology only considers the AMD pollution

  17. Case Study for the ARRA-Funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Ball State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, Jr., Hugh [CDH Energy Corp., Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    With funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground-source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects is a district central GSHP system installed at Ball State University (BSU) in Muncie, IN. Prior to implementing the district GSHP system, 47 major buildings in BSU were served by a central steam plant with four coal-fired and three natural-gas-fired steam boilers. Cooling was provided by five water-cooled centrifugal chillers at the District Energy Station South (DESS). The new district GSHP system replaced the existing coal-fired steam boilers and conventional water-cooled chillers. It uses ground-coupled heat recovery (HR) chillers to meet the simultaneous heating and cooling demands of the campus. The actual performance of the GSHP system was analyzed based on available measured data from August 2015 through July 2016, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. Since Phase 1 was funded in part by the ARRA grant, it is the focus of this case study. The annual energy consumption of the GSHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional water-cooled chiller and natural-gas-fired boiler system, both of which meet the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013). The comparison was made to determine source energy savings, energy cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the GSHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the GSHP system. The following sections summarize the results of the analysis, the lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement

  18. [External lumbar drainage with volumetric continuing infusion pump in patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak. A case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso Melgosa, Ana Belén; García Gutiérrez, Helena; Fernández Porras, Mónica; Castrillo Manero, Ana Berta; Pérez Marijuán, Belén

    To describe the incidence and complications arising in a number of cases of patients with cerebrospinal fluid leak treated by external lumbar drainage with infusion pump (IP) volumetric continuous from 2001 to 2014. Quantify cerebrospinal fluid leak closed by lumbar drainage with IP. Retrospective descriptive case series study. patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, Chiari surgery and laminectomy, that developed postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak treated with continuous external lumbar drainage by IP. age, sex, type of intervention, variables related to the practice of the pump and complications. Average and medians were calculated for quantitative variables, frequencies and percentages for qualitative. Sample: 11 subjects. Incidence in running IP: disconnection, occlusion and acoustic alarm activation. Most frequently complication is headache; a case of pneumocephalus. The small number of subjects and the heterogeneity of these do not allow for comparison or establishing associations between variables. The resolution of the cerebrospinal fluid leak with continuous IP is lower in this study than others, and may be influenced by the small number of subjects. It should be noted the frequent activation of the pump alarm for no apparent cause. Protocol would be developed for preparing the IP team to reduce the acoustic alarm activation, and would make a prospective multicenter study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated methods and scenario development for urban groundwater management and protection during tunnel road construction: a case study of urban hydrogeology in the city of Basel, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, J.; Huggenberger, P.; Rauber, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the northwestern area of Basel, Switzerland, a tunnel highway connects the French highway A35 (Mulhouse Basel) with the Swiss A2 (Basel Gotthard Milano). The subsurface highway construction was associated with significant impacts on the urban groundwater system. Parts of this area were formerly contaminated by industrial wastes, and groundwater resources are extensively used by industry. During some construction phases, considerable groundwater drawdown was necessary, leading to major changes in the groundwater flow regime. Sufficient groundwater supply for industrial users and possible groundwater pollution due to interactions with contaminated areas had to be taken into account. A groundwater management system is presented, comprising extensive groundwater monitoring, high-resolution numerical groundwater modeling, and the development and evaluation of different scenarios. This integrated approach facilitated the evaluation of the sum of impacts, and their interaction in time and space with changing hydrological boundary conditions. For all project phases, changes of the groundwater system had to be evaluated in terms of the various goals and requirements. Although the results of this study are case-specific, the overall conceptual approach and methodologies applied may be directly transferred to other urban areas.

  20. A simulation-based analysis of variable flow pumping in ground source heat pump systems with different types of borehole heat exchangers: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; Emmi, Giuseppe; De Carli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The work focuses on the variable flow in ground source heat pump systems. • The constant and variable speed circulation pumps in the ground loop are compared. • The constant temperature difference control across the heat pump is studied. • The variable flow affects the energy performance of the heat pump. • The constant temperature difference control offers an attractive energy saving. - Abstract: A simulation model of ground source heat pump systems has been used to investigate to what extent a variable flow of the heat-carrier fluid of the ground loop affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. The model contemporaneously considers the borehole heat exchangers, the heat pump, the building load, and the control strategies for the circulation pumps of the ground loop. A constant speed of the circulation pumps of the ground loop was compared with a variable flow controlled by means of a constant temperature difference across the heat pump on the ground side considering the load profile of an office building located in North Italy. The analysis was carried out for a single U-tube, double U-tube and coaxial pipe heat exchangers. The control strategies adopted to manage the flow rate of the heat-carrier fluid of the ground loop affect both the heat exchange rate of the borehole field and the heat pump’s long-term energy efficiency. The simulations show considerable differences in the system’s seasonal energy efficiency. The constant speed of the circulation pumps leads to the best results as far as the heat pump’s energy performance was concerned, but this advantage was lost because of the greater amount of electrical energy used by the circulation pumps; this, of course, affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. The optimal solution appears then to be a constant temperature difference in the heat-carrier fluid across the heat pump.

  1. Groundwater quality studies: A Case study of the Densu Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater samples from 68 communities within the Densu basin were sampled and analysed over a period of 1 year for various physico-chemical water quality parameters using appropriate certified and acceptable international procedures, in order to assess the water types as well as the suitability of groundwater within ...

  2. Risk assessment of groundwater environmental contamination: a case study of a karst site for the construction of a fossil power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuming; Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Huang, Junyi; Tang, Yukun; Qin, Jianbo; Zhou, Wan-Huan

    2017-12-20

    This paper presents a demonstration of an integrated risk assessment and site investigation for groundwater contamination through a case study, in which the geologic and hydrogeological feature of the site and the blueprint of the fossil power plant (FPP) were closely analyzed. Predictions for groundwater contamination in case of accidents were performed by groundwater modeling system (GMS) and modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model (MT3DMS). Results indicate that the studied site area presents a semi-isolated hydrogeological unit with multiplicity in stratum lithology, the main aquifers at the site are consisted of the filled karst development layer with a thickness between 6.0 and 40.0 m. The poor permeability of the vadose zone at the FPP significantly restricted the infiltration of contaminants through the vadose zone to the subsurface. The limited influence of rarely isotropic porous karstified carbonate rocks on the groundwater flow system premised the simulate scenarios of plume migration. Analysis of the present groundwater chemistry manifested that that the groundwater at the site and the local area are of the HCO 3 -Ca, HCO 3 , and SO 4 -Ca types. A few of the water samples were contaminated by coliform bacteria and ammonia nitrogen as a result of the local cultivation. Prediction results indicate that the impact of normal construction and operation processes on the groundwater environment is negligible. However, groundwater may be partly contaminated within a certain period in the area of leakage from the diesel tanks, the industrial wastewater pool, and the cooling tower water tank in case of accidents. On a positive note, none of the plumes would reach the local sensitive areas for groundwater using. Finally, an anti-seepage scheme and a monitoring program are proposed to safeguard the groundwater protection. The integrated method of the site investigation and risk assessment used in this case study can facilitate the protection of

  3. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  4. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  5. Motor Pump Revolution in Ethiopia: Promises at a Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Dessalegn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.

  6. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    would be required to reduce nitrate concentrations in groundwater below the standard of 50 mg/l. In this particular case, it is more cost-efficient to apply standards to fertilizer use than taxes, although the instrument of fertilizer standards is more difficult to implement and control.

  7. INTRAVAL Phase 2: Investigations into the influence of the density stratification on groundwater flow by the example of pumping test 'Weisses Moor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollrath, J.; Arens, G.

    1992-11-01

    After a short description of the pumping test the determination of the aquifer parameters permeability k, storage coefficient S and aquifer thickness b is described on the basis of the analytical THEIS-solution for the calculation of the drawdown of a well. The numerical computations with the computer codes SUTRA and ROCKFLOW based on this are described. The computations have led to the result that the drawdown values observed in the pumping test can be described with the assumptions based on the THEIS-solution. The computations considering the density stratification do not show significant differences compared to the freshwater computations. The influence of the arrangement of filter areas in the well or the distribution of the pumped water along that filter areas is greater than the influence of the computation as freshwater or salt-water model. However, the difference between the observed density of the pumped water and the computed density is in the range of 20 to 50% depending on the model variant. It can be concluded that the flow conditions for this pumping test cannot be validated with the simple approaches and models used. (orig.) [de

  8. Dry groundwater wells in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Jasechko, S.

    2017-10-01

    Declining groundwater levels are common in parts of the western US, but their impact on the ability of wells to pump groundwater is not known. Here we collate groundwater well records for the western United States and present the recorded locations, depths, and purposes of more than two million groundwater wells constructed between 1950 and 2015. We then use the well records to estimate the percentage of wells that were dry during the years 2013-2015. During the two year period, dry wells were concentrated in rural areas with high agricultural productivity, such as parts of the California Central Valley and the High Plains. Our results support anecdotal evidence that wells used for domestic purposes are more susceptible to drying than wells used for agricultural purposes throughout California’s Central Valley because the former tend to be shallower. However, this is not the case in all regions. Our findings suggest that declining groundwater levels are threatening drinking water reliability and agricultural productivity, and consequently, have key implications for both domestic and agricultural water security. Ongoing reductions to groundwater storage are drying groundwater wells in the western US, and this manifestation of water scarcity warrants innovative groundwater management transcending status quos.

  9. Modeling groundwater quality in an arid agricultural environment in the face of an uncertain climate: the case of Mewat District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. C.; Ward, A. S.; Muste, M.

    2014-12-01

    The salinization of groundwater resources is a widespread problem in arid agricultural environments. In Mewat District (Haryana, India), groundwater salinity has rendered much of the accessible supply unfit for human consumption or agriculture. Historically, this closed basin retained fresh pockets of water at the foothills of the Aravalli Hills, where monsoonal precipitation runoff from the mountains was recharged through infiltration or facilitated by man-made structures. To date, an increasing number of pumps supply the region with fresh water for consumption and agriculture leading to shrinking the freshwater zone at an accelerated pace. The potential for increased human consumption corroborated with the effects of climate change bring uncertainty about the future of water security for the Mewat communities, most of them critically bound to the existence of local water. This study addresses the sustainability of the freshwater supply under a range of land interventions and climate scenarios, using a 2-D groundwater flow and transport model. Our results quantify potential futures for this arid, groundwater-dependent location, using numerical groundwater modeling to quantify interactions between human water use, infrastructure, and climate. Outcomes of this modeling study will inform an NGO active in the area on sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  10. Groundwater Chemistry Regulated by Hydrochemical Processes and Geological Structures: A Case Study in Tongchuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of hydrochemical processes in groundwater helps to identify the relationship between geochemical processes and groundwater quality as well as to understand the hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater, which is important for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This study aims to identify the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the area of Tongchuan City, China. A total of 58 groundwater samples were collected. A hierarchical cluster analysis divided samples into three clusters and six sub-clusters (cluster 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b according to hydrochemical facies. Graphical plots of multiple ionic ratios, saturation indices, and ion exchange indices were employed to examine hydrochemical processes that result in different hydrochemical facies of each cluster. Results show the predominance of carbonate and silicate weathering in cluster 1, silicate weathering in cluster 2, and carbonate weathering in cluster 3. Ionic exchange is a ubiquitous process among all clusters. The distribution of clusters is related to the regional geology, which may result in different hydrochemical processes. Two stratigraphic sections identify the differences in hydrochemical processes resulting from complex stratum structures and varied aquifer media. Cluster 2a shows an interesting difference in water chemistry along the groundwater flow path. Further study by oxygen and hydrogen isotope indicated that mixing between Quaternary and the Permian aquifers resulting from faulting is the main reason for the distinctive characteristic of cluster 2a.

  11. Geomorphology and its implication in urban groundwater environment: case study from Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, V. R.; Pandalai, H. S.; Sajinkumar, K. S.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Landforms of Mumbai Island have been largely modified by the urban sprawl and the demand for groundwater will increase exponentially in the future. Quality and quantity of groundwater occurrence in island are highly influenced by the geomorphic units. As this metropolis receives heavy rainfall, the area rarely faces the issue of water scarcity, nevertheless, quality always remains a question. The landforms of Mumbai Island have been shaped by a combination of fluvial, denudational and marine processes. These landforms are categorized into two broad zones on the basis of its influence in groundwater occurrence. Denudational landforms are categorized as runoff zones whereas the other two are categorized as storage zones. This classification is on the basis of occurrence and storage of groundwater. Mumbai Island is exposed to frequent sea water incursion and groundwater quality has deteriorated. The varied hydrogeological conditions prevalent in this area prevent rapid infiltration. This combined with the overextraction of groundwater resources for agriculture and industry has caused serious concern about the continued availability of potable water. This study aims at validating the geomorphic classification of the landforms with hydrogeochemistry and borehole data and it proved that geomorphology corroborates with groundwater chemistry and subsurface geology.

  12. Variable infiltration and river flooding resulting in changing groundwater quality - A case study from Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Postma, Dieke; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe changes in groundwater quality occurring in a buried valley aquifer following a reduction in groundwater exploitation and enhanced infiltration due to extensive flooding of the Odra River in 1997 were investigated. Long-time series data for the chemical composition of groundwater in a large well field for drinking water supply indicated the deterioration of groundwater quality in the wells capturing water from the flooded area, which had been intensively cultivated since the 1960s. Infiltration of flooded river water into the aquifer is suggested by an elevated chloride concentration, although salt flushing from the rewatered unsaturated zone due to the enhanced recharge event is much more feasible. Concomitantly with chloride increases in the concentrations of sulphate, ferrous iron, manganese, and nickel imply the oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2) which is abundant in the aquifer. The proton production resulting from pyrite oxidation is buffered by the dissolution of calcite, while the Ca:SO 4 stoichiometry of the groundwater indicates that pyrite oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the dominant process occurring in the aquifer. The pyritic origin of SO42- is confirmed by the sulphur isotopic composition. The resultant Fe 2+ increase induces Mn-oxide dissolution and the mobilisation of Ni 2+ previously adsorbed to Mn-oxide surfaces. The study has a major implication for groundwater quality prediction studies where there are considerable variations in water level associated with groundwater management and climate change issues.

  13. Dating gasoline releases using ground-water chemical analyses: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.A.; Perez, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents case studies where geochemical data were analyzed in spatial and temporal relation to documented gasoline releases at typical service station sites. In particular, the authors present ground-water analytical data for sites where (1) the date of the gasoline release is known with a good degree of confidence, (2) the release is confined to a relatively short period of time so as to be considered essentially instantaneous, (3) antecedent geochemical condition are known or can be reasonably expected to have been either unaffected by previous hydrocarbon impacts or minor in comparison to known release events, and (4) where geologic materials can be classified as to structure and composition. The authors' intent is to provide empirical data regarding the hydrogeological fate of certain gasoline components, namely the compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of gasoline weathering as a means of comparing releases in given hydrogeologic environments. Trends seen in a variety of comparative hydrocarbon compound ratios may provide a basis for evaluating relative release dates

  14. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  15. Biogeochemistry of Arsenic in Groundwater Flow Systems: The Case of Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Yang, N.; Datta, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metalloid that can cause serious health effects, including increased risk of cancers, infant mortality, and reduced intellectual and motor function in children to populations chronically exposed to As. Recent estimates suggest that more than 140 million people worldwide are drinking As-contaminated groundwater (i.e., As ≥ 10 µg kg-1), and the most severely affected region is the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh and India (i.e., Bengal Basin). Arsenic appears to be mobilized to Bengal Basin groundwaters by reductive dissolution of Fe oxides in aquifer sediments with the source of the labile organic matter occurring in the aquifer sediments. Studies within the lower Mississippi River delta of southern Louisiana (USA) also reveal high As concentrations (up to 640 µg kg-1) in shallow groundwaters. It is not known what affects, if any, the elevated groundwater As has had on local communities. The regional extent of high As shallow groundwaters is controlled, in part, by the distribution of Holocene sediments, deltaic deposits, and organic-rich sediments, similar to the Bengal Basin. Field and laboratory studies suggest that As is largely of geogenic origin, and further that microbial reduction of Fe(III)/Mn(IV) oxides/oxyhydroxides within the sediments contributes the bulk of the As to the groundwaters. Incubation studies are supported by biogeochemical reactive transport modeling, which also indicates reductive dissolution of metal oxides/oxyhydroxides as the likely source of As to these groundwaters. Finally, reactive transport modeling of As in shallow groundwaters suggests that sorption to aquifer mineral surfaces limits the transport of As after mobilization, which may explain, in part, the heterogeneous distribution of As in groundwaters of southern Louisiana and, perhaps, the Bengal Basin.

  16. Set-up of a pump as turbine use in micro-pumped hydro energy storage: a case of study in Froyennes Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, A.; Steimes, J.; Bontems, O.; Zohbi, G. Al; Hendrick, P.

    2017-04-01

    Its maturity makes pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) the most used technology in energy storage. Micro-hydro plants (electricity production such as wind and solar power. This paper presents the design of a micro-PHES developed in Froyennes, Belgium, using a pump as turbine (PaT) coupled with a variable frequency driver (VFD). The methods adopted for the selection of the most suitable pump for pumping and reverse mode are compared and discussed. Controlling and monitoring the PaT performances represent a compulsory design phase in the analysis feasibility of PaT coupled with VFD in micro PHES plant. This study aims at answering technical research aspects of µ-PHES site used with reversible pumps.

  17. Integral forged pump casing for the primary coolant circuit of a nuclear reactor: Development in design, forging technology, and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austel, W.; Korbe, H.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the forging of large casings for primary circuit coolant pumps for light water reactors in Germany are demonstrated beginning with the multiple forging fabricated version and ending with the integral forged type. This version is the result of the joint efforts of the pump manufacturer and the forgemaster after a cost-gain evaluation and represents an optimum solution in view of its functional and economical performance and also considering the high requirements for mechanical-technological properties, including homogeneity of the material. The development from 22 NiMoCr 3 7/A 508 Class 2 to 20 MnMoNi 5 5/A 508 Class 3 and their optimization will be demonstrated. This development is based mainly on minimizing the sulfur content and on vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), which results in a reduction of the A-segregations, in improving fracture toughness and isotropy, and in the desired fine-grain structure

  18. Numerical prediction of 239Pu migration for groundwater pollution in the infiltration case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Wang Qinghai; Yu Jing

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the study on site selection of geological disposal of LIL radioactive waste in north-west China, a numerical prediction of 239 Pu migration for potential groundwater pollution in the unsaturated zone was conducted with the HYDRUS-ID model. The results showed that the groundwater will not be contaminated by the migration of soluble 239 Pu. And there is a faint possibility that 239 Pu migration through groundwater path might have an unacceptable impact on ecosphere. Measurements of the distribution coefficient, K d , are critical in the determination of sorption-induced retardation of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  19. Groundwater composition fluctuation within technogenic zones (case study: flooded coal mines in Primorsky Krai, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, I. A.; Zinkov, A. V.; Vakh, E. A.; Vetoshkina, A. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers groundwater composition fluctuation within technogenic zones based on evidence from the flooded coal mines of Primorye. The authors have determined the regularities of hydrogeochemical processes, specified the groundwater composition fluctuation within the technogenic complexes located in the liquidated mine areas, and identified the equilibrium phases between the studied waters and specific secondary minerals. It has been proved that water within natural-technogenic complexes in the liquidated mine areas are saturated with silicates, carbonates, sulfates, oxides, and hydroxides, which should be taken into account when designing technologies for groundwater treatment.

  20. Analysis of groundwater discharge with a lumped-parameter model, using a case study from Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, S. P.; Shestakov, V. M.

    A lumped-parameter model of groundwater balance is proposed that permits an estimate of discharge variability in comparison with the variability of recharge, by taking into account the influence of aquifer parameters. Recharge-discharge relationships are analysed with the model for cases of deterministic and stochastic recharge time-series variations. The model is applied to study the temporal variability of groundwater discharge in a river valley in the territory of Tajikistan, an independent republic in Central Asia. Résumé Un modèle global de bilan d'eau souterraine a été développé pour estimer la variabilité de l'écoulement par rapport à celle de la recharge, en prenant en compte l'influence des paramètres de l'aquifère. Les relations entre recharge et écoulement sont analysées à l'aide du modèle pour des variations des chroniques de recharge soit déterministes, soit stochastiques. Le modèle est appliquéà l'étude de la variabilité temporelle de l'écoulement souterrain vers une rivière, dans le Tadjikistan, une république indépendante d'Asie centrale. Resumen Se propone un modelo de parámetros concentrados para realizar el balance de aguas subterráneas, el cual permite estimar la variabilidad en la descarga con respecto a la variabilidad en la recarga, en función de los parámetros que caracterizan el acuífero. Las relaciones entre recarga y descarga se analizan con el modelo para distintos casos de series temporales de recarga, tanto deterministas como estocásticas. El modelo se aplica al estudio de la variabilidad temporal de la descarga en un valle aluvial de Tadyikistán, una república independiente del Asia Central.

  1. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  2. Insights and participatory actions driven by a socio-hydrogeological approach for groundwater management: the Grombalia Basin case study (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.

  3. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition: the case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Verhoeven, Fenne

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Starting from a Cognitive Systems Engineering perspective, we developed an Impact Flow Diagram showing the relationship of computer technology, cognition, practitioner behavior, and system failure in the area of medical infusion devices. We subsequently conducted a systematic literature review on user-interface issues with infusion pumps, categorized the studies in terms of methods employed, and noted the usability problems found with particular methods. Next, we assigned usability problems and related methods to the levels in the Impact Flow Diagram. Most study methods used to find user interface issues with infusion pumps focused on observable behavior rather than on how artifacts shape cognition and collaboration. A concerted and theory-driven application of these methods when testing infusion pumps is lacking in the literature. Detailed analysis of one case study provided an illustration of how to apply the Impact Flow Diagram, as well as how the scope of analysis may be broadened to include organizational and regulatory factors. Research methods to uncover use problems with technology may be used in many ways, with many different foci. We advocate the adoption of an Impact Flow Diagram perspective rather than merely focusing on usability issues in isolation. Truly advancing patient safety requires the systematic adoption of a systems perspective viewing people and technology as an ensemble, also in the design of medical device technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION IN PUMP MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN INDIA - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Badgujar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing has now become a common word in the industrial corridors. It has now been applied to the industries of several domains. No wonder that the Pump manufacturing has also witnessed profound influence of Lean philosophy. Pump manufacturing in India has a history as old as 80 years with more than 500 pump manufacturing units presently working. The present research is an explorative study and was undertaken to identify various factors affecting lean manufacturing implementation in pump manufacturing industry. Analysis of results revealed that the companies registered increase in productivity and reduction in costs and wastes. Lack of understanding, Supply chain and Company culture are found to be the strongest barriers of lean manufacturing implementation. The multiple regression model revealed that Lack of workers support can be fairly reduced by educating them about Lean Manufacturing and establishing a healthy communication with workers. An analysis across different management levels revealed disparity in perceptions and views of personnel. There is a need for top management to align organization toward common goals so as to achieve better success in implementing lean manufacturing.

  5. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option

  6. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  7. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  8. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and ... non-point source contamination from agriculture, industrial and ...... nation of Water and Wastewater' (Handa 1981;.

  9. Exergy costs analysis of groundwater use and water transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquer, Beatriz; Uche, Javier; Martínez-Gracia, Amaya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate the unit exergy cost of water supply alternatives is provided. • Two alternatives (water transfers and groundwaters) are defined. • The unit exergy costs are given as a function of design and operating parameters. • Unit exergy cost of groundwaters go from 1.01 to 2.67 and from 1 to 4.06 in water transfers. • Unit exergy costs are calculated and contrasted for the medium course of the Ebro. - Abstract: In the search for new alternatives to meet the water demands, it is interesting to analyze the cost of using alternatives different from those such as desalination and pumping. The exergy cost analysis can be a useful tool to estimate costs of those alternatives as a function of its energy efficiency and its relative abundance with respect to existing resources in their surroundings. This study proposes a methodology for assessing the costs of groundwaters and water transfers from surplus basins within the exergy perspective. An equation to assess the exergy costs of these alternatives is proposed. System boundaries are first identified to the assessment of input and output currents to the system in exergy values for the design and certain operating conditions. Next, an equation to assess water supply costs depending on design and operational parameters is proposed, from the analysis of different examples. Pumping efficiency, altitude gap and flow among other features are introduced in the calculations as those characteristics parameters. In the developed examples, unit exergy costs of groundwaters go from 1.01 to 2.67, and from 1 to 4.06 in case of water transfers. Maximum values, as expected within this perspective, are found at high pumped/transferred flows and high pumping levels and/or low pumping efficiency if pumping is required.

  10. Hydrochemistry and isotope geochemistry as management tools for groundwater resources in multilayer aquifers: A study case from the Po plain (Lomellina, South-Western Lombardy, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilla, G; Sacchi, E; Ciancetti, G; Braga, G [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zuppi, G M [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Venice (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Full text: The Po plain, located in Northern Italy, hosts a multi-layer alluvial aquifer of Quaternary age constituted by sands interbedded with clays. The plain supports most of the agricultural and industrial activities of Northern Italy, which are associated with groundwater pollution in the shallower portions of the aquifer. The increasing demand of water for industrial and domestic use has led to the exploitation of deeper layers of the aquifer, without a rational management of the resource. Only in the last decade, the government agencies have started a global evaluation of the quality standards of pumped groundwater, urged by the increasing need for clean water for domestic use. The task is particularly difficult because of missing or approximate well logs and the presence of multi-filter wells tapping in different aquifers. In this case the chemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwaters is the only reliable tool to reconstruct the geometry, the interconnections and the characteristics of the aquifers. This study, promoted by the local agency for groundwater management and protection (Amministrazione Provinciale di Pavia, settore tutela e valorizzazione ambientale - U.O.C. Acqua) focused on a limited portion of the Po plain, the Lomellina region, of approximately 900 km{sup 2}. The region is bound to the South by the Po river, to the East and West by the Sesia and the Ticino rivers respectively, and to the North by the administrative boundary. The study aimed at the hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the aquifers, allowing to serve as basis for the correct management of the groundwater resource. A preliminary reconstruction of the hydrogeological asset of the Lomellina plain was performed through the analysis of the stratigraphic data from 102 municipal wells. On this basis, a shallow phreatic aquifer, reaching depths of about 50-60 m from the surface, and two groups of aquifers containing confined groundwater, were

  11. Groundwater Sustainability through a Novel Dewatering Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Holzbecher, E.; Ebneth, S.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem balances. Over the past decades, groundwater is intensively extracted in order to keep construction or mining sites dry. For the latter purpose the pumped water is usually discharged into a nearby surface water body or injected into an aquifer distant from the abstraction sites. As a result, aquifers are depleted and the local eco-system is disrupted as a consequence of falling groundwater tables. Given ongoing pressure on aquifer from abstraction sites, it is vital to bring up adequate attention on groundwater conservation. We demonstrate a novel technique, Düsensauginfiltration (DSI, translated as 'nozzel-suction-infiltration'), which avoids water conveyance but still lowers the groundwater table locally. The method combines abstraction of groundwater at the upper part of the aquifer with injection in the same borehole, but at a greater depth. Hence no water is withdrawn from the system. The method is already used practically in Germany, Netherlands, and China, however, it is not yet fully scientifically understood and evaluated. Currently, two tests sites in Germany, for single and multi well respectively, are selected, at which the DSI technology is currently examined. The project is cooperated with a leading dewatering company (Hoelscher Wasserbau GmbH) and funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). To provide the basic principle of the method, we present numerical models solving the differential equation, which is derived from Darcy's Law and mass conservation, describing groundwater flow. We set up stationary numerical models in 2D (vertical cross section for single well case) and 3D (multi well case and/or when ambient groundwater flow is considered) using COMSOL Multiphysics. Since our model region only involves the saturated part of the unconfined aquifer, the numerical model solves a free boundary problem using hydraulic pressure as unknown variable. Two physical modes are included

  12. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped ... ing the affected groundwater aquifer down to some drinking water standard. Several .... For simplicity, rectangular support domain is used in this study. Figure 1 ..... For PAT remediation system, decision variables include the.

  13. Hydrochemistry and Characteristics of Groundwater: Case Study Water Contamination at Citarum River Upstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sapari Dwi Hadian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rancaekek and Sayang area, West Java, are the area where many industrial factories are located.Thus, the region becomes the targeted destination for industrial development.The  population in the area is rising due to the growth of industries causing the regional development becomes uncontrollable. In addition, the constant increment of waste and also poor-coordinated disposal systems may result in groundwater contamination in the areas. The rapid growth of the area increase the need for groundwater as well as the need for more research about contamination at Rancaekek and Sayang. The research aims to explore the spread of groundwater contamination in the area. The research method is carried out based on the analysis of Geological Mapping, Hydrogeological Mapping and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the area. Chemical analyses of the groundwater were conducted through laboratory test of groundwater samples at specific spots of dug wells. The lab test results were further analyzed to determine the contamination zone. The findings reveal that the distribution of contamination in the area follow the shallow ground water flow patterns, the water contamination contains heavy metal and there is degradation of soil fertility. The findings suggest the stakeholders to delineate the contaminated area, and increase the dissemination of environmental awareness.

  14. Complex interactions among climate change, sanitation, and groundwater quality: A case study from Ramotswa, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, B. M.; Altchenko, Y.; Kenabatho, P. K.; Sylvester, S. R.; Villholth, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    With population growth, rapid urbanization, and climate change, groundwater is becoming an increasingly important source of drinking water around the world, including southern Africa. This is an investigation into the coupled human and natural system linking climate change, droughts, sanitation, and groundwater quality in Ramotswa, a town in the semi-arid southeastern Botswana. During the recent drought from 2013-2016, water shortages from reservoirs that supply the larger city of Gaborone resulted in curtailed water supply to Ramotswa, forcing people with flush toilets to use pit latrines. Pit latrines have been suspected as the cause of elevated nitrate in the Ramotswa groundwater, which also contributes to the town's drinking water supply. The groundwater pollution paradoxically makes Ramotswa dependent on Gaborone's water, supplied in large part by surface reservoirs, which are vulnerable to drought. Analysis of long-term rainfall records indicates that droughts like the one in 2013-2016 are increasing in likelihood due to climate change. Because of the drought, many more people used pit latrines than under normal conditions. Analysis of the groundwater for nitrate and using caffeine as an indicator, human waste leaching from pit latrines is implicated as the major culprit for the nitrate pollution. The results indicate a critical indirect linkage between climate change, sanitation, groundwater quality and water security in this area of rapid urbanization and population growth. Recommendations are offered for how Ramotswa's water security could be made less vulnerable to climate change.

  15. Hydrogeochemical Modelling for Groundwater in Neyveli Aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, Using PHREEQC: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, S.; Anandhan, P. [Annamalai University, Department of Earth Sciences (India); Prasanna, M. V., E-mail: geoprasanna@gmail.com [Curtin University, Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science (Malaysia); Ramanathan, AL. [Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of Environmental Sciences (India); Srinivasamoorthy, K. [Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences (India); Senthil Kumar, G. [HNB Garwhal University, Department of Geology (India)

    2012-09-15

    Sophisticated geochemical models have been used to describe and predict the chemical behaviour of complex natural waters and also to protect the groundwater resources from future contamination. One such model is used to study the hydrogeochemical complexity in a mine area. Extraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer has been in progress for decades to mine lignite in Neyveli. This extraction has developed a cone of depression around the mine site. This cone of depression is well established by the geochemical nature of groundwater in the region. 42 groundwater samples were collected in a definite pattern and they were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements. The saturation index (SI) of the groundwater for carbonate, sulphate and silica minerals was studied and it has been correlated with the recharge and the discharge regions. The SI of alumino silicates has been used to decipher the stage of weathering. The SI{sub Gibbsite} - SI{sub K-feldspar} has been spatially distributed and the regions of discharge and recharge were identified. Then two flow paths A1 and A2 were identified and inverse modelling using PHREEQC were carried out to delineate the geochemical process that has taken place from recharge to discharge. The initial and final solutions in both the flow paths were correlated with the thermodynamic silicate stability diagrams of groundwater and it was found that the state of thermodynamic stability of the end solutions along the flow path were approaching similar states of equilibrium at the discharge.

  16. Intrathecal catheter-syringe adaptor for short-term intrathecal analgesia with an externalized pump: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Denise; Cook, Michael; Solanki, Daneshvari

    2010-01-01

    attached to an external drug infusion pump. We report the successful use of the Medtronic Indura 1P, one piece intrathecal catheter, connected to the external drug pump for a 3 week period in a patient with metastatic cervical cancer for palliative pain control. Case report only. This technique is simple to perform by pain specialists. The catheter modification allows the use of the Medtronic intrathecal catheter with standard external drug infusion pumps. This facilitates the patient's care in the hospice setting.

  17. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  18. Groundwater Drought and Recovery: a Case Study from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, D.; McKenzie, A. A.; Bloomfield, J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the processes leading to the onset, duration and end of hydrological droughts is necessary to help improve the management of stressed or scarce water resources during such periods. In particular, the role and use of groundwater during episodes of drought is crucially important, since groundwater can provide relatively resilient water supplies during early stages of drought but maybe highly susceptible to relatively persistent or sustained droughts. Nevertheless, groundwater is seldom considered in drought analyses, and compared with other types of hydrological drought there have been few studies to date. The few previous studies of groundwater droughts at catchment- and regional-scale have shown that catchment and aquifer characteristics exert a strong influence on the spatio-temporal development of groundwater droughts as water deficit propagates through the terrestrial water cycle. In this context, the relationships between hydrogeological heterogeneity, catchment engineering infrastructure (storage), and decisions related to water resource management during drought events all shape the evolution and consequences of groundwater droughts. Here we examine the evolution of a recent regionally significant two-year drought across the United Kingdom (UK) and use it to investigate these relationships. We identify the drivers, characterise the development and spatio-temporal extent of the groundwater drought. In particular, we focus on the unusually rapid end and recovery from drought during what would normally be a period of groundwater recession. The UK, and in particular southern England, relies extensively on groundwater for public water supply, agricultural and industrial use, as well as for sustaining river flows that are essential to ecosystem health. In normal years relatively consistent rainfall patterns prevail, recharging aquifers over winter when evapotranspiration is minimal. However, by March 2012 large parts of the southern UK had

  19. Modes and Approaches of Groundwater Governance: A Survey of Lessons Learned from Selected Cases across the Globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Varady

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The crucial role of groundwater and the centrality of water governance in accommodating growing water demands sustainably are becoming well recognized. We review 10 case studies of groundwater governance—representing diverse global regions and local contexts—from the perspective of four well-established elements: (1 institutional setting; (2 availability and access to information and science; (3 robustness of civil society; and (4 economic and regulatory frameworks. For institutional setting, we find that governing is often a thankless task that paradoxically requires popularity; legislation does not always translate to implementation; conflict resolution is central to governance; and funding is critical for governance. In terms of information access, we see: a need for research for natural systems, social systems, and institutions; trust as an essential element in research; and that urbanized landscapes are critical components of groundwater governance. Looking at civil society robustness, we observe that equity is an essential element for governance; community-based governance requires intention; and leaders can play a powerful role in uniting stakeholders. As for frameworks, the cases suggest that economic incentives sometimes yield unintended results; “indirect” management should be used cautiously; and economic incentives’ effectiveness depends on the system employed. Collectively, the lessons speak to the need for shared governance capacities on the part of governments at multiple levels and civil society actors.

  20. Geochemical controls on fluoriferous groundwaters of the Pliocene and the more recent aquifers: The case of Aigion region, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Siavalas, G.; Lambrakis, N.

    2013-12-01

    High fluoride concentrations (> 8 mg/L) in the groundwater of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments are rare; however, this is the case around Aigion town, where teeth fluorosis has been detected since the 80s. Aiming to investigate the origin and the mobility mechanism of fluorine in groundwater and sediments a hydrogeological and geochemical research has been conducted. The hydrogeological research revealed that the Na-HCO3 water type of boreholes aligned along a fault and hosted in the confined aquifers display the higher fluoride content. The unconfined aquifer is mostly dominated by Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water, which displays much lower fluoride concentrations. The most permeable sectors of this aquifer host fresh water of Ca-HCO3 type. The geochemical research revealed significant amount of fluorine in the base of a lignite sequence hosted in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments.

  1. Revealed social preference for potable groundwater: An Eastern Iowa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Forney, W.; Mishra, S.

    2011-12-01

    The spatially explicit land use and land cover information provided by Landsat moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is needed to more efficiently balance the production of goods and services over landscapes. For example, economic trade-offs are needed to provide both clean groundwater resources and other non-environmental goods and services produced by activities that affect the vadose zone and thus contribute to contamination of groundwater. These trade-off choices are made by numerous economic agents and are constrained by many social institutions including governmental regulations at many levels, contractual obligations and traditions. In effect, on a social level, society acts as if it values groundwater by foregoing other goods to protect these resources. The result of the protection afforded to groundwater resources is observable by measuring contamination in well samples. This observed level of groundwater contamination risk is the revealed preference of society as a whole for clean groundwater. We observed the risk of groundwater contamination in a sampling of well data from our study area (35 counties of Eastern Iowa.) We used a proportional hazard model to quantify the nitrate contamination survival implied by the panel of 19,873 well data, where remaining below a 10 mg/ml maximum contamination level (MCL) is defined as survival. We tested the data for evidence that the levels of protection provided to these resources is correlated with aquifer and vadose zone characteristics and geographic location and whether it changed over time and with economic and other conditions. We demonstrate the use of a nitrate conditioned hazard function for projecting the survival of wells based on nitrate exposure information over the 1940 to 2010 time period. We discuss results of simulations of the survival process that demonstrate the economic significance of this approach. We find that aquifer survival has been significantly improving over time. The principle of

  2. Groundwater recharge estimation under semi arid climate: Case of Northern Gafsa watershed, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Achraf; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Fatahi, Rouhallah; Abida, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Natural groundwater recharge under semi arid climate, like rainfall, is subjected to large variations in both time and space and is therefore very difficult to predict. Nevertheless, in order to set up any strategy for water resources management in such regions, understanding the groundwater recharge variability is essential. This work is interested in examining the impact of rainfall on the aquifer system recharge in the Northern Gafsa Plain in Tunisia. The study is composed of two main parts. The first is interested in the analysis of rainfall spatial and temporal variability in the study basin while the second is devoted to the simulation of groundwater recharge. Rainfall analysis was performed based on annual precipitation data recorded in 6 rainfall stations over a period of 56 years (1960-2015). Potential evapotranspiration data were also collected from 1960 to 2011 (52 years). The hydrologic distributed model WetSpass was used for the estimation of groundwater recharge. Model calibration was performed based on an assessment of the agreement between the sum of recharge and runoff values estimated by the WetSpass hydrological model and those obtained by the climatic method. This latter is based on the difference calculated between rainfall and potential evapotranspiration recorded at each rainy day. Groundwater recharge estimation, on monthly scale, showed that average annual precipitation (183.3 mm/year) was partitioned to 5, 15.3, 36.8, and 42.8% for interception, runoff, actual evapotranspiration and recharge respectively.

  3. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  4. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  5. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  6. Coastal Forests and Groundwater: Using Case Studies to Understand the Effects of Drivers and Stressors for Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Callahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are receiving more attention for the ecosystem goods and services they provide and the potential change agents that may affect forest health and productivity. Highlighting case examples from coastal forests in South Carolina, USA, we describe groundwater processes with respect to stressors and potential responses of a wetland-rich forested landscape, the roles that this area has served, and the need for water resource data to inform forest management decisions. Forested lands in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain provide a rich set of goods and services for the region, and in one case, the Francis Marion National Forest acts as a buffer to urbanization from the surrounding Charleston metropolitan area. Information from two decades of studies in the forested watersheds there may inform scientists and managers in other coastal forested systems. The common hydrological theme in this region, which has a higher average annual rainfall (1370 mm than the annual potential evapotranspiration (PET = 1135 mm, is a shallow (<3 m water table condition that supports a large range of natural wetlands and also creates management challenges across the region. Modest changes in the position of the water table can lead to either groundwater flooding and concomitant management challenges for forest services, or ecosystem stresses related to dry conditions in wetlands during times of below-normal precipitation or due to groundwater withdrawal. Development pressures have also stressed forest resources through the extraction of materials such as timber and sand mining, and the conversion to housing construction materials. These areas are also targeted for land development, to meet housing demands. In this paper, we discuss the role of groundwater in coastal forests and highlight opportunities for collaborative studies to better inform forest resource management.

  7. Fast-track aquifer characterization and bioremediation of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, S.B.; Erskine, J.A.; Adkisson, C.

    1995-01-01

    A short duration step-drawdown pumping test has been used to characterize a highly permeable aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in support of an in situ, closed loop extraction and reinjection bioremediation system for groundwater. The short-term pumping test produces a manageable quantity of contaminated groundwater while yielding a range of values for transmissivity and specific yield parameters. This range of aquifer coefficients is used in an analytical model to estimate a range of groundwater extraction rates that provide a suitable radius of influence for the extraction and reinjection system. A multi-enzyme complex catalyzed bioremediation process has been used to aerobically degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Enzymes, amino acids, and biosurfactants are supplied to the extracted groundwater to significantly speed up the degradation by naturally occurring bacteria. During the process, amino acids promote the rapid growth of the microbial population while enzymes and bacteria attach to hydrocarbons forming a transformation state complex that degrades to fatty acids, carbon dioxide, and water. This paper presents a case study of a fast-track bioremediation using pumping test data, analytical modeling, and an enzyme technology

  8. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  9. Stratigraphic and structural controls on groundwater flow in an outcropping fossil fan delta: the case of Sant Llorenç del Munt range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albert; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological models of mountain regions present the opportunity to understand the role of geological factors on groundwater resources. The effects of sedimentary facies and fracture distribution on groundwater flow and resource exploitation are studied in the ancient fan delta of Sant Llorenç de Munt (central Catalonia, Spain) by integrating geological field observations (using sequence stratigraphy methods) and hydrogeological data (pumping tests, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). A comprehensive analysis of data portrays the massif as a single unit, constituted by different compartments determined by specific layers and sets of fractures. Two distinct flow systems—local and regional—are identified based on pumping test analysis as well as hydrochemical and isotopic data. Drawdown curves derived from pumping tests indicate that the behavior of the saturated layers, whose main porosity is given by the fracture network, corresponds to a confined aquifer. Pumping tests also reflect a double porosity within the system and the occurrence of impervious boundaries that support a compartmentalized model for the whole aquifer system. Hydrochemical data and associated spatial evolution show the result of water-rock interaction along the flow lines. Concentration of magnesium, derived from dolomite dissolution, is a tracer of the flow-path along distinct stratigraphic units. Water stable isotopes indicate that evaporation (near a 5% loss) occurs in a thick unsaturated zone within the massif before infiltration reaches the water table. The hydrogeological analysis of this outcropping system provides a methodology for the conceptualization of groundwater flow in similar buried systems where logging and hydrogeological information are scarce.

  10. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil and geologic controls on recharge and groundwater flow response to climate perturbation: A case study of the Yakima River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Pham, H. V.; Bachmann, M.; Tague, C.; Adam, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    framework developed in this study will be used to investigate the impacts of both climate and drought-relief supplemental pumping on potential recharge, groundwater and streamflow changes in the YRB.

  12. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  13. Geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality under semi arid environment: A case study in central Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Elmandour, Abdenabi; Wilske, Cornelia; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert

    2017-12-31

    Bahira plain is an important area for Morocco due to its agriculture and mining activities. Situated in a sub-arid to arid climate, this plain hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of carbonates, phosphates, evaporates and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from Ganntour plateau (recharge area) to the basin-fill deposits and Zima Lake and Sed Elmejnoun where water evaporates. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. We can divide water samples into three hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca/Mg-HCO 3 ), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 /Cl) and discharge waters (Na-Cl/SO 4 ). Accordingly, compositions of waters are determined by the availability of easily soluble minerals like calcite (Ca-HCO 3 dominant), halite (Na-Cl dominant) and gypsum (Ca-SO 4 dominant). Cl/Br ratios show that Cl concentration increases from dissolution of natural halite. When groundwater is affected by extreme evaporation Cl/Br ratios may increase up to 1900. High fluoride concentrations are associated with low Ca 2+ concentrations (<100mg/L). That means when recharge waters enter the aquifer, it starts dissolving fluorite since the Ca 2+ concentration is low. Once groundwater becomes saturated with Ca 2+ , the immobilization of fluoride is occurring by precipitation of fluoride-rich minerals like fluoro-apatite. According to the environmental isotope ( 18 O and 2 H) analyses, they are three potential processes affecting groundwater: 1. Evaporation as verified by low slope value, 2. Water-rock interaction, 3. admixture of waters showed different stable isotope compositions and salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the geochemical evolution of groundwater under agricultural land: A case study in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Zona Citrícola is an important area for Mexico due to its citriculture activity. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to the Sierra Madre Oriental, this valley hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flows to supply drinking water to the adjacent metropolitan area of Monterrey. Recent studies examining the groundwater quality of the study area urge the mitigation of groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. Correlation was used to identify associations among various geochemical constituents. Factor analysis was applied to identify the water's chemical characteristics that were responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed in combination with a post-hoc analysis of variance to partition the water samples into hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed and constrained using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling the water's chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The primary reactions contributing to salinity were the following: (1) water-rock interactions, including the weathering of evaporitic rocks and dedolomitization; (2) dissolution of soil gas carbon dioxide; and (3) input from animal/human wastewater and manure in combination with by denitrification processes. Contributions from silicate weathering to salinity ranged from less important to insignificant. The findings suggest that it may not be cost-effective to regulate manure application to mitigate groundwater pollution.

  16. The Importance of Institutional Design for Distributed Local-Level Governance of Groundwater: The Case of California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of the world, groundwater resources are increasingly stressed, and unsustainable use has become common. Where existing mechanisms for governing groundwater are ineffective or nonexistent, new ones need to be developed. Local level groundwater governance provides an intriguing alternative to top-down models, with the promise of enabling management to better match the diversity of physical and social conditions in groundwater basins. One such example is emerging in California, USA, where new state law requires new local agencies to self-organize and act to achieve sustainable groundwater management. In this article, we draw on insights from research on common pool resource management and natural resources governance to develop guidelines for institutional design for local groundwater governance, grounded in California’s developing experience. We offer nine criteria that can be used as principles or standards in the evaluation of institutional design for local level groundwater governance: scale, human capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency. We assert that local governance holds promise as an alternative to centralized governance in some settings but that its success will depend heavily on the details of its implementation. Further, for local implementation to achieve its promise, there remain important complementary roles for centralized governance. California’s developing experience with local level groundwater management in dozens of basins across the state provides a unique opportunity to test and assess the importance and influence of these criteria.

  17. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  18. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  19. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  20. A New Method to Infer Advancement of Saline Front in Coastal Groundwater Systems by 3D: The Case of Bari (Southern Italy Fractured Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Masciopinto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method to study 3D saline front advancement in coastal fractured aquifers has been presented. Field groundwater salinity was measured in boreholes of the Bari (Southern Italy coastal aquifer with depth below water table. Then, the Ghyben-Herzberg freshwater/saltwater (50% sharp interface and saline front position were determined by model simulations of the freshwater flow in groundwater. Afterward, the best-fit procedure between groundwater salinity measurements, at assigned water depth of 1.0 m in boreholes, and distances of each borehole from the modelled freshwater/saltwater saline front was used to convert each position (x, y in groundwater to the water salinity concentration at depth of 1.0 m. Moreover, a second best-fit procedure was applied to the salinity measurements in boreholes with depth z. These results provided a grid file (x, y, z, salinity suitable for plotting the actual Bari aquifer salinity by 3D maps. Subsequently, in order to assess effects of pumping on the saltwater-freshwater transition zone in the coastal aquifer, the Navier-Stokes (N-S equations were applied to study transient density-driven flow and salt mass transport into freshwater of a single fracture. The rate of seawater/freshwater interface advancement given by the N-S solution was used to define the progression of saline front in Bari groundwater, starting from the actual salinity 3D map. The impact of pumping of 335 L·s−1 during the transition period of 112.8 days was easily highlighted on 3D salinity maps of Bari aquifer.

  1. Case studies of groundwater- surface water interactions and scale relationships in small alluvial aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, Dave; de Hamer, Wouter; Owen, Richard J.S.; Booij, Martijn J.; Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    An alluvial aquifer can be described as a groundwater system, generally unconfined, that is hosted in laterally discontinuous layers of gravel, sand, silt and clay, deposited by a river in a river channel, banks or flood plain. In semi-arid regions, streams that are associated with alluvial aquifers

  2. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  3. Assessment of well vulnerability for groundwater source protection based on a solute transport model: a case study from Jilin City, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Lai, Desheng; Teng, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-01

    Well vulnerability assessment is essential for groundwater source protection. A quantitative approach to assess well vulnerability in a well capture zone is presented, based on forward solute transport modeling. This method was applied to three groundwater source areas (Jiuzhan, Hadawan and Songyuanhada) in Jilin City, northeast China. The ratio of the maximum contaminant concentration at the well to the released concentration at the contamination source ( c max/ c 0) was determined as the well vulnerability indicator. The results indicated that well vulnerability was higher close to the pumping well. The well vulnerability in each groundwater source area was low. Compared with the other two source areas, the cone of depression at Jiuzhan resulted in higher spatial variability of c max/ c 0 and lower minimum c max/ c 0 by three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that the denitrification rate in the aquifer was the most sensitive with respect to well vulnerability. A process to derive a NO3-N concentration at the pumping well is presented, based on determining the maximum nitrate loading limit to satisfy China's drinking-water quality standards. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for improving the precision of this well vulnerability assessment approach are discussed.

  4. Hybrid solution and pump-storage optimization in water supply system efficiency: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.; Ramos, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental targets and saving energy have become ones of the world main concerns over the last years and it will increase and become more important in a near future. The world population growth rate is the major factor contributing for the increase in global pollution and energy and water consumption. In 2005, the world population was approximately 6.5 billion and this number is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050 [United Nations, 2008. (www.un.org), accessed on July]. Water supply systems use energy for pumping water, so new strategies must be developed and implemented in order to reduce this consumption. In addition, if there is excess of hydraulic energy in a water system, some type of water power generation can be implemented. This paper presents an optimization model that determines the best hourly operation for 1 day, according to the electricity tariff, for a pumped storage system with water consumption and inlet discharge. Wind turbines are introduced in the system. The rules obtained as output of the optimization process are subsequently introduced in a hydraulic simulator, in order to verify the system behaviour. A comparison with the normal water supply operating mode is done and the energy cost savings with this hybrid solution are calculated

  5. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  6. Evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points in old Jammu City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Meenakshi; Dutta, S P S

    2011-10-01

    To assess water quality of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points, viz. Parade Ground, Mohalla Paharian, Purani Mandi, Malhotrian Street, Raghunathpura and Hari Market in old Jammu city of India, water parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, sulphate, silicate, nitrate, phosphate, iron, copper, zinc, lead and chromium were analyzed during the years 2000-2001/2001-2002. There was alteration in water quality parameters in the distribution system caused by entry of sewage, soil, etc. through dislocation, cracks, valve regulators/turncock, defective joints, breakage, etc. in the pipes through crossing and deposits of biofilms inside the pipes, dead ends and their degradation through microbes. Comparison of water quality with National and International Standards revealed that all the parameters were within permissible limits of drinking water standards. Water Quality Index (WQI) of various physico-chemical parameters revealed that the water of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points was fit for human consumption as it was found under the category of good (WQI < 50).

  7. Modeling erosion of unsaturated compacted bentonite by groundwater flow; pinhole erosion test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurila, T.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Koskinen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Erosion of compacted clay material by water flow is a critical factor affecting the performance of radioactive waste confinement. Our emphasis in this work is the buffer of KBS-3V concept, proposed to be compacted MX-80 bentonite. Unsaturated erosion occurs during the saturation phase of the EBS, and the main quantity of interest is the total buffer mass carried away by a groundwater flow that induces erosion by forming piping channels near the buffer/rock interface. The purpose of this work is to provide modeling tools to support erosion experiments. Role of modeling is first to interpret experimental observations in terms of processes, and to estimate robustness of experimental results. Secondly, we seek to scale up results from the laboratory scale, particularly to time scales longer than those experimentally accessible. We have performed modeling and data analysis pertaining to tests of unsaturated clay erosion. Pinhole experiments were used to study this erosion case. The main differences to well-understood pinhole erosion tests are that the material is strongly swelling and that the water flow is not determined by the pressure head but by the total flux. Groundwater flow in the buffer is determined by the flux because pressure losses occur overwhelmingly in the surrounding rock, not in the piping channel. We formulate a simple model that links an effective solid diffusivity -based swelling model to erosion by flow on the solid/liquid interface. The swelling model is similar in concept to that developed at KTH, but simpler. Erosion in the model is caused by laminar flow in the pinhole, and happens in a narrow region at the solid/liquid interface where velocity and solid volume fraction overlap. The erosion model can be mapped to erosion by wall shear, and can thus be considered as extension of that classic erosion model. The main quantity defining the behavior of clay erosion in the model is the ratio of

  8. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  9. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaka, Lydia A., E-mail: lydiaolaka@gmail.com [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Wilke, Franziska D.H. [Geoforschungs Zentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Olago, Daniel O.; Odada, Eric O. [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mulch, Andreas [Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Musolff, Andreas [UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F{sup −} concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ{sup 18}O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F{sup −} enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management

  10. Inverse modelling of aquifer parameters in basaltic rock with the help of pumping test method using MODFLOW software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Moharir

    2017-11-01

    The present study of estimation of aquifer factors such as transmissivity (T and storativity (S are vital for the evaluation of groundwater resources. There are several methods to estimate the accurate aquifer parameters (i.e. hydrograph analysis, pumping test, etc.. In initial days, these parameters are projected either by means of in-situ test or execution test on aquifer well samples carried in the laboratory. The simultaneous information on the hydraulic behavior of the well (borehole that provides on this method, the reservoir and the reservoir boundaries, are important for efficient aquifer and well data management and analysis. The most common in-situ test is pumping test performed on wells, which involves the measurement of the fall and increase of groundwater level with respect to time. The alteration in groundwater level (drawdown/recovery is caused due to pumping of water from the well. Theis (1935 was first to propose method to evaluate aquifer parameters from the pumping test on a bore well in a confined aquifer. It is essential to know the transmissivity (T = Kb, where b is the aquifer thickness; pumping flow rate, Q = TW (dh/dl flow through an aquifer and storativity (confined aquifer: S = bSs, unconfined: S = Sy, for the characterization of the aquifer parameters in an unknown area so as to predict the rate of drawdown of the groundwater table/potentiometric surface throughout the pumping test of an aquifer. The determination of aquifer's parameters is an important basis for groundwater resources evaluation, numerical simulation, development and protection as well as scientific management. For determining aquifer's parameters, pumping test is a main method. A case study shows that these techniques have been fast speed and high correctness. The results of parameter's determination are optimized so that it has important applied value for scientific research and geology engineering preparation.

  11. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Averting a Disaster with Groundwater Depletion in India: The General Case of Water Management Principles and Development (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    Many countries, including the USA, China, and India are experiencing chronic groundwater depletion. In part this unsustainable water use results from climatic factors that reduce surface water availability and also the recharge to the aquifer system. However, a more critical factor is uncontrolled use for agriculture and energy and mineral processing. Interestingly in places such as India endowments have been politically created that lead to ever increasing use, through the provision of free energy for pumping. Reversing the situation is considered politically challenging, and the concept of metering and payment for what is essentially economic use of water is also considered difficult to apply. In this talk I use the Indian situation as a general example and discuss the role central planning strategies for demand and resource management can play recognizing the private action by millions of users as an inevitable tool that needs to be leveraged without necessarily the high transaction costs that come with monitoring and fee collection for monitored use. Specifically, targeting and stimulating potential cropping strategies and on farm water and energy management emerge as a choice in a difficult management environment. In a broader development context, I argue that the role of private sector aggregators in developing farm to market procurement strategies can play a role in both improving rural economies and providing a trajectory for more efficient water use through technology and crop choice.

  13. Groundwater flow analyses in Japan. 1. Case studies in Hokkaido and Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Maekawa, Keisuke; Koide, Kaoru; Yanagizawa, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    An extensive study program has been carried out to estimate hydrogeological characteristics of deep underground in Japan. As a part of this program, groundwater flow analysis in Hokkaido and Northeast Japan were conducted. For the analyses of these area, hydrogeological models representing topography, geology, distribution of hydraulic conductivity were developed using available informations from open literature. By use of these models, steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow under a saturated/unsaturated condition was calculated by means of finite element method. The results are as follows: (1) Distribution of piezometric head corresponds with topography in the study area. (2) Piezometric head distribution is hydrostatic below E.L.-1000m in the study area. (3) Hydraulic gradient in the study area is less than 0.04 below E.L.-500m. (4) Difference of boundary conditions at the shore side of these models does not affect the results of the analyses. (author)

  14. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bonnie L.; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate 0.7-12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change.

  15. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeler, Bonnie L; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate $0.7–12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change. (letter)

  16. Stable groundwater quality in deep aquifers of Southern Bangladesh: the case against sustainable abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, P; McArthur, J M; Hoque, M A

    2013-06-01

    In forty six wells >150 m deep, from across the arsenic-polluted area of south-central Bangladesh, groundwater composition remained unchanged between 1998 and 2011. No evidence of deteriorating water quality was found in terms of arsenic, iron, manganese, boron, barium or salinity over this period of 13 years. These deep tubewells have achieved operating lives of more than 20 years with minimal institutional support. These findings confirm that tubewells tapping the deep aquifers in the Bengal Basin provide a safe, popular, and economic, means of arsenic mitigation and are likely to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, concerns remain about the sustainability of a resource that could serve as a source of As-safe water to mitigate As-pollution in shallower aquifers in an area where tens of millions of people are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic in well water. The conjunction of the stable composition in deep groundwater and the severe adverse health effects of arsenic in shallow groundwater lead us to challenge the notion that strong sustainability principles should be applied to the management of deep aquifer abstraction in Bangladesh is, the notion that the deep groundwater resource should be preserved for future generations by protecting it from adverse impacts, probably of a minor nature, that could occur after a long time and might not happen at all. Instead, we advocate an ethical approach to development of the deep aquifer, based on adaptive abstraction management, which allows possibly unsustainable exploitation now in order to alleviate crippling disease and death from arsenic today while also benefiting future generations by improving the health, education and economy of living children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Outflows of groundwater in lakes: case study of Lake Raduńske Górne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to locate and describe groundwater outflows in a selected lake basin. The study hypothesis was based on the fact that, according to the specialist literature, one of the forms of lake water supply is through groundwater outflows. It was also assumed that the lakes of the Kashubian Lake District are characterised by such a form of lake water supply. The time scope of the work included the period from January 2011 to September 2012. The spatial scope of the work included the area of Lake Raduńskie Górne, located in the Kashubian Lake District in north Poland. The research plot was in the north-eastern part of the lake. Office works were aimed at gathering and studying source materials and maps. Cartographic materials were analysed with the use of the MapInfo Professional 9.5. The purpose of the field work was to find the groundwater outflows in the basin of Lake Raduńskie Górne. During the field research diving was carried out in the lake. During the dive audiovisual documentation was conducted using a Nikon D90 camera with Ikelite underwater housing for Nikon D90 and an Ikelite DS 161 movie substrobe, as well as a GoPro HD HERO 2 Outdoor camera. During the project, four groundwater outflows were found. In order to examine these springs audiovisual and photographic documentation was made. To systematise the typology of the discovered springs, new nomenclature was suggested, namely under-lake springs with subtypes: an under-lake slope spring and under-lake offshore spring

  18. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  19. Groundwater potential prediction by using geoelectricity method a case study in Simpang Lima and around it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, D. R.; Supriyadi; Aryani, N. P.; Naufal, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Water is an important natural resource, which is available both on surface as well as in recharge zone of weathered layer and in various other suitable water reservoir formations/structures below the surface. The study was conducted in Semarang City, Indonesian. Simpang Lima area were chosen since they have geology record of thick alluvium. The condition of Simpang Lima and around it which currently has developed into the main business area in Semarang City. This is marked by the presence like hotels, super market, that is more than one. This condition certainly requires a supply of water for various purposes that support economic efforts in the region. During this time the water needs are met by drilling wells and used as much as possible without taking into account the impact of water utilization. This study aims to determine the zones that have the potential existence of groundwater. The method used is Geoelectric method with Shlumberger configuration in 7 distributed spatial point. The results showed that there is a potential groundwater in eastern Pekunden, Erlanga, behind The Hotel Horizon, and Simpang Lima. Groundwater is found successively at an average depth of 15 meters under earth’s surface.

  20. Long-term detection and hydrochemistry of groundwater resources in Egypt: Case study of Siwa Oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, it is said, will be the oil of the twenty-first century. Successful water management will be the key to future economic growth and social wealth in both developed and developing countries. Due to the continuous agricultural expansion, urban development, and increased demands on limited water supplies, Egypt is compelled to look for unconventional water resources. One of the most important sources is groundwater in the western desert of Egypt. More water abstraction is currently taking place raising the dangers of overexploitation and deterioration of water quality in Siwa Oasis located in Egypt western desert. The main objectives of this study are to monitor the quality of the Siwa Oasis groundwater over ten years. The present paper presents the results of this investigation and the future outlook for the situation of the limited water resources of the oasis. The data showed spatial differences between water qualities obtained from different locations within the Oasis. It was also observed that there are temporal changes and that water quality is deteriorating in alarming rate over time. Most studied water samples were considered unsuitable for irrigation due to salinity hazards. The reason that may contribute to speeding up groundwater quality deterioration is the unsafe ground water mining on the deep sandstone aquifers which causes the decreases of the fresh water vertical movement from the deep sandstone aquifer to the surface limestone aquifer.

  1. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  2. Characteristics of Leachate and Their Effect on Shallow Groundwater Quality (Case Study : TPA Cipayung, Depok)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, Atika; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The problems arising from landfill activity is leaked leachate that is not absorbed well into leachate stabilization pond which furthermore contaminates shallow groundwater around landfill, include Cipayung landfill. The aims of this study is to determine the characteristics of leachate and their effect on shallow groundwater quality around landfill based on temperature, pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), Mercury (Hg), and fecal coliform. Data were analyzed based on leachate samples at influent point, effluent point, and 7 sampling points of residents’s well with distance variation every 100 meters within 300 meters radius having leachate stabilization pond as benchmark. According to the standard of Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry law No. 59 of 2016, the results showed that leachate quality was still above the standard of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen parameters; 4178.0 mg/L, 70556.0 mg/L and 373.3 mg/L for influent point, and 3142.0 mg/L, 9055.2 mg/L, and 350 mg/L for the effluent point. Pollution Index of shallow groundwater is between lightly and moderately contaminated. This study showed that the further the distance between sampling point and leachate stabilization pond is, the lower the Polution Index is.

  3. A Case Study of Using Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z.; Kaback, D.; Bennett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (nZVI) is a promising technology for rapid in situ remediation of numerous contaminants, including chlorinated solvents, in groundwater and soil. Because of the high specific surface area of nZVI particles, this technology achieves treatment rates that are significantly faster than micron-scale and granular ZVI. However, a key technical challenge facing this technology involves agglomeration of nZVI particles. To improve nZVI mobility/deliverability and reactivity, an innovative method was recently developed using a low-cost and bio-degradable organic polymer as a stabilizer. This nZVI stabilization strategy offers unique advantages including: (1) the organic polymer is cost-effective and "green" (completely bio-compatible), (2) the organic polymer is highly effective in stabilizing nZVI particles; and (3) the stabilizer is applied during particle preparation, making nZVI particles more stable. Through a funding from the U.S. Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), AMEC performed a field study to test the effectiveness of this innovative technology for degradation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater at a military site. Laboratory treatability tests were conducted using groundwater samples collected from the test site and results indicated that trichloroethene (main groundwater contaminant at the site) was completely degraded within four hours by nZVI particles. In March and May 2011, two rounds of nZVI injection were performed at the test site. Approximately 700 gallons of nZVI suspension with palladium as a catalyst were successfully prepared in the field and injected into the subsurface. Before injection, membrane filters with a pore size of 450 nm were used to check the nZVI particle size and it was observed that >85% of nZVI particles were passed through the filter based on total iron measurement, indicating particle size of <450 nm. During field injections, nZVI particles were observed in a monitoring well

  4. Groundwater dependence of coastal lagoons: The case of La Pletera salt marshes (NE Catalonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, A.; Casamitjana, X.; Mas-Pla, J.; Coll, N.; Compte, J.; Martinoy, M.; Pascual, J.; Quintana, X. D.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems of the world, playing an important role in coastal defense and wildlife conservation. These ecosystems, however, are usually affected by human activities, which may cause a loss and degradation of their ecological status, a decline of their biodiversity, an alteration of their ecological functioning, and a limitation of their ecosystem services. La Pletera salt marshes (NE Spain) are located in a region mainly dominated by agriculture and tourism activities. Part of these wetlands and lagoons has been affected by an incomplete construction of an urban development and in this moment is the focus of a Life+ project, whose aim is to restore this protected area. Several studies have analyzed the role of hydrological regime in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in this area, however, the role of groundwater was never considered as a relevant factor in the lagoon dynamics, and its influence is still unknown. In this study, the hydrogeological dynamics in La Pletera salt marshes has been analyzed, as a basis to set sustainable management guidelines for this area. In order to determine their dependence on groundwater resources, monthly hydrochemical (with major ions and nutrients) and isotopic (δ18OH2O and δD) campaigns have been conducted, from November 2014 to October 2015. In particular, groundwater from six wells, surface water from two nearby streams and three permanent lagoons, and sea water was considered in these surveys. Taking into account the meteorological data and the water levels in the lagoons, the General Lake Model has been conducted to determine, not only evaporation and rainfall occurring in the lagoons, but also the total inflows and outflows. In addition, the Gonfiantini isotopic model, together with equilibrium chemical-speciation/mass transfer models, has been used to analyze the evaporation and the physicochemical processes affecting the lagoons. Results show that during the dry

  5. Groundwater Challenges of the Lower Rio Grande: A Case Study of Legal Issues in Texas and New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wheat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1938, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado signed the Rio Grande Compact, establishing terms of apportionment for some of the water from the Rio Grande for the three states. Following congressional approval in 1939, this compact governs water allocation in a region with a variable climate and frequent drought conditions and established the Rio Grande Compact Commission, comprised of a commissioner from each state and one from the federal government, to enforce the compact. With an increasing population and declining surface water supply, the Compact has been tested among the parties and within the states themselves. In a case currently before the U.S. Supreme Court, Texas v. New Mexico and Colorado (2013, Texas claims New Mexico is violating the Compact and Rio Grande Project Act by using water in excess of its apportionment through its allowance of diversions of surface and groundwater. The issue is further compounded by disputes within Texas over separate legal regimes for groundwater and surface water. Combined with growing scarcity issues, the allocation of water in the Lower Rio Grande presents a timely natural resource challenge. This review explores legal issues involved in the case as well as growing challenges of population growth, agricultural development needs, and water shortages.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  7. The framing of product ideas in the making: a case study of the development of an energy saving pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding work with ideas in industrial settings has predominantly treated ideas as rather stable ‘black boxes’. This article contributes a new understanding of idea work and seeks to expand our understanding of how a product concept is constituted and synthesised through socio......-material interaction of organisational members and engagement in idea work. The article contributes a case study of the development process behind the energy-saving Alpha Pro circulator launched by the Danish pump manufacturer Grundfos. Based on an analysis of how organisational players engage in the controversial...... and shifting understandings of what seems to constitute a successful product, the article offers a new perspective on navigating the players’ ideas in the political processes of innovation. It suggests that navigation of technological frames can offer a new perspective to make explicit the implicated actors...

  8. Building America Case Study: Occupant Comfort from a Mini-Split Heat Pump, San Antonio, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-03

    IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio, Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels (temperature and humidity) and energy performance. IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.

  9. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  10. Using a Statistical-Numerical Procedure for the Selection of Pumps running as Turbines to be applied in Water Pipelines: Study Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Barbarelli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined method using statistical and numerical models has been developed by the authors for selecting a pump running as turbine to be applied in micro-hydro plants. The data of the hydrological site chosen for the installation (head and capacity allow the calculation of two conversion factors which identify the pump to use successfully as turbine in that place. Then, a one-dimensional model, starting from data available on the pumps manufacturers catalogues, reconstructs a virtual geometry of the pump running as turbine, and calculates the performances curves, head vs. capacity, efficiency vs. capacity, useful for identifying the operating point. Two study cases are presented to apply the proposed methodology, concerning the feasibility of the installation of a pump running as turbine in the purifier water plants of Casali and Sersale, located at 1,000 m above sea level (Calabria, South Italy.The assessment of the annual energy yield gives a confirmation of the effectiveness and convenience of using pumps running as turbines.

  11. Evaluating Renewable Groundwater Stress with GRACE data in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Gemitzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance as a fundamental resource is even greater in times of drought where groundwater stress conditions are greatest for areas like Mediterranean and adverse climate change effects are expected. The present study evaluates Renewable Groundwater Stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in GRACE-derived subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge. Estimates for mean annual recharge were used from groundwater studies conducted for the various regions in Greece, mainly in the form of numerical models. Our results highlighted two RGS regimes in Greece out of the four characteristic stress regimes, i.e. Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-Dominated Stress and Unstressed, defined as a function of the sign of use and the sign of groundwater availability (positive or negative). Variable Stress areas are found in central Greece (Thessaly region), where intense agricultural activities take place, with negative ΔGWtrend values combined with positive mean annual recharge rates. RGS values range from -0.05 - 0, indicating however a low impact area. Within this region, adverse effects of groundwater overexploitation are already evident, based on the negative GRACE anomalies, recharge however still remains positive, amending the adverse over pumping impacts. The rest of Greek aquifers fall within the unstressed category, with RGS values from 0.02 - 0.05, indicating that the rate of use is less than the natural recharge rate. The highest Unstressed RGS values are observed in Crete Island and in Northeastern Greece. However, the case of Crete is highly uncertain, as precipitation and recharge in this area demonstrate exceptionally high variability and the coarse resolution of GRACE results does not allow for reliable estimates.

  12. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  13. Design and Use of a Proton Pump Inhibitor Case to Integrate Physiology, Pharmacology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of drugs to integrate basic and clinical sciences is frequently used in a lecture format, but the availability of alternative pedagogical approaches that address higher-order learning are not widely available. The use of case studies and case-based projects to reinforce lectures can help link basic and clinical disciplines and promote…

  14. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ''packing''. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel

  15. Groundwater flow model management and case studies in Emilia-Romagna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chahoud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of groundwater modeling to support the planning and management of water resources is a possible goal of a long and detailed course of study and research. The present work concerns some applications carried out within the aquifers of the Emilia-Romagna plain in northern Italy. The main features of the developed and available mathematical models are reported as well as the geological and hydrogeological description of the analyzed aquifers. The main operational choices that have characterized the implementation of all models and their continuous development and updating are discussed. Activity has been focused to maintain active the data stream between the models to improve their functionality along with time to give a basis for models management. Models have been used in different applications which indicate the potential for their use with targeted objectives of planning and management. Two examples at two different scales are given: the first shows the application to the entire aquifer of the Emilia-Romagna region, which has been able to adapt simulations to new groundwater bodies defined in accordance with 2000/60/EC directive, the current regulatory framework for the planning of water resources. This framework provides for the establishment of programs of measures whose level of effectiveness can be estimated with the support of models. The second concerns a more detailed scale model in reference to a specific evaluation of feasibility of an intervention of artificial recharge. The management approach used here is the result of over 10 years development and application and now allows to apply numerical models in a role of systematic service in support of the institutions involved in planning and management of groundwater resources.

  16. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  17. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  18. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  20. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  1. The Ensemble Kalman Filter for Groundwater Plume Characterization: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James L; Andersen, Peter F

    2018-04-17

    The Kalman filter is an efficient data assimilation tool to refine an estimate of a state variable using measured data and the variable's correlations in space and/or time. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) (Evensen, 2004, 2009) is a Kalman filter variant that employs Monte Carlo analysis to define the correlations that help to refine the updated state. While use of EnKF in hydrology is somewhat limited, it has been successfully applied in other fields of engineering (e.g. oil reservoir modeling, weather forecasting). Here, EnKF is used to refine a simulated groundwater TCE plume that underlies the Tooele Army Depot-North (TEAD-N) in Utah, based on observations of TCE in the aquifer. The resulting EnKF-based assimilated plume is simulated forward in time to predict future plume migration. The correlations that underpin EnKF updating implicitly contain information about how the plume developed over time under the influence of complex site hydrology and variable source history, as they are predicated on multiple realizations of a well-calibrated numerical groundwater flow and transport model. The EnKF methodology is compared to an ordinary kriging-based assimilation method with respect to the accurate representation of plume concentrations in order to determine the relative efficacy of EnKF for water quality data assimilation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal estimation of spatially variable recharge and transmissivity fields under steady-state groundwater flow. Part 2. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Wendy D.; Neff, Christina R.

    1994-05-01

    The first-order analytical solution of the inverse problem for estimating spatially variable recharge and transmissivity under steady-state groundwater flow, developed in Part 1 is applied to the Upper Floridan Aquifer in NE Florida. Parameters characterizing the statistical structure of the log-transmissivity and head fields are estimated from 152 measurements of transmissivity and 146 measurements of hydraulic head available in the study region. Optimal estimates of the recharge, transmissivity and head fields are produced throughout the study region by conditioning on the nearest 10 available transmissivity measurements and the nearest 10 available head measurements. Head observations are shown to provide valuable information for estimating both the transmissivity and the recharge fields. Accurate numerical groundwater model predictions of the aquifer flow system are obtained using the optimal transmissivity and recharge fields as input parameters, and the optimal head field to define boundary conditions. For this case study, both the transmissivity field and the uncertainty of the transmissivity field prediction are poorly estimated, when the effects of random recharge are neglected.

  3. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  4. Tracing man's impact on groundwater dependent ecosystem using geochemical an isotope tools combined with 3D flow and transport modeling: case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Anna; Witczak, Stanislaw; Kania, Jaroslaw; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Dulinski, Marek; Jench, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Thorough understanding of the link between terrestrial ecosystems and underlying groundwater reservoirs is an important element of sustainable management of groundwater resources in the light of ever growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater reserves, both with respect to quantity and quality of this vital resource. While association of terrestrial ecosystems with surface water (rivers, streams, lakes, etc.) is visible and recognized, their link to underground components of the hydrological cycle is often forgotten and not appreciated. The presented study was aimed at investigating possible adverse effects of intensive exploitation of porous sandy aquifer on groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) consisting of a valuable forest stand and associated wetlands. The Bogucice Sands aquifer and the associated GDTE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata is to provide potable water for public and private users. Eastern part of the shallow phreatic aquifer is occupied by Niepolomice Forest. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. It is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepołomicka" (PLB120002) which supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly after the Second World War and by forest management. In September 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells (Wola Batorska well-field) has been set up close to the northern boundary of

  5. Seawater pumped storage systems and offshore wind parks in islands with low onshore wind potential. A fundamental case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.; Christakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate the effects of introducing a WP-PSS (Wind Powered Pumped Storage System) in isolated electricity systems assuming unfavourable conditions such as low onshore wind potential and low PSS head height. These disadvantages can be compensated with the installation of offshore wind parks, larger reservoirs and double penstocks to allow simultaneous water fall and pumping using pipes of the greatest diameter that are currently commercially available. With the above modifications, the energy efficiency of the WP-PSS improves while the installation costs rise. A new operation algorithm for the WP-PSS is created to fully utilize the capacity of the double penstock and ultimately maximise wind energy penetration. A case study for a WP-PSS on the island of Rhodes is presented in this paper. Despite unfavourable conditions, the WP-PSS model leads to the following results: • Annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50% of the annual electricity consumption. • The WP-PSS exhibits attractive financial induces without including any subsidies. The WP-PSS presented in this paper proved to be technically and economically feasible and revealed that WP-PSSs are a guaranteed choice for large scale penetration of R.E.S. in electrical systems. - Highlights: • Offshore wind parks (WPs) and seawater PSS can guarantee power production in autonomous systems. • The examined system is proved technically and economically feasible under unfavourable conditions. • A new operational algorithm is developed to maximise the wind energy penetration. • The annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50%. The economic indexes are acceptable. • The WP-PSS is a guaranteed choice for wind energy penetration maximisation

  6. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  7. Incremental cost-effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of NSAID ulcers: a pharmacoeconomic analysis linked to a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Klok, Rogier M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R.B.J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We estimated the cost effectiveness of concomitant proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in relation to the occurrence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ulcer complications. Methods This study was linked to a nested case-control study. Patients with NSAID ulcer complications were

  8. Evaluation of artificial groundwater recharge effects with MIKE-SHE: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M.; Martínez-García, I.; Carreño, F.; de Bustamante, I.; Lillo, J.

    2012-04-01

    In many areas where the technical and financial resources are limited, the treatment and disposal of wastewater comprise a problem. With increasing frequency, the wastewater reuse is considered as another alternative for water management alternative. In this way, the wastewater is converted into an added value resource. Treated wastewater infiltration into the soil could be a viable tertiary treatment, especially for small communities where the availability of land is not a problem and the wastewater has not industrial waste contribution and is highly biodegradable. The Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville, Spain) develops non-conventional wastewater treatments for small villages. Currently, a project regarding wastewater reutilization for aquifer recharge through a horizontal permeable reactive barrier and a subsequent soil infiltration is being carried out. One of the aspects to be evaluated within this context is the impact on aquifer. Consequently, the main goal of the present study is to assess the effects on the water flow derived from the future recharge activities by using the MIKE-SHE hydrological code. The unsaturated and saturated zones have been integrated in the model, which requires geological, land use, topography, piezometric head, soil and climate data to build up the model. The obtained results from the model show that with the annual recharge volume contributed by the experimental plant (3 m3 or 0.19 L/s) there is no effect in the groundwater flow. A volume of 400 m3/year (25 L/s) would be required to yield a variation in the piezometric head and therefore, in the groundwater flow i.e. a volume about 100 times larger than the estimated is necessary. To calibrate the model, simulated piezometric head values have been compared to the measured field data at a number of locations. In the calibration, the percent error had to be lower than 15 % at each location. Future works concerning groundwater quality and reactive transport

  9. Long-term pumping test to study the impact of an open-loop geothermal system on seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer: the case study of Bari (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementina Caputo, Maria; Masciale, Rita; Masciopinto, Costantino; De Carlo, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The high cost and scarcity of fossil fuels have promoted the increased use of natural heat for a number of direct applications. Just as for fossil fuels, the exploitation of geothermal energy should consider its environmental impact and sustainability. Particular attention deserves the so-called open loop geothermal groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system, which uses groundwater as geothermal fluid. From an economic point of view, the implementation of this kind of geothermal system is particularly attractive in coastal areas, which have generally shallow aquifers. Anyway the potential problem of seawater intrusion has led to laws that restrict the use of groundwater. The scarcity of freshwater could be a major impediment for the utilization of geothermal resources. In this study a new methodology has been proposed. It was based on an experimental approach to characterize a coastal area in order to exploit the low-enthalpy geothermal resource. The coastal karst and fractured aquifer near Bari, in Southern Italy, was selected for this purpose. For the purpose of investigating the influence of an open-loop GWHP system on the seawater intrusion, a long-term pumping test was performed. The test simulated the effects of a prolonged withdrawal on the chemical-physical groundwater characteristics of the studied aquifer portion. The duration of the test was programmed in 16 days, and it was performed with a constant pumping flowrate of 50 m3/h. The extracted water was outflowed into an adjacent artificial channel, by means of a piping system. Water depth, temperature and electrical conductivity of the pumped water were monitored for 37 days, including also some days before and after the pumping duration. The monitored parameters, collected in the pumping and in five observation wells placed 160 m down-gradient with respect to the groundwater flow direction, have been used to estimate different scenarios of the impact of the GWHP system on the seawater intrusion by mean of a

  10. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  11. Use of activable cations as tracers in groundwater hydrology. The case of DTPA-Indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumu, Badimbayi Matu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of EDTA, CDTA and DTPA metallic complexes use as activable groundwater, tracers are discussed. Indium, which has good nuclear caracteristics for activation analysis and forms complexes of great stability with polyamino carboxylic acid has been for Laboratory and field studies. For corporative studies, Rhodomine B, a fluorescent tracer have been studied together with Indium complexes. In laboratory retention studies have been carried with In-EDTA, Iodine 131 and Rhodomine B, as tracers and bentonite, zeolite 13X and Dowex-1 and Dowex-50 as sorbents. As field studies, drainage evolution flow and resident time distribution of tracers substances in water, have been carried, under artificial rain conditions realized by aspersion. Results from field studies showed good characteristics of Indium Complexes especially in very absorbent medium (argilaceous limon) where their restitution balance were superior to that of Rhodomine B

  12. Geothermal Heat Pumps in K-12 Schools -- A Case Study of the Lincoln, Nebraska, Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2000-05-02

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) have been shown to have a number of benefits over other technologies used to heat and cool buildings and provide hot water, combining high levels of occupant comfort with low operating and maintenance costs. Public facilities represent an increasingly important market for GHPs, and schools are a particularly good application, given the large land area that normally surrounds them. Nevertheless, some barriers remain to the increased use of GHPs in institutional and commercial applications. First, because GHPs are perceived as having higher installation costs than other space conditioning technologies, they are sometimes not considered as an option in feasibility studies. When they are considered, it can be difficult to compile the information required to compare them with other technologies. For example, a life cycle cost analysis requires estimates of installation costs and annually recurring energy and maintenance costs. But most cost estimators are unfamiliar with GHP technology, and no published GHP construction cost estimating guide is available. For this reason, estimates of installed costs tend to be very conservative, furthering the perception that GHPs are more costly than other technologies. Because GHP systems are not widely represented in the various softwares used by engineers to predict building energy use, it is also difficult to estimate the annual energy use of a building having GHP systems. Very little published data is available on expected maintenance costs either. Because of this lack of information, developing an accurate estimate of the life cycle cost of a GHP system requires experience and expertise that are not available in all institutions or in all areas of the country. In 1998, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into an agreement with the Lincoln, Nebraska, Public School District and Lincoln Electric Service, the local electric utility in the Lincoln area, to study four new, identical elementary

  13. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater with Inter-Basin Transfer Approach: Case Study Piranshahr Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In IRAN, inconsideration to water as a key sustainable development is the water crisis. This problem is the biggest factor for being marginalize planning and long-term management of water. The sustainable development policies in water resources management of IRAN require consideration of the different aspects of management that each of them required the scientific integrated programs. Optimal operation from inter-basin surface and groundwater resources and transfer surplus water to adjacent basins is important from different aspects. The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient optimization model based on inter-basin water resources and restoration of outer-basin water resources. In the proposed model the different three objective function such as inter-basin water supply demand, reduce the amount of water output of the boundary of IRAN and increase water transfer to adjacent basins are considered. In this model, water allocation is done based on consumption and resources priorities and groundwater table level constrain. In this research, the non-dominate sorting genetic algorithm is used for solution developed model because the objectives function and decision variables are complex and nonlinear. The optimal allocation of each water resources and Water transfer to adjacent basin are can be determined by using of proposed model. Based on optimal value and planning horizon, optimal allocation policy presented. The result as shown that applying the optimal operation policy can be transfer considerable volume of water resources within the basin for restoration the outside basin. Based on policy, can be prevented the great flow of water from river border.

  15. Tritium as tracer of groundwater pollution extension: case study of Andralanitra landfill site, Antananarivo-Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, Voahirana; Rakotomalala, Christian Ulrich; Rajaobelison, Joel; Fareze, Lahimamy Paul; Razafitsalama, Falintsoa A.; Rasolofonirina, Mamiseheno

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to understand the extension of groundwater pollution downstream of a landfill, Andralanitra-Antananarivo-Madagascar. Twenty-one samples, composed of dug well waters, spring waters, river, and lake, were measured in stable isotopes ( δ 2H, δ 18O) and tritium. Results showed that only two dug well waters, collected at the immediate vicinity of the landfill, have high tritium activities (22.82 TU and 10.43 TU), probably of artificial origin. Both upstream and further downstream of the landfill, tritium activities represent natural source, with values varying from 0.17 TU to 1.46 TU upstream and from 0.88 TU to 1.88 TU further downstream. Stable isotope data suggest that recharge occurs through infiltration of slightly evaporated rainfall. Using the radioactive decay equation, the calculated tracer ages related to two recent ground water samples collected down gradient of the landfill lay between [8-15] years and [4-7] years, taking into account the uncertainty of tritium measurements. For the calculation, a value of 2.36 TU was taken as A o. The latter was estimated based on similarity between stable isotope compositions of nearby spring and dug well waters as well as tritium activities of the local precipitation. Calculation of the tritium activities from the contaminated water point having 22.82 TU to further downstream using the calculated tracer ages showed values of one order of magnitude higher than the measured values. The absence of hydrological connection from the contaminated water point to further downstream the landfill would explain the lower tritium activities measured. Groundwater pollution seems to be limited to the closest proximity of the landfill.

  16. Under the glacier, the groundwater - the case of Skálafell area, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Hart, Jane

    2017-04-01

    The research addressing glaciers evolution under climate change is well developed, and is now looking not only at their mass balance, but also at the associated subsurface hydrology and downstream hydrology. However, the groundwater component is rarely considered, even though it will be required to forecast the evolution of water resources and of water linked hazards under climate change. The few available studies demonstrate the existence of sub-or pro-glacial aquifers. Some of them suggest strong coupling between rivers and the aquifer, observe the flooding due to water table rising following enhanced glacier melting, or expect stronger recharge in the future due to glacier melting. The present study is the first step of a wider project, GlacAq, aiming at filling this knowledge gap, by characterizing the particular hydrogeology encountered under and downstream of glaciers of alpine type, i.e. sub-, pro- and periglacial hydrogeology, and its sensibility to climate change, in order to provide operational management directions. Skálafell glacier area (Iceland) has been chosen as it has already been followed for climatic, glaciological, and surface hydrology data (Hart et al. (2015), Young et al. (2015)). The present work will use those data, as well as topographic and surface data from the National Land Survey of Iceland, and geological data, to run a comprehensive numerical modelling. The work conducted on the Skálafell site will lead both to the achievement of an operational understanding of a poorly known underground system, and to the anticipation of its hydrodynamic response to climate change. The foreseen mechanisms include an enhanced sub-glacial aquifer recharge, intense surface water bodies-aquifer exchanges, and the aquifer discharge either through springs, or to an offshore system. Those offshore stocks are being increasingly recognised, but their origins are still only guessed at. Skálafell site allows the exploration of the potential role of the

  17. The contribution of geology and groundwater studies to city-scale ground heat network strategies: A case study from Cardiff, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, David; Farr, Gareth; Patton, Ashley; Kendall, Rhian; James, Laura; Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan; Schofield, David; White, Debbie; Gooddy, Daren; James, David; Williams, Bernie; Tucker, David; Knowles, Steve; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    The development of integrated heat network strategies involving exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires knowledge of ground conditions at the feasibility stage, and throughout the life of the system. We describe an approach to the assessment of ground constraints and energy opportunities in data-rich urban areas. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have formed a core component of the strategy development for sustainable thermal use of the subsurface in Cardiff, UK. We present findings from a 12 month project titled 'Ground Heat Network at a City Scale', which was co-funded by NERC/BGS and the UK Government through the InnovateUK Energy Catalyst grant in 2015-16. The project examined the technical feasibility of extracting low grade waste heat from a shallow gravel aquifer using a cluster of open loop ground source heat pumps. Heat demand mapping was carried out separately. The ground condition assessment approach involved the following steps: (1) city-wide baseline groundwater temperature mapping in 2014 with seasonal monitoring for at least 12 months prior to heat pump installation (Patton et al 2015); (2) desk top and field-based investigation of the aquifer system to determine groundwater levels, likely flow directions, sustainable pumping yields, water chemistry, and boundary conditions; (3) creation of a 3D geological framework model with physical property testing and model attribution; (4) use steps 1-3 to develop conceptual ground models and production of maps and GIS data layers to support scenario planning, and initial heat network concept designs; (5) heat flow modelling in FEFLOW software to analyse sustainability and predict potential thermal breakthrough in higher risk areas; (6) installation of a shallow open loop GSHP research observatory with real-time monitoring of groundwater bodies to provide data for heat flow model validation and feedback for system control. In conclusion, early ground condition modelling and subsurface

  18. Cellulosic biofuels from crop residue and groundwater extraction in the US Plains: the case of Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmero, Juan P

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a model of crop residue (i.e. stover) supply and derived demand for irrigation water accounting for non-linear effects of soil organic matter on soil's water holding capacity. The model is calibrated for typical conditions in central Nebraska, United States, and identifies potential interactions between water and biofuel policies. The price offered for feedstock by a cost-minimizing plant facing that stover supply response is calculated. Results indicate that as biofuel production volumes increase, soil carbon depletion per unit of biofuel produced decreases. Consumption of groundwater per unit of biofuel produced first decreases and then increases (after a threshold of 363 dam(3) of biofuels per year) due to plants' increased reliance on the extensive margin for additional biomass. The analysis reveals a tension between biofuel and water policies. As biofuel production raises the economic benefits of relaxing water conservation policies (measured by the "shadow price" of water) increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust electrochemical analysis of As(III) integrating with interference tests: A case study in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhong-Gang [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, Xing; Liu, Jin-Huai [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu, E-mail: xingjiuhuang@iim.ac.cn [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Robust determination of As(III) in Togtoh water samples has been demonstrated. • The results were comparable to that obtained by ICP–AES. • No obvious interference was observed after a series of interference tests. • Robust stability was obtained in long-term measurements. - Abstract: In Togtoh region of Inner Mongolia, northern China, groundwater encountered high concentrations As contamination (greater than 50 μg L{sup −1}) causes an increasing concern. This work demonstrates an electrochemical protocol for robust (efficient and accurate) determination of As(III) in Togtoh water samples using Au microwire electrode without the need of pretreatment or clean-up steps. Considering the complicated conditions of Togtoh water, the efficiency of Au microwire electrode was systematically evaluated by a series of interference tests, stability and reproducibility measurements. No obvious interference on the determination of As(III) was observed. Especially, the influence of humic acid (HA) was intensively investigated. Electrode stability was also observed with long-term measurements (70 days) in Togtoh water solution and under different temperatures (0–35 °C). Excellent reproducibility (RSD:1.28%) was observed from different batches of Au microwire electrodes. The results obtained at Au microwire electrode were comparable to that obtained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP–AES), indicating a good accuracy. These evaluations (efficiency, robustness, and accuracy) demonstrated that the Au microwire electrode was able to determine As(III) in application to real environmental samples.

  20. Groundwater Quality Assessment from a Hydrogeochemical Viewpoint A Case Study of Sarab County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources are the most important sources of drinking water in many communities. The direct impact of water quality on public health warrants a thorough investigation of water quality and the factors involved from a hydrogeochemical viewpoint. In the present study, 25 villages of Sarab County in East Azerbayejan Province were selected and the quality of the drinking water supplied in the region was analyzed in terms of its physicochemical parameters along with heavy metals content including 20 different metals. The results were plotted using the Arc GIS for interpretation. The selected villages were subsequently categorized using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. Based on the result of study, the EC of the drinking water ranged over 220-2990µs/cm with an average value of 812.  A remarkable finding was the high level of dissolved solids in the Western parts of the study area. Arsenic in two villages and mercury in one village were also high. PCA results showed that the drinking water in the pilot villages could be divided into three categories. Based on certain water quality problems observed ij the region, it is suggested that substitute water supplies should be identified for some of the villages while a comprehensive investigation is also carried out on the arsenic anomaly and its health effects on water consumers in the contaminated villages.

  1. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  2. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Sutanudjaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

  3. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  4. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  5. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  6. Diverse stakeholders create collaborative, multilevel basin governance for groundwater sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Conrad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA is introducing significant changes in the way groundwater is governed for agricultural use. It requires the formation of groundwater sustainability agencies (GSAs to manage groundwater basins for sustainability with the engagement of all users. That presents opportunities for collaboration, as well as challenges, particularly in basins with large numbers of agricultural water users who have longstanding private pumping rights. The GSA formation process has resulted in the creation of multiple GSAs in many such basins, particularly in the Central Valley. In case studies of three basins, we examine agricultural stakeholders' concerns about SGMA, and how these are being addressed in collaborative approaches to groundwater basin governance. We find that many water districts and private pumpers share a strong interest in maintaining local autonomy, but they have distinct concerns and different options for forming and participating in GSAs. Multilevel collaborative governance structures may help meet SGMA's requirements for broad stakeholder engagement, our studies suggest, while also addressing concerns about autonomy and including agricultural water users in decision-making.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  8. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality using DEA and AHP: a case study in the Sereflikochisar region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurmaci, Murat; Üstün, A Korkut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in Sereflikochisar Basin, in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey using different hydrochemical, statistical, and geostatistical methods. A total of 51 groundwater samples were collected from the observation wells in the study area to evaluate the characteristics of the groundwater quality. As a relatively simple and practical method, a groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed to evaluate the overall groundwater quality. In this process, complex decision-making techniques such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used. Based on these models, two new indices (A-GWQI and D-GWQI) were proposed. According to the D-GWQI score (from 0.6 to 1), water quality was classified in four categories as unsuitable (0.6–0.7), permissible (0.7–0.8), good (0.8–0.9), and excellent (0.9–1). The spatial distribution maps of the groundwater quality were created using the Kriging method. For each map, seven different semivariogram models were tested and the best-fitted model was chosen based on their root mean square standardized error. These maps showed that the areas with high groundwater quality were in the eastern and southern parts of the study area where the D-GWQI scores were greater than 0.8. Depending on the distance from the Salt Lake, the characteristics of groundwater changed from NaCl to NaHCO3 and CaHCO3 facies. This study shows how to determine the spatial distribution of the groundwater quality and identify the impact of salt lakes on the groundwater quality in inland aquifers. The findings of this study can be applied to ensure the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes in the study area.

  10. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  11. Health Risk Assessment for Uranium in Groundwater - An Integrated Case Study Based on Hydrogeological Characterization and Dose Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Veiga, L. H.; Py, D. A., Jr.; Fernandes, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium mining and milling facilities of Caetité (URA) is the only active uranium production center in Brazil. Operations take place at a very sensitive semi-arid region in the country where water resources are very scarce. Therefore, any contamination of the existing water bodies may trigger critical consequences to local communities because their sustainability is closely related to the availability of the groundwater resources. Due to the existence of several uranium anomalies in the region, groundwater can present radionuclide concentrations above the world average. The radiological risk associated to the ingestion of these waters have been questioned by members of the local communities, NGO’s and even regulatory bodies that suspected that the observed levels of radionuclide concentrations (specially Unat) could be related to the uranium mining and milling operations. Regardless the origin of these concentrations the fear that undesired health effects were taking place (e.g. increase in cancer incidence) remain despite the fact that no evidence - based on epidemiological studies - is available. This paper intends to present the connections between the local hydrogeology and the radiological characterization of groundwater in the neighboring areas of the uranium production center to understand the implications to the human health risk due to the ingestion of groundwater. The risk assessment was performed, taking into account the radiological and the toxicological risks. Samples from 12 wells have been collected and determinations of Unat, Thnat, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were performed. The radiation-related risks were estimated for adults and children by the calculation of the annual effective doses. The potential non-carcinogenic effects due to the ingestion of uranium were evaluated by the estimation of the hazard index (HI). Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the uncertainty associated with these estimates, i.e. the 95% confidence interval

  12. The Instructional Design of Case Method Combined With Role-Playing in the Soil and Groundwater Training Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Hwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all environmental problems are caused by human. Besides being good at environmental engineering theory and technology, to enhance the ability to solve environmental problems, the environmental practitioners need a closer understanding of the stance of different stakeholders. This study is an instructional design combining both "case method" and "role-playing" into the “Soil and Groundwater Talent Training Courses” in Taipei. The curriculum is based on the hexavalent chromium pollution case in Yunlin County. Each group of students is encouraged to play four roles, inculding leather factory owners, farmers, environmental officials, and soil testing professionals. Each group of students has to propose solution strategies after discussion and consultation. The study adopts a single group posttest design. The qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed through proportion and Pearson correlation. Results were as follows: (1 The solution strategies identified by the students include: “mutual communication”, “consensus-building”, and “the formation of an environmental committee". (2 More than 80% of students were satisfied with the instruction, and they found it helpful in terms of knowledge and skills in doing surveying. A moderate positive correlation exists between students’ participation and learning satisfaction. A reflection concerning this instruction design along with some recommendations are provided.

  13. IgG particle formation during filling pump operation: a case study of heterogeneous nucleation on stainless steel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Anil K; Randolph, Theodore W; Dong, Aichun; Maloney, Kevin M; Hitscherich, Carl; Carpenter, John F

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with vial filling with a positive displacement piston pump leading to formation of protein particles in a formulation of an IgG. We hypothesized that nanoparticles shed from the pump's solution-contact surfaces nucleated protein aggregation and particle formation. Vials of IgG formulation filled at a clinical manufacturing site contained a few visible particles and about 100,000 particles (1.5-3 microm) per mL. In laboratory studies with the same model (National Instruments FUS-10) of pump, pumping of 20 mg/mL IgG formulation resulted in about 300,000 particles (1.5-3 microm) per mL. Pumping of protein-free formulation resulted in 13,000 particles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. More than 99% of the particles were 0.25-0.95 microm in size. Mixing of protein-free pumped solution with an equal volume of 40 mg/mL IgG resulted in 300,000 particles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. Also, mixing IgG formulation with 30,000/mL stainless steel nanoparticles resulted in formation of 30,000 protein microparticles (1.5-15 microm) per mL. Infrared spectroscopy showed that secondary structure of IgG in microparticles formed by pumping or mixing with steel nanoparticles was minimally perturbed. Our results document that nanoparticles of foreign materials shed by pumps can serve as heterogeneous nuclei for formation of protein microparticles. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  14. Design Of Bioremediation Systems For Groundwater (Aerobic and Anaerobic Plus Representative Case Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioremediation in the subsurface. The basics of aerobic, cometabolic, and anaerobic bioremediation are presented. Case studies from the Delaware Sand & Gravel Superfund Site, Dover Cometabolic Research Project and the SABR...

  15. Spatial dimensions of land administration and user rights over groundwater : Case study of Kerala, India vs. Coca Cola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghawana, T.; Hespanha, J.P.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Supporting the management of rights related to groundwater based on input from hydrogeology software is contributing to bridging the gap between the technical and administrative aspects of groundwater management. The research reported herein is focused on a specific example (or ‘use case’ in UML

  16. Mixing of groundwaters with uncertain end-members: Case study in the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan aquifer, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Casique, E.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater geochemical data from the northern portion of the Tepalcingo-Axochiapan Valley, in the state of Morelos, Mexico, are analyzed to improve the conceptual hydrogeologic model of the region. The geochemical data suggest that the chemical composition of groundwater is the result of a mixing

  17. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater : Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  18. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: A test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale groundwater models involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries are still rare due to a lack of hydrogeological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global

  19. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in

  20. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: A test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed

  1. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Insight into Groundwater Flow Within a Crystalline Aquifer. Case study of the Ursuya Mount, Northern Basque Country (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunat, J.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Franceschi, M.; Le Coustumer, P. [Universite de Bordeaux, Institut EGID, EA Georessources et Environnement, Pessac (France); Celle-Jeanton, H. [Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, LMV UMR 6524, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2013-07-15

    Stable isotopes of the water molecule and tritium in conjunction with geochemistry have been used to understand the groundwater flow pattern and origin within the gneissic aquifer of the Ursuya Mount. This aquifer constitutes one of the main water supplies of the Northern Basque Country and improved knowledge about the water recharge, origin, quality and residence time is of strategic importance for a sustainable development of the resource. 16 springs, 4 boreholes and total rainfall have been sampled monthly since summer 2009. Preliminary results indicate complex and contrasted groundwater flows within the aquifer. Shallow groundwater restricted to the upper weathered horizons is characterized by a strong influence of anthropogenic inputs. At depth, groundwater mainly circulates along the major structural discontinuities of the gneiss in semi-confined conditions. These levels, providing the most promising resource for the water supply, show increased water mineralization caused by a longer residence time of groundwater and hence indicate a slower dynamic of the system. (author)

  3. Anthropization of groundwater resources in the Mediterranean region: processes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Remini, Boualem

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview is provided of processes and challenges related to Mediterranean groundwater resources and associated changes in recent decades. While most studies are focused thematically and/or geographically, this paper addresses different stages of groundwater exploitation in the region and their consequences. Examples emphasize the complex interactions between the physical and social dimensions of uses and evolution of groundwater. In natural conditions, Mediterranean groundwater resources represent a wide range of hydrogeological contexts, recharge conditions and rates of exploitation. They have been actively exploited for millennia but their pseudo-natural regimes have been considerably modified in the last 50 years, especially to satisfy agricultural demand (80% of total water consumption in North Africa), as well as for tourism and coastal cities. Climate variability affects groundwater dynamics but the various forms of anthropization are more important drivers of hydrological change, including changes in land use and vegetation, hydraulic works, and intense pumpings. These changes affect both the quantity and quality of groundwater at different scales, and modify the nature of hydrogeological processes, their location, timing, and intensity. The frequent cases of drastic overexploitation illustrate the fragility of Mediterranean groundwater resources and the limits of present forms of management. There is no easy way to maintain or recover sustainability, which is often threatened by short-term interests. To achieve this goal, a significant improvement in hydrogeological knowledge and closer collaboration between the various disciplines of water sciences are indispensable.

  4. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) Demonstration at Wilders Grove Solid Waste Service Center in Raleigh, NC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malhotra, Mini [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xiong, Zeyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a distributed GSHP system for providing all the space conditioning, outdoor air ventilation, and 100% domestic hot water to the Wilders Grove Solid Waste Service Center of City of Raleigh, North Carolina. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning and outdoor air ventilation as the demonstrated GSHP system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GSHP system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation and improving the operational efficiency of the demonstrated GSHP system.

  5. The onshore influence of offshore fresh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew C.; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater contained within the submarine extensions of coastal aquifers is increasingly proposed as a freshwater source for coastal communities. However, the extent to which offshore freshwater supports onshore pumping is currently unknown on a global scale. This study provides the first attempt to examine the likely prevalence of situations where offshore freshwater influences onshore salinities, considering various sites from around the world. The groundwater conditions in twenty-seven confined and semi-confined coastal aquifers with plausible connections to inferred or observed offshore freshwater are explored. The investigation uses available onshore salinities and groundwater levels, and offshore salinity knowledge, in combination with analytical modelling, to develop simplified conceptual models of the study sites. Seven different conceptual models are proposed based on the freshwater-saltwater extent and insights gained from analytical modelling. We consider both present-day and pre-development conditions in assessing potential modern contributions to offshore fresh groundwater. Conceptual models also include interpretations of whether offshore freshwater is a significant factor influencing onshore salinities and well pumping sustainability. The results indicate that onshore water levels have declined between pre-development and present-day conditions in fourteen of the fifteen regions for which pre-development data are available. Estimates of the associated steady-state freshwater extents show the potential for considerable offshore fresh groundwater losses accompanying these declines. Both present-day and pre-development heads are insufficient to account for the observed offshore freshwater in all cases where adequate data exist. This suggests that paleo-freshwater and/or aquifer heterogeneities contribute significantly to offshore freshwater extent. Present-day heads indicate that active seawater intrusion (SWI) will eventually impact onshore pumping

  6. Application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Navada, S.V.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Sinha, U.K.; Sharma, S.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental isotopes ( 2 H, 18 O, 34 S, 3 H, and 14 C) techniques have been used along with hydrogeology and hydrochemistry to investigate: (a). the source of salinity and origin of sulphate in groundwaters of coastal Orissa, Orissa State, India and (b) to study the source of salinity in deep saline groundwaters of charnockite terrain at Kokkilimedu, South of Chennai, India. In the first case, as a part of large drinking water supply project, thousands of hand pumps were installed from 1985. Many of them became quickly unacceptable for potable supply due to salinity, increased iron and sulphate contents of the groundwater. In this alluvial, multiaquifer system, fresh, brackish and saline groundwaters occur in a rather complicated fashion. The conditions change from phreatic to confined flowing type with increasing depth. The results of the isotope geochemical investigation indicate that the shallow groundwater (depth/<50m) is fresh and modern. Groundwater salinity in intermediate aquifer (50 - 100m) is due to the Flandrian transgression during Holocene period. Fresh and modern deep groundwater forms a well developed aquifer which receives recharge through weathered basement rock. The saline groundwater found below the fresh deep aquifer have marine water entrapped during late Pleistocene. The source of high sulphate in the groundwater is of marine origin. In the second case, under the host rock characterization programme, the charnockite rock formation at Kokkilimedu, Kalpakkam was evaluated to assess its suitability as host medium for location of a geological repository for high level radioactive waste. Four deep boreholes were drilled in this area, the depth varying from 200 to 618 m. In these boreholes, large variations in groundwater salinity were observed over a distance of only a few hundred meters and no regional pattern could be identified. The results of the isotope investigation show that there are two different sources of salinity in this area. Among

  7. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  8. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  9. Application of Geospatial Techniques for Groundwater Quality and Availability Assessment: A Case Study in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuddithamby Gunaalan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources in the northern coastal belt of Sri Lanka, as there are no major water supply schemes or perennial rivers. Overexploitation, seawater intrusion and persistent pollution of this vital resource are threatening human health as well as ecosystems in the Jaffna Peninsula. Therefore, the main intent of the present paper is to apply geospatial techniques to assess the spatial variation of groundwater quality and availability for the sustainable management of groundwater in the coastal areas. The electrical conductivity (EC and depth to water (DTW of 41 wells were measured during the period from March to June 2014, which represents the dry period of the study area. Surface interpolation, gradient analysis, a local indicators of spatial autocorrelations (LISA and statistical analysis were used to assess the quality and availability of groundwater. The results revealed that the drinking and irrigation water quality in the study area were poor and further deteriorated with the progression of the dry season. Good quality and availability of groundwater were observed in the western zone compared to other zones of the study area. A negative correlation was identified between depth to water and electrical conductivity in the western zone. Hence, relatively deep wells in the western zone of the study area can be used to utilize the groundwater for drinking, domestic and agricultural purposes. The outcomes of this study can be used to formulate policy decisions for sustainable management of groundwater resources in Jaffna Peninsula.

  10. Conservation planning as an adaptive strategy for climate change and groundwater depletion in Wadi El Natrun, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzman, Harris; Salem, Boshra; Gad, Mohamed; Adeel, Zafar; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2018-05-01

    In drylands, groundwater is often the sole source of freshwater for industrial, domestic and agricultural uses, while concurrently supporting ecosystems. Many dryland aquifers are becoming depleted due to over-pumping and a lack of natural recharge, resulting in loss of storage and future water supplies, water-level declines that reduce access to freshwater, water quality problems, and, in extreme cases, geologic hazards. Conservation is often proposed as a strategy for managing groundwater to reduce or reverse the depletion, although there is a need to better understand its potential effectiveness and benefits at the local scale. This study assesses the impact of water-conservation planning strategies on groundwater resources in the Wadi El Natrun (WEN) area of northern Egypt. WEN has been subjected to groundwater depletion and quality degradation since the 1990s, attributed to agricultural and industrial groundwater usage. Initiatives have been proposed to increase the sustainability of the groundwater resource in the study area, but they have yet to be evaluated. Simultaneously, there are also proposals to increase the extent of arable land and thus demand for freshwater. In this study, three water management scenarios are developed and assessed to the 2060s for their impact on groundwater resources using a hydrogeologic model. Results demonstrate that demand management implemented through an optimized irrigation and crop rotation strategy has the greatest potential to significantly reduce risk of groundwater depletion compared to the other two scenarios—"business as usual" and "30% water-use reduction"—that were evaluated.

  11. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    increased pumping time is related to the shift from the primary source of water to the pumped wells being derived from aquifer storage during the early-time (5 days) simulation to being derived more from induced infiltration from the flooded portion of the Big River (southernmost extent of the Flat River Reservoir) during the months of March through October or from captured groundwater discharge to this portion of the Big River when the downstream Flat River Reservoir is drained for weed control during the months of November through February, as was the case for the long-term monthly conditions.

  12. Influence of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage on groundwater quality: A review illustrated by seven case studies from Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Possemiers

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results of the analysis of the hydrochemical data confirm that the small temperature differences (ΔT ≤ 10 at which the ATES systems are operating do not influence the concentrations of the main chemical constituents. Mixing of shallow with deeper groundwater during ATES operation, on the other hand, can alter groundwater quality. The results of this study, however, suggest that the groundwater quality changes are rather small, so that there is no immediate risk for the drinking water supply. However, the installation of ATES systems in the vicinity of public drinking water supply well fields should be handled with care, especially in phreatic aquifers.

  13. Smallholder groundwater irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa: an interdisciplinary framework applied to the Usangu plains, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villholth, Karen G.; Ganeshamoorthy, Jegan; Rundblad, Christian M.; Knudsen, Theis S.

    2013-11-01

    A simple but comprehensive framework for analysing the potential for and constraints to groundwater development for irrigated agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. The framework, based on food value chain principles, is applied to the sub-Saharan context and a specific catchment in Tanzania, the Usangu plains, where groundwater has been proposed as a strategic resource for augmenting food production and smallholder livelihoods and to alleviate seasonal water scarcity. The novel contribution of the work is the presentation of a tool that can be applied to support an interdisciplinary approach to systematically identify most significant barriers and most critical water management and development interventions for sustainable development of groundwater irrigation. The result of the case study shows that farmer economics, capacity, and pump and well drilling market constraints limit groundwater irrigation in the Usangu plains rather than hydrogeological conditions.

  14. USING THE HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT TOOLBOX TO FACILITATE PROCUREMENT: THE CASE OF SMART PUMPS IN A CANADIAN HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the experience of a Canadian hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) unit that performed the traditional functions of the HTA process along with many other activities to facilitate the choice of smart pumps. A rapid literature review was initiated, but little evidence was found. Moreover, the evidence provided was too far from our hospital context. To help our decision makers, we offered them a list of various services based on the skills of our HTA unit staff. To involve our HTA unit in the choice of the new smart pumps led to a strong collaboration between hospital services. After a rapid review on smart pumps, we proceeded to establish the clinical needs, followed by an evaluation of technical features. To ascertain clinical needs, we participated in the establishment of a conformity list for the tender, a failure and mode-effect analysis, an audit on the use of actual smart pumps, and simulation exercises with nurses and doctors to evaluate the ease of use and ergonomics. With regard to technical tests, these were mainly conducted to identify potential dysfunction and to assess the efficiency of the pump. This experience with smart pumps was useful for evidence-based procurement and led to the formulation of a nine-step process to guide future work. HTA units and agencies are faced with rapid development of new technologies that may not be supported by sufficient amount of pertinent published evidence. Under these circumstances, approaches other than evidence-based selection might provide useful information. Because these activities may be different from those related to classic HTA, this widens the scope of what can be done in HTA to support decision making.

  15. Geothermal heat pumps - Trends and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    1989-01-01

    Heat pumps are used where geothermal water or ground temperatures are only slightly above normal, generally 50 to 90 deg. F. Conventional geothermal heating (and cooling) systems are not economically efficient at these temperatures. Heat pumps, at these temperatures, can provide space heating and cooling, and with a desuperheater, domestic hot water. Two basic heat pump systems are available, air-source and water- or ground-source. Water- and ground-coupled heat pumps, referred to as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), have several advantages over air-source heat pumps. These are: (1) they consume about 33% less annual energy, (2) they tap the earth or groundwater, a more stable energy source than air, (3) they do not require supplemental heat during extreme high or low outside temperatures, (4) they use less refrigerant (freon), and (5) they have a simpler design and consequently less maintenance.

  16. Dynamic exergoeconomic analysis of a heat pump system used for ancillary services in an integrated energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meesenburg, Wiebke; Ommen, Torben; Elmegaard, Brian

    2018-01-01

    the cost of heat and flexibility products based on the difference in exergy destruction was proposed. The method was applied to a case of a groundwater-source heat pump system supplying a district heating island system. It was found that providing demand flexibility causes higher exergy destruction, mainly...... due to heat losses during storage and the need to reheat the fluid using an electric heater. The major part of the additional exergy destruction was not related to heat pump regulation. When providing flexibility the overall cost of the system increased and according to the proposed allocation, demand...

  17. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  18. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  19. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  20. A natural analogy of high-level radioactive waste disposal. A case study of the groundwater from a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Zhang Zhanshi; Ouyang Hegen

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide migration is one of the key effects of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The groundwater is considered the primary means of radionuclide migration. Uranium and rare earth element(REE) in groundwater from a uranium deposit were used as a chemical analogue to study the migration of radionuclides. The results show that REE and its chemical analogue might migrate under the uranium deposit condition, but uranium and its analogue do not migrate obviously. According to the results, we might infer that after the groundwater penetrates into the HLW repository, REE and its analogue might migrate with the groundwater; but there is no obvious migration of uranium and its chemical analogue,which might increase our confidence to built a safe HLW repository. (authors)

  1. Abacus to determine soils salinity in presence of saline groundwater in arid zones case of the region of Ouargla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergougui, Myriam Marie El; Benyamina, Hind; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2018-05-01

    In order to remedy the limit of salt intake to the soil surface, it is necessary to study the causes of the soil salinity and find the origin of these salts. The arid areas in the region of Ouargla lie on excessively mineralized groundwater whose level is near the soil surface (0 - 1.5 m). The topography and absence of a reliable drainage system led to the rise of the groundwater beside the arid climatic conditions contributed to the salinization and hydromorphy of the soils. The progress and stabilization of cultures yields in these areas can only occur if the groundwater is maintained (drained) to a depth of 1.6 m. The results of works done to the determination of soil salinity depend mainly on the groundwater's salinity, its depth and the climate.

  2. Influence of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) on groundwater chemistry: an overview of several cases in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possemiers, Mathias; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2013-04-01

    Environmental concerns and an increasing pressure on fossil fuels cause a rapidly growing interest in renewable energy. An interesting provider of such renewable energy is Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES), where groundwater in the aquifer is used as storage medium for summer heat and winter cold. The number of ATES systems has been continually increasing over the last years and will continue to increase in the future. Because ATES is often applied in aquifers also used for the production of drinking water, drinking water companies and environmental agencies are concerned about the impact of all these ATES systems on the groundwater quality in the long term. Because most ATES systems operate at relatively small temperature differences, ranging to several °C above and below the natural groundwater temperature, several studies show that the temperature influence on the groundwater quality is negligible. Mixing of the water column, on the other hand, possibly affects groundwater quality. The water is often extracted over a large portion of the aquifer in order to come to the desired flow rates. The composition of the groundwater on this interval may, however, differ from the top to the bottom by interaction with the surrounding aquifer material. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence that Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage may have on the groundwater quality. Therefore the groundwater chemistry around seven ATES installations in the north of Belgium (Flanders) is evaluated. The selected ATES systems are located in several aquifers, which have major groundwater resources. The warm and cold wells of the different ATES installations were sampled and analyzed for the main chemical constituents during 4 to 7 years. The time series of the different chemical compounds are investigated per ATES well and compared with time series of several monitoring wells in the exploited aquifer. Results confirm that the temperatures occurring in the ATES systems do not affect

  3. NAMMU results for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin - HYDROCOIN Level 2-Test case 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Paige, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    The HYDROCOIN project is an international collaborative venture for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 2 of this project concerns the validation of models in order to test their ability adequately to represent reality. This report describes calculations for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. This region constitutes one of the few areas where low permeability rocks, similar to those likely to be used for repository sites, have been investigated by hydrogeologists. (author)

  4. Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J.

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment and coastal groundwater from reclamation areas in Shenzhen were examined. The gradually decreased concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in sediment and relatively higher concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd) in groundwater within reclamation areas were observed. The increase of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Cd concentrations in groundwater within reclamation areas subsequently after land reclamation should be resulted from the mobilization of these metals accumulated in the sediment. These metals appear to be easily mobilized from solid phase to solution phase after reclamation. The physico-chemical changes such as reduction in pH and salinity in water environment induced by land reclamation appear to be responsible for metal mobility in the sediment-groundwater system. - Metals in coastal groundwater and marine sediment are affected by land reclamation

  5. Impact of Rainfall, Land-Cover and Population Growth on Groundwater - A Case Study From Karnataka State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, R. K.; Chinnapa Reddy, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends in climate, land-use pattern and population has affected almost every portable water resources in the world. Due to depleting surface water and untimely distribution of precipitation, the demand to use groundwater has increased considerably. Further recent studies have shown that the groundwater stress is more in developing countries like India. This study focuses on understanding the impacts of three major factors (i.e., rainfall, land-cover and population growth) effecting the groundwater levels. For this purpose, the correlation between the trends in groundwater time series is compared with trends in rainfall, land-cover and population growth. To detect the trends in time series, two statistical methods namely, least square method and Mann-Kendall method, are adopted. The results were analyzed based on the measurements from 1800 observation wells in the Karnataka state, India. The data is obtained for a total of 9 year time period ranging from 2005 to 2013. A gridded precipitation data of 0.5o× 0.5o over the entire region is used. The change in land-cover and population data was approximately obtained from the local governing bodies. The early results show significant correlation between rainfall and groundwater time series trends. The outcomes will assess the vulnerability of groundwater levels under changing physical and hydroclimatic conditions, especially under climate change.

  6. Integration of 100% heat pumps and electric vehicles in the low voltage distribution network: A Danish case story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Nan; You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of micro-sized Distributed Energy Rescores (DERs), due to physical bottlenecks, e.g. load capacities of cables and transformers and voltage limitations. In this study, integration impacts of heat pumps (HPs) an...

  7. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnittker, R.; Schmettow, M.; Verhoeven, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample

  8. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  9. Modelling ground rupture due to groundwater withdrawal: applications to test cases in China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, A.; Teatini, P.; Janna, C.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Ye, S.; Carreón-Freyre, D.

    2015-11-01

    The stress variation induced by aquifer overdraft in sedimentary basins with shallow bedrock may cause rupture in the form of pre-existing fault activation or earth fissure generation. The process is causing major detrimental effects on a many areas in China and Mexico. Ruptures yield discontinuity in both displacement and stress field that classic continuous finite element (FE) models cannot address. Interface finite elements (IE), typically used in contact mechanics, may be of great help and are implemented herein to simulate the fault geomechanical behaviour. Two main approaches, i.e. Penalty and Lagrangian, are developed to enforce the contact condition on the element interface. The incorporation of IE incorporation into a three-dimensional (3-D) FE geomechanical simulator shows that the Lagrangian approach is numerically more robust and stable than the Penalty, thus providing more reliable solutions. Furthermore, the use of a Newton-Raphson scheme to deal with the non-linear elasto-plastic fault behaviour allows for quadratic convergence. The FE - IE model is applied to investigate the likely ground rupture in realistic 3-D geologic settings. The case studies are representative of the City of Wuxi in the Jiangsu Province (China), and of the City of Queretaro, Mexico, where significant land subsidence has been accompanied by the generation of several earth fissures jeopardizing the stability and integrity of the overland structures and infrastructure.

  10. Role of high-elevation groundwater flows in the hydrogeology of the Cimino volcano (central Italy) and possibilities to capture drinking water in a geogenically contaminated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, V.; Armiento, G.; Baiocchi, A.; Mazzuoli, M.; Nardi, E.; Piacentini, S. M.; Proposito, M.; Spaziani, F.

    2018-01-01

    Origin, yield and quality of the groundwater flows at high elevation in the Cimino volcano (central Italy) were examined. In this area, groundwater is geogenically contaminated by arsenic and fluoride, yet supplies drinking water for approximately 170,000 inhabitants. The origin of the high-elevation groundwater flows is strictly related to vertical and horizontal variability of the rock types (lava flows, lava domes and ignimbrite) in an area of limited size. In some cases, groundwater circuits are related to perched aquifers above noncontinuous aquitards; in other cases, they are due to flows in the highly fractured dome carapace, limited at the bottom by a low-permeability dome core. The high-elevation groundwater outflow represents about 30% of the total recharge of Cimino's hydrogeological system, which has been estimated at 9.8 L/s/km2. Bicarbonate alkaline-earth, cold, neutral waters with low salinity, and notably with low arsenic and fluoride content, distinguish the high-elevation groundwaters from those of the basal aquifer. Given the quantity and quality of these resources, approaches in the capture and management of groundwater in this hydrogeological environment should be reconsidered. Appropriate tapping methods such as horizontal drains, could more efficiently capture the high-elevation groundwater resources, as opposed to the waters currently pumped from the basal aquifer which often require dearsenification treatments.

  11. Role of high-elevation groundwater flows in the hydrogeology of the Cimino volcano (central Italy) and possibilities to capture drinking water in a geogenically contaminated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, V.; Armiento, G.; Baiocchi, A.; Mazzuoli, M.; Nardi, E.; Piacentini, S. M.; Proposito, M.; Spaziani, F.

    2018-06-01

    Origin, yield and quality of the groundwater flows at high elevation in the Cimino volcano (central Italy) were examined. In this area, groundwater is geogenically contaminated by arsenic and fluoride, yet supplies drinking water for approximately 170,000 inhabitants. The origin of the high-elevation groundwater flows is strictly related to vertical and horizontal variability of the rock types (lava flows, lava domes and ignimbrite) in an area of limited size. In some cases, groundwater circuits are related to perched aquifers above noncontinuous aquitards; in other cases, they are due to flows in the highly fractured dome carapace, limited at the bottom by a low-permeability dome core. The high-elevation groundwater outflow represents about 30% of the total recharge of Cimino's hydrogeological system, which has been estimated at 9.8 L/s/km2. Bicarbonate alkaline-earth, cold, neutral waters with low salinity, and notably with low arsenic and fluoride content, distinguish the high-elevation groundwaters from those of the basal aquifer. Given the quantity and quality of these resources, approaches in the capture and management of groundwater in this hydrogeological environment should be reconsidered. Appropriate tapping methods such as horizontal drains, could more efficiently capture the high-elevation groundwater resources, as opposed to the waters currently pumped from the basal aquifer which often require dearsenification treatments.

  12. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  13. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  14. Pump monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes how to set up a periodic vibration monitoring program implemented with electronic data loggers. Acquired data will be analyzed and evaluated to determine pump condition. Periodic measuring frequency, reporting procedures, and conditions of mechanical components are discussed in detail based on the actual case study

  15. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  16. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  17. Smart Markets for Transferable Pumping Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, N.; Young, R.

    2016-12-01

    While no national policy on groundwater use exists in the United States, local groundwater management is emerging across the country in response to concerns and conflicts over declining well yields, land subsidence, and the depletion of hydrologically connected surface waters. Management strategies include well drilling moratoria, pumping restrictions, and restrictions on the expansion of irrigated land. To provide flexibility to groundwater users, local regulatory authorities increasingly have begun to allow the transfer of groundwater rights as a cost-effective management tool. Markets can be a versatile risk management tool, helping communities to cope with scarcity, to meet goals for sustainability, and to grow resilient local economies. For example, active groundwater rights transfers exist in the High Plains region of the United States. Yet, several barriers to trade exist: high search costs for interested parties, complicated requirements for regulatory compliance, and reluctance to share sensitive financial information. Additionally, groundwater pumping leads to several kinds of spatial and intertemporal externalities such as stream depletion. Indeed, groundwater management schemes that reallocate water between alternate pumping locations are often explicitly designed to change the distribution and magnitude of pumping externalities. Reallocation may be designed to minimize unwanted impacts on third parties or to encourage trades that reduce the magnitude of externalities. We discuss how smart markets can deal with complex biophysical constraints while also encouraging active trading, therefore ensuring local goals for aquifer sustainability while growing local economies. Smart markets address these issues by providing a centralized hub for trading, automating the process of regulatory compliance by only matching buyers and sellers eligible to trade as specified in the regulations, and maintaining anonymous, confidential bidding.

  18. Redox zonation for different groundwater flow paths during bank filtration: a case study at Liao River, Shenyang, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaosi; Lu, Shuai; Yuan, Wenzhen; Woo, Nam Chil; Dai, Zhenxue; Dong, Weihong; Du, Shanghai; Zhang, Xinyue

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of redox zones in an aquifer is important when designing groundwater supply systems. Redox zonation can have direct or indirect control of the biological and chemical reactions and mobility of pollutants. In this study, redox conditions are characterized by interpreting the hydrogeological conditions and water chemistry in groundwater during bank infiltration at a site in Shenyang, northeast China. The relevant redox processes and zonal differences in a shallow flow path and deeper flow path at the field scale were revealed by monitoring the redox parameters and chemistry of groundwater near the Liao River. The results show obvious horizontal and vertical components of redox zones during bank filtration. Variations in the horizontal extent of the redox zone were controlled by the different permeabilities of the riverbed sediments and aquifer with depth. Horizontally, the redox zone was situated within 17 m of the riverbank for the shallow flow path and within 200 m for the deep flow path. The vertical extent of the redox zone was affected by precipitation and seasonal river floods and extended to 10 m below the surface. During bank filtration, iron and manganese oxides or hydroxides were reductively dissolved, and arsenic that was adsorbed onto the medium surface or coprecipitated is released into the groundwater. This leads to increased arsenic content in groundwater, which poses a serious threat to water supply security.

  19. The Compatibility of Geothermal Power Plants with Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems: The Case of the Cesine Wetland (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio De Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cesine Wetland, located along the Adriatic coast, was recognized as a Wetland of International Interest and a National Natural Park. Managed by the “World Wide Fund for nature” (WWF, it is considered a groundwater dependent ecosystem which is affected by seawater intrusion. The site was selected to test the environmental compatibility of a low-enthalpy geothermal power plant (closed loop operating in the aquifer saturated portion with purpose to improving the visitor centre. For this purpose, the long-lasting thermal impact on groundwater was assessed using a multi-methodological approach. The complex aquifer system was carefully studied with geological, hydrogeological and geochemical surveys, including chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses of surface water, groundwater and seawater. The isotopes δ18O, δD, δ11B, and 3H were useful to clarify the recharge contribution, the water mixing and the water age. All information was used to improve the conceptualization of the water system, including aquifers and the boundary conditions for a density driven numerical groundwater model. The purpose was to forecast anthropogenic thermal groundwater variations up to 10 years of plant working before the plant realization and to validate the solution after some working years. All results show the environmental compatibility notwithstanding the peculiar ecological environment.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic, irrigational, and industrial purposes: a case study from Thirumanimuttar river basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Prasanna, M V

    2012-01-01

    The Thirumanimuttar sub-basin forms an important groundwater province in south India, facing serious deficiency in both quality and quantity of groundwater due to increased demand associated with rapid population explosion, agricultural growth and industrial activities. A total of 194 groundwater samples were collected and 15 water quality parameters were analyzed using standard procedures. Na( + ), Cl( - ), Ca(2 + ), HCO(-)(3), Mg(2 + ) and SO(2-)(4) concentration ions are more dominant in both seasons. The total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity was observed good correlation with Na( + ), Cl( - ), HCO(-)(3), Ca(2 + ), Mg(2 + ), Cl( - ), PO(3-)(4) and NO(-)(3) ions indicating dominance of plagioclase feldspar weathering, anthropogenic input and over drafting of groundwater irrespective of seasons. The Hill-Piper diagram indicates alkaline earths exceed the alkalis, an increase of weak acids was noted during both the seasons. For assessing the groundwater for irrigation suitability parameters like total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index, and sodium percentage are also calculated. Permanent hardness was noted in higher during both the seasons due to discharge of untreated effluents and ion exchange process. The RSC indicates 56% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes in both seasons, if continuously used will affect the crop yield. From the results, nearly 72% of the samples are not suitable for irrigation.

  1. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  2. Application of a Groundwater Modeling Tool for Managing Hydrologically Connected Area in State of Nebraska, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Flyr, B.; Bradley, J.; Pun, M.; Schneider, J.; Wietjes, J.; Chinta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Determination of the nature and degree of hydrologically connected groundwater and surface water resources is of paramount importance to integrated water management within the State of Nebraska to understand the impact of water uses on available supplies, such as depletion of streams and aquifers caused by groundwater pumping. The ability to quantify effects of surface water-groundwater hydrologic connection and interactions, is regarded as one of the most important steps towards effectively managing water resources in Nebraska and provides the basis for designating management areas. Designation of management areas allows the state and other management entities to focus various efforts and resources towards those projects that have the greatest impact to water users. Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR) developed a groundwater modeling tool, Cycle Well Analysis, to determine the areas defined to have a high degree of connectivity between groundwater and surface water (in accordance with the state regulations). This tool features two graphic user interfaces to allow the analysis to be fully compatible with most MODFLOW-based numerical groundwater models currently utilized by NDNR. Case studies showed that the tool, in combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), can be used to quantify the degree of stream depletion and delineate the boundary of hydrologically connected areas within different political boundaries and subbasins in Nebraska. This approach may be applied to other regions with similar background and need for integrated water management.

  3. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  4. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  5. Model predictive control to Maintain ATES balance using heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.; Boxem, G.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    A rapidly growing amount of sustainable office buildings in the Netherlands is using an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system. An ATES system uses a well pump to extract cold groundwater for cooling with the use of a heat pump if necessary. An essential condition for optimal ATES operation is

  6. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  7. Estimation of groundwater recharge from the subsurface to the rock mass. A case study of Tono Mine Area, Gifu Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Nakano, Katushi; Koide, Kaoru

    1996-01-01

    The groundwater flow analysis involve the groundwater recharge from the subsurface to the rock mass. According to water balance method, annual groundwater recharge is calculated by the remainder of annual evapotranspirator and river flow from annual precipitation. In this estimation, hydrological and meteorological data observed for 5 years on the watershed in Tono mine area is used. Annual precipitation ranges from 1,000 to 1,900 mm and annual river flow ranges from 400 to 1,300 mm, then river flow depends critically on precipitation. Annual evapotranspiration calculated by Penman method ranges from 400 to 500 mm. It is less fluctuant than annual precipitation. As the result of examination of water balance in subsurface zone estimated, annual ground water recharge ranges from 10 to 200 mm in this watershed. (author)

  8. Dissolved helium and TDS in groundwater from Bhavnagar in Gujarat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2003-01-02

    Jan 2, 2003 ... by enhanced pumping of old groundwater with relatively higher concentration of dissolved helium and salt .... solubility changes due to these (Weiss 1971) can- ... aquifers and relatively low helium concentra- .... permeability.

  9. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  10. Insight into Groundwater Flow within a Crystalline Aquifer. Case Study of the Ursuya Mount, Northern Basque Country (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunat, J.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Franceschi, M.; Coustumer, P. Le; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Ursuya Mount is one of the main water supplies of the Northern Basque Country. A study is being conducted since 2009 on this aquifer in order to improve the knowledge on its potential and its hydrodynamics properties. Two hydrological cycles are required to get the necessary data to meet the following objectives: clarifying the aquifer potential of the site both quantitatively and qualitatively; determining the geographic and seasonal variations; understanding the origin and the flow pattern of the groundwater; evaluating the groundwater residence times and the areas of preferential recharge. Here, we present only some geochemical and isotopic data. Thus, structural or hydrodynamic approaches will not be discussed.

  11. What Controls Submarine Groundwater Discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Cable, J. E.; Cherrier, J.; Roy, M.; Smith, C. G.; Dorsett, A.

    2008-05-01

    Numerous processes have been implicated in controlling submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal zones since Ghyben, Herzberg and Dupuit developed models of fresh water discharge from coastal aquifers at the turn of the 19th century. Multiple empirical and modeling techniques have also been applied to these environments to measure the flow. By the mid-1950's, Cooper had demonstrated that dispersion across the fresh water-salt water boundary required salt water entrained into fresh water flow be balanced by recharge of salt water across the sediment-water interface seaward of the outflow face. Percolation of water into the beach face from wind and tidal wave run up and changes in pressure at the sediment-water interface with fluctuating tides have now been recognized, and observed, as processes driving seawater into the sediments. Within the past few years, variations in water table levels and the 1:40 amplification from density difference in fresh water and seawater have been implicated to pump salt water seasonally across the sediment- water interface. Salt water driven by waves, tides and seasonal water table fluctuations is now recognized as a component of SGD when it flows back to overlying surface waters. None of these processes are sufficiently large to provide measured volumes of SGD in Indian River Lagoon, Florida, however, because minimal tides and waves exist, flat topography and transmissive aquifers minimize fluctuations of the water table, and little water is entrained across the salt water-fresh water boundary. Nonetheless, the saline fraction of SGD represents more than 99% of the volume of total SGD in the Indian River Lagoon. This volume of saline SGD can be driven by the abundance of burrowing organisms in the lagoon, which pump sufficient amounts of water through the sediment- water interface. These bioirrigating organisms are ubiquitous at all water depths in sandy sediment and thus may provide one of the major sources of SGD world wide

  12. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Complex Groundwater Management Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, Emery; Poulton, Mary; Charles, Emmanuel; Dustman, John; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2003-01-01

    As water quantity and quality problems become increasingly severe, accurate prediction and effective management of scarcer water resources will become critical. In this paper, the successful application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology is described for three types of groundwater prediction and management problems. In the first example, an ANN was trained with simulation data from a physically based numerical model to predict head (groundwater elevation) at locations of interest under variable pumping and climate conditions. The ANN achieved a high degree of predictive accuracy, and its derived state-transition equations were embedded into a multiobjective optimization formulation and solved to generate a trade-off curve depicting water supply in relation to contamination risk. In the second and third examples, ANNs were developed with real-world hydrologic and climate data for different hydrogeologic environments. For the second problem, an ANN was developed using data collected for a 5-year, 8-month period to predict heads in a multilayered surficial and limestone aquifer system under variable pumping, state, and climate conditions. Using weekly stress periods, the ANN substantially outperformed a well-calibrated numerical flow model for the 71-day validation period, and provided insights into the effects of climate and pumping on water levels. For the third problem, an ANN was developed with data collected automatically over a 6-week period to predict hourly heads in 11 high-capacity public supply wells tapping a semiconfined bedrock aquifer and subject to large well-interference effects. Using hourly stress periods, the ANN accurately predicted heads for 24-hour periods in all public supply wells. These test cases demonstrate that the ANN technology can solve a variety of complex groundwater management problems and overcome many of the problems and limitations associated with traditional physically based flow models

  13. The interaction between the unsaturated zone, aquifer, and stream during a period of groundwater withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Christensen, Steen; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer

    2011-01-01

    drainage responses to water-table drawdown. The responses can be sufficiently modeled by estimating the specific yield and five exponential time constants of a Moench/Boulton type model of delayed drainage. The average specific yield is thus estimated to 0.24 which is in agreement with previous small scale......; in the second case the estimate (0.17) is in better agreement with core and previous estimates (0.24). The analysis indicates that relatively fast drainage, and the existence of two drawdown dependent sources of groundwater recharge (the storage and the stream), complicates pumping test design to obtain unique...... parameter estimation. The analysis supports that an essential factor in parameter estimation by pumping test analysis for (at least some) unconfined aquifers is the use of a model that accounts for time-varying drainage from the vadose zone. Finally, when predicting stream depletion beyond 1. day of pumping...

  14. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  15. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  16. Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers

  17. Site specific health and safety plan, 100-HR-3 pump and treat. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit encompasses groundwater contamination underlying the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminate is chromium VI. The sources of chromium contamination resulted from the use of sodium dichromate during past reactor operations. The purpose of the 100-HR-3 Pump-and-Treat system is to pump contaminated groundwater through aboveground ion exchange resin and then return the treated waster to the aquifer. This plan covers operation, maintenance, repairs, and pump removal/installation

  18. Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents' behavioral rules for groundwater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Quinn, Christopher J.; Cai, Ximing; Garfinkle, Noah W.

    2017-11-01

    For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents' behavioral rules arise from agents' bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a "gray box" approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents' decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents' pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

  19. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  20. Assessment of groundwater exploitation in an aquifer using the random walk on grid method: a case study at Ordos, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tongchao; Li, Kaixuan; Wu, Jichun; Yin, Lihe

    2018-04-01

    Sustainability has been one of the key criteria of effective water exploitation. Groundwater exploitation and water-table decline at Haolebaoji water source site in the Ordos basin in NW China has drawn public attention due to concerns about potential threats to ecosystems and grazing land in the area. To better investigate the impact of production wells at Haolebaoji on the water table, an adapted algorithm called the random walk on grid method (WOG) is applied to simulate the hydraulic head in the unconfined and confined aquifers. This is the first attempt to apply WOG to a real groundwater problem. The method can not only evaluate the head values but also the contributions made by each source/sink term. One is allowed to analyze the impact of source/sink terms just as if one had an analytical solution. The head values evaluated by WOG match the values derived from the software Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). It suggests that WOG is effective and applicable in a heterogeneous aquifer with respect to practical problems, and the resultant information is useful for groundwater management.

  1. Case of study of groundwater pollution in a critical area of the southern-Friuli exposed to agricultural and landfill pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, G.; Siviero, P.; Barbieri, P.; Piselli, S.; Reisenhofer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater of the Southern-Friuli displays high levels of agricultural pollutants, such as nitrates and triazinic herbicides not only in the surficial layers, but also in the deeper ones, below 150 m. Some wells of the district of Gonars was monitored. The examined waters, used for irrigation but also for drinkable use, are exposed to environmental risk due to both agricultural practices and presence of many waste disposal sites. Heavy metals, nitrates and triazinic herbicides were measured in samples taken at four wells in three periods having different rain conditions. It was found that the groundwater quality is affected mainly by agricultural practices: nitrates and triazines are present at levels very near as well as superior to the maximum concentration allowable by Italian law. These agricultural contaminants have similar levels at all sampled sites: no difference ws detected between dry periods and rain ones. Heavy metal contents are negligible in all cases; this fact suggests that ion-exchange, sorbing and complexing properties of the soils hinder the way of the metal leachates towards underlying groundwater. Zinc constitutes an exception; it is found at levels near or superior to the maximum allowable concentration (CMA), and the highest contents are observed in rain periods; different sites display different zinc levels, suggesting that this metal could have various point sources. Nitrates fertilisers were found in all sites at similar levels, very near to CMA (50 mg/L). Triazines are specific herbicides for corn growing, highly diffused here: their use in recent years is forbidden by Italian law, but the presence in groundwater of parent triazines and metabolites is a persistent problem of this are. The Italian law indicates a CMA of 0.10 μ/L for the sum of atrazine and desethylatrazine, but it was found that desethylatrazine by itself exceeds largely CMA in all sites [it

  2. Groundwater well services site safety and health plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, B.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Health and Safety Plan covers well servicing in support of the Environmental Restoration Contractor Groundwater Project. Well servicing is an important part of environmental restoration activities supporting several pump and treat facilities and assisting in evaluation and servicing of various groundwater wells throughout the Hanford Site. Remediation of contaminated groundwater is a major part of the ERC project. Well services tasks help enhance groundwater extraction/injection as well as maintain groundwater wells for sampling and other hydrologic testing and information gathering

  3. Use of geochemical and isotope tracers to assess groundwater dependency of a terrestrial ecosystem: case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Anna J.; Witczak, Stanislaw; Kania, Jaroslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Dulinski, Marek; Wachniew, Przemyslaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented study was aimed at better understanding of the functioning of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in the south of Poland. The studied GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Bloto fen). It relies not only on shallow, unconfined aquifer but indirectly also on groundwater originating from the deeper confined aquifer, underlying the Quaternary cover and separated from it by an aquitard of variable thickness. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the contribution of groundwater to the water balance of the studied GDTE and thereby assess the potential risk to this system associated with intense exploitation of the deeper aquifer. The Wielkie Błoto fen area and the adjacent parts of Niepolomice Forest are drained by the Dluga Woda stream with 8.2 km2 of gauged catchment area. Hydrometric measurements, carried out on the Dluga Woda stream over two-year period (August 2011 - August 2013) were supplemented by chemical and isotope analyses of stream water, monitored on monthly basis. Physico-chemical parameters of the stream water (SEC, pH, Na content, Na/Cl molar ratio) and isotope tracers (deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium) were used to quantify the expected contribution of groundwater seepage from the deeper aquifer to the water balance of the Dluga Woda catchment. The mean transit time of water through the catchment, derived from temporal variations of δ18O and tritium content in the Dluga Woda stream, was in the order of three months. This fast component of the total discharge of Dluga Woda stream is associated surface runoff and groundwater flow paths through the Quaternary cover. The slow component devoid of tritium and probably originated from the deeper Neogene aquifer is equal to approximately 30% of the total discharge. The relationships between the physico-chemical parameters of the stream water and the flow rate of Dluga Woda clearly indicate that the monitored

  4. A density-dependent flow and transport analysis of the effects of groundwater development in a freshwater lens of limited areal extent: The Geneva area (Florida, U.S.A.) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Sorab; Huyakorn, Peter S.; Robertson, John B.; McGurk, Brian

    1993-04-01

    The Geneva freshwater lens is an isolated flow system within the upper Floridan aquifer surrounded and underlain by brackish water. The lens is sustained entirely by recharge from a surficial aquifer and sits atop a regional flow system which discharges around the fringes of the lens along the St. Johns River. Continual development of groundwater supply in the Geneva area has raised the concern of how much additional pumping can be allowed from various sites within the lens without adversely impacting water quality by inducing the invasion or upconing of salty water. A numerical modeling study was conducted to address these water management issues. A density-dependent, finite-element flow and transport code, DSTRAM, was used for cross-sectional and three-dimensional (3-D) analyses of the Geneva lens system. The model incorporates an enhanced upstream weighted technique for the transport equation, improved Picard iterations over the nonlinearities, and robust preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) and ORTHOMIN techniques for solving the matrix equations. A steady-state model calibration was performed for existing conditions at the site. The cross-sectional (2-D) analysis was inadequate in accurately representing the system, since the 3-D effects were considerable. However, 2-D cross-sectional simulations are useful for preliminary assessments of certain scenarios, and for guidance in developing the 3-D model. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was performed on a number of key parameters. Natural groundwater discharge rates along the St. Johns River seem to be the most critical unknown and require better estimates for increased confidence in the conceptual model. Transient pumping scenarios were imposed on this system to observe the response of the lens and to determine well breakthrough for chlorides, if any. Pumping rates and distribution of pumping were significant factors in determining the quality of the water. Upconing of saline water contributes to high

  5. Can groundwater sampling techniques used in monitoring wells influence methane concentrations and isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Christine; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Lavoie, Denis; Lefebvre, René; Malet, Xavier

    2018-03-06

    Methane concentrations and isotopic composition in groundwater are the focus of a growing number of studies. However, concerns are often expressed regarding the integrity of samples, as methane is very volatile and may partially exsolve during sample lifting in the well and transfer to sampling containers. While issues concerning bottle-filling techniques have already been documented, this paper documents a comparison of methane concentration and isotopic composition obtained with three devices commonly used to retrieve water samples from dedicated observation wells. This work lies within the framework of a larger project carried out in the Saint-Édouard area (southern Québec, Canada), whose objective was to assess the risk to shallow groundwater quality related to potential shale gas exploitation. The selected sampling devices, which were tested on ten wells during three sampling campaigns, consist of an impeller pump, a bladder pump, and disposable sampling bags (HydraSleeve). The sampling bags were used both before and after pumping, to verify the appropriateness of a no-purge approach, compared to the low-flow approach involving pumping until stabilization of field physicochemical parameters. Results show that methane concentrations obtained with the selected sampling techniques are usually similar and that there is no systematic bias related to a specific technique. Nonetheless, concentrations can sometimes vary quite significantly (up to 3.5 times) for a given well and sampling event. Methane isotopic composition obtained with all sampling techniques is very similar, except in some cases where sampling bags were used before pumping (no-purge approach), in wells where multiple groundwater sources enter the borehole.

  6. Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank

  7. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  8. Efficacy of pumping manipulation treatment for closed lock of the temporomandibular joint disorder. Correlation between arthrographic findings using limited cone beam X-ray CT for dental use and mouth opening distance in 20 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Kazuya; Uehara, Tamotsu; Arai, Yoshinori; Kashima, Masahiro; Tsukimura, Naoki; Honda, Masahiko; Iwai, Kazuo; Terakado, Masaaki; Shinoda, Koji

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pumping manipulation treatment for closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder using limited cone beam X-ray CT for dental use. The subjects were 20 patients with TMJ closed lock. Arthrography and pumping manipulation treatment were performed, and the correlation between maximal mouth opening and arthrographic findings was examined. Arthrography showed 16 cases of anterior disk displacement, and 4 cases of sideways displacement. Disk configuration showed 15 abnormal cases and 3 cases of disk perforation. Before treatment, mouth opening distance was 24.2 mm and 1 week after treatment it was 34.4 mm. After 3 months this had improved significantly to 41.0 mm. Comparison of mouth opening distance with arthrographic findings showed that disk perforation was significantly different after 3 months. These results suggest that pumping manipulation treatment might be useful in patients with TMJ closed lock without internal derangement or disk perforation. (author)

  9. The role of environmental tax incentives to promote innovation and improve the management of groundwater: a case study analysis of the unconventional natural gas industry in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvie, Deborah Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Water accounts for more than seventy percent of the earth’s surface, yet less than three percent of this water is freshwater fit for human use, and of this three percent, less than one percent is readily accessible – most of which is ‘groundwater’. This thesis argues that regulation for the protection of groundwater is long overdue for renewal. Examining the literature and conducting a case study, it assesses whether the greater use of tax incentives (TIs) to encourage environmental te...

  10. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area...... in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using...... both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...

  11. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  12. Electrostatic coupling of ion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Frausto, J; Lüger, P; Apell, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the electrostatic interactions between membrane-embedded ion-pumps and their consequences for the kinetics of pump-mediated transport processes have been examined. We show that the time course of an intrinsically monomolecular transport reaction can become distinctly nonexponential, if the reaction is associated with charge translocation and takes place in an aggregate of pump molecules. First we consider the electrostatic coupling of a single dimer of ion-pumps embedded in the membrane. Then we apply the treatment to the kinetic analysis of light-driven proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin which forms two-dimensional hexagonal lattices. Finally, for the case of nonordered molecules, we also consider a model in which the pumps are randomly distributed over the nodes of a lattice. Here the average distance is equal to that deduced experimentally and the elemental size of the lattice is the effective diameter of one single pump. This latter model is applied to an aggregate of membrane-embedded Na, K- and Ca-pumps. In all these cases the electrostatic potential considered is the exact solution calculated from the method of electrical images for a plane membrane of finite thickness immersed in an infinite aqueous solution environment. The distributions of charges (ions or charged binding sites) are considered homogeneous or discrete in the membrane and/or in the external solution. In the case of discrete distributions we compare the results from a mean field approximation and a stochastic simulation.

  13. Performance Assessment for Pump-and-Treat Closure or Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, Dave J. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Environmental and Munitions Center of Expertise, Huntsville, AL (United States); Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nimmons, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    A structured performance assessment approach is useful to evaluate pump-and-treat (P&T) groundwater remediation, which has been applied at numerous sites. Consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Groundwater Road Map, performance assessment during remedy implementation may be needed, and should consider remedy optimization, transition to alternative remedies, or remedy closure. In addition, a recent National Research Council study examined groundwater remediation at complex contaminated sites and concluded that it may be beneficial to evaluate remedy performance and the potential need for transition to alternative approaches at these sites. The intent of this document is to provide a structured approach for assessing P&T performance to support a decision to optimize, transition, or close a P&T remedy. The process presented in this document for gathering information and performing evaluations to support P&T remedy decisions includes use of decision elements to distinguish between potential outcomes of a remedy decision. Case studies are used to augment descriptions of decision elements and to illustrate each type of outcome identified in the performance assessment approach. The document provides references to resources for tools and other guidance relevant to conducting the P&T assessment.

  14. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  15. Numerical Calculation of Secondary Flow in Pump Volute and Circular Casings using 3D Viscous Flow Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Majidi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow field in volute and circular casings interacting with a centrifugal impeller is obtained by numerical analysis. In the present study, effects of the volute and circular casings on the flow pattern have been investigated by successively combining a volute casing and a circular casing with a single centrifugal impeller. The numerical calculations are carried out with a multiple frame of reference to predict the flow field inside the entire impeller and casings. The impeller flow field is solved in a rotating frame and the flow field in the casings in a stationary frame. The static pressure and velocity in the casing and impeller, and the static pressures and secondary velocity vectors at several cross-sectional planes of the casings are calculated. The calculations show that the curvature of the casings creates pressure gradients that cause vortices at cross-sectional planes of the casings.

  16. Residual heat removal pump retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; McKenna, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Residual Heat Removal (RHR) pumps installed in pressurized water reactor power plants are used to provide the removal of decay heat from the reactor and to provide low head safety injection in the event of loss of coolant in the reactor coolant system. These pumps are subjected to rather severe temperature and pressure transients, therefore, the majority of pumps installed in the RHR service are vertical pumps with a single stage impeller. RHR pumps have traditionally been a significant maintenance item for many utilities. The close-coupled pump design requires disassembly of the casing cover from the lower pump casing while performing these routine maintenance tasks. The casing separation requires the loosening of numerous highly torqued studs. Once the casing is separated, the impeller is dropped from the motor shaft to allow removal of the mechanical seal and casing cover from the motor shaft. Galling of the impeller to the motor shaft is not uncommon. The RHR pump internals are radioactive and the separation of the pump casing to perform routine maintenance exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. The handling of the impeller also exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. This paper introduces a design modification developed to convert the close-coupled RHR pumps to a coupled configuration

  17. Impacts of natural events and processes on groundwater flow conditions: a case study in the Horonobe Area, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, T.; Yasue, K.I.; Kurikami, H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the long-term stability of the geological environments for over several hundred thousand years, it is important to consider the influence of natural events and processes, such as uplift, subsidence, denudation and climate change, on the geological environments, especially in an active region such as Japan. This study presents a conceptual model related to the future natural events and processes which have potential impacts on the groundwater flow conditions in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, northern Japan on the basis of the neo-tectonics, palaeogeography, palaeo-climate, historical development of landform, and present state of groundwater flow conditions. We conclude that it is important to consider interactions among natural events and processes on the describing of the best-possible approximation of the time-variation of geological environment. (authors)

  18. Integrating urban recharge uncertainty into standard groundwater modeling practice: A case study on water main break predictions for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, K.; Teasley, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater models serve as integral tools for understanding flow processes and informing stakeholders and policy makers in management decisions. Historically, these models tended towards a deterministic nature, relying on historical data to predict and inform future decisions based on model outputs. This research works towards developing a stochastic method of modeling recharge inputs from pipe main break predictions in an existing groundwater model, which subsequently generates desired outputs incorporating future uncertainty rather than deterministic data. The case study for this research is the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer near Austin, Texas. Researchers and water resource professionals have modeled the Edwards Aquifer for decades due to its high water quality, fragile ecosystem, and stakeholder interest. The original case study and model that this research is built upon was developed as a co-design problem with regional stakeholders and the model outcomes are generated specifically for communication with policy makers and managers. Recently, research in the Barton Springs segment demonstrated a significant contribution of urban, or anthropogenic, recharge to the aquifer, particularly during dry period, using deterministic data sets. Due to social and ecological importance of urban water loss to recharge, this study develops an evaluation method to help predicted pipe breaks and their related recharge contribution within the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer. To benefit groundwater management decision processes, the performance measures captured in the model results, such as springflow, head levels, storage, and others, were determined by previous work in elicitation of problem framing to determine stakeholder interests and concerns. The results of the previous deterministic model and the stochastic model are compared to determine gains to stakeholder knowledge through the additional modeling

  19. Integrated socio-hydrogeological approach to tackle nitrate contamination in groundwater resources. The case of Grombalia Basin (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E; Kammoun, S; Tringali, C; Trabelsi, R; Zouari, K; Daniele, S

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate contamination still remains one of the main groundwater quality issues in several aquifers worldwide, despite the perduring efforts of the international scientific community to effectively tackle this problem. The classical hydrogeological and isotopic investigations are obviously of paramount importance for the characterization of contaminant sources, but are clearly not sufficient for the correct and long-term protection of groundwater resources. This paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of the socio-hydrogeological approach as the best tool to tackle groundwater quality issues, while contributing bridging the gap between science and society. An integrated survey, including land use, hydrochemical (physicochemical parameters and major ions) and isotopic (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) analyses, coupled to capacity building and participatory activities was carried out to correctly attribute the nitrate origin in groundwater from the Grombalia Basin (North Tunisia), a region where only synthetic fertilizers have been generally identified as the main source of such pollution. Results demonstrates that the basin is characterized by high nitrate concentrations, often exceeding the statutory limits for drinking water, in both the shallow and deep aquifers, whereas sources are associated to both agricultural and urban activities. The public participation of local actors proved to be a fundamental element for the development of the hydrogeological investigation, as it permitted to obtain relevant information to support data interpretation, and eventually guaranteed the correct assessment of contaminant sources in the studied area. In addition, such activity, if adequately transferred to regulators, will ensure the effective adoption of management practices based on the research outcomes and tailored on the real needs of the local population, proving the added value to include it in any integrated investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    during the monitoring phase. When both CCC and monitoring values are available from one borehole section two values are used, one representing each of the sampling methods. When time series are measured in the monitoring sections, in most cases the sulphide values are higher in the downhole tubing and in the borehole section compared with groundwater from the surrounding fractures. The routinely carried out removal of five borehole section water volumes prior to monitoring are in most cases inadequate to obtain representative samples from the bedrock fractures, i.e. without elevated sulphide due to contamination from the initial stagnant water from the borehole section. It is, however, assumed that the two groundwater samples from the same water conducting structures, i.e. the sample from the monitoring and the sample from the CCC sampling, the latter usually showing lower sulphide, spans the interval of representative sulphide values in the formation water. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' value. It is worth noting that the plug flow calculations have proven to be very useful in order to judge the water volumes needed to be pumped at each monitored section before obtaining a sample sufficiently representative of the fracture groundwater. Practically all sulphide concentrations at Forsmark are <= 0.013 mmol/L (approx0.4 mg/L). There is, however, a probability that for some deposition location in the repository the surrounding groundwaters may have sulphide concentrations as high as 0.12 mmol/L (approx4 mg/L). In order to estimate canister corrosion rates in the SR-Site during a full glacial cycle, it is recommended that the observed distribution of sulphide in groundwaters at Forsmark during the present temperate conditions should be used. Furthermore, it should be noted that the present sulphide concentrations have been sampled after a recent period of possible

  1. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF; Bruchert, V; Molinero, J

    2010-12-01

    the monitoring phase. When both CCC and monitoring values are available from one borehole section two values are used, one representing each of the sampling methods. When time series are measured in the monitoring sections, in most cases the sulphide values are higher in the downhole tubing and in the borehole section compared with groundwater from the surrounding fractures. The routinely carried out removal of five borehole section water volumes prior to monitoring are in most cases inadequate to obtain representative samples from the bedrock fractures, i.e. without elevated sulphide due to contamination from the initial stagnant water from the borehole section. It is, however, assumed that the two groundwater samples from the same water conducting structures, i.e. the sample from the monitoring and the sample from the CCC sampling, the latter usually showing lower sulphide, spans the interval of representative sulphide values in the formation water. For most of the CCC and monitoring sections the last sample in the time series is suggested as representing the 'best possible' value. It is worth noting that the plug flow calculations have proven to be very useful in order to judge the water volumes needed to be pumped at each monitored section before obtaining a sample sufficiently representative of the fracture groundwater. Practically all sulphide concentrations at Forsmark are ≤ 0.013 mmol/L (∼0.4 mg/L). There is, however, a probability that for some deposition location in the repository the surrounding groundwaters may have sulphide concentrations as high as 0.12 mmol/L (∼4 mg/L). In order to estimate canister corrosion rates in the SR-Site during a full glacial cycle, it is recommended that the observed distribution of sulphide in groundwaters at Forsmark during the present temperate conditions should be used. Furthermore, it should be noted that the present sulphide concentrations have been sampled after a recent period of possible intrusion of marine

  2. High temperature thermoacoustic heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. A thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestics and offices energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6% and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  3. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  4. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  5. Analytical Solution for Time-drawdown Response to Constant Pumping from a Homogeneous, Confined Horizontal Aquifer with Unidirectional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, K. E.; Zhang, J.; Teasdale, E.

    2007-12-01

    An exact analytical solution to the ordinary one-dimensional partial differential equation is derived for transient groundwater flow in a homogeneous, confined, horizontal aquifer using Laplace transformation. The theoretical analysis is based on the assumption that the aquifer is homogeneous and one-dimensional (horizontal); confined between impermeable formations on top and bottom; and of infinite horizontal extent and constant thickness. It is also assumed that there is only a single pumping well penetrating the entire aquifer; flow is everywhere horizontal within the aquifer to the well; the well is pumping with a constant discharge rate; the well diameter is infinitesimally small; and the hydraulic head is uniform throughout the aquifer before pumping. Similar to the Theis solution, this solution is suited to determine transmissivity and storativity for a two- dimensional, vertically confined aquifer, such as a long vertically fractured zone of high permeability within low permeable rocks or a long, high-permeability trench inside a low-permeability porous media. In addition, it can be used to analyze time-drawdown responses to pumping and injection in similar settings. The solution can also be used to approximate the groundwater flow for unconfined conditions if (1) the variation of transmissivity is negligible (groundwater table variation is small in comparison to the saturated thickness); and (2) the unsaturated flow is negligible. The errors associated with the use of the solution to unconfined conditions depend on the accuracies of the above two assumptions. The solution can also be used to assess the impacts of recharge from a seasonal river or irrigation canal on the groundwater system by assuming uniform, time- constant recharge along the river or canal. This paper presents the details for derivation of the analytical solution. The analytical solution is compared to numerical simulation results with example cases. Its accuracy is also assessed and

  6. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  7. Wet motor gerotor fuel pump with self-aligning bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleton, W.A.

    1987-02-24

    A wet motor gerotor fuel pump is described for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion engine comprising: a pump case having one end, an opposite end and a flow axis therethrough, the pump case further comprising an inlet end bore at the one end adapted to communicate with the fuel source; an inlet chamber adjacent to the inlet end bore; a motor chamber located in the opposite end of the pump case; a pump chamber interposed the motor chamber and the inlet chamber; first means for sealing the pump case, the first means for sealing located at the opposite end of the pump case; inlet housing means mounted in the pump chamber, the inlet housing means comprising an annular hub protruding into the inlet chamber. The inlet housing means further comprises a gerotor cavity about a gerotor axis located parallel to and displaced a predetermined distance in an eccentric radial direction from the flow axis.

  8. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Zanzibar Municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Saltwater intrusion problems are widespread where there are over pumping of groundwater from coastal aquifers. Water samples were .... urbanized area. Although more than 70% of the municipality residents are connected to public water system, it does not meet the demand (Table 1) and as such there are many private ...

  9. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  10. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE, IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT, HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-01-01

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU

  11. Spatial variability analysis of combining the water quality and groundwater flow model to plan groundwater and surface water management in the Pingtung plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2014-05-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. The groundwater is quite rich in the Pingtung plain and the most important water sources. During the several decades, a substantial amount of groundwater has been pumped for the drinking, irrigation and aquaculture water supplies. However, because the sustainable use concept of groundwater resources is lack, excessive pumping of groundwater causes the occurrence of serious land subsidence and sea water intrusion. Thus, the management and conservation of groundwater resources in the Pingtung plain are considerably critical. This study aims to assess the conjunct use effect of groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung plain on recharge by reducing the amount of groundwater extraction. The groundwater quality variability and groundwater flow models are combined to spatially analyze potential zones of groundwater used for multi-purpose in the Pingtung Plain. First, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) is used to analyze spatial variability of groundwater quality based on drinking, aquaculture and irrigation water quality standards, and probabilistically delineate suitable zones in the study area. Then, the groundwater flow model, Processing MODFLOW (PMWIN), is adopted to simulate groundwater flow. The groundwater flow model must be conducted by the calibration and verification processes, and the regional groundwater recovery is discussed when specified water rights are replaced by surface water in the Pingtung plain. Finally, the most suitable zones of reducing groundwater use are determined for multi-purpose according to combining groundwater quality and quantity. The study results can establish a sound and low-impact management plan of groundwater resources utilization for the multi-purpose groundwater use, and prevent decreasing ground water tables, and the occurrence of land subsidence and sea water intrusion in the Pingtung plain.

  12. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactor Safety

    2017-06-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  13. Application of the Severe Accident Code ATHLET-CD. Coolant injection to primary circuit of a PWR by mobile pump system in case of SBLOCA severe accident scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, Matthias; Wilhelm, Polina; Kliem, Soeren; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of the safety of nuclear power plants is a continuously on-going process. The analysis of transients and accidents is an important research topic, which significantly contributes to safety enhancements of existing power plants. In case of an accident with multiple failures of safety systems, core uncovery and heat-up can occur. In order to prevent the accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, different accident management measures can be applied. By means of numerical analyses performed with the compute code ATHLET-CD, the effectiveness of coolant injection with a mobile pump system into the primary circuit of a PWR was studied. According to the analyses, such a system can stop the melt progression if it is activated prior to 10 % of total core is molten.

  14. Least-cost groundwater remediation design using uncertain hydrogeological information. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of the project is to formulate, test, and evaluate a new approach to the least-cost design of groundwater contamination containment and decontamination systems. The proposed methodology employs robust optimization, the outer-approximation method of non-linear programming, and groundwater flow and transport modeling to find the most cost-effective pump-and-treat design possible given the physical parameters describing the groundwater reservoir are known with uncertainty. The result is a methodology that will provide the least-cost groundwater remediation design possible given a specified set of design objectives and physical and sociological constraints. As of the end of the first year of this 3-year project the author has developed and tested the concept of robust optimization within the framework of least-cost groundwater-contamination-containment design. The outer-approximation method has been employed in this context for the relatively simple linear-constraint case associated with the containment problem. In an effort to enhance the efficiency and applicability of this methodology, a new strategy for selecting the various realizations arising out of the Monte-Carlo underpinnings of the robust-optimization technique has been developed and tested. Based upon observations arising out of this work a yet more promising approach has been discovered. The theoretical foundation for this most recent approach has been, and continues to be, the primary focus of the research.'

  15. How to Interpret the Responses of a Karstic Field to a Harmonic Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Cardiff, M. A.; Lecoq, N.

    2017-12-01

    In a karstic field, the flow paths are very complex as they globally follow the conduit network. The drawdown responses to a pumping test at constant rate in this type of aquifer are highly variable spatially and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, a constant-rate pumping tends to mobilize matrix diffusive flows and, thus, the conduit flows become `blurred'. Harmonic pumping tests represent a new investigation method for characterizing the subsurface groundwater flows. They have several advantages compared to a constant-rate pumping (i.e. more signal possibilities, extracting the signal in the responses, possibility of closed loop investigation). In the case of a karstic field investigation, several works have shown that a harmonic pumping test allows a better characterization of the local field hydraulic properties. We show in our recent works that interpreting the responses from a harmonic pumping test permit to go further in the conduit network characterization by delineating a connectivity degree between measurement points. We have studied the amplitude and phase offset values in the responses to a harmonic pumping test in a theoretical synthetic modeling case in order to define an interpretation method for the responses. According to the amplitude and phase offset values in a response, relative to the pumping signal, we have distinguished three different type of responses to be interpreted: a direct connectivity response (conduit flow), an indirect connectivity (conduit and short matrix flows), and an absence of connectivity. We have applied this interpretation method on a true field responses (from a karstic field in Southern France). Firstly we have stated that the whole set of field responses appears to be coherent toward the observation that have been made in the theoretical case. Then, by comparing the periodic responses between them and with the pumping signal, we could interpret and delineate easily and quickly the main flow paths, through the degree

  16. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Data assimilation for groundwater flow modelling using Unbiased Ensemble Square Root Filter: Case study in Guantao, North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W.; Li, H.; Li, W.; Chen, F.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Data assimilation techniques are widely used in hydrology to improve the reliability of hydrological models and to reduce model predictive uncertainties. This provides critical information for decision makers in water resources management. This study aims to evaluate a data assimilation system for the Guantao groundwater flow model coupled with a one-dimensional soil column simulation (Hydrus 1D) using an Unbiased Ensemble Square Root Filter (UnEnSRF) originating from the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to update parameters and states, separately or simultaneously. To simplify the coupling between unsaturated and saturated zone, a linear relationship obtained from analyzing inputs to and outputs from Hydrus 1D is applied in the data assimilation process. Unlike EnKF, the UnEnSRF updates parameter ensemble mean and ensemble perturbations separately. In order to keep the ensemble filter working well during the data assimilation, two factors are introduced in the study. One is called damping factor to dampen the update amplitude of the posterior ensemble mean to avoid nonrealistic values. The other is called inflation factor to relax the posterior ensemble perturbations close to prior to avoid filter inbreeding problems. The sensitivities of the two factors are studied and their favorable values for the Guantao model are determined. The appropriate observation error and ensemble size were also determined to facilitate the further analysis. This study demonstrated that the data assimilation of both model parameters and states gives a smaller model prediction error but with larger uncertainty while the data assimilation of only model states provides a smaller predictive uncertainty but with a larger model prediction error. Data assimilation in a groundwater flow model will improve model prediction and at the same time make the model converge to the true parameters, which provides a successful base for applications in real time modelling or real time controlling strategies

  18. The Definition of Groundwater Recharge Area Using GIS Approach -A Case Study of Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, JuiPin; Chen, Yu Wen; Chang, Liang Cheng; Chiang, Chun Jung; Chen, Jui Er; Chen, You Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater recharge areas are regions with high permeability that accept surface water more readily than other regions. If the land use/cover were changed, it would affect the groundwater recharge. Also, if this area were polluted, the contamination easily infiltrates into the groundwater system. Therefore, the goal of this study is to delineate the recharge area of Choshuihsi Alluvial Fan. This study applies 6 recharge potential scale factors, including land use/land cover, soil, drainage density, annual average rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and aquifer thickness to estimate the infiltration ability and storage capacity of study area. The fundamental data of these factors were digitized using GIS (Geographic Information System) technology and their GIS maps were created. Then each of these maps was translated to a score map ranged from 1 to 100. Moreover, these score maps are integrated as a recharge potential map using arithmetic average, and this map shows recharge potential in 5 levels, such as very poor, poor, moderate, good and excellent. The result shows that majority of "good" and "excellent" areas is located at the top of the fan. This is because the land use of top-fan is agricultural and its surface soil type is gravel and coarse. The top-fan, which is close to mountain areas, has a higher average annual rainfall than other areas. Also, the aquifer thickness of top-fan is much thicker than other areas. The percentage of the areas ranged as "good" and above is 9.63% of total area, and most areas located at top-fan. As a result, we suggest that the top-fan of study area should be protected and more field surveys are required to accurately delineate the recharge area boundary.

  19. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  20. Assessing the cost of groundwater pollution: the case of diffuse agricultural pollution in the Upper Rhine valley aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, J-D; Arnal, C; Blanchin, R; Elsass, P; Meilhac, A; Loubier, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the costs of diffuse groundwater pollution by nitrates and pesticides for the industrial and the drinking water sectors in the Upper Rhine valley, France. Pollution costs which occurred between 1988 and 2002 are described and assessed using the avoidance cost method. Geo-statistical methods (kriging) are then used to construct three scenarios of nitrate concentration evolution. The economic consequences of each scenario are then assessed. The estimates obtained are compared with the results of a contingent valuation study carried out in the same study area ten years earlier.

  1. Pretreatment techniques of biodegradable municipal wastewater for sustainable development of surface and groundwater resources: a survey/case studies (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Sajjad, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water being a scarce commodity, recharge of groundwater with clean surface water is important to maintain good quality water resources. This paper reviews and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques for the treatment of municipal wastewater's in developing countries. Different processes discussed include from simple stabilization ponds and land treatment to aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. More sophisticated techniques of activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are also discussed. The feasibility of these techniques in terms of cost, land area, removal of pathogens, effluent quality and need of technical expertise is discussed. (author)

  2. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  3. Urban water supply infrastructure planning under predictive groundwater uncertainty: Bayesian updating and flexible design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from increasing demands from population and economic growth in combination with uncertain water supply, driven by short-term climate variability and long-term climate change. These uncertainties are often exacerbated in groundwater-dependent water systems due to the extra difficulty in measuring groundwater storage, recharge, and sustainable yield. Groundwater models are typically under-parameterized due to the high data requirements for calibration and limited data availability, leading to uncertainty in the models' predictions. We develop an integrated approach to urban water supply planning that combines predictive groundwater uncertainty analysis with adaptive water supply planning using multi-stage decision analysis. This allows us to compare the value of collecting additional groundwater data and reducing predictive uncertainty with the value of using water infrastructure planning that is flexible, modular, and can react quickly in response to unexpected changes in groundwater availability. We apply this approach to a case from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh relies on fossil groundwater aquifers and desalination for urban use. The main fossil aquifers incur minimal recharge and face depletion as a result of intense withdrawals for urban and agricultural use. As the water table declines and pumping becomes uneconomical, Riyadh will have to build new supply infrastructure, decrease demand, or increase the efficiency of its distribution system. However, poor groundwater characterization has led to severe uncertainty in aquifer parameters such as hydraulic conductivity, and therefore severe uncertainty in how the water table will respond to pumping over time and when these transitions will be necessary: the potential depletion time varies from approximately five years to 100 years. This case is an excellent candidate for flexible planning both because of its severity and the potential for

  4. 5l/h pump for dosing corrosion radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylovich, S.; Shraer, V.; Chermak, R.

    1977-01-01

    The technical requirements, design and main technical characteristics of the pump for dosing corrosion and radioactive liquids with capacity up to 5 l/h are described. The design is based on the popular sixvertical split casing pump. The pump has four separate pump membrane type blocks with nonstraight hydraulic membrane control. The membranes are made of the cold worked CrNi(18/10)type stainless steel with thickness up to 0.1 mm and have the lifetime up to 3000 hours. The remote pump heads are used for pumping radioactive fluids when the pumping goes behind the safe wall, separating the pump from a hot lab. The tests showed that the pump secures the satisfactory accuracy of dozing and uniformity of pumping and that it is really possible to achieve the required life time of 10000 hours by this pump

  5. Aqueous Geochemical Dynamics at the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory and The Case for Subsurface Mixing of Regional Groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardace, D.; Schrenk, M. O.; McCollom, T. M.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Serpentinization is the aqueous alteration (or hydration) of olivine and pyroxene minerals in ultramafic rocks, occurring in the seabed and ultramafic units on continents, such as at the Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO) in northern California, USA. Mineral products of serpentinization include serpentine, magnetite, brucite, talc, oxyhydroxides, carbonates, and diverse clay minerals. Such mineral transformations generate extremely high pH solutions with characteristic cation and dissolved metal loads, transmitting CH4, H2, and CO gas mixtures from depth; deep life in ultramafic terrains is thought to be fueled by chemical energy derived from these geochemical reactions. The installation of 8 groundwater monitoring wells in the CRO has allowed frequent monitoring since 2011. Influx of deeply sourced, serpentinization-influenced waters is evidenced by related geochemical shifts (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential), but is apparently mixing with other, regionally important groundwater types. Evaluation salinity loads in concert with other parameters, we model the mixing scenario of this site of ongoing scientific study and experimentation.

  6. Using the IRWQIGT Index to Determine Toxicity Levels in Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present descriptive-analytic study was to estimate the toxicity level of the groundwater resources in the Province of Semnan using the IRWQIGT index and its zoning via GIS. The experiments were conducted over the period from October 2013 to October 2014during which time monthly samples were taken from the 41 wells that supply drinking water to the cities and towns in the Province. All the samples were subjected to lab analyses at Semnan Water and Wastewater Laboratory where such chemical parameters as Arsenic, Phenol, Mercury, Detergents, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Cyanide, Iron, Magnesium, and TPH were determined according to the procedures of Standard Methods (2008. The measuerments were subsequently used to calculate the groundwater toxicity level index (IRWQIGT. Finally, a zoning map of the IRWQIGT index for Semnan Province was prepared using GIS. Results showed that the IRWQIGT index in Semnan Province ranged between 96.54 and 98.2, indicating an excellent water quality. The lowest (96.585 and highest (98.076 values of IRWQIGT were recorded in the cities of Sorkheh and Mahdishahr, respectively, and that the values for all the parameters were in the standard range. These results indicate that water of excellent quality is available in all the cities in the province so that no toxicity treatment is required.

  7. Hydrogeophysical investigation of groundwater potential and aquifer vulnerability prediction in basement complex terrain - A case study from Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinade, Opeyemi J.; Adesina, Rasheed B.

    2016-06-01

    This study provides a model for the prediction of groundwater potential and vulnerability of basement aquifers in parts of Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. Hydrogeophysical surveys involving very-low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) profiling and electrical resistivity (ER) sounding, as well as evaluation of hydraulic gradient using three-point method, were carried out. Ten VLF-EM reconnaissance survey traverses, with lengths ranging from 55 m to 75 m, at 10 m station separation, and 12 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were occupied. Two-dimensional map of the filtered real component reveals areas of high conductivity, indicative of linear features that can serve as a reservoir or conduit for fluid flow. Interpretation of the VES results delineates three to four geoelectric units. Two aquifer zones were identified, with resistivity values in the ranges of 20 Ωm to 310 Ωm and 100 Ωm to 3,000 Ω m, respectively. Transverse resistance, longitudinal conductance, coefficient of anisotropy and hydraulic gradient have values ranging from 318.2 Ωm2 to 1,041.8 Ωm2, 0.11 mhos to 0.39 mhos, 1.04 to 1.74 and 0.017 to 0.05, respectively. The results of this study identified two prospective borehole locations and the optimum position to site the proposed septic system, based on the aquifer's protective capacity and groundwater flow properties.

  8. Application of Time-series Model to Predict Groundwater Quality Parameters for Agriculture: (Plain Mehran Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad Mirsanjari, Mir; Mohammadyari, Fatemeh

    2018-03-01

    Underground water is regarded as considerable water source which is mainly available in arid and semi arid with deficient surface water source. Forecasting of hydrological variables are suitable tools in water resources management. On the other hand, time series concepts is considered efficient means in forecasting process of water management. In this study the data including qualitative parameters (electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio) of 17 underground water wells in Mehran Plain has been used to model the trend of parameters change over time. Using determined model, the qualitative parameters of groundwater is predicted for the next seven years. Data from 2003 to 2016 has been collected and were fitted by AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models. Afterward, the best model is determined using information criterion or Akaike (AIC) and correlation coefficient. After modeling parameters, the map of agricultural land use in 2016 and 2023 were generated and the changes between these years were studied. Based on the results, the average of predicted SAR (Sodium Adsorption Rate) in all wells in the year 2023 will increase compared to 2016. EC (Electrical Conductivity) average in the ninth and fifteenth holes and decreases in other wells will be increased. The results indicate that the quality of groundwater for Agriculture Plain Mehran will decline in seven years.

  9. Evaluation of the Influence Caused by Tunnel Construction on Groundwater Environment: A Case Study of Tongluoshan Tunnel, China

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    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to water inflow during tunnel construction are challenging to designers, workers, and management departments, as they can threaten tunneling project from safety, time, and economic aspects. Identifying the impacts on groundwater environment resulting from tunnel drainage and making a correct assessment before tunnel construction is essential to better understand troubles that would be encountered during tunnel excavation and helpful to adopt appropriate countermeasures to minimize the influences. This study presents an indicator system and quantifies each indicator of Tongluoshan tunnel, which is located in southwest China with a length of 5.2 km and mainly passes through carbonate rocks and sandstones, based on field investigation and related technological reports. Then, an evaluation is made using fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, with a result showing that it had influenced the local groundwater environment at a moderate degree. Information fed back from environmental investigation and hydrologic monitoring carried out during the main construction period proves the evaluation, as the flow of some springs and streams located beside the tunnel route was found experiencing an apparent decline.

  10. Temporal dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction under the effects of climate change: A case study in the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal Chandra; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W.; Hirshfield, Faye; Paul, Siddhartho Shekhar

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction plays a vital role in the functioning of riparian ecosystem, as well as sustainable water resources management. In this study, temporal dynamics of GW-SW interaction were investigated under climate change. A case study was chosen for a study area along the Kiskatinaw River in Mainstem sub-watershed of the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, British Columbia, Canada. A physically based and distributed GW-SW interaction model, Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), was used. Two different greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (i.e., A2: heterogeneous world with self-reliance and preservation of local identities, and B1: more integrated and environmental friendly world) of SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) from Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used for climate change study for 2020-2040. The simulation results showed that climate change influences significantly the temporal patterns of GW-SW interaction by generating variable temporal mean groundwater contributions to streamflow. Due to precipitation variability, these contributions varied monthly, seasonally, and annually. The mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to be 74.5% (σ = 2%) and 75.6% (σ = 3%), respectively. As compared to that during the base modeling period (2007-2011), the mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to decrease by 5.5% and 4.4%, respectively, due to the increased precipitation (on average 6.7% in the A2 and 4.8% in the B1 scenarios) and temperature (on average 0.83 °C in the A2 and 0.64 °C in the B1 scenarios). The results obtained from this study will provide useful information in the long-term seasonal and annual water extractions from the river for future water supply, as well as for evaluating the ecological conditions of the

  11. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  12. Estimation of net groundwater use in irrigated river basins using geo-information techniques : a case study in Rechna Doab, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, water balance, groundwater, net groundwater use, recharge, water management, Rechna Doab, Pakistan.

    Over-exploitation of groundwater resources threatens the future of irrigated agriculture, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In