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Sample records for groundwater protection ordinance

  1. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  2. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  3. Review of Groundwater Protection and Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; ZHANG Ai-ping

    2008-01-01

    This review begins with an introduction of groundwater resources in China and their distribution characteristic, followed by an elaboration of the exploitation and utilization of groundwater and the negative environmental effects from groundwater overexploitation, and a description of the existing groundwater protection and management measures. At last, the existing problems in groundwater protection and management, with some suggestions, are presented.

  4. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  5. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  6. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  7. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  8. Co-ordination of spark-gap protection with zinc-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, A.; German, D.M.; Waters, R.T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Engineering, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Abdul-Malek, Z. [University of Technology (Malaysia)

    2001-01-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) surge arresters are now well established as a very efficient and reliable form of overvoltage protection against both fast surges, such as those generated by lightning and gas-insulated switchgear, and high-energy surges generated by switching operations and temporary faults on the network. The addition of ZnO surge arresters to existing protection schemes reinforces the system's reliability and the security of supply. The protection characteristics of the parallel configuration formed by arresters and existing spark gaps at distribution voltages are studied. Tests on various spark-gap geometries, with and without surge arresters in parallel, have been carried out to determine breakdown characteristics, probability curves and voltage-time characteristics for different impulse shapes. It is found that the introduction of the arrester in the circuit modifies the prospective impulse which results in the shift of the breakdown characteristics towards higher voltages. A proposed circuit model, based on laboratory test data, is used to simulate such parallel configurations. Good agreement between test and simulated results is obtained. As a result of these tests, it is recommended that gap-sparkover characteristics based on short-tail (about 5{mu}s) impulses are used for insulation co-ordination. The role of parallel airgaps in preserving the arrester energy-rating limits is also discussed. (Author)

  9. No toy for you! The healthy food incentives ordinance: paternalism or consumer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etow, Alexis M

    2012-01-01

    The newest approach to discouraging children's unhealthy eating habits, amidst increasing rates of childhood obesity and other diet-related diseases, seeks to ban something that is not even edible. In 2010, San Francisco enacted the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance, which prohibits toys in kids' meals if the meals do not meet certain nutritional requirements. Notwithstanding the Ordinance's impact on interstate commerce or potential infringement on companies' commercial speech rights and on parents' rights to determine what their children eat, this Comment argues that the Ordinance does not violate the dormant Commerce Clause, the First Amendment, or substantive due process. The irony is that although the Ordinance likely avoids the constitutional hurdles that hindered earlier measures aimed at childhood obesity, it intrudes on civil liberties more than its predecessors. This Comment analyzes the legality of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance to understand its implications on subsequent legislation aimed at combating childhood obesity and on the progression of public health law.

  10. Are Agricultural Measures for Groundwater Protection Beneficial When Compared to Purification of Polluted Groundwater?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Berit; Lundhede, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater resource, the drinking water areas and the surface water quality can be protected by measures, e.g. by reductions of pesticide and nutrient applications, conversion of arable land to grasslands or forests etc. The objective of the paper is to estimate the benefits of groundwater protection by the valuation method choice experiments. This method allows for separate estimation and comparison of the different attributes connected to groundwater protection i.e. the effects on drin...

  11. Protection strategies for drinking groundwater sources in small Quebec municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Bruno; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2008-07-01

    Awareness of groundwater protection has increased substantially in recent decades. In the Province of Quebec, Canada, the Groundwater Catchment Regulation (GWCR) was promulgated in 2002 to protect water quality in public wells. The goal of the present study was to document groundwater protection in the context of emerging regulations and identify factors explaining the propensity of municipalities applying protection strategies. Two types of information were used in this study: data from a questionnaire-based survey conducted among 665 municipalities in the Province of Quebec and complementary information gathered from various sources. Data from the survey revealed that fewer than half of the municipalities have been able to comply with the GWCR, mainly because of financial limitations. Also, close to half of the municipalities have either identified or are expecting land use conflicts to arise between protection areas required by the GWCR and other land usage, with agriculture being the main conflicting activity. Multivariate logistic regression models served to identify factors explaining the likelihood of municipalities to take groundwater protection measures. Those factors were municipality revenue, history of water contamination in distribution systems, land use near wellheads, location of municipalities within a provincial priority watershed and the importance of groundwater use in a region. Results of the study may prove helpful for government authorities in better understanding the groundwater protection issue and in implementing strategies that improve the ability of municipalities to protect groundwater.

  12. Co-ordination among leaf water relations and xylem vulnerability to embolism of Eucalyptus trees growing along a depth-to-groundwater gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghar, Sepideh; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2015-07-01

    The importance of groundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas for plant survival is well documented. However, there have been few studies examining the importance and impacts of groundwater availability in mesic environments. The aim of this study was to determine how depth-to-groundwater (DGW) impacts on leaf water relations, leaf structure and branch xylem vulnerability to embolism in a mesic environment. We hypothesize that increasing DGW results in increased resistance to drought stress and that this will be manifested across leaf and branch attributes pertaining to water relations. We further investigate whether there is co-ordination across leaf and branch-scale level responses to increased DGW. Four species were used in this study: Eucalyptus globoidea Blakely, E. piperita Sm., E. sclerophylla (Blakely) L.A.S.Johnson & Blaxell and E. sieberi L.A.S.Johnson. Six sites were chosen along an 11 km transect to span a range of average DGW: 2.4, 4.3, 9.8, 13, 16.3 and 37.5 m. Leaf water relations of trees showed less sensitivity to drought stress as DGW increased. This was reflected in significantly lower leaf turgor loss point and maximum osmotic potential, increased maximum turgor and a reduced leaf relative water content as DGW increased. At shallow DGW sites, minimum diurnal leaf water potentials were generally more negative than leaf water potential at zero turgor, but the reverse was observed at deep sites, indicating a larger growth potential safety margin at deep sites compared with shallow sites. Leaf cell wall elasticity varied independently of DGW. Xylem vulnerability to embolism was quantified as the water potential associated with 50% loss of conductance (P 50). In both summer and winter P 50 was significantly and negatively correlated with DGW. Co-ordination between leaf- and branch-level responses to increase in DGW was apparent, which strongly supports the conclusion that groundwater supply influenced woodland structure and functional behaviour.

  13. Radiation protection ordinance. Text edition with an explanatory introduction. 9. upd. and corr. ed.; Strahlenschutzverordnung. Textausgabe mit einer erlaeuternden Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Hans-Michael

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Ordinance is for all those who deal with radioactive substances and thus for a broad range of users from industry, commerce, hospital medicine and outpatient medicine and from the most diverse fields of research of large, partly existential importance. The proven guideline contains an extensive introduction in which the amendments and new regulations will be explained, the current text of the Radiation Protection Ordinance according to the state from 1 November 2011. It also includes an excerpt from the Atomic Energy Act and the governing Radioactivity Meters rules of the German Calibration Regulation as amended and part of the official justifications. The new edition has become necessary due to the extensive changes introduced by regulation amending Radiation Protection Ordinance on 4 October 2011 (Federal Law Gazette, I, p. 2000), which entered into force on November 1, 2011. [German] Die Strahlenschutzverordnung ist fuer alle, die mit radioaktiven Stoffen umgehen und damit fuer einen breit gefaecherten Anwenderkreis aus Industrie, Gewerbe, Krankenhausmedizin und ambulanter Medizin sowie aus den verschiedensten Gebieten der Forschung von grosser, teilweise von existentieller Bedeutung. Die bewaehrte Arbeitshilfe enthaelt neben einer umfangreichen Einfuehrung, in der auch die Aenderungen und Neuregelungen erlaeutert werden, den aktuellen Text der Strahlenschutzverordnung nach dem Stand vom 1. November 2011. Ausserdem gehoeren zum Inhalt ein Auszug aus dem Atomgesetz sowie die fuer Radioaktivitaets-Messgeraete massgeblichen Vorschriften der Eichordnung jeweils in der aktuellen Fassung und Teile der amtlichen Begruendungen. Die Neuauflage wurde auf Grund der umfangreichen Aenderungen durch die Verordnung zur Aenderung strahlenschutzrechtlicher Vorschriften vom 4. Oktober 2011 (BGBI, I S. 2000) erforderlich, die am 1. November 2011 in Kraft getreten ist.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  16. [Uncertainty analysis of groundwater protection and control zoning in Beijing plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater pollution prevention mapping has important meaning to groundwater protection, pollution prevention and effective management. A mapping method was built through combining groundwater pollution risk assessment, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. To make the method more accurate, two series of uncertainty analysis were performed and discussed. One was performed by changing the weights of the toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants, and the other was by changing the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. The results showed that the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning were more sensitive than the weights of toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants.

  17. New regulations in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. What do the changes mean?; Neues in der Strahlenschutzverordnung. Was bringt die Aenderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Angela [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fehringer, Franz [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Feldmann, Ulrike [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-11-01

    Since November 1{sup st} 2011, several new regulations have become effective in the Radiation Protection Ordinance, that are described here first as a general overview and then in more detail. The first part of the contribution compiles the non-medical and the second one the medical applications. (orig.)

  18. Long-term forecast: key to groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Joachim; Förstner, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater resources are at risk from pollution, climate change and land-management practices. Long-term forecast is a tool to demonstrate future development and to support decisions on measures which can be implemented, controlled and eventually corrected. As the basis for preventive action, a forecast can be viewed as a key to groundwater protection. The soil zone plays a vital role in groundwater protection. Research on soil and groundwater trends, as affected by change of climate and/or land-management practices, is on the agenda. Integrated research is necessary to develop numerical soil-water system models reflecting all relevant transport processes at various scales. Even relatively simple problems like forecasting pollutant release from contaminated materials are difficult to resolve. Batch tests may be sufficient in low-risk cases. At higher risk when contaminated substrates are chosen for deposition on a large scale, a thorough characterization of the materials is necessary covering all aspects of stability and possible changes of the environment.

  19. German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV), as amended on 18 July 2002; Strahlenschutzverordnung (StrlSchV) - Stand 18. Juni 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-07-01

    Part 1 one contains the scope of application and a newly enlarged section on definitions. Part 2 lays down basic duties and the revised basic principles of radiation protection as applied to the purposeful use of radioactive substances, referred to in the text as ''activities''. It also contains some new limit values concerning previously existing provisions. Part 3 expands the Ordinance's previous scope in the area of exposure to natural radiation sources not associated with any ''purposeful use of radioactive substances'', a category referred to as ''work'' situations. Part 4 contains consumer protection provisions which prohibit or strictly limit the use of radioactive substances in products used in the consumer sphere. Part 5 contains general regulations that are applicable to all parts of the Ordinance.

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Maximum Concentration of Constituents for Groundwater Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Concentration of Constituents for Groundwater Protection 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Concentration of Constituents for Groundwater Protection Constituent concentration 1 Maximum Arsenic 0.05 Barium...

  1. Groundwater protection: What can we learn from Germany?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHU; Klaus-Dieter BALKE

    2008-01-01

    For drinking water security the German waterworks proceed on a comprehensive concept, i.e., the protection of all the regions from the recharge area to the client. It includes the protection of the recharge area by a precautionary management, a safe water treatment, a strict maintenance of the water distribution network, continuous control and an intensive training of staff. Groundwater protection zones together with effective regulations and control play a very important role. Three protection zones with different restrictions in land-use are distinguished. Water in reservoirs and lakes is also protected by Surface Water Protection Zones. Within the surrounding area the land-use is controlled, too. Special treatment is necessary if acidification happens caused by acid rain, or eutrophication caused by the inflow of sewage. Very important is the collaboration between waterworks and the farmers cultivating land in the recharge area in order to execute water-protecting ecological farming with the aim to reduce the application of fertilizers and plant protection agents. Probable financial losses have to be compensated by the waterworks.

  2. Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM: Groundwater Risk Assessment Model for Wellfield Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater risk assessment was carried out for 30 potable water supply systems under a framework of protecting drinking water quality across South Australia. A semi-quantitative Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM was developed based on a “multi-barrier” approach using likelihood of release, contaminant pathway and consequence equation. Groundwater vulnerability and well integrity have been incorporated to the pathway component of the risk equation. The land use of the study basins varies from protected water reserves to heavily stocked grazing lands. Based on the risk assessment, 15 systems were considered as low risk, four as medium and 11 systems as at high risk. The GRAM risk levels were comparable with indicator bacteria—total coliform—detection. Most high risk systems were the result of poor well construction and casing corrosion rather than the land use. We carried out risk management actions, including changes to well designs and well operational practices, design to increase time of residence and setting the production zone below identified low permeable zones to provide additional barriers to contaminants. The highlight of the risk management element is the well integrity testing using down hole geophysical methods and camera views of the casing condition.

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  4. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is a compendium of water quality and hydrologic characterization data obtained through December 2005 from the network of groundwater monitoring wells and surface water sampling stations (including springs and building sumps) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee that have been sampled since January 2003. The primary objectives of this document, hereafter referenced as the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Compendium, are to: (1) Serve as a single-source reference for monitoring data that meet the requirements of the Y-12 GWPP, as defined in the Y-12 GWPP Management Plan (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2004); (2) Maintain a detailed analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data for each applicable well, spring, and surface water sampling station, with a focus on results for the primary inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater and surface water at Y-12; and (3) Ensure retention of ''institutional knowledge'' obtained over the long-term (>20-year) history of groundwater and surface water monitoring at Y-12 and the related sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. To achieve these goals, the Y-12 GWPP Compendium brings together salient hydrologic, geologic, geochemical, water-quality, and environmental compliance information that is otherwise disseminated throughout numerous technical documents and reports prepared in support of completed and ongoing environmental contamination assessment, remediation, and monitoring activities performed at Y-12. The following subsections provide background information regarding the overall scope and format of the Y-12 GWPP Compendium and the planned approach for distribution and revision (i.e., administration) of this ''living'' document.

  5. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  6. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  7. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  8. Groundwater protection in fractured media: a vulnerability-based approach for delineating protection zones in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Alain; Tripet, Jean-Pierre; Kozel, Ronald; Meylan, Benjamin; Sinreich, Michael; Zwahlen, François

    2008-11-01

    A vulnerability-based approach for delineating groundwater protection zones around springs in fractured media has been developed to implement Swiss water-protection regulations. It takes into consideration the diversity of hydrogeological conditions observed in fractured aquifers and provides individual solutions for each type of setting. A decision process allows for selecting one of three methods, depending on the spring vulnerability and the heterogeneity of the aquifer. At the first stage, an evaluation of spring vulnerability is required, which is essentially based on spring hydrographs and groundwater quality monitoring. In case of a low vulnerability of the spring, a simplified method using a fixed radius approach (“distance method”) is applied. For vulnerable springs, additional investigations must be completed during a second stage to better characterize the aquifer properties, especially in terms of heterogeneity. This second stage includes a detailed hydrogeological survey and tracer testing. If the aquifer is assessed as slightly heterogeneous, the delineation of protection zones is performed using a calculated radius approach based on tracer test results (“isochrone method”). If the heterogeneity is high, a groundwater vulnerability mapping method is applied (“DISCO method”), based on evaluating discontinuities, protective cover and runoff parameters. Each method is illustrated by a case study.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  10. Groundwater Protection through Prevention. A Curriculum for Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Water is one of the natural resources vital to any agricultural system. This material was developed in support of the Iowa Agricultural Science, Technology and Marketing (ASTM) program, focusing on groundwater educational concepts related to the 1987 Iowa Groundwater Protection Act. This material was designed to assist teachers in providing…

  11. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Expert knowledge as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance. Directive on competence and expert knowledge in radiation protection, required for operators of X-ray equipment in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance of January 8, 1987. Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung. Richtlinie Fachkunde und Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz fuer den Betrieb von Roentgeneinrichtungen in der Medizin, Zahnmedizin und Tiermedizin nach der Roentgenverordnung vom 8. Januar 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection officer or any person responsible for radiation safety have to give proof of their expert knowledge in accordance with sections 3, 4 of the X-Ray Ordinance. Proof of expert knowledge has to be furnished within the procedure of appointment (sec. 13, sub-sec. (3) X-Ray Ordinance). The directive defines the scope of the expert knowledge required, and the scope of expert knowledge persons must have, or acquire, who are responsible for radiation protection within the preview of sec. 23, no. 2, 4 and sec. 29, sub-sec. 1, no. 3 of the X-Ray Ordinance.

  13. Guideline for radiation protection in veterinary medicine. Guideline relating to the Ordinance for Protection Against Damage Through Ionising Radiation (Radiation Protection Ordinance - StrlSchV) and the Ordinance for Protection Against X-Ray Radiation (X-Ray Ordinance - RoeV); Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Tierheilkunde. Richtlinie zur Verordnung ueber den Schutz vor Schaeden durch ionisierende Strahlen (Strahlenschutzverordnung - StrlSchV) und zur Verordnung ueber den Schutz vor Roentgenstrahlen (Roentgenverordnung - RoeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalczak, H.

    2005-05-15

    The Guideline on ''Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine'' primarily addresses the supreme Land authorities that are responsible for radiation protection. Its purpose is to harmonise the radiation protection procedures employed by the Laender, thus establishing a nationwide uniform system for monitoring the handling of radioactive substances and ionising radiation applications in veterinary medicine on the basis of the legal regulations in force. In addition the guideline is intended to serve veterinary staff as a source of practical information which explains the radiation protection requirements stipulated by the legal regulations and technical rules. This concerns in particular the rules for the acquisition of the necessary radiation protection skills or the necessary knowledge of radiation protection by the veterinary surgeon performing the application or the staff cooperation in the application.

  14. Transductive Ordinal Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Seah, Chun-Wei; Ong, Yew-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Ordinal regression is commonly formulated as a multi-class problem with ordinal constraints. The challenge of designing accurate classifiers for ordinal regression generally increases with the number of classes involved, due to the large number of labeled patterns that are needed. The availability of ordinal class labels, however, are often costly to calibrate or difficult to obtain. Unlabeled patterns, on the other hand, often exist in much greater abundance and are freely available. To take benefits from the abundance of unlabeled patterns, we present a novel transductive learning paradigm for ordinal regression in this paper, namely Transductive Ordinal Regression (TOR). The key challenge of the present study lies in the precise estimation of both the ordinal class label of the unlabeled data and the decision functions of the ordinal classes, simultaneously. The core elements of the proposed TOR include an objective function that caters to several commonly used loss functions casted in transductive setting...

  15. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States.

  16. The new German Electrosmog Ordinance. 26th Ordinance for implementation of the German Federal Emission Control Act (Ordinance on protection against electromagnetic fields - 26th BImSchV), as of 16 December 1996. Edition comprising explanations, legislative text, and statement of legislative intent; Die neue Elektrosmog-Verordnung. Sechsundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder - 26. BImSchV) vom 16. Dezember 1996. Ausgabe mit Erlaeuterungsteil, Verordnungstext und amtlicher Begruendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmer, W.

    1997-10-01

    This Ordinance is the first of its kind in the Federal Republic of Germany, establishing legally binding limiting values for electromagnetic fields emanating from low-frequency and high-frequency systems. The Ordinance is based on the internationally accepted restrictions published by the International Commission for Protection From Non-Ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP). The Ordinance relates exclusively to commercial systems, as e.g. radio and radar systems in the range from 10 to 300 000 Megahertz, and high-voltage systems and electric railway systems in the range up to 50 Hertz. In compliance with the Ordinance, operation of these systems must not exceed the regulatory limits in buildings and places destined to accommodate people for time periods exceeding a temporary stay. The Ordinance is of particular significance against the background of the rapidly developing telecommunications market. Passing the 26th ordinance for implementation of the German Emission Control Act (26th BImSchV), the Federal Government has taken the lead in legislation in this field in Europe. Germany is the first country in Europe to have established regulatory provisions of the scope and legal effect of the German Ordinance, there is no comparable provision to date even at EU level. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Erstmals hat der Bundesgesetzgeber eine Verordnung zur Festlegung von Grenzwerten fuer elektromagnetische Felder der Nieder- und Hochfrequenz erlassen. Als Grundlage dienten die weltweit anerkannten Werte der Internationalen Kommission zum Schutz vor nichtionisierenden Strahlen (ICNIRP). Die Verordnung bezieht sich allerdings nur auf Anlagen, die gewerblichen Zwecken dienen. Hierzu gehoeren Sende- und Radareinrichtungen im Bereich von 10 bis 300 000 Megahertz und Hochspannungsanlagen und Bahnstromanlagen im Bereich bis 50 Hertz. Diese Anlagen sind so zu betreiben, dass die Grenzwerte der Verordnung in Gebaeuden und auf Grundstuecken, die zum nicht nur voruebergehenden Aufenthalt von Menschen

  17. Optimal Management Strategy for Groundwater Protection and Restoration Along with Discussions on Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2003-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater systems is an increasingly critical problem. The limited available resources or budget for groundwater protection and restoration and sustainable development in a country or region require a corresponding strategy for groundwater protection and restoration to maximize resource or budget utilization and minimize an adverse impact on the sustainable development. An innovative strategy for groundwater protection and restoration has been established based on the optimization principles and considerations of both risk assessments of groundwater contamination and difficulties or costs of groundwater remediation and protection measures. Site investigations and groundwater modeling are two critical components to implement this strategy. Cost for groundwater protection and restoration can be categorized as Existing Contaminated Site Investigation Cost (ECSIC), Existing Contaminated Site Remediation Cost (ECSRC), Projected Contamination Site Investigation Cost (PCSIC), Projected Contamination Site Protection Cost (PCSPC), and Projected Contamination Site Remediation Cost (PCSRC). The objective function for optimization analyses consists of risk reduction components with variables of the above different costs from all individual site remediation and protection measures. The optimal distribution of the limited available resources is determined by such proper selections of those variables that the objective function reaches its maximum. Several important issues related to implementations of the strategy for groundwater protection and restoration are discussed. Those issues include uncertainty from aquifer heterogeneity, modeling for fractured geologic media, irreversible sorption, and implementations of natural attenuation. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations through a numerical flow and transport model can be performed to develop a heterogeneity dispersivity matrix to account for the effects of different attributes of aquifer heterogeneity. In

  18. Study on protection and reclamation for the groundwater resources in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ig-Hwan; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Byung-Dae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the protection of contaminated groundwater and reclamation in the Pusan area. Groundwater Busan city is highly subjected to groundwater contamination due to its unfavorable geographical features; it is located in the estuaries of the Nakdong river, most of the urban area are composed of highlands, and the large population resides in the downhill. Heavy pumping and deterioration of groundwater are currently found to be significant compared to other major cities, resulting in shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater. The first step of the research aims at investigating hydrogeological features which includes analysis of climate and hydrologic data, investigation of geology and structural pattern, acquisition of hydrological data, inspection of wells, measurement of groundwater level, analysis of water samples, investigation of groundwater contamination, isotope analysis, and monitoring water level by automated data logger to identify seawater intrusion. The second step is to simulate the two-dimensional flow model after construction of the database. Aside from this, abandoned wells were transformed into observation wells. An effort for remedy of contaminated groundwater was made and the water quality was constantly monitored to improve the deteriorated water to the drinking water. Kriging analysis and geostatistical analysis were carried out in order to verify the effect of seawater intrusion, showing that there is no clear evidence of seawater intrusion. Instead, it is clear that groundwater in the inland district was preferentially contaminated by pollutants originated from human activities. Based on the two-dimensional flow model, only 0.021 m{sup 3} may be allocated to each person a day from public wells for emergency. In order to ensure that protection and remediation of groundwater of the Busan area are able to accomplish, well-controlled management of aquifer systems needs to be maintained and

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  20. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2006-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of

  2. The expert knowledge as defined by the X-ray Ordinance. Directive on competence and expert knowledge in radiation protection, required for the personnel applying X-ray equipment in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as defined by the X-ray Ordinance/medicine. Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung. Richtlinie Fachkunde und Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz fuer den Betrieb von Roentgeneinrichtungen in der Medizin, Zahnmedizin und bei der Anwendung von Roentgenstrahlen auf Tiere - Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung/Medizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Persons applying within their role responsibility X-rays in medicine or veterinary medicine, or persons with a responsibility as radiation protection officer or according to section 24, sub-sec. (3) Radiation Protection Ordinance have to give proof of the required expert knowledge (section 3, sub-sec. (2), no. 3, section 4, sub-sec. (1) no. 3, section 13, sub-sec. (4), section 23 no.s. 1 and 3 of the X-ray Ordinance). In addition, persons applying X-rays under the supervision and responsibility of a medical specialist or dentist, have to acquire the knowledge in radiation protection as defined by section 23, no. 2 and 4 X-ray Ordinance. As to the application of X-rays in veterinary medicine, the expert knowledge required is defined in section 3, sub-sec. (2) no. 3, section 4, sub-sec. 1 no. 3, section 13, sub-sec. (4), section 29 sub-sec. (1) no. 4 of the X-ray Ordinance. The knowledge to be acquired in radiation protection is given in section 29, sub-sec. (1) no. 3 of the X-ray Ordinance. The radiation protection officer or persons responsible for radiation protection have to give proof of their expert knowledge within the course of the licensing or notification procedure in accordance with sections 3 and 4 of the X-ray Ordinance, or in the course of the procedure for appointment of a radiation protection officier in accordance with section 13, sub-sec. (3) of the X-ray Ordinance. (orig.).

  3. Protecting groundwater quality with high frequency subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate pollution from agriculture is a significant problem in the groundwater of the San Joaquin Valley of California (SJV). Nitrate is very mobile in water and transport is directly related to both water and fertilizer management on a crop. Surface irrigation is the principal method used in the SJ...

  4. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2000 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant that will be managed by tie Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2000 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant GWPP during CY 2000 will comply with: Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation regulations governing detection monitoring at nonhazardous Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (SWDF); and DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Some of the data collected for these monitoring drivers also will be used to meet monitoring requirements of the Integrated Water Quality Program, which is managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC. Data from five wells that are monitored for SWDF purposes in the Chestnut Ridge Regime will be used to comply with requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act post closure permit regarding corrective action monitoring. Modifications to the CY 2000 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in regulatory or programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  5. Groundwater protection from cadmium contamination by permeable reactive barrier in Qian'an of Jilin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alkali Mohammed; Changlai XIAO; Chao DU

    2008-01-01

    This research studies the reliability of an activated carbon permeable reactive barrier in removing cadmium from a contaminated shallow aquifer. Laboratory tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium and kinetic adsorption properties of the activated carbon in cadmium-containing aqueous solutions. A 2D numerical model has been used to describe pollutant transport within a groundwater and the pollutant adsorption on the permeable reactive barrier (PRB). In particular, it has been considered the case of a PAB used to protect a lake or downstream from Cd (Ⅱ) contaminated groundwater. Numerical results show that the PAB can achieve a long-term efficiency by preventing lake or downstream pollution for several months.

  6. Stakeholder and expert-guided scenarios for agriculture and landscape development in a groundwater protection area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Lone S.;

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate and pesticide leaching led to the designation of groundwater protection zones in Denmark. The protective measures in these zones often clash with local interests in agriculture. Scenarios were used to evaluate the development of a groundwater protection zone in a farming area. Stakeholders...... are accorded strong influence on the scenarios. Scenario inputs comprised land cover, land use and farmers' plans and preferences, as registered in interviews with farmers. Scenarios were evaluated regarding the effect on nitrate leaching, extent of pesticide-free area and farm income. The scenarios proved...... effective in modelling coupled development in land use/land cover and nitrate leaching and pesticide-free area. Voluntary commitment to schemes, calculated according to stakeholder preferences, reduced nitrate leaching by up to 15%. Scenarios with additional inputs from experts who formulated more...

  7. The Regulation of a Spatially Heterogeneous Externality: Tradable Groundwater Permits to Protect Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Brozovic, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers can reduce the flow of surface water in nearby streams through a process known as stream depletion. In the United States, recent awareness of this externality has led to intra- and inter-state conflict and rapidly-changing water management policies and institutions. A factor that complicates the design of groundwater management policies to protect streams is the spatial heterogeneity of the stream depletion externality; the marginal damage of groundwater use on stream flows depends crucially on the location of pumping relative to streams. Under these circumstances, economic theory predicts that spatially differentiated policies can achieve an aggregate reduction in stream depletion cost effectively. However, whether spatially differentiated policies offer significant abatement cost savings and environmental improvements over simpler, alternative policies is an empirical question. In this paper, we analyze whether adopting a spatially differentiated groundwater permit system can lead to significant savings in compliance costs while meeting targets on stream protection. Using a population data set of active groundwater wells in the Nebraska portion of the Republican River Basin, we implement an optimization model of each well owner's crop choice, land use, and irrigation decisions to determine the distribution of regulatory costs. We model the externality of pumping on streams by employing an analytical solution from the hydrology literature that determines reductions in stream flow caused by groundwater pumping over space and time. The economic and hydrologic model components are then combined into one optimization framework, which allows us to measure farmer abatement costs and stream flow benefits under a constrained optimal market that features spatially differentiated, tradable groundwater permits. We compare this outcome to the efficiency of alternative second-best policies, including spatially uniform permit markets and

  8. Ordinals in Frobenius Monads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides geometrical descriptions of the Frobenius monad freely generated by a single object. These descriptions are related to results connecting Frobenius algebras and topological quantum field theories. In these descriptions, which are based on coherence results for self-adjunctions (adjunctions where an endofunctor is adjoint to itself), ordinals in $\\epsilon_0$ play a prominent role. The paper ends by considering how the notion of Frobenius algebra induces the collapse of the hierarchy of ordinals in $\\epsilon_0$, and by raising the question of the exact categorial abstraction of the notion of Frobenius algebra.

  9. Revision without ordinals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivello, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide ran

  10. Ordinal Bivariate Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and...

  11. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines.

  12. Vadose Zone Monitoring as a Key to Groundwater Protection from Pollution Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    Minimization subsurface pollution is much dependent on the capability to provide real-time information on the chemical and hydrological properties of the percolating water. Today, most monitoring programs are based on observation wells that enable data acquisitions from the saturated part of the subsurface. Unfortunately, identification of pollutants in well water is clear evidence that the contaminants already crossed the entire vadose-zone and accumulated in the aquifer water to detectable concentration. Therefore, effective monitoring programs that aim at protecting groundwater from pollution hazard should include vadose zone monitoring technologies that are capable to provide real-time information on the chemical composition of the percolating water. Obviously, identification of pollution process in the vadose zone may provide an early warning on potential risk to groundwater quality, long before contaminates reach the water-table and accumulate in the aquifers. Since productive agriculture must inherently include down leaching of excess lower quality water, understanding the mechanisms controlling transport and degradation of pollutants in the unsaturated is crucial for water resources management. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS), which was specially developed to enable continuous measurements of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water, was used to assess the impact of various agricultural setups on groundwater quality, including: (a) intensive organic and conventional greenhouses, (b) citrus orchard and open field crops , and (c) dairy farms. In these applications frequent sampling of vadose zone water for chemical and isotopic analysis along with continuous measurement of water content was used to assess the link between agricultural setups and groundwater pollution potential. Transient data on variation in water content along with solute breakthrough at multiple depths were used to calibrate flow and transport models. These models

  13. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  14. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  15. Evaluation of the conditions and practices of radiological protection technicians in radiology, according to Ordinance 453; Avaliacao das condicoes e das praticas de protecao radiologica dos tecnicos em radiologia, segundo a portaria 453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da

    2013-10-01

    Professionals in radiology suffer whole body exposure to low doses for long periods . The system of radiological protection should keep exposures below recommended thresholds, thus avoiding the stochastic effects that can be triggered with any dose level value, and there is not a threshold for induction of the same. Therefore it is important to use personal dosimeter for monitoring doses and protective equipment. The increase in procedures using ionizing radiation in recent years has been noted with concern, since many companies are not complying with the standards of protection. This is because some procedures may be performed without the need of surgery, which presents a greater risk to the patient. Furthermore, Brazilians are being exposed to radiation without necessity. The reasons range from radiological equipment miscalibrated to poorly trained staff. Thus we evaluate the conditions and practices of radiation protection technicians in radiology according to Ordinance 453 in Goiania, GO, Brazil. Through a descriptive survey with a quantitative approach, we used the technique of gathering information based on a questionnaire. From this survey, we identified the procedures used by radiation protection professionals and concluded that there are failures in the procedures for protecting patients and accompanying and in the training of the professionals. (author)

  16. Integrating indicator-based geostatistical estimation and aquifer vulnerability of nitrate-N for establishing groundwater protection zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Shih-Kai

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate-N contamination occurs frequently in agricultural regions, primarily resulting from surface agricultural activities. The focus of this study is to establish groundwater protection zones based on indicator-based geostatistical estimation and aquifer vulnerability of nitrate-N in the Choushui River alluvial fan in Taiwan. The groundwater protection zones are determined by univariate indicator kriging (IK) estimation, aquifer vulnerability assessment using logistic regression (LR), and integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability using simple IK with local prior means (sIKlpm). First, according to the statistical significance of source, transport, and attenuation factors dominating the occurrence of nitrate-N pollution, a LR model was adopted to evaluate aquifer vulnerability and to characterize occurrence probability of nitrate-N exceeding 0.5 mg/L. Moreover, the probabilities estimated using LR were regarded as local prior means. IK was then used to estimate the actual extent of nitrate-N pollution. The integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability was obtained using sIKlpm. Finally, groundwater protection zones were probabilistically determined using the three aforementioned methods, and the estimated accuracy of the delineated groundwater protection zones was gauged using a cross-validation procedure based on observed nitrate-N data. The results reveal that the integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability using sIKlpm is more robust than univariate IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability assessment using LR for establishing groundwater protection zones. Rigorous management practices for fertilizer use should be implemented in orchards situated in the determined groundwater protection zones.

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the

  18. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1998 by the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 1998 was performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at the Y-12 Plant: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), and the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV), and the Chestnut Ridge Regime which is located south of the Y-12 Plant.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  20. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan For Groundwater Monitoring Wells At The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan describes the technical approach that is implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well. Under this approach, wells granted "active" status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling, whereas wells granted "inactive" status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP. Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans. This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes.

  1. Areal studies aid protection of ground-water quality in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Kay, Robert T.; Brown, Timothy A.; Yeskis, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, initiated studies designed to characterize the ground-water quality and hydrogeology in northern Illinois, and southern and eastern Wisconsin (with a focus on the north-central Illinois cities of Belvidere and Rockford, and the Calumet region of northeastern Illinois and northwestern Indiana). These areas are considered especially susceptible to ground-water contamination because of the high density of industrial and waste-disposal sites and the shallow depth to the unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers and the fractured, carbonate bedrock aquifers that underlie the areas. The data and conceptual models of ground-water flow and contaminant distribution and movement developed as part of the studies have allowed Federal, State, and local agencies to better manage, protect, and restore the water supplies of the areas. Water-quality, hydrologic, geologic, and geophysical data collected as part of these areal studies indicate that industrial contaminants are present locally in the aquifers underlying the areas. Most of the contaminants, particularly those at concentrations that exceeded regulatory water-quality levels, were detected in the sand and gravel aquifers near industrial or waste-disposal sites. In water from water-supply wells, the contaminants that were present generally were at concentrations below regulatory levels. The organic compounds detected most frequently at concentrations near or above regulatory levels varied by area. Trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (volatile chlorinated compounds) were most prevalent in north-central Illinois; benzene (a petroleum-related compound) was most prevalent in the Calumet region. Differences in the type of organic compounds that were detected in each area likely reflect differences in the types of industrial sites that predominate in the areas. Nickel and aluminum were the trace metals

  2. The new radiation protection ordinance from the viewpoint of the nuclear medicine technologist; Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung aus der Sicht der medizinisch-technischen Radiologieassistentin/des medizinisch-technischen Radiologieassistenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    The new radiation protection ordinance for the first time acknowledges the role of the nuclear medicine technologists for the technical assistance in the use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation with human beings in medicine. Therefore changes are required for the technologists in terms of their qualification and continuing education during their professional life and in the daily routine in a nuclear medicine department. The new ordinance clearly defines which group of people is allowed to work as nuclear medicine technologists and also which special knowledge in radiation protection is mandatory to make sure that nobody without this certified education is performing the work of a nuclear medicine technologist. The new effective dose limit for people working with radiation will not change the daily work, but new regulations for pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers working in nuclear medicine will bring dramatic changes. (orig.) [German] Die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung beruecksichtigt zum ersten Mal ausdruecklich die Rolle des medizinisch-technischen Personals bei der 'technischen Mitwirkung bei der Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe oder ionisierender Strahlung am Menschen in der Heilkunde oder der Zahnheilkunde'. Dadurch ergeben sich fuer die MTRA neue Anforderungen in Bezug auf Ausbildungsvoraussetzungen, berufliche Fortbildung und auch auf die Ablaeufe in der taeglichen Routine. Der Personenkreis, der zur technischen Mitwirkung berechtigt ist, wurde genau definiert, ebenso wie dessen Fachkunde, mit der nun sichergestellt werden soll, dass keine Personen ohne Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz die Taetigkeiten der MTRA ausfuehren. Die neu festgelegte Obergrenze der effektiven Dosis fuer beruflich strahlenexponiertes Personal wird fuer das technische Personal keine merkbaren Auswirkungen mit sich bringen, dafuer aber die Neuerungen bezueglich der Beschaeftigung von Schwangeren und stillenden Frauen. (orig.)

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-04-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan describes the technical approach that is implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well. Under this approach, wells granted “active” status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling, whereas wells granted “inactive” status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP. Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans.

  4. Groundwater protection of minimal water supply systems integrating simple hydrogeological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Rodrigo-Clavero, María Elena

    2016-04-01

    According to the current EU environmental legislation, groundwater protection is one of the key issues to be addressed when new industrial activities have to be authorised. This work shows a simple methodology that could be used by local and environmental authorities in order to analyse the potential risk caused by an industrial spill on a natural environment. The methodology leads to the determination of the protection area around an extraction well system using the information given by: i) a set of local piezometers, ii) the chemical nature of the industrial spill and iii) the hydrogeological parameters of the local aquifer. The exact location of the contaminant source is not needed for the analysis. The flow equation is afterwards solved using a finite-difference approximation scheme under stationary conditions. Finally, the capture zones for different times are computed by a simple upstream advective transport model. Results on the determination of the perimeter protection area definition of a water supply system in the municipality of L'Alcora (Castellón) in Spain are shown.

  5. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  6. Karst groundwater protection in the Kupa River catchment area and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondić, B.; Biondić, R.; Kapelj, S.

    2006-03-01

    One of the most significant water resources in the Republic of Croatia is the catchment area of the Kupa River, located in the region bordering the Republic of Slovenia. About 88% of the total amount of water in this catchment originates in Croatia and just 12% from Slovenia; therefore, the largest part of the catchment area (about 1000 km2) is on the Croatian side of the border. It is a typical karst area of the Dinarides with aquifers characterized by a relatively rapid water exchange, high groundwater flow velocities and aquifers open to human impact from the surface. Consequently, the aquifers are highly vulnerable and at risk. Due to the availability of large quantities of high-quality spring water (about 6 m3/s), the entire area has a strategic importance within the context of any future development strategy pertaining to the western part of Croatia. The catchment area on the Croatian side was investigated using a wide range of research methods that included a classical hydrogeological approach, the detailed hydrologic calculation of water balance to the hydrogeochemical analyses and modelling. The objective was to determine protection zones and protection measures for the whole area. The difficulties are increased due to the fact that the karst catchment area is crossed by major traffic corridors, oil pipelines and a railway and that many settlements and a highly developed wood industry are present. The combination of protecting water resources with adequate prevention measures and necessary remedial activities that should satisfy the very strict requirements necessary for the protection of the karst aquifers while still allowing for present and future human activities is difficult but not impossible to achieve. One good example is the present highway with a closed dewatering system and waste water treatment before the water passes into the karst underground system.

  7. Changes in the 'medical research' licensing procedure under the German Radiation Protection Ordinance; Neuerungen im Genehmigungsverfahren 'Medizinische Forschung' gemaess Roentgen- und Strahlenschutzverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeck, M.; Minkov, V.; Griebel, J.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Oberschleissheim-Neuherberg (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Epsch, R.; Langer, M. [Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft e.V. (DRG), Berlin (Germany). Klinische Studienkoordination

    2012-06-15

    This publication outlines the 'medical research' licensing procedure as specified in the amendment of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance of November 1, 2011. The general licensing requirements for the use of radiation have not been changed by the amendment. Three so-called use restrictions (i.e., dose limits of 10 mSv and 20 mSv, age limit of 50 years) have been modified. They will only apply to healthy volunteers in the future. In addition, there are considerable simplifications with respect to applications and licensing procedures of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) regarding the use of radiation in the newly introduced 'accompanying diagnostics' ('Begleitdiagnostik') case group. The newly established, independent panel of experts at the German Radiological Society (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) may provide essential support to principal investigators, qualified physicians and sponsors for differentiating between 'medical research' and 'health care', the latter not being subject to licensing. An expert statement will be issued by the DRG within four weeks of an inquiry. This consulting service is subject to confidentiality, and is free of charge for inquirers and without any commitment. (orig.)

  8. 地下水开发利用的地质环境保护政策研究%Geological Environmental Protection Policy for Groundwater Exploration and Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德林; 李媛媛

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater, as an important component of water resources, plays a significant role in securing people's daily life, supporting the development of social economy and maintaining the ecological balance and the strategic reserves of water resources. However,some problems remain in the current exploitation and protection of groundwater in China, one of which is the absence and the failure of policies. It is thus of urgent practical significance to study this problem. This paper first discusses the problems in the exploitation and protection of groundwater in China, and then, based on a reference of advanced experience in groundwater management and protection policy of some foreign countries like South Africa, the paper puts forward suggestions regarding the improvement of our policies for groundwater management and protection.%地下水作为水资源的重要组成部分,在保障我国城乡居民生活、支撑社会经济发展、维持生态平衡以及水资源战略储备等方面具有十分重要的作用.我国当前地下水资源在开发和保护方面还存在一些明显问题,政策的缺失和失灵是其中重要一点,因此,对该问题的研究具有迫切的现实意义.从我国地下水资源在开发和保护中存在的问题人手,参考和借鉴南非等国家在地下水管理与保护方面的先进政策经验,有针对性地提出完善我国地下水地质环境的保护政策.

  9. ORDINAL REGRESSION FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents a new discriminative model for Information Retrieval (IR), referred to as Ordinal Regression Model (ORM). ORM is different from most existing models in that it views IR as ordinal regression problem (i.e. ranking problem) instead of binary classification. It is noted that the task of IR is to rank documents according to the user information needed, so IR can be viewed as ordinal regression problem. Two parameter learning algorithms for ORM are presented. One is a perceptron-based algorithm. The other is the ranking Support Vector Machine (SVM). The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated on the task of ad hoc retrieval using three English Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) sets and two Chinese TREC sets. Results show that ORM significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art language model approaches and OKAPI system in all test sets; and it is more appropriate to view IR as ordinal regression other than binary classification.

  10. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  11. Evaluation of zeolite-sand mixtures as reactive materials protecting groundwater at waste disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fronczyk Joanna; Garbulewski Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    To recognize properties of a mixture of Vistula sand (medium sand acc.to USCS) with Slovak zeolite as reactive materials suitable for permeable reactive barriers proposed for protection of groundwater environment in vicinity of old landfills comprehensive laboratory investigations were performed.The present study investigates the removal of contaminants specific for landfill leachates onto zeolitesand mixtures containing 20%,50% and 80% of zeolite (ZS20,ZS50 and ZS80).Taking into account the results of batch tests it was concluded that the Langmuir isotherm best fitted the data.It was observed that the presence of ammonium,calcium and magnesium decreases the removal efficiency of copper by 32%.Column tests of contaminant migration through the attenuation zone of the reactive materials were interpreted using the software package CXTFIT,which solves a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation.Column test results also indicate the strong influence of the presence of interfering substances on copper immobilisation; dynamic sorption capacities decrees twofold.Throughout the landfill leachate flow through ZS80 sample,a constant reduction of NH+4 (at 100%),K+ (at 93%) and Fetotal (at an average of 86%) were observed.There was no reduction in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand.

  12. Evaluation of zeolite-sand mixtures as reactive materials protecting groundwater at waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna, Fronczyk; Kazimierz, Garbulewski

    2013-09-01

    To recognize properties of a mixture of Vistula sand (medium sand acc. to USCS) with Slovak zeolite as reactive materials suitable for permeable reactive barriers proposed for protection of groundwater environment in vicinity of old landfills comprehensive laboratory investigations were performed. The present study investigates the removal of contaminants specific for landfill leachates onto zeolite-sand mixtures containing 20%, 50% and 80% of zeolite (ZS20, ZS50 and ZS80). Taking into account the results of batch tests it was concluded that the Langmuir isotherm best fitted the data. It was observed that the presence of ammonium, calcium and magnesium decreases the removal efficiency of copper by 32%. Column tests of contaminant migration through the attenuation zone of the reactive materials were interpreted using the software package CXTFIT, which solves a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Column test results also indicate the strong influence of the presence of interfering substances on copper immobilisation; dynamic sorption capacities decrees twofold. Throughout the landfill leachate flow through ZS80 sample, a constant reduction of NH4+ (at 100%), K+ (at 93%) and Fe(total) (at an average of 86%) were observed. There was no reduction in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand.

  13. Leaching of plant protection products and their transformation products : proposals for improving the assessment of leaching to groundwater in the Netherlands : version 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Pol, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of leaching of plant protection products to groundwater is an important aspect of the environmental risk assessment of these substances. Analysis of available Dutch groundwater monitoring data for these substances triggered a critical review of the current Dutch leaching assessment. As a

  14. Reuse--the ultimate sink? Urine-diverting toilets to protect groundwater quality and fertilise urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangert, J O

    2000-01-01

    People are concerned about water and food scarcity and the threats that faecal pollution and malnutrition pose to their health. Ecological sanitation systems open up for new, constructive options in sanitation, not least in poor periurban areas. The purpose of developing a no-mix excreta disposal system is to save water, to reduce wastewater treatment problems, and to protect groundwater quality as well as to recirculate nutrients from urine. In this paper all these aspects will be dealt with comprehensively.

  15. The Theory of Sets of Ordinals

    OpenAIRE

    Koepke, Peter; Koerwien, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a natural theory SO axiomatizing the class of sets of ordinals in a model of ZFC set theory. Both theories possess equal logical strength. Constructibility theory in SO corresponds to a natural recursion theory on ordinals.

  16. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The East Fork Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  17. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12, determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells installed at Y-12 and the related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12, determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells installed at Y-12 and the related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  1. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique.......This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our...

  2. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Statistical science's first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data, now fully revised and updated, continues to present applications and case studies in fields as diverse as sociology, public health, ecology, marketing, and pharmacy. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data, Second Edition provides an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, giving thorough coverage of new developments and recent methods. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods including an integrated comparison of the available st

  3. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive

  4. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs

    1991-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  5. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  6. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  7. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; Environmental Compliance Department Environment, Safety, and Health Division Y-12 National Security Complex

    2004-03-31

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (hereafter referenced as BWXT), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (BWXT Y12 S/RID) regarding the implementation of a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility. Additionally, this plan is a ''living'' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP, and an overview of ongoing Y-12 groundwater monitoring activities. Section 3 describes the key elements of the GWPP management strategy. Organizational roles and responsibilities of GWPP personnel are outlined in Section 4. Section 5 presents an overview of the GWPP project plans for applicable programmatic elements. Section 6 lists the reports, plans, and documents that are referenced for technical and administrative details.

  8. Delineating Groundwater Vulnerability and Protection Zone Mapping in Fractured Rock Masses: Focus on the DISCO Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Meerkhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual site model. Different types of information were overlaid, generating several thematic maps to achieve an integrated framework of key sectors in the study site. Thus, a multi-technical approach was used, encompassing field and laboratory techniques, whereby different types of data were collected from fields such as geology, hydrogeology, applied geomorphology and geophysics and hydrogeomechanics, with the fundamental aim of applying the so-called DISCO index method. All of these techniques were successfully performed and an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination assessment, based on the multicriteria methodology of GOD-S, DRASTIC-Fm, SINTACS, SI and DISCO indexes, was delineated. Geographic Information Systems (GIS provided the basis on which to organize and integrate the databases and to produce all the thematic maps. This multi-technical approach highlights the importance of groundwater vulnerability to contamination mapping as a tool to support hydrogeological conceptualization, contributing to improving the decision-making process regarding water resources management and sustainability.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 from sampling locations in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this monitoring data evaluation report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 -- General Environmental Protection Program -- that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater in areas that are, or could be, impacted by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants from Y-12 facilities are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  10. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique....

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for:  inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12,  determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and  identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment.

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for:  inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12,  determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and  identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment.

  13. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  14. Groundwater Protection Program Management Plan For The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2009-09-01

    This document presents the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) management plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12). The Y-12 GWPP functions as the primary point-of-contact for groundwater-related issues at Y-12, provides stewardship of the extensive network of groundwater monitoring wells at Y-12, and serves as a resource for technical expertise, support, and historical data for groundwater-related activities at Y-12. These organizational functions each serve the primary programmatic purpose of the GWPP, which is to ensure that groundwater monitoring activities within areas under Y-12 administrative control provide representative data in compliance with the multiple purposes of applicable state and federal regulations, DOE orders, and the corporate policies of Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12 LLC (hereafter referenced as B&W Y-12), the Y-12 management and operations (M&O) contractor for DOE. B&W Y-12 is a new corporate name, assumed in January 2007, for the company formerly known as BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., hereafter referenced as BWXT. This GWPP management plan addresses the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A Environmental Protection Program (hereafter referenced as DOE O 450.1A), which emphasize a site-wide approach for groundwater protection at each DOE facility through implementation of groundwater surveillance monitoring. Additionally, this plan addresses the relevant and applicable GWPP elements and goals described in the DOE O 450.1A technical guidance documents issued in June 2004 (DOE 2004) and May 2005 (DOE 2005). This GWPP management plan is a 'living' document that is reviewed annually, revised and reissued every three years, and is formatted to provide for updating individual sections independent of the rest of the document. Section 2 includes a short description of the groundwater system at Y-12, the history of groundwater monitoring at Y-12 and the corresponding evolution of the GWPP

  15. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program) that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas where contaminants from Y-12 operations are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) are presented in Appendix A. Brief data summary tables referenced in each section are contained within the sections. Supplemental information and extensive data tables are provided in Appendix B.

  16. Calendar Year 1999 Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Groundwater Protection Program, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report contains the calendar year (CY) 1999 groundwater and surface water quality monitoring data that were obtained at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in accordance with the applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring for the purposes of DOE Order 5400.1, as defined in the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1996), includes site surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Site surveillance monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater/surface water quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by operations at the Y-12 Plant. Exit pathway/perimeter monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater and surface water quality where contaminants from the Y-12 Plant are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR).

  17. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  18. Economic Analysis of a Living Wage Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter

    A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of…

  19. Amendment of the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances (GefStoffV); Novellierung der Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrici, R.; Boehrer, R. [Bundesfachschule Kaelte-Klima-Technik, Maintal (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The new Ordinance on Hazardous Materials (GefStoffV)came into force on 1 January 2005. The amendment was necessary for implementing European law (98/24/EG) into German law. The Ordinance states goals and specifies requirements on safety and health protection when handling hazardous materials. (orig.)

  20. Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2013-10-23

    The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically.

  1. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch...

  2. Transport and removal of viruses in saturated sand columns under oxic and anoxic conditions--Potential implications for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnert, Anne; Apelt, Susann; Klitzke, Sondra; Chorus, Ingrid; Szewzyk, Regine; Selinka, Hans-Christoph

    2014-11-01

    To protect groundwater as a drinking water resource from microbiological contamination, protection zones are installed. While travelling through these zones, concentrations of potential pathogens should decline to levels that pose no risks to human health. Removal of viruses during subsurface passage is influenced by physicochemical conditions, such as oxygen concentration, which also affects virus survival. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of redox conditions on the removal of viruses during sand filtration. Experiments in glass columns filled with medium-grained sand were conducted to investigate virus removal in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. Bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174, as surrogates for human enteric viruses were spiked in pulsed or in continuous mode and pumped through the columns at a filter velocity of about 1m/d. Virus breakthrough curves were analyzed by calculating total viral elimination and fitted using one-dimensional transport models (CXTFIT and HYDRUS-1D). While short-term experiments with pulsed virus application showed only small differences with regard to virus removal under oxic and anoxic conditions, a long-term experiment with continuous dosing revealed a clearly lower elimination of viruses under anoxic conditions. These findings suggest that less inactivation and less adsorption of viruses in anoxic environments affect their removal. Therefore, in risk assessment studies aimed to secure drinking water resources from viral contamination and optimization of protection zones, the oxic and anoxic conditions in the subsurface should also be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive

  4. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2010-02-03

    This document presents a strategy for evaluating the effectiveness of surface barriers for site-specific deep vadose zone remediation. The strategy provides a technically defensible approach to determine the depth to which a surface barrier can effectively isolate contaminants in the vadose at a specific site as a function of subsurface properties, contaminant distribution, barrier design, and infiltration control performance. The strategy also provides an assessment of additional data and information needs with respect to surface barrier performance for deep vadose zone applications. The strategy addresses the linkage between surface barriers and deep vadose zone in situ remediation activities, monitoring issues, and emerging science, technology, and regulatory objectives. In short, the report documents the existing knowledge base, identifies knowledge needs (based on data gaps), and suggests tasks whose outcomes will address those knowledge needs. More important, the report serves as a starting point to engage the regulator and stakeholder community on the viability of deploying surface barriers for deep vadose zone contamination. As that engagement unfolds, a systematic methodology can be formalized and instituted. The strategy is focused on deep vadose zone contamination and the methods needed to determine the impact to groundwater from those deep vadose zone contaminants. Processes that affect surface barrier performance, recharge in the areas surrounding the surface barrier, and the near-surface vadose zone beneath the barrier are acknowledged but are not addressed by this strategy. In addition, the collection of site-specific data on contaminant distribution and geologic structure and properties are programmatic responsibilities and are not provided by this strategy.

  5. Adsorptive properties of alluvial soil for arsenic(V) and its potential for protection of the shallow groundwater among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Mei, Jinhua; Luo, Yueping; Qiu, Anni; Wang, Huan

    2017-02-01

    The study area is among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, which was under agricultural use and natural conditions about 10 years ago and now is becoming part of the metropolis because of the urban expansion. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms and capabilities of the local alluvial soil layer for protecting the local shallow groundwater from arsenic pollution by field surveys and batch experiments. The field surveys showed that there was an acidic tendency of the groundwater, and phosphate, nitrate, and arsenic in the groundwater significantly increased comparing to their reference values. It indicates that the disturbance of the former agricultural land due to the change of land use may be responsible for these changes. From the experimental results, the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil for As(V) was as low as 0.334 mg/g, and lower As(V) adsorption capacities were obtained at higher As(V) concentration, higher pH, and lower temperature. The presence of H2PO4(-) and SiO3(2-) posed negative, while HCO3(-) slight positive, and SO4(2-), NO3(-) and Cl(-) negligible influences on the As(V) adsorption. The surface-derived organic matter played a negative role in the adsorption process, and low specific surface area influenced adsorption capacity of the soil. The study reveals that the local soil layer shows poor potential for protection of the local shallow groundwater from As(V) pollution, and the change trends of the groundwater environments due to more intensive anthropogenic activities will further weaken this potential and increase the risk of the groundwater contamination.

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  7. Model‐based approaches to unconstrained ordination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Francis K.C; Taskinen, Sara; Pledger, Shirley; Foster, Scott D; Warton, David I; O'Hara, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Unconstrained ordination is commonly used in ecology to visualize multivariate data, in particular, to visualize the main trends between different sites in terms of their species composition or relative abundance...

  8. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  9. Ordinal models of audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...... ordinal models that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this type of models to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the response categories are not ordered. While the FLMP generally fit the data better than the ordinal model it also employs more free parameters in complex...... experiments when the number of response categories are high as it is for speech perception in general. Testing the predictive power of the models using a form of cross-validation we found that ordinal models perform better than the FLMP. Based on these findings we suggest that ordinal models generally have...

  10. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  11. The city as a participant in the protection of groundwater in Brazil; O municipio como participe na protecao das aguas subterraneas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro de Souza, L.

    2012-11-01

    Brazilian environmental legislation aims to ensure the protection and preservation of the environment, and particularly its natural resources, in search of a better quality of life for all. The lack of force in existing statutes, however, sometimes renders the purpose of the law ineffective. Our water sources, providing this vital and essential element for life, are suffering pollution and contamination. Our focus here is on the subject of groundwater, which is widely relied upon in Brazil as a water source, but treated in some places in an uncontrolled way, and due to different forms of pollution and contamination arriving at the vulnerable areas of the aquifers, may easily be compromised both in quality and quantity. Constitutional authority to legislate on groundwater has been given to the Member States, since it falls outside the legal remit of individual municipalities. Studies show, however, that pollutants are reaching the aquifers from the overlying soil, which leads to a demand that the municipalities should use their constitutional authority to legislate on land use and its management to protect and preserve these important water sources, especially in the area of the Guarani aquifer. To this effect, we propose the creation of a Special Environment Zoning tool (ZEA) to limit land use in areas of aquifer vulnerability, by which municipalities become active participants in the protection process aimed at preventing harm to the groundwater of the Guarani aquifer. (Author)

  12. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-09-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring is performed at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities located in the regime per the requirements of applicable operating/post closure permits and governing state/federal regulations and guidelines, including DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A require evaluation of available monitoring data with regard to: (1) groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 Plant operations, (2) the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. This report presents the results of these DOE Order 5400.1A evaluations based on available data for the network of monitoring wells and springs in the Chestnut Ridge Regime sampled during calendar year (CY) 1998. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  13. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  14. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  15. Delineation of a wellhead protection zone and determination of flowpaths from potential groundwater contaminant source areas at Camp Ripley, Little Falls, Minnesota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-22

    Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built on the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.

  16. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 天津圖書館專輯/圖書館的網絡服務與《信息網絡傳播權保護條例》/李國新 | Library Information Network Services and the Information Network Transmission Right Protection Ordinance/ Guo-Xin Li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    李國新

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    中國圖書館界以積極主動的態度參與《信息網絡傳播權保護條例》制定,取得了明顯成效。今天的圖書館服務對網絡環境的高度依賴,以及信息網絡傳播權對 圖書館網絡服務的制約,決定了圖書館界必須代表社會公眾利益作出不懈努力。已經實施的《信息網絡傳播權保護條例》為圖書館活動帶來了保障,也形成了制約。 圖書館界面臨著新的任務。

    Libraries in China have been actively participating in the formulation of “Information Network Transmission Right Protection Ordinance”. This has already achived good effects. In these days library services are heavily relying on the network environment and network services, information network transmission right also put restrictions on the services provided by libraries through the information network. All of these require libraries continually to make effort to protect public interests and rights and comply with regulations. Information Network Transmission Right Protection Ordinance, which has already taken effect, will not only regulate but also protect library services. Libraries in China now are facing a new environment and new tasks.

    頁次:76-80

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY 2009 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspection events conducted on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2007 through 2009; it documents well maintenance and plugging and abandonment activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2006); and provides summary tables of well inspection events, well maintenance events, and well plugging and abandonment events during the reference time period.

  19. Assessment of well vulnerability for groundwater source protection based on a solute transport model: a case study from Jilin City, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Huan; Wang, Jinsheng; Lai, Desheng; Teng, Yanguo; Zhai, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-01

    Well vulnerability assessment is essential for groundwater source protection. A quantitative approach to assess well vulnerability in a well capture zone is presented, based on forward solute transport modeling. This method was applied to three groundwater source areas (Jiuzhan, Hadawan and Songyuanhada) in Jilin City, northeast China. The ratio of the maximum contaminant concentration at the well to the released concentration at the contamination source ( c max/ c 0) was determined as the well vulnerability indicator. The results indicated that well vulnerability was higher close to the pumping well. The well vulnerability in each groundwater source area was low. Compared with the other two source areas, the cone of depression at Jiuzhan resulted in higher spatial variability of c max/ c 0 and lower minimum c max/ c 0 by three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that the denitrification rate in the aquifer was the most sensitive with respect to well vulnerability. A process to derive a NO3-N concentration at the pumping well is presented, based on determining the maximum nitrate loading limit to satisfy China's drinking-water quality standards. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and prospects for improving the precision of this well vulnerability assessment approach are discussed.

  20. Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.

  1. 海河流域地下水资源保护%Groundwater resources protection in Hai River basin of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩再生

    2001-01-01

    The groundwater resources in Hai River basin of China represent a vital water resource.Both the shallow and deep aquifers are highly over-exploited in a large area of Hai river basin.The heavy over-exploitation of the groundwater resources in causing huge environmental damae.For protecting groundwater resource,technical feasibility was evaluated.Artificial recharge using floodwater and wastewater has been tried and performed.Surface spreading systems are applicable in many areas.Deep aquifer injection is undertaken in the urban area.A much better strategy is to reduce the extraction of groundwater,especially for stopping or slowing down land subsidence and seawater intrusion.To solve the problem of falling groundwater levels and aquifer recovery,it is necessary to incorporate both a reduction in groundwater extraction and artificial recharge.%地下水资源在海河流域为至关重要的资源。海河平原的的浅层和深层含水层大面积处于严重超采状态。地下水资源的过量开采造成了严重环境问题。为了保护地下水资源,评价了可行的技术。利用洪水和废水进行人工回灌已进行了试验。在很多地区可以应用地表回灌系统,城市地区实施深层含水层的回灌。更好的策略是减少地下水的抽取量,特别是为了减缓地面沉降和海水入侵。应该联合运用减少地下水抽水量和人工回灌,以解决地下水位持续下降和含水层恢复的问题。

  2. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  3. A GIS analysis of the relationship between sinkholes, dry-well complaints and groundwater pumping for frost-freeze protection of winter strawberry production in Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Aurit

    Full Text Available Florida is riddled with sinkholes due to its karst topography. Sometimes these sinkholes can cause extensive damage to infrastructure and homes. It has been suggested that agricultural practices, such as sprinkler irrigation methods used to protect crops, can increase the development of sinkholes, particularly when temperatures drop below freezing, causing groundwater levels to drop quickly during groundwater pumping. In the strawberry growing region, Dover/Plant City, Florida, the effects have caused water shortages resulting in dry-wells and ground subsidence through the development of sinkholes that can be costly to maintain and repair. In this study, we look at how frost-freeze events have affected West Central Florida over the past 25 years with detailed comparisons made between two cold-years (with severe frost-freeze events and a warm year (no frost-freeze events. We analyzed the spatial and temporal correlation between strawberry farming freeze protection practices and the development of sinkholes/dry well complaints, and assessed the economic impact of such events from a water management perspective by evaluating the cost of repairing and drilling new wells and how these compared with using alternative crop-protection methods. We found that the spatial distribution of sinkholes was non-random during both frost-freeze events. A strong correlation between sinkhole occurrence and water extraction and minimum temperatures was found. Furthermore as temperatures fall below 41°F and water levels decrease by more than 20 ft, the number of sinkholes increase greatly (N >10. At this time alternative protection methods such as freeze-cloth are cost prohibitive in comparison to repairing dry wells. In conclusion, the findings from this study are applicable in other agricultural areas and can be used to develop comprehensive water management plans in areas where the abstraction of large quantities of water occur.

  4. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  5. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  6. 36 CFR 28.15 - Approval of local zoning ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of local zoning... INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.15 Approval of local zoning ordinances. (a) The Secretary shall approve local ordinances...

  7. An ordinal model of the McGurk illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    an ordinal model, in which the response categories are ordered cyclically, that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this model to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP), which is not an ordinal model, based on an original data set. While the FLMP fitted the data better than the ordinal...

  8. Real-time monitoring of nitrate transport in the deep vadose zone under a crop field - implications for groundwater protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeltaub, Tuvia; Kurtzman, Daniel; Dahan, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate is considered the most common non-point pollutant in groundwater. It is often attributed to agricultural management, when excess application of nitrogen fertilizer leaches below the root zone and is eventually transported as nitrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table. A lag time of years to decades between processes occurring in the root zone and their final imprint on groundwater quality prevents proper decision-making on land use and groundwater-resource management. This study implemented the vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) under a commercial crop field. Data obtained by the VMS for 6 years allowed, for the first time known to us, a unique detailed tracking of water percolation and nitrate migration from the surface through the entire vadose zone to the water table at 18.5 m depth. A nitrate concentration time series, which varied with time and depth, revealed - in real time - a major pulse of nitrate mass propagating down through the vadose zone from the root zone toward the water table. Analysis of stable nitrate isotopes indicated that manure is the prevalent source of nitrate in the deep vadose zone and that nitrogen transformation processes have little effect on nitrate isotopic signature. The total nitrogen mass calculations emphasized the nitrate mass migration towards the water table. Furthermore, the simulated pore-water velocity through analytical solution of the convection-dispersion equation shows that nitrate migration time from land surface to groundwater is relatively rapid, approximately 5.9 years. Ultimately, agricultural land uses, which are constrained to high nitrogen application rates and coarse soil texture, are prone to inducing substantial nitrate leaching.

  9. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  10. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  11. Scoring ordinal variables for constructing composite indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Manisera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide composite indicators of latent variables, for example of customer satisfaction, it is opportune to identify the structure of the latent variable, in terms of the assignment of items to the subscales defining the latent variable. Adopting the reflective model, the impact of four different methods of scoring ordinal variables on the identification of the true structure of latent variables is investigated. A simulation study composed of 5 steps is conducted: (1 simulation of population data with continuous variables measuring a two-dimensional latent variable with known structure; (2 draw of a number of random samples; (3 discretization of the continuous variables according to different distributional forms; (4 quantification of the ordinal variables obtained in step (3 according to different methods; (5 construction of composite indicators and verification of the correct assignment of variables to subscales by the multiple group method and the factor analysis. Results show that the considered scoring methods have similar performances in assigning items to subscales, and that, when the latent variable is multinormal, the distributional form of the observed ordinal variables is not determinant in suggesting the best scoring method to use.

  12. Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Association of Illinois, Chicago.

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois…

  13. Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Association of Illinois, Chicago.

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois…

  14. Groundwater Protection System in Seawater Intrusion Region based on "Three Red Lines"%基于“三条红线”的海水入侵区地下水保护体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钰洁; 左其亭; 窦明

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid economic development of the coastal areas,the use of fresh water resources,especially fresh groundwa-ter,is increasing continuously. Meanwhile, a series of environmental geological hazards occur frequently due to the over extraction of groundwater, such as land subsidence and seawater intrusion. This paper proposes a groundwater protection system in the seawater intrusion region based on a case study in Yantai city. The groundwater protection system is based on the guidance of the Strictest Water Resources Management System and the rule of "Three Red Lines" ,and implements the joint operation of multi-source water supply to obtain the regulation schemes and protecting countermeasures of groundwater. In addition, the groundwater protection system can provide scientific references for groundwater exploitation,utilization,protection and management in practice.%随着沿海经济的快速发展,当地对淡水资源、特别是地下淡水的开发利用强度不断加大,地下水超采日益严峻,地面沉降、海水入侵等环境地质灾害频繁发生.现以烟台市区为例,应用最严格水资源管理制度指导思想,以“三条红线”为约束,通过实施多水源联合调度,提出了海水入侵区地下水调控方案和保护对策,在此基础上构建海水入侵区地下水保护体系,用以科学指导地下水开发、利用、保护和管理实际工作.

  15. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  16. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY2012 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspections completed by the GWPP on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2010 through 2012. In addition, this report also documents well inspections performed under the Y-12 Water Resources Restoration Program, which is administered by URS|CH2M Oak Ridge (UCOR). This report documents well maintenance activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2009); and provides summary tables of well inspections and well maintenance activities during the reference time period.

  17. Calculating reliability measures for ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, C V

    1986-11-01

    Establishing the reliability of measures taken by judges is important in both clinical and research work. Calculating the statistic of choice, the kappa coefficient, unfortunately is not a particularly quick and simple procedure. Two much-needed practical tools have been developed to overcome these difficulties: a comprehensive and easily understood guide to the manual calculation of the most complex form of the kappa coefficient, weighted kappa for ordinal data, has been written; and a computer program to run under CP/M, PC-DOS and MS-DOS has been developed. With simple modification the program will also run on a Sinclair Spectrum home computer.

  18. Ordinal-Measure Based Shape Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Alaya Cheikh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach to shape similarity estimation based on distance transformation and ordinal correlation. The proposed method operates in three steps: object alignment, contour to multilevel image transformation, and similarity evaluation. This approach is suitable for use in shape classification, content-based image retrieval and performance evaluation of segmentation algorithms. The two latter applications are addressed in this papers. Simulation results show that in both applications our proposed measure performs quite well in quantifying shape similarity. The scores obtained using this technique reflect well the correspondence between object contours as humans perceive it.

  19. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  20. Measure and integral with purely ordinal scales

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    We develop a purely ordinal model for aggregation functionals for lattice valued functions, comprising as special cases quantiles, the Ky Fan metric and the Sugeno integral. For modeling findings of psychological experiments like the reflection effect in decision behaviour under risk or uncertainty, we introduce reflection lattices. These are complete linear lattices endowed with an order reversing bijection like the reflection at 0 on the real interval $[-1,1]$. Mathematically we investigate the lattice of non-void intervals in a complete linear lattice, then the class of monotone interval-valued functions and their inner product.

  1. In situ bioremediation of nitrate and perchlorate in vadose zone soil for groundwater protection using gaseous electron donor injection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Patrick J; Trute, Mary M

    2006-12-01

    When present in the vadose zone, potentially toxic nitrate and perchlorate anions can be persistent sources of groundwater contamination. Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT), an anaerobic variation of petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing, involves injecting electron donor gases, such as hydrogen or ethyl acetate, into the vadose zone, to stimulate biodegradation of nitrate and perchlorate. Laboratory microcosm studies demonstrated that hydrogen and ethanol promoted nitrate and perchlorate reduction in vadose zone soil and that moisture content was an important factor. Column studies demonstrated that transport of particular electron donors varied significantly; ethyl acetate and butyraldehyde were transported more rapidly than butyl acetate and ethanol. Nitrate removal in the column studies, up to 100%, was best promoted by ethyl acetate. Up to 39% perchlorate removal was achieved with ethanol and was limited by insufficient incubation time. The results demonstrate that GEDIT is a promising remediation technology warranting further validation.

  2. Using ordinal partition transition networks to analyze ECG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Chobot, Jeremy M.; Freitas, Helena R.; Sprechini, Gene D.

    2016-07-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from patients with a variety of heart conditions are studied using ordinal pattern partition networks. The ordinal pattern partition networks are formed from the ECG time series by symbolizing the data into ordinal patterns. The ordinal patterns form the nodes of the network and edges are defined through the time ordering of the ordinal patterns in the symbolized time series. A network measure, called the mean degree, is computed from each time series-generated network. In addition, the entropy and number of non-occurring ordinal patterns (NFP) is computed for each series. The distribution of mean degrees, entropies, and NFPs for each heart condition studied is compared. A statistically significant difference between healthy patients and several groups of unhealthy patients with varying heart conditions is found for the distributions of the mean degrees, unlike for any of the distributions of the entropies or NFPs.

  3. Incremental Support Vector Learning for Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Tay, Keng Yeow; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    Support vector ordinal regression (SVOR) is a popular method to tackle ordinal regression problems. However, until now there were no effective algorithms proposed to address incremental SVOR learning due to the complicated formulations of SVOR. Recently, an interesting accurate on-line algorithm was proposed for training ν -support vector classification (ν-SVC), which can handle a quadratic formulation with a pair of equality constraints. In this paper, we first present a modified SVOR formulation based on a sum-of-margins strategy. The formulation has multiple constraints, and each constraint includes a mixture of an equality and an inequality. Then, we extend the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm to the modified formulation, and propose an effective incremental SVOR algorithm. The algorithm can handle a quadratic formulation with multiple constraints, where each constraint is constituted of an equality and an inequality. More importantly, it tackles the conflicts between the equality and inequality constraints. We also provide the finite convergence analysis for the algorithm. Numerical experiments on the several benchmark and real-world data sets show that the incremental algorithm can converge to the optimal solution in a finite number of steps, and is faster than the existing batch and incremental SVOR algorithms. Meanwhile, the modified formulation has better accuracy than the existing incremental SVOR algorithm, and is as accurate as the sum-of-margins based formulation of Shashua and Levin.

  4. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects.

  5. An SPSSR -Menu for Ordinal Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Basto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis is a widely used statistical technique in the social sciences. It attempts to identify underlying factors that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables. A statistical software package is needed to perform the calculations. However, there are some limitations with popular statistical software packages, like SPSS. The R programming language is a free software package for statistical and graphical computing. It offers many packages written by contributors from all over the world and programming resources that allow it to overcome the dialog limitations of SPSS. This paper offers an SPSS dialog written in theR programming language with the help of some packages, so that researchers with little or no knowledge in programming, or those who are accustomed to making their calculations based on statistical dialogs, have more options when applying factor analysis to their data and hence can adopt a better approach when dealing with ordinal, Likert-type data.

  6. Ordinal Boltzmann Machines for Collaborative Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Truyen, Tran The; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative filtering is an effective recommendation technique wherein the preference of an individual can potentially be predicted based on preferences of other members. Early algorithms often relied on the strong locality in the preference data, that is, it is enough to predict preference of a user on a particular item based on a small subset of other users with similar tastes or of other items with similar properties. More recently, dimensionality reduction techniques have proved to be equally competitive, and these are based on the co-occurrence patterns rather than locality. This paper explores and extends a probabilistic model known as Boltzmann Machine for collaborative filtering tasks. It seamlessly integrates both the similarity and co-occurrence in a principled manner. In particular, we study parameterisation options to deal with the ordinal nature of the preferences, and propose a joint modelling of both the user-based and item-based processes. Experiments on moderate and large-scale movie recomm...

  7. The possible order L'ordine possibile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Saverio Chesi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    La questione dell’ordine sembra porsi in termini ineludibili per una riflessione che, muovendo dalla kantiana logica della relazione, sappia cogliere - nel gioco tra Analitica e Dialettica - la portata metafisica del metodo analogico. Nondimeno, la tensione dell’intero arco categoriale verso la modalità porta poi a rifocalizzare la questione stessa come domanda sul nesso tempo, spazio, possibilità.

    The question of order inevitably proposes a reflection aiming at comprehending, from the play between Analytic and Dialectic, the metaphysical significance of the analogical method, the start point being Kant’s logic of relationship. Nevertheless, the tension of the entire categorical arc toward modality leads to refocus the question on the connection among time, space, and possibility.

  8. Un enfoque ordinal para medir la pobreza Poverty: an ordinal approach to measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Amartya

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo se propone un nuevo indicador de pobreza que evita algunas deficiencias de los indicadores que hoy utilizan. Para deducir el indicador se utiliza un enfoque axiomático. La concepción de bienestar usada para establecer el conjunto de axiomas es ordinal. La información requerida para el nuevo indicador es bastante limitada, lo que permite su utilización practica.The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the mea sures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information required for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use.

  9. The Present Situation and Countermeasures of Groundwater Contamination in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, Shizuo; Tang, Changyuan

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] Since 1982, thousands of groundwater pollution cases have been found in Japan. In order to improve the groundwater quality, Japan has developed strategies for protection of groundwater. In this paper, authors try to explain the present of groundwater use, groundwater pollution and remediation methods in Japan. From the results shown in this paper, it can be found that groundwater pollution problem has become very serious in Japan. Even many efforts have been made to improve the sit...

  10. Proposed Ordinance for the Regulation of Cable Television. Working Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago City Council, IL.

    A model ordinance is proposed for the regulation of cable television in the city of Chicago. It defines the language of the ordinance, sets forth the method of granting franchises, and describes the terms of the franchises. The duties of a commission to regulate cable television are listed and the method of selecting commission members is…

  11. The role of the Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in the management and protection of Spain's groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Llamas, M.-Ramón; Villarroya, Fermín

    Spain is a relatively large European country (ca. 500,000km2) with extensive semiarid areas in which there exists a large number of good aquifers. In some areas, these aquifers are intensively developed and are the most important sources of fresh water. Nevertheless, groundwater development and protection has rarely been duly considered by the Spanish Water Administration, despite the pressure to remedy this situation by various groups of experts, some of them members of the Water Administration. The Spanish Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) has been very active during the last decade in promoting activities to spread groundwater science, technology, and management in Spain and outside, mostly in Latin America, and in trying to orient water policy toward issues of groundwater. These activities include mainly the organization of technical and scientific meetings on current topics such as groundwater in the new Water Act, overexploitation, groundwater in water-resources planning, groundwater pollution, natural-recharge estimation and others. The impact of these activities on the recent water policy of Spain seems significant, and the experience gained may be applicable to other countries. Résumé L'Espagne est un pays européen assez étendu (500,000km2 environ), où existent des zones semi-arides possédant de nombreux aquifères intéressants. Dans certaines régions, ces aquifères sont intensivement exploités et constituent les sources essentielles d'eau douce. Cependant, l'exploitation et la protection des eaux souterraines ont rarement été prises en compte de façon correcte par l'Administration Espagnole de l'Eau, malgré les pressions exercées pour remédier à la situation par différents groupes d'experts, dont certains sont membres de l'Administration de l'Eau. Le Comité Espagnol de l'Association Internationale des Hydrogéologues (AIH) a été particulièrement actif au cours de ces dix dernières années pour

  12. GROUNDWATER HYDROCHEMISTRY EVALUATION IN RURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... the quality of groundwater from domestic water supply boreholes across rural Botswana. Ionic ... quality limits the supply of potable fresh water. To utilize and protect valuable water ..... prescribed specification of World Health.

  13. Application of the Multi-Attribute Value Theory for engaging stakeholders in groundwater protection in the Vosvozis catchment in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulos, Kyriakos; Yang, Hong; Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2014-02-01

    Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) was used to investigate stakeholders' preferences and beliefs in ameliorating a deteriorating ecosystem, i.e. Vosvozis River and Ismarida Lake in Northeastern Greece. Various monetary and environmental criteria were evaluated with scores and weights by different stakeholder groups and key individuals such as farmers, fishermen, entrepreneurs, residents and ecologists to elicit their preferences concerning alternative protection scenarios. The ultimate objective was to propose policy recommendations for a sustainable water resources management for the case study area. The analysis revealed an overwhelming agreement among stakeholders regarding the dire need for immediate actions in order to preserve and enhance Vosvozis ecosystem. With a two stage evaluation process, the MAVT analysis led to a high consensus among the stakeholders on the alternative that favors water recycling from the wastewater treatment plant combined with small dams for rainwater harvesting. © 2013.

  14. Semi-supervised learning for ordinal Kernel Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortiz, M; Gutiérrez, P A; Carbonero-Ruz, M; Hervás-Martínez, C

    2016-12-01

    Ordinal classification considers those classification problems where the labels of the variable to predict follow a given order. Naturally, labelled data is scarce or difficult to obtain in this type of problems because, in many cases, ordinal labels are given by a user or expert (e.g. in recommendation systems). Firstly, this paper develops a new strategy for ordinal classification where both labelled and unlabelled data are used in the model construction step (a scheme which is referred to as semi-supervised learning). More specifically, the ordinal version of kernel discriminant learning is extended for this setting considering the neighbourhood information of unlabelled data, which is proposed to be computed in the feature space induced by the kernel function. Secondly, a new method for semi-supervised kernel learning is devised in the context of ordinal classification, which is combined with our developed classification strategy to optimise the kernel parameters. The experiments conducted compare 6 different approaches for semi-supervised learning in the context of ordinal classification in a battery of 30 datasets, showing (1) the good synergy of the ordinal version of discriminant analysis and the use of unlabelled data and (2) the advantage of computing distances in the feature space induced by the kernel function.

  15. Recommendations for simulations to predict environmental concentrations of active substances of plant protection products and their metabolites in groundwater (PECgw) in the national assessment for authorisation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdt, Gabriele; Gallien, Peter; Nehls, Angelika [Umweltbundesamt Dessau (DE)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    In the national assessment for authorisation in Germany the leaching behaviour of a plant protection product is determined in a stepwise procedure in accordance with FOCUS groundwater report (2009). The recommendations given in this paper here are related to tier 1 and tier 2, only. A further publication is planned for the tier 3 and tier 4 assessments in accordance with the principles provided by FOCUS. The tier 1 leaching assessment in the EU evaluation process is based on the nine FOCUS (2009) standard groundwater scenarios. In the member state evaluation for Germany, a sub-set of the standard scenarios with climatic and soil conditions found to be relevant for Ger-many are taken into account (Hamburg and Kremsmuenster). The soils of the two scenarios cover the pH-range of agricultural soils and allow the pH-dependent behaviour of compounds to be addressed. For the parameterisation of the degradation behaviour of an active substance and its metabolites in soil the recommendations of FOCUS should be followed. Normalised degradation rates may be taken from either laboratory or from field dissipation studies. For the parameterisation of the sorption behaviour of an active substance and its metabolites in soil the recommendations of FOCUS should be considered. With respect to the correlation of degradation and/or sorption behaviour to soil properties (pH, OC) further detailed recommendations are provided to facilitate the selection of conservative sorption parameters for leaching assessment. Proposals and detailed schemes for the handling of the DT50 and Kfoc values (including their variability) are given. Further recommendations are given in this paper on how to use other modelling parameters e.g. crop rotation, plant uptake factor, formation of metabolites, correlations / multi-correlations of substance parameters to soil properties, and application of statistical methods. Tier 2 of the leaching assessment consists of more refined modelling approaches. This

  16. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  17. Implementation of Palm Print Biometric Identification System Using Ordinal Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal identification is one of the most important requirements in all e-commerce and criminal detection applications. In this framework, a novel palm print representation method, namely orthogonal line ordinal features, is proposed. The palm print registration, feature extraction, palm print verification and palm print recognition modules are designed to manage the palm prints and the palm print database module is designed to store their palm prints and the person details in the database. The feature extraction module is proposed to extract the ordinal measurements for the palm prints. The verification module is designed to verify the palm print with the personal identification record. The recognition module is proposed to find out the relevant person associated with the palm print image. The proposed palm print recognition scheme uses the intensity and brightness to measure the ordinal measurement. The ordinal measures are estimated for the 4 x 4 regions of the palm print images.

  18. Overstatement in happiness reporting with ordinal, bounded scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yamada, Katsunori; Kitada, Ryo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sugawara, Sho K; Ohtake, Fumio; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-02-18

    There are various methods by which people can express subjective evaluations quantitatively. For example, happiness can be measured on a scale from 1 to 10, and has been suggested as a measure of economic policy. However, there is resistance to these types of measurement from economists, who often regard welfare to be a cardinal, unbounded quantity. It is unclear whether there are differences between subjective evaluation reported on ordinal, bounded scales and on cardinal, unbounded scales. To answer this question, we developed functional magnetic resonance imaging experimental tasks for reporting happiness from monetary gain and the perception of visual stimulus. Subjects tended to report higher values when they used ordinal scales instead of cardinal scales. There were differences in neural activation between ordinal and cardinal reporting scales. The posterior parietal area showed greater activation when subjects used an ordinal scale instead of a cardinal scale. Importantly, the striatum exhibited greater activation when asked to report happiness on an ordinal scale than when asked to report on a cardinal scale. The finding that ordinal (bounded) scales are associated with higher reported happiness and greater activation in the reward system shows that overstatement bias in happiness data must be considered.

  19. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval. 522.8... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal...

  20. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval requirements for class III ordinances. 522.6... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval requirements for class III ordinances. No later than 90 days after the submission to the Chairman under §...

  1. 对我国湿地保护地方立法的评析——以《苏州市湿地保护条例》为例%Progress and Shortcomings of Local Legislation of China's Wetland Protection --TakingSuzbou City Wetland Protection Ordinance As an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰家丽

    2012-01-01

    根据《国际湿地公约》对湿地的定义可知,河流、湖泊、沼泽、珊瑚礁以及水库、鱼(虾)塘、水稻田等人工湿地都应属该公约范畴。现行湿地保护地方立法在我国原有的立法经验基础上将永久性水稻田等人工湿地纳入湿地保护的范围,实现了对湿地的全面保护。生物入侵已给我国造成重大损害,在目前生物入侵防治立法缺位的情况下,地方立法对湿地外来物种的引入作出了严格规定。为了解决环境保护违法成本低的难题,应提高湿地违法行为的处罚额度,并与地方经济水平和行为人的违法所得相结合。%According to the definition of wetlands in the International Convention on Wetlands , rivers, lakes, swamps, coral reefs and reservoirs, fish (shrimp) ponds, paddy fields and other artificial wetlands should be considered as wetlands. Based on the previous law experience, the existing wetland protection legislation puts permanent paddy fields into the scope of wetland protection to achieve comprehensive protection of wetlands. Biological invasion has caused significant harm to our country. Lack of the biological invasion control legislation, the local legislation strictly restricts the introduction'of alien species into wetlands. In order to solve the problem of the low cost of illegal damage to environment, the fines of wetlands damage penalties should be raised, which should be in accordance with the level of local economy and the illegal income of the violator.

  2. Interpretation of poorly defined concepts of law in the statutory ordinance on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Auslegung unbestimmter Rechtsbegriffe der Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, G. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke - VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abt. Recht

    1998-06-02

    The statutory ordinance on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (26. BImSchV, Federal Emission Control Ordinance) is effective since 1 January 1997. With this ordinance, the legislator made a first approach to dealing with a matter which is an issue of debates among scientists and is known to the general public under the term `electrosmog`. The experience obtained in the last year since implementation of the ordinance in the sector of the electric power industry has shown that the 26. BImSchV does in fact provide a useful legal basis for the purpose of protection from adverse effects of radiation. The contribution here briefly reviews the regulatory content of the ordinance, and presents interpretations and improved definitions of terms used in the ordinance. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Am 1. Januar 1997 ist die Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder (26. BImSchV) in Kraft getreten. Der Verordnungsgeber hat sich mit den Regelungen einer Problematik zugewandt, die wissenschaftlich kontrovers diskutiert wird und die Oeffentlichkeit unter dem diffusen Begriff `Elektrosmog` beschaeftigt. Die ueber einjaehrige Erfahrung mit der Verordnung in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft hat gezeigt, dass die 26. BImSchV trotz einiger offener Fragen und Auslegungsprobleme einen Beitrag zur Rechtssicherheit leistet. Der nachfolgende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den Regelungsinhalt und widmet sich der Auslegung unbestimmter Rechtsbegriffe der Verordnung. (orig.)

  3. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types.

  4. Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    In October 2004, the Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE) was launched, co-financed by the European Commission, under the Renewable Energy Technologies priority within the 6th Framework programme, contract number 502701, chaired by Kim Nielsen, Rambøll, Denmark. The project involves 41...... partners. In general the public is not aware of the development of ocean energy and its exploitation. There is a need to make a united effort from the developers and research community to present the various principles and results in a coordinated manner with public appeal. The main objectives of the Co......-ordination Action on Ocean Energy are: To develop a common knowledge base necessary for coherent research and development policiesTo bring a co-ordinated approach within key areas of ocean energy research and development.To provide a forum for the longer term marketing of promising research developments...

  5. Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    In October 2004, the Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE) was launched, co-financed by the European Commission, under the Renewable Energy Technologies priority within the 6th Framework programme, contract number 502701, chaired by Kim Nielsen, Rambøll, Denmark. The project involves 41...... partners. In general the public is not aware of the development of ocean energy and its exploitation. There is a need to make a united effort from the developers and research community to present the various principles and results in a coordinated manner with public appeal. The main objectives of the Co......-ordination Action on Ocean Energy are: To develop a common knowledge base necessary for coherent research and development policiesTo bring a co-ordinated approach within key areas of ocean energy research and development.To provide a forum for the longer term marketing of promising research developments...

  6. An Ordination of the Vegetation of Ntshongweni, Natal*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, soils, climate and dense woody vegetation are briefly described for Ntshongweni, a cone-shaped hill in Natal, South Africa (29° 51' S and 30° 43' E. A primary ordination of the woody plants, based on Bray & Curtis’s (1957 method, was carried out using 60 quadrats. Four stand noda were delimited and another four noda within a secondary ordination of a cluster of quadrats which could not be interpreted within the primary ordination. Edaphic and atmospheric moisture conditions and slope aspect were proposed as the main site factors correlated with species performance. Tables of density, local frequency and constancy for species occurring in each nodum were drawn up.

  7. Ordinal pattern statistics for the assessment of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, G.; Graff, B.; Kaczkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.; Amigó, J. M.; Piskorski, J.; Narkiewicz, K.; Guzik, P.

    2013-06-01

    The recognition of all main features of a healthy heart rhythm (the so-called sinus rhythm) is still one of the biggest challenges in contemporary cardiology. Recently the interesting physiological phenomenon of heart rate asymmetry has been observed. This phenomenon is related to unbalanced contributions of heart rate decelerations and accelerations to heart rate variability. In this paper we apply methods based on the concept of ordinal pattern to the analysis of electrocardiograms (inter-peak intervals) of healthy subjects in the supine position. This way we observe new regularities of the heart rhythm related to the distribution of ordinal patterns of lengths 3 and 4.

  8. An ordinal model of the McGurk illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...... model it also employed 30 free parameters where the ordinal model needed only 14. Testing the predictive power of the models using a form of cross-validation we found that, although both models performed rather poorly, the ordinal model performed better than the FLMP. Based on these findings we suggest...

  9. Open Method of Co-Ordination for Demoi-Cracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Radaelli, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Under which conditions does the open method of co-ordination match the standards for demoi-cracy? To answer this question, we need some explicit standards about demoi-cracy. In fact, open co-ordination serves three different but interrelated purposes in European Union policy: to facilitate...... considering the empirical evidence on how normative principles hit the road of implementation. In the final part of this paper, we look into the demoi-cratic effects of the Eurozone's economic and financial crisis on our findings....

  10. Projected discrete ordinates methods for numerical transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    A class of Projected Discrete-Ordinates (PDO) methods is described for obtaining iterative solutions of discrete-ordinates problems with convergence rates comparable to those observed using Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA). The spatially discretized PDO solutions are generally not equal to the DSA solutions, but unlike DSA, which requires great care in the use of spatial discretizations to preserve stability, the PDO solutions remain stable and rapidly convergent with essentially arbitrary spatial discretizations. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the rapid convergence and the accuracy of solutions obtained using PDO methods with commonplace differencing methods.

  11. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986. Volume 1, Site geohydrology and waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, J.D. [ed.] [Exploration Resources, Inc., Athens, GA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon`s 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined.

  12. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  13. Evaluation and optimization of groundwater protection programs according to EU-Water framework directive; Bewertung und Optimierung von Grundwasserschutz-Massnahmenprogrammen nach der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, Petra; Kunkel, Ralf; Wendland, Frank [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere (ICG) - Inst. 4: Agrosphaere; Baron, Ute; Voigt, Hans-Juergen [Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltgeologie

    2011-03-15

    In order to evaluate and optimize programmes of measures according to EU-Water framework directive a methodology has been developed which consists of three consecutive parts. In the first part the interrelations between matter inputs (contaminations), observed matter concentrations in groundwater and the hydrogeological system are analyzed based on a ''conceptual model''. Based on this a consistent evaluation of the extent of pollutant reduction necessary to reach good status of groundwater is carried out in the second part. The third part is an evaluation of the time gap between the introduction of a measure and its impact on the status of groundwater. The derived methodology is predominately based on digital datasets as input data which are available on the level of Germany's Federal States. Adapted to the sources of contamination of groundwater the methodology was successfully tested for diffuse nitrate sources in two regions in Lower Saxony/Northrhine-Westfalia and Hesse and for point sources in one region in Brandenburg. (orig.)

  14. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  15. Modeling and evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mast; W.N. van Wieringen

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that currently available methods for the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications are not satisfactory. The paper aims to study whether we can modify a class of models from Item Response Theory, well established for the study of the reliability

  16. Analog Magnitudes Support Large Number Ordinal Judgments in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanMarle, Kristy; Mou, Yi; Seok, Jin H

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the source of infants' ordinal knowledge, and those that have are equivocal regarding the underlying representational system. The present study sought clear evidence that the approximate number system, which underlies children's cardinal knowledge, may also support ordinal knowledge in infancy; 10 - to 12-month-old infants' were tested with large sets (>3) in an ordinal choice task in which they were asked to choose between two hidden sets of food items. The difficulty of the comparison varied as a function of the ratio between the sets. Infants reliably chose the greater quantity when the sets differed by a 2:3 ratio (4v6 and 6v9), but not when they differed by a 3:4 ratio (6v8) or a 7:8 ratio (7v8). This discrimination function is consistent with previous studies testing the precision of number and time representations in infants of roughly this same age, thus providing evidence that the approximate number system can support ordinal judgments in infancy. The findings are discussed in light of recent proposals that different mechanisms underlie infants' reasoning about small and large numbers.

  17. 32 CFR 510.1 - Private ministrations, sacraments, and ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ordinances. Chaplains will conduct or arrange for appropriate burial services at the interment of members of... may perform the marriage rite, provided he complies with the civil law of the place where the marriage.... Chaplains will administer or arrange for rites and sacraments for military personnel and civilians...

  18. When Can Information from Ordinal Scale Variables Be Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Many theoretical constructs of interest to psychologists are multidimensional and derive from the integration of several input variables. We show that input variables that are measured on ordinal scales cannot be combined to produce a stable weakly ordered output variable that allows trading off the input variables. Instead a partial order is…

  19. Indoor smoking ordinances in workplaces and public places in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Davis, Ken; Nazir, Niaman; Dunton, Nancy; Winn, Kimberly; Jacquot, Sandy; Moler, Don

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferences of elected city officials regarding the need for a statewide clean indoor air law and to analyze the content of local smoking ordinances. A survey of elected officials in 57 larger Kansas cities obtained information on the perceived need for statewide legislation, venues to be covered, and motivating factors. Clean indoor air ordinances from all Kansas cities were analyzed by venue. The survey response rate was 190 out of 377 (50.4%) for elected officials. Over 70% of the respondents favored or strongly favored greater restrictions on indoor smoking. Sixty percent favored statewide legislation. Among these, over 80% favored restrictions in health care facilities, theaters, indoor sports arenas (including bowling alleys), restaurants, shopping malls, lobbies, enclosed spaces in outdoor arenas, and hotel/motel rooms. Officials who had never smoked favored a more restrictive approach. Employee and public health concerns were cited as influential by 76%-79% of respondents. Thirty-eight ordinances, covering over half of the state's population, were examined. They varied considerably in their exemptions. Official's attitudes toward smoking regulations were associated with their smoking status. The examination of existing ordinances revealed a piecemeal approach to smoking regulations.

  20. Exploiting Monotonicity Constraints in Active Learning for Ordinal Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Pieter; Feelders, Adrianus

    2014-01-01

    We consider ordinal classication and instance ranking problems where each attribute is known to have an increasing or decreasing relation with the class label or rank. For example, it stands to reason that the number of query terms occurring in a document has a positive in uence on its relevance to

  1. Preference score of units in the presence of ordinal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanshahloo, G.R.; Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafaee, A. [Department of Mathematics, North-Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mostafaee_m@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    This study deals with the ordinal data in the performance analysis framework and provides a weight-restricted DEA model to obtain the preference score of each unit under assessment. The obtained scores are used to rank DMUs. Furthermore, to decrease the complexity of the provided model, the number of the constraints is decreased by some linear transformations.

  2. The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine's De ordine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... Therese Fuhrer. Email: therese.fuhrer@fu-berlin.de. Postal address: Institut für ... Milan, I have selected De ordine for my study for two reasons. Firstly, in this ..... reflections and to perceive the rule-governed character of the.

  3. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  4. Protection of Minors in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO WEI

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Laws and systems 1. Laws There is no unified law or regulation in Hong Kong devoted to the protection of minors. The provisions concerning the protection of minors are reflected in many ordinances. Chapter 226 of Hong Kong Laws: Juvenile Offenders Ordinance says:It shall be conclusively presumed that no child under the age of 10 years can be guilty of an offence.

  5. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. As of July 1, 1989. [Full text edition with detailed index and an introduction by Prof. Dr. P. C. Storm]. Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt. Stand 1. Juli 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment.The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.).

  6. Groundwater contamination and pollution in micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detay, M.; Alessandrello, E.; Come, P.; Groom, I.

    1989-12-01

    This paper is an overview of groundwater contamination and pollution in th e main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Belau (Palau). A strategy for the comprehensive protection of groundwater resources in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is proposed.

  7. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  8. Co-ordinated voltage control of DFIG wind turbines in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    is implemented in the power system simulation toolbox PowerFactory DIgSILENT. The DFIG wind farm ride-through capability and contribution to voltage control in the power system are assessed and discussed by means of simulations with the use of a transmission power system generic model developed and delivered......-side converter as long as it is not blocked by the protection system, otherwise the grid-side converter takes over the voltage control. Moreover, the article presents a DFIG wind farm model equipped with a grid fault protection system and the described co-ordinated voltage control. The whole DFIG wind farm model...... by the Danish Transmission System Operator Energinet.dk. The simulation results show how a DFIG wind farm equipped with voltage control can help a nearby active stall wind farm to ride through a grid fault, without implementation of any additional ride-through control strategy in the active stall wind farm....

  9. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  10. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  11. A Rational Decision Maker with Ordinal Utility under Uncertainty: Optimism and Pessimism

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In game theory and artificial intelligence, decision making models often involve maximizing expected utility, which does not respect ordinal invariance. In this paper, the author discusses the possibility of preserving ordinal invariance and still making a rational decision under uncertainty.

  12. Groundwater Governance in the United States: Common Priorities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Varady, Robert G; Huang, Ling-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical component of the water supply for agriculture, urban areas, industry, and ecosystems, but managing it is a challenge because groundwater is difficult to map, quantify, and evaluate. Until recently, study and assessment of governance of this water resource has been largely neglected. A survey was developed to query state agency officials about the extent and scope of groundwater use, groundwater laws and regulations, and groundwater tools and strategies. Survey responses revealed key findings: states' legal frameworks for groundwater differ widely in recognizing the hydrologic connection between surface water and groundwater, the needs of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, and the protection of groundwater quality; states reported a range in capacity to enforce groundwater responsibilities; and states have also experienced substantial changes in groundwater governance in the past few decades. Overall, groundwater governance across the United States is fragmented. States nevertheless identified three common priorities for groundwater governance: water quality and contamination, conflicts between users, and declining groundwater levels. This survey represents an initial step in a broader, continuing effort to characterize groundwater governance practices in the United States.

  13. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... among other things, beer, ale, stout, lager beer, porter and other malt or brewed liquors. (8) ``Liquor... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates...

  14. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  15. Canoco reference manual and user's guide: software for ordination, version 5.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Smilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Canoco is a software package for multivariate data analysis, with an emphasis on dimesional reduction (ordination), regression analysis, and the combination of the two, constrained ordination. Canoco makes effective and powerful ordination methods easilyt accessible for scientists wanting to infer a

  16. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  17. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  18. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  19. Parameters Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-06-01

    A regression model is the representation of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable has categories used in the logistic regression model to calculate odds on. The logistic regression model for dependent variable has levels in the logistics regression model is ordinal. GWOLR model is an ordinal logistic regression model influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation in the model needed to determine the value of a population based on sample. The purpose of this research is to parameters estimation of GWOLR model using R software. Parameter estimation uses the data amount of dengue fever patients in Semarang City. Observation units used are 144 villages in Semarang City. The results of research get GWOLR model locally for each village and to know probability of number dengue fever patient categories.

  20. An Ordinal Index on the Space of Strictly Singular Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Beanland, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Using the notion of $S_\\xi$-strictly singular operator introduced by Androulakis, Dodos, Sirotkin and Troitsky, we define an ordinal index on the subspace of strictly singular operators between two separable Banach spaces. In our main result, we provide a sufficient condition implying that this index is bounded by $\\omega_1$. In particular, we apply this result to study operators on totally incomparable spaces, hereditarily indecomposable spaces and spaces with few operators.

  1. Co-ordination in the autonomous software agents’ systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Agents are designed to behave individually rational, which means that they should maximize their personal utility which is the way to make them less vulnerable to mean actions of others, yet they have to co-ordinate their actions to reach common goals, which is the purpose of this work.Design/methodology/approach: Agents can create and pursue their individual goals, behaving in a ‘selfish’ way to acquire the desired state of their world. To achieve that they may choose to adopt goals of other agents too, should this co-ordination be assessed as beneficial for them. Moreover, there is also a possibility to define the desired states of the agents in a way which will induce them to work together rather than try to operate individually. This may include their specialization, which forces in most cases sharing of their potential. This may be achieved by specialised design of agents being able to carry out elementary tasks. Such approach calls however, for design of a layer of supervisory agents which will be capable of realising what is the multi-agent overall system goal, setting up their teams from simple agents and committing to common sub-goals. All such systems may be efficiently developed only after careful study of the successfully operating systems in which humans are the agents, whose tasks may now be assigned to the software ones. These agents have to be coupled, as it also happens in their human counterparts.Findings: Development of the software agents’ co-operation framework based on review of publications covering both the fundamental considerations, as well as the latest developments.Research limitations/implications: Approach presented still needs careful testing and refinement of theco-ordination / negotiation rules.Originality/value: Co-ordination of agents to reach their common goal, satisfying also their individual utility

  2. Human Age Estimation Based on Locality and Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Zhu, Xiaobin; Liu, Jing; Lu, Hanqing

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection-based method for facial age estimation. The face aging is a typical temporal process, and facial images should have certain ordinal patterns in the aging feature space. From the geometrical perspective, a facial image can be usually seen as sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in the original high-dimensional feature space. Thus, we first measure the energy of each feature in preserving the underlying local structure information and the ordinal information of the facial images, respectively, and then we intend to learn a low-dimensional aging representation that can maximally preserve both kinds of information. To further improve the performance, we try to eliminate the redundant local information and ordinal information as much as possible by minimizing nonlinear correlation and rank correlation among features. Finally, we formulate all these issues into a unified optimization problem, which is similar to linear discriminant analysis in format. Since it is expensive to collect the labeled facial aging images in practice, we extend the proposed supervised method to a semi-supervised learning mode including the semi-supervised feature selection method and the semi-supervised age prediction algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on the FACES dataset, the Images of Groups dataset, and the FG-NET aging dataset to show the power of the proposed algorithms, compared to the state-of-the-arts.

  3. Exploring Local and Overall Ordinal Information for Robust Feature Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Fan, Bin; Wang, Gang; Wu, Fuchao

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to build robust feature descriptors by exploring intensity order information in a patch. To this end, the local intensity order pattern (LIOP) and the overall intensity order pattern (OIOP) are proposed to effectively encode intensity order information of each pixel in different aspects. Specifically, LIOP captures the local ordinal information by using the intensity relationships among all the neighbouring sampling points around a pixel, while OIOP exploits the coarsely quantized overall intensity order of these sampling points. These two kinds of patterns are then separately aggregated into different ordinal bins, leading to two kinds of feature descriptors. Furthermore, as these two kinds of descriptors could encode complementary ordinal information, they are combined together to obtain a discriminative and compact mixed intensity order pattern descriptor. All these descriptors are constructed on the basis of relative relationships of intensities in a rotationally invariant way, making them be inherently invariant to image rotation and any monotonic intensity changes. Experimental results on image matching and object recognition are encouraging, demonstrating the superiorities of our descriptors over the state of the art.

  4. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  5. Developing a User Reported Measure of Care Co-ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Crump

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Older people with chronic conditions often receive poor care because of the fragmented way in which their services are delivered from multiple sources. Providers have limited tools to directly capture the views of older people about their experiences of care co-ordination. The study aim was to design and test a survey tool to capture the experiences of older people with chronic conditions regarding how well their health and (where applicable social care was co-ordinated. Method: To inform the questionnaire development, we reviewed the literature on existing surveys and care co-ordination theory, and on the health status of our target audience (people aged 65 or over with one or more chronic conditions and not in hospital or residential institutions. We also consulted stakeholders including those working in health and social care services and those with expertise in the subject area. We grouped questions around experiences of care in three dimensions: care in the home environment, planned transitions in care and unplanned situations. We also designed the questions so they could be mapped onto three recognised dimensions of continuity of care – management continuity, information continuity and relational continuity – as articulated in the international literature. The questionnaire was tested using focus groups and cognitive interviews and piloted with people aged 65 and over with at least one chronic condition, using a postal survey. We used service user records in 32 general practices located in four areas and a population database held by one local authority in England as the sampling frame. Results: The pilot achieved an overall response rate of 27.6% (n = 562 responses. Ninety five percent of respondents answered 30 or more of the 46 questions and three respondents answered fewer than 10 questions. Twenty four items achieved one or more positive correlations greater than 0.5 with other survey items and four instances of

  6. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  7. Why Overlearned Sequences are Special: Distinct Neural Networks for Ordinal Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani ePariyadath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several observations suggest that overlearned ordinal categories (e.g., letters, numbers, weekdays, months are processed differently than non-ordinal categories in the brain. In synesthesia, for example, anomalous perceptual experiences are most often triggered by members of ordinal categories (Rich et al., 2005; Eagleman, 2009. In semantic dementia, the processing of ordinal stimuli appears to be preserved relative to non-ordinal ones (Cappelletti et al., 2001. Moreover, ordinal stimuli often map onto unconscious spatial representations, as observed in the SNARC effect (Dehaene et al, 1993; Fias, 1996. At present, little is known about the neural representation of ordinal categories. Using functional neuroimaging, we show that words in ordinal categories are processed in a fronto-temporo-parietal network biased toward the right hemisphere. This differs from words in non-ordinal categories (such as names of furniture, animals, cars and fruit, which show an expected bias toward the left hemisphere. Further, we find that increased predictability of stimulus order correlates with smaller regions of BOLD activation, a phenomenon we term prediction suppression. Our results provide new insights into the processing of ordinal stimuli, and suggest a new anatomical framework for understanding the patterns seen in synesthesia, unconscious spatial representation, and semantic dementia.

  8. Soil protection. Looseleaf manual of measures and recommendations for protection, maintenance and decontamination of soils, landscapes and groundwater; Bodenschutz. Ergaenzbares Handbuch der Massnahmen und Empfehlungen fuer Schutz, Pflege und Sanierung von Boeden, Landschaft und Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Guenther; Koenig, Wilhelm; Utermann, Jens (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    The 51th supplement includes a technical contribution to sustainable land management reporting on a new focus on environmental research. A relationship to soil protection, water conservation and climate protection is established. It follows a report on archive soils as a commented author version based on a position paper of the Government/State Working Group soil protection LABO. In addition, this supplement contains the actual legislative provisions.

  9. A Nuclear Reactor Transient Methodology Based on Discrete Ordinates Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power industry, simulating and analyzing the reactor transient are of great significance for the nuclear safety. The traditional diffusion theory is not suitable for small volume or strong absorption problem. In this paper, we have studied the application of discrete ordinates method in the numerical solution of space-time kinetics equation. The fully implicit time integration was applied and the precursor equations were solved by analytical method. In order to improve efficiency of the transport theory, we also adopted some advanced acceleration methods. Numerical results of the TWIGL benchmark problem presented demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this methodology.

  10. Implementing the Open Method of Co-ordination in Pensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław POTERAJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the European Union Open Methodof Co-ordination (OMC in area of pension. The author’s goal was to presentthe development and the effects of implementation the OMC. The introductionis followed by three topic paragraphs: 1. the OMC – step by step, 2. theevaluation of the OMC, and 3. the effects of OMC implementation. In thesummary, the author highlights as except of advantages there are alsodisadvantages of the implementation of the OMC, and there are many doubtsexist in the context of efficiency of performing that method in the future.

  11. Women's Ordination in Denmark: The Humanization of the Ordained Ministry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2009-01-01

    of women was legislatively made possible on June 4 1947, the drama was played out within a church-state-complex, and some of the players tried to discern between the ministry, to which women i special functions could be admitted (for example pastors in a women's prison), and the ordination, which...... of this, and corresponding to the democratization of the church was the humanization of ministry. Therefore the focus and significance of ministry is not its "who" (person and sexuality) but its "what" (the authenticity and function). The article states that it is a myth when some claim that the majority...

  12. Soil protection. Looseleaf manual of measures and recommendations for protection, maintenance and decontamination of soils, landscapes and groundwater; Bodenschutz. Ergaenzbares Handbuch der Massnahmen und Empfehlungen fuer Schutz, Pflege und Sanierung von Boeden, Landschaft und Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Guenther; Koenig, Wilhelm; Utermann, Jens (eds.)

    2012-04-15

    The 52th supplement consists of three main chapters. The first chapter is concerned to soil in the environmental policy, scientific basis, investigation and evaluation of soils and adverse soil alterations. The second chapter reports on fundamentals for measures of soil protection and soil decontamination, execution questions of the soil protection legislation. The third chapter contains the actual legislative provisions.

  13. Hyperations, Veblen progressions and transfinite iterations of ordinal functions

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Duque, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce hyperations and cohyperations, which are forms of transfinite iteration of ordinal functions. Hyperations are iterations of normal functions. Unlike iteration by pointwise convergence, hyperation preserves normality. The hyperation of a normal function f is a sequence of normal functions so that f^0= id, f^1 = f and for all ordinals \\alpha, \\beta we have that f^(\\alpha + \\beta) = f^\\alpha f^\\beta. These conditions do not determine f^\\alpha uniquely; in addition, we require that the functions be minimal in an appropriate sense. We study hyperations systematically and show that they are a natural refinement of Veblen progressions. Next, we define cohyperations, very similar to hyperations except that they are left-additive: given \\alpha, \\beta, f^(\\alpha + \\beta)= f^\\beta f^\\alpha. Cohyperations iterate initial functions which are functions that map initial segments to initial segments. We systematically study cohyperations and see how they can be employed to define left inverses to h...

  14. An ordinal metrical scale built on a fuzzy nominal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, E.

    2010-07-01

    The Measurement theory defines a measurement as a mapping from a set of empirical property manifestations to a set of abstract property values called symbols. The ordinal metrical scales were introduced within the context of Psychophysics as a way to solve the problem of multidimensional scaling. Usually the distances used to define such scales are based on the hypothesis that symbols are vectors of numbers and that each component is expressed on an interval scale or a ratio scale. In a recent paper was introduced a distance-based scale that represents manifestations from an empirical world with fuzzy subsets of lexical terms. This approach supposes only the existence of a fuzzy nominal scale and allows a choice into a wider set of distances to build the ordinal metrical scales. This paper focuses on the knowledge source used to choose a scale definition and takes metrical scales built on fuzzy nominal scale as example. Then it opens a discussion on the reality of some distances in the empirical world.

  15. The added value of ordinal analysis in clinical trials: An example in traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Roozenbeek, Bob; Perel, Pablo; Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Murray, Gordon; Maas, Andrew; Steyerberg, Ewout

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In clinical trials, ordinal outcome measures are often dichotomized into two categories. In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the 5-point Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) is collapsed into unfavourable versus favourable outcome. Simulation studies have shown that exploiting the ordinal nature of the GOS increases chances of detecting treatment effects. The objective of this study is to quantify the benefits of ordinal analysis in the real-life situation of a large TBI trial.Me...

  16. Ordinal time series analysis for Air Quality Index (AQI) in San Bernardino County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitakasempornkul, Kessinee

    Ambient pollutant, especially ground level ozone that causes respiratory diseases, has been a great concern in Southern California. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides the Air Quality Index (AQI) as a tool to assist the public of health warnings. AQI for ozone is currently divided into six states depending on the level of public health concern. In statistical point of view AQI can be characterized as nonstationary ordinal-valued time series. The purpose of this study is to implement statistical models for short-term forecasting of AQI. This thesis presents a generalized linear type modeling to handle the autocorrelated ordinal time series. The model is applied with four different link functions: identity, logit, probit, and complementary log-log and their forecast performance are compared. Random time-varying covariates include past AQI state, various meteorological processes, and periodic component. Data used in this study are AQI for ozone from five monitoring stations in San Bernardino County, CA for 2004 to 2006. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of one-day-ahead forecast, the 2007 data from the same place are used. The meteorological data are from the nearby Barstow city in San Bernardino County. The portmanteau test is used to test error autocorrelations. The partial likelihood ratio test, Akaike information criterion (AIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are used to measure the goodness of fit and compare the models. The results show the model well captures the nonstationarity in ozone process and remove the nonstationarity in residuals. Both logit and probit models correctly forecast about 85% of the observed AQI.

  17. Ordinal scheduling problem and its asymptotically optimal algorithms on parallel machine system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Zhiyi; HE Yong

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on the ordinal scheduling problem on a parallel machine system, we discuss the background of ordinal scheduling and the motivation of ordinal algorithms. In addition, for the ordinal scheduling problem on identical parallel machines with the objective to maximize the minimum machine load, we then give two asymptotically optimal algorithm classes which have worst-case ratios very close to the upper bound of the problem for any given m. These results greatly improve the results proposed by He Yong and Tan Zhiyi in 2002.

  18. Three-Dimensional Radiation in Absorbing -Emitting-Scattering Medium Using the Discrete-Ordinates Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The discrete-ordinates method is a simple,accurate and of little computational time solution to predict the radiactive heat transfer in the combustion chambers,In this paper,three-dimension radiative problems for absorbing-emitting-scattering medium are modeled using this method in the rectangular enclosure.And in addition,new discrete-ordinates are developed to study the absorbing-emitting-scattering radiation processes for complex phase function.The reasonable results can be obtained though these new ordinates,yet the deviated results are only obtained through conventional Sn ordinates.

  19. ACS Algorithm in Discrete Ordinates for Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adaptive Collision Source (ACS method can solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. This is similar to, and essentially an extension of, the first collision source method. Previously, the ACS methodology has been implemented into the TITAN discrete ordinates code, and has shown speedups of 2–4 on a simple test problem, with very little loss of accuracy (within a provided adaptive tolerance. This work examines the use of the ACS method for a more realistic problem: pressure vessel dosimetry with the VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled reactor dosimetry benchmark. The ACS method proved to be able to obtain accurate results while being approximately twice as efficient as using a constant quadrature in a standard source iteration scheme.

  20. Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung

    2015-05-01

    Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  1. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  2. Soil protection. Looseleaf manual of measures and recommendations for protection, maintenance and decontamination of soils, landscapes and groundwater; Bodenschutz. Ergaenzbares Handbuch der Massnahmen und Empfehlungen fuer Schutz, Pflege und Sanierung von Boeden, Landschaft und Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Guenther; Koenig, Wilhelm; Utermann, Jens (eds.)

    2012-12-15

    The additional supplement 2/2012 under consideration contains a specialist article dealing with the soil protection law in Poland. This article presents the main aspects of environmental policy, sustainability policy, sustainable land management, soil protection policy as well as permissible valid limiting values of concentrations in soil. Another specialist article reports on the impacts of soil injection agents for sealing of buildings on soil and ground water. Especially within the sealing and stabilization of buildings the natural resources soil and ground water can be affected due to the contact with the injection agent.

  3. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  4. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... sovereignty and a government to government relationship with the United States of America, has all the rights..., 1961. This Ordinance (2012-07) does not change or affect any provisions of the General Council... liquor/alcohol beverages under this ordinance. .02 ``Liquor/Alcohol Beverage'' includes all...

  5. Dominant supply chain co-ordination strategies in the Dutch aerospace industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.; Meijboom, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Firms in the aerospace industry face considerable pressure to improve co-ordination in their supply chains. The major question of the present study is what supply chain co-ordination strategies are dominant in the Dutch aerospace industry given the market environment of this industry?

  6. Dominant supply chain co-ordination strategies in the Dutch aerospace industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Hans; Meijboom, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Firms in the aerospace industry face considerable pressure to improve co-ordination in their supply chains. The major question of the present study is what supply chain co-ordination strategies are dominant in the Dutch aerospace industry given the market environment of this industry? De

  7. Increasing Magnitude "Counts" More: Asymmetrical Processing of Ordinality in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Picozzi, Marta; Girelli, Luisa; de Hevia, Maria Dolores

    2012-01-01

    While infants' ability to discriminate quantities has been extensively studied, showing that this competence is present even in neonates, the ability to compute ordinal relations between magnitudes has received much less attention. Here we show that the ability to represent ordinal information embedded in size-based sequences is apparent at 4…

  8. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  9. Introducing Students to Plant Geography: Polar Ordination Applied to Hanging Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a research study in which college students used a statistical ordination method to reveal relationships among plant community structures and physical, disturbance, and spatial variables. Concludes that polar ordination helps students understand the methodology of plant geography and encourages further student research. (CFR)

  10. The Development and Standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-Ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Edwards, Lisa; Sugden, David; Rosenblum, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the United Kingdom (U.K.), is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. In the past this was regarded as a childhood disorder, however there is increasing evidence that a significant number of children will continue to have persistent difficulties into adulthood.…

  11. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Major groundwater development in North China has been a key factor in the huge economic growth and the achievement of self sufficiency in food production. Groundwater accounts for more than 70 percent of urban water supply and provides important source of irrigation water during dry period. This has however caused continuous groundwater level decline and many associated problems: hundreds of thousands of dry wells, dry river beds, land subsidence, seawater intrusion and groundwater quality deterioration. Groundwater levels in the shallow unconfined aquifers have fallen 10m up to 50m, at an average rate of 1m/year. In the deep confined aquifers groundwater levels have commonly fallen 30m up to 90m, at an average rate of 3 to 5m/year. Furthermore, elevated nitrate concentrations have been found in shallow groundwater in large scale. Pesticides have been detected in vulnerable aquifers. Urgent actions are necessary for aquifer recovery and mitigating groundwater pollution. Groundwater quantity and quality monitoring plays a very important role in formulating cost-effective groundwater protection strategies. In 2000 European Union initiated a Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) to protect all waters in Europe. The objective is to achieve good water and ecological status by 2015 cross all member states. The Directive requires monitoring surface and groundwater in all river basins. A guidance document for monitoring was developed and published in 2003. Groundwater monitoring programs are distinguished into groundwater level monitoring and groundwater quality monitoring. Groundwater quality monitoring is further divided into surveillance monitoring and operational monitoring. The monitoring guidance specifies key principles for the design and operation of monitoring networks. A Sino-Dutch cooperation project was developed to transfer European approach to groundwater monitoring in China. The project aims at building a China Groundwater Information Centre. Case studies

  12. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  13. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara (Geo Innova AB (Sweden)); Hahn, Hans Juergen (Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany))

    2008-09-15

    probable because both Harpatocoida (Parastenocaris sp.) and Nematoda have been detected in the hyporheic zone in rivers and at shores of the Baltic. In addition, groundwater fauna has been reported from other formerly glaciated areas e.g. Northern Germany, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, North America and Siberia and Alpine regions. Glaciofluvial porous aquifers, especially eskers, and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, have proved to offer the greatest chances of successful surveys of groundwater fauna. In Sweden endemic species are not expected to be found, except in karstic aquifers in Gotland and Oeland and some parts of the Swedish Mountains. The upper layers of aquifers in crystalline bedrock have only been surveyed at very few sites. Based on community structures of groundwater fauna, reliable statements on the strength of the surface water impact and the vulnerability of the aquifer are possible. Contacts between different water bodies are displayed by groundwater fauna because groundwater fauna communities mainly reflect the intensity of surface water intrusion at a certain point when compared to hydrochemical data indicating the origin of the water. The information provided by the groundwater assemblages of an aquifer can be used for an ecologically based assessment of groundwater. Ecologically based assessment has provided initial data showing that groundwater fauna is a good marker of mixing between surface water and groundwater at certain depths. Ecologically based assessment has hitherto been used for extraction wells and quality management in drinking water abstraction (standards are still to be established). Groundwater fauna assessments have also proved to be useful in management of wetlands and regulation under nature protection law

  14. 天津圖書館專輯/圖書館的網絡服務與《信息網絡傳播權保護條例》/李國新 | Library Information Network Services and the Information Network Transmission Right Protection Ordinance/ Guo-Xin Li

    OpenAIRE

    李國新

    2007-01-01

    中國圖書館界以積極主動的態度參與《信息網絡傳播權保護條例》制定,取得了明顯成效。今天的圖書館服務對網絡環境的高度依賴,以及信息網絡傳播權對 圖書館網絡服務的制約,決定了圖書館界必須代表社會公眾利益作出不懈努力。已經實施的《信息網絡傳播權保護條例》為圖書館活動帶來了保障,也形成了制約。 圖書館界面臨著新的任務。

    Libraries in China have been actively participating in the formulation of “Information Network Transmission Right Protection Ordinance”. This has already achived good effects. In these days library services are heavily relying on the network environment and network services, information networ...

  15. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  16. Ecosystem services in sustainable groundwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinstra, Jaap; van Wensem, Joke

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem services concept seems to get foothold in environmental policy and management in Europe and, for instance, The Netherlands. With respect to groundwater management there is a challenge to incorporate this concept in such a way that it contributes to the sustainability of decisions. Groundwater is of vital importance to societies, which is reflected in the presented overview of groundwater related ecosystem services. Classifications of these services vary depending on the purpose of the listing (valuation, protection, mapping et cetera). Though the scientific basis is developing, the knowledge-availability still can be a critical factor in decision making based upon ecosystem services. The examples in this article illustrate that awareness of the value of groundwater can result in balanced decisions with respect to the use of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept contributes to this awareness and enhances the visibility of the groundwater functions in the decision making process. The success of the ecosystem services concept and its contribution to sustainable groundwater management will, however, largely depend on other aspects than the concept itself. Local and actual circumstances, policy ambitions and knowledge availability will play an important role. Solutions can be considered more sustainable when more of the key elements for sustainable groundwater management, as defined in this article, are fully used and the presented guidelines for long term use of ecosystem services are respected.

  17. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  18. Science, society, and the coastal groundwater squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zones encompass the complex interface between land and sea. Understanding how water and solutes move within and across this interface is essential for managing resources for society. The increasingly dense human occupation of coastal zones disrupts natural groundwater flow patterns and degrades freshwater resources by both overuse and pollution. This pressure results in a "coastal groundwater squeeze," where the thin veneers of potable freshwater are threatened by contaminant sources at the land surface and saline groundwater at depth. Scientific advances in the field of coastal hydrogeology have enabled responsible management of water resources and protection of important ecosystems. To address the problems of the future, we must continue to make scientific advances, and groundwater hydrology needs to be firmly embedded in integrated coastal zone management. This will require interdisciplinary scientific collaboration, open communication between scientists and the public, and strong partnerships with policymakers.

  19. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater-dependent ecosystems based on integrated groundwater flow modell construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Havril, Timea; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are highly influenced by the amount of groundwater, seasonal variation of precipitation and consequent water table fluctuation and also the anthropogenic activities. They can be regarded as natural surface manifestations of the flowing groundwater. The preservation of environment and biodiversity of these GDEs is an important issue worldwide, however, the water management policy and action plan could not be constructed in absense of proper hydrogeological knowledge. The concept of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow could aid the understanding of flow pattern and interpretation of environmental processes and conditions. Unless the required well data are available, the geological-hydrogeological numerical model of the study area cannot be constructed based only on borehole information. In this case, spatially continuous geophysical data can support groundwater flow model building: systematically combined geophysical methods can provide model input. Integration of lithostratigraphic, electrostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic information could aid groundwater flow model construction: hydrostratigraphic units and their hydraulic behaviour, boundaries and geometry can be obtained. Groundwater-related natural manifestations, such as GDEs, can be explained with the help of the revealed flow pattern and field mapping of features. Integrated groundwater flow model construction for assessing the vulnerability of GDEs was presented via the case study of the geologically complex area of Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, surface water-groundwater interaction, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. In spite of its important and protected status, fluid flow model of the area, which could support water management and natural protection policy, had not been constructed previously. The 3D

  20. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  1. An Institutional Analysis of Groundwater Quality Control: Experiences in Hadano, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Endo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A considerable number of studies have been made of institutional arrangements that can prevent excessive groundwater pumping based on Hardin’s seminal work, the “tragedy of the commons.” In contrast, this paper is concerned with groundwater quality control for which policy studies are very limited. This paper not only clarifies institutional challenges specific to groundwater contamination, but also demonstrates how government and industry could solve them using a case study of Hadano, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which has pioneered countermeasures for groundwater pollution in Japan. Hadano solved the challenges by enacting an innovative local ordinance with three pillars: Proxy purification by the city government, fundraising for purification activities and a retroactive system. Lessons learnt from the Hadano case will be very useful to policy makers because these problems already occur in other urban areas, or are likely to occur in the near future.

  2. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wonjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  3. Eurotrac: a co-ordinated project for applied tropospheric research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, P. [EUROTRAC International Scientific Secretariat, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    It was with the realisation that the scientific problems associated with regional air pollution could only be solved within the framework of an international interdisciplinary approach that in 1985 EUROTRAC, the European co-ordinated research project, was formed. Such an approach provides the scientific consensus necessary for the acceptance of regional air-pollution abatement measures by the countries affected. EUROTRAC is a EUREKA environmental project, studying the transport and chemical transformation of trace substances and pollutants in the troposphere. Three goals were specified the outset: (1) to increase the basic knowledge in atmospheric science, (2) to promote the technological development of sensitive, specific and fast response instruments for environmental research and development, and (3) to improve the scientific basis for taking future political decisions on environmental management in the European countries. Thus EUROTRAC was founded as a scientific project but had the specific intention that its results should be utilised in the formulation of policy. This presentation reviews the progress made towards each of the three goals and also indicates the proposed direction which a follow-on project is likely to take when EUROTRAC finishes at the end of 1995. (author)

  4. Metal selective co-ordinative self-assembly of -donors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ankit Jain; K Venkata Rao; Ankita Goswami; Subi J George

    2011-11-01

    Metal selective co-ordinative nanostructures were constructed by the supramolecular co-assembly of pyridine appended TTF (TTF-Py) and pyrene (PYR-Py) derivatives in appropriate solvent composition mixtures with metal ions.Microscopic analyses show that TTF-Py shows distinctive morphology with either of these metal ions, forming I-D tapes with 1:1 Pb2+ complex and 2-D sheets with 1:2 Zn2+ complex. A rationale has been provided from molecular level packing for such hierarchical changes. In case of Cu2+, we have observed an anomalous binding of metal ion to the core sulphur groups causing redox changes in the TTF core. PYR-Py on the other hand is shown to be a fluorescent sensor for Pb2+, Zn2+, Hg2+ and Ag+. With different fluorescent response for metal complexes, we essentially obtained similar 1-D assemblies suggesting similar binding modes for all of them. Supramolecular approach through which morphology of an electron donor moiety can be engineered by metal ions can be a new tool in nanoelectronics.

  5. Estimation of health benefits from a local living wage ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R; Katz, M

    2001-09-01

    This study estimated the magnitude of health improvements resulting from a proposed living wage ordinance in San Francisco. Published observational models of the relationship of income to health were applied to predict improvements in health outcomes associated with proposed wage increases in San Francisco. With adoption of a living wage of $11.00 per hour, we predict decreases in premature death from all causes for adults aged 24 to 44 years working full-time in families whose current annual income is $20,000 (for men, relative hazard [RH] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92, 0.97; for women, RH = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95, 0.98). Improvements in subjectively rated health and reductions in the number of days sick in bed, in limitations of work and activities of daily living, and in depressive symptoms were also predicted, as were increases in daily alcohol consumption. For the offspring of full-time workers currently earning $20,000, a living wage predicts an increase of 0.25 years (95% CI = 0.20, 0.30) of completed education, increased odds of completing high school (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.49), and a reduced risk of early childbirth (RH = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.86). A living wage in San Francisco is associated with substantial health improvement.

  6. Asymptotically Optimal Assignments In Ordinal Evaluations of Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Oruc, A Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    In ordinal evaluations of proposals in peer review systems, a set of proposals is assigned to a fixed set of referees so as to maximize the number of pairwise comparisons of proposals under certain referee capacity and proposal subject constraints. In this paper, the following two related problems are considered: (1) Assuming that each referee has a capacity to review k out of n proposals, 2 < k < n, determine the minimum number of referees needed to ensure that each pair of proposals is reviewed by at least one referee, (2) Find an assignment that meets the lower bound determined in (1). It is easy to see that one referee is both necessary and sufficient when k = n, and n(n-1)/2 referees are both necessary and sufficient when k = 2. We show that 6 referees are both necessary and sufficient when k = n/2. We further show that 11 referees are necessary and 12 are sufficient when k = n/3, and 18 referees are necessary and 20 referees are sufficient when k = n/4. A more general lower bound of n(n-1)/k(k-1) ...

  7. Liturgical Ecclesiology of the Sacrament of Ordination in the Eastern Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Nowakowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the above paper is the role and position of the Church community in the rite of ordination to the priesthood in the byzantine tradition. It has been considered the split of the orthodox ministers into the church ministers (lower ordination and ordained ministers (higher ordination. The influence of the local community upon the election of the candidates to priesthood has been weakened with time and nowadays within the Orthodox Church only the local bishop decides about the appointment of the new ministers and only the imposition of hands is regarded as the sacramental rite. The contemporary liturgy of ordination, however, has preserved some significant elements reminding us about the former equal importance of the community influence, who used to elect by offering to God and at the same time to accept their shepherds. This role of the Church is expressed by three main parts of the rites: 1 the election of a candidate, 2 the imposition of hands of the bishop and prayer, 3 the reception of ordination and of the newly ordained. Out of the presented liturgy of ordination one can draw the outline of the eastern ecclesiology of the sacrament of ordination, already elaborated by Prof. N. Afanasiev. This kind of liturgical ecclesiology may be of some help to the contemporary Church in regaining her more active role in electing and apointing her ministers and shepherds.

  8. Awareness on the Implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinance No. 1S. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena E. Mojares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the respondent’s profile variable such as gender, age, educational attainment, occupation, and frequency of smoking; to identify the level of awareness of the public on Anti-Smoking Ordinance and to determine the significant difference on the level of awareness in the implementation when grouped according to profile variables. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized two hundred-four (204 respondents. The result showed that the respondents are dominated by male, college graduate and under graduate and most of them are private employees. They agreed that they are aware on the implementation of anti-smoking ordinance no. 1S 2012 because the ordinance was clearly stated, well disseminated, there are authorities prohibiting it and there is a usage of signage. But they agree also that they are less aware about the specific boundary that the ordinance covered, that there is regular monitoring and there is enough number of personnel implementing the ordinance. The researchers recommended that the Pamahalaang Panglunsod may continue to maintain the strict implementation of the Anti-Smoking Ordinance; authorities should specify the boundary covered by the Ordinance and should have enough personnel to implement it,

  9. CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Smilauer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Canoco is a software package for multivariate data analysis, with an emphasis on dimesional reduction (ordination), regression analysis, and the combination of the two, constrained ordination. Canoco makes effective and powerful ordination methods easilyt accessible for scientists wanting to infer a

  10. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  11. Determination of some dissolved trace metals from groundwater in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the groundwater at both Flic en Flac and GRNW were not significant in 1998. ... The data demonstrated the potential for concentrations of some dissolved ... 74 of the Environmental Protection Act 1991 and cited as the new Environmental ...

  12. Tourism and hotel revenues before and after passage of smoke-free restaurant ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, S A; Charlesworth, A

    1999-05-26

    Claims that ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants will adversely affect tourism have been used to argue against passing such ordinances. Data exist regarding the validity of these claims. To determine the changes in hotel revenues and international tourism after passage of smoke-free restaurant ordinances in locales where the effect has been debated. Comparison of hotel revenues and tourism rates before and after passage of 100% smoke-free restaurant ordinances and comparison with US hotel revenue overall. Three states (California, Utah, and Vermont) and 6 cities (Boulder, Colo; Flagstaff, Ariz; Los Angeles, Calif; Mesa, Ariz; New York, NY; and San Francisco, Calif) in which the effect on tourism of smoke-free restaurant ordinances had been debated. Hotel room revenues and hotel revenues as a fraction of total retail sales compared with preordinance revenues and overall US revenues. In constant 1997 dollars, passage of the smoke-free restaurant ordinance was associated with a statistically significant increase in the rate of change of hotel revenues in 4 localities, no significant change in 4 localities, and a significant slowing in the rate of increase (but not a decrease) in 1 locality. There was no significant change in the rate of change of hotel revenues as a fraction of total retail sales (P=.16) or total US hotel revenues associated with the ordinances when pooled across all localities (P = .93). International tourism was either unaffected or increased following implementation of the smoke-free ordinances. Smoke-free ordinances do not appear to adversely affect, and may increase, tourist business.

  13. Regularization for Continuously Observed Ordinal Response Variables with Piecewise-Constant Functional Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    response variable taking on ordinal values 1 to C and a 1x vector of explanatory variables , , the proportional odds model is given by...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Regularization for Continuously Observed Ordinal Response Variables with Piecewise...response variable , quality of video provided by the Shadow to friendly ground units, was measured on an ordinal scale continuously over time. Functional

  14. Analysis of co-ordination between breathing and exercise rhythms in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, P; Kohl, J

    1993-11-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the incidence and type of coordination between breathing rhythm and leg movements during running and to assess the effect of co-ordination on the running efficiency, as well as to compare the results with those found during cycling. 2. The experiments were carried out on thirty-four untrained volunteers exercising at two work loads (60 and 80% of subject's physical work capacity 170) on a treadmill. In addition nineteen of the subjects exercised at the same two work loads on a bicycle ergometer. The subjects were running at both work loads in three different modes in randomized order: with normal arm movements, without arm movements and with breathing paced by an acoustic signal which was triggered by the leg movement. 3. Respiratory variables, oxygen uptake and leg movements were continuously recorded and evaluated on-line. The degree of co-ordination was expressed as a percentage of inspirations and/or expirations starting in the same phase of the step or pedalling cycle. 4. The average degree of co-ordination was higher during running (up to 40%) than during cycling (about 20%) during both work loads. The difference in the degree of co-ordination between running and cycling is probably not due to the lack of arm movements during cycling since the degree of co-ordination during running with and without arm movements was the same. 5. The degree of co-ordination during running increased slightly but not significantly with increasing work load and could be increased significantly by paced breathing. 6. The co-ordination between breathing and running rhythms occurred in three different patterns: (a) breathing was co-ordinated all the time with the same phase of step, (b) co-ordination switched suddenly from one phase of step to another and (c) co-ordination ensued alternatively once on the right and once on the left leg movement. During cycling the pattern described in (a) occurred almost exclusively. 7. During

  15. Application of Ordinal Set Pair Analysis in Annual Rainfall Prediction of Liao River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the application of ordinal set pair analysis in the annual precipitation prediction of Liao River basin.[Method] The ordinal theory was introduced into the set pair analysis modeling,and the prediction model of set pair analysis was improved.A kind of rainfall prediction model based on the ordinal set pair analysis (OSPA) was put forward.The time sequence of annual rainfall in the hydrological rainfall station of Liao River basin during 1956-2006 was the research obje...

  16. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Saraperä; Silja Pietilä; Veli-Pekka Salonen; Aki Artimo

    2004-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The...

  19. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  20. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2016-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  1. Future research needs involving pathogens in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater by enteric pathogens has commonly been associated with disease outbreaks. Proper management and treatment of pathogen sources are important prerequisites for preventing groundwater contamination. However, non-point sources of pathogen contamination are frequently difficult to identify, and existing approaches for pathogen detection are costly and only provide semi-quantitative information. Microbial indicators that are readily quantified often do not correlate with the presence of pathogens. Pathogens of emerging concern and increasing detections of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in groundwater are topics of growing concern. Adequate removal of pathogens during soil passage is therefore critical for safe groundwater extraction. Processes that enhance pathogen transport (e.g., high velocity zones and preferential flow) and diminish pathogen removal (e.g., reversible retention and enhanced survival) are of special concern because they increase the risk of groundwater contamination, but are still incompletely understood. Improved theory and modeling tools are needed to analyze experimental data, test hypotheses, understand coupled processes and controlling mechanisms, predict spatial and/or temporal variability in model parameters and uncertainty in pathogen concentrations, assess risk, and develop mitigation and best management approaches to protect groundwater.

  2. Sufficient Sample Size and Power in Multilevel Ordinal Logistic Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For most of the time, biomedical researchers have been dealing with ordinal outcome variable in multilevel models where patients are nested in doctors. We can justifiably apply multilevel cumulative logit model, where the outcome variable represents the mild, severe, and extremely severe intensity of diseases like malaria and typhoid in the form of ordered categories. Based on our simulation conditions, Maximum Likelihood (ML method is better than Penalized Quasilikelihood (PQL method in three-category ordinal outcome variable. PQL method, however, performs equally well as ML method where five-category ordinal outcome variable is used. Further, to achieve power more than 0.80, at least 50 groups are required for both ML and PQL methods of estimation. It may be pointed out that, for five-category ordinal response variable model, the power of PQL method is slightly higher than the power of ML method.

  3. The Outlier Detection for Ordinal Data Using Scalling Technique of Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Arisman; Sugiarto, Sigit

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study is to detect the outliers by using coefficients of Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR) for the case of k category responses where the score from 1 (the best) to 8 (the worst). We detect them by using the sum of moduli of the ordinal regression coefficients calculated by jackknife technique. This technique is improved by scalling the regression coefficients to their means. R language has been used on a set of ordinal data from reference distribution. Furthermore, we compare this approach by using studentised residual plots of jackknife technique for ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and OLR. This study shows that the jackknifing technique along with the proper scaling may lead us to reveal outliers in ordinal regression reasonably well.

  4. Testing the results of municipal mixed-use zoning ordinances: a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Carol L; Thomas, Sue; Treffers, Ryan D; Paschall, Mallie J; Heumann, Lauren; Mann, Gregory W; Dunkell, Dashiell O; Nauenberg, Saskia

    2013-08-01

    Municipal mixed-use zoning (MUZ) is one public health strategy to create more walkable neighborhoods by reducing the separation of daily activities. This study uses a novel data-gathering methodology to evaluate municipal zoning ordinances in twenty-two California cities in conjunction with the walkability potential of resulting mixed-use zones, to explore the extent to which variations in uses mandated by MUZ ordinances are correlated with variations in walking opportunities. We find that, after controlling for population, socioeconomic status, and zone size, significant relationships exist between the range and precision of uses mandated by MUZ ordinances and the mixture and breadth of walking destinations in these zones. The study also demonstrates that analysis of municipal zoning codes and a novel data-gathering methodology yield valid data. The analysis of MUZ ordinances is a significant complement to other approaches to measuring walkability and can be used across cities.

  5. Sufficient Sample Size and Power in Multilevel Ordinal Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Khan, Sajjad Ahmad; Hussain, Sundas

    2016-01-01

    For most of the time, biomedical researchers have been dealing with ordinal outcome variable in multilevel models where patients are nested in doctors. We can justifiably apply multilevel cumulative logit model, where the outcome variable represents the mild, severe, and extremely severe intensity of diseases like malaria and typhoid in the form of ordered categories. Based on our simulation conditions, Maximum Likelihood (ML) method is better than Penalized Quasilikelihood (PQL) method in three-category ordinal outcome variable. PQL method, however, performs equally well as ML method where five-category ordinal outcome variable is used. Further, to achieve power more than 0.80, at least 50 groups are required for both ML and PQL methods of estimation. It may be pointed out that, for five-category ordinal response variable model, the power of PQL method is slightly higher than the power of ML method.

  6. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  7. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  8. Impact of San Francisco's toy ordinance on restaurants and children's food purchases, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Saelens, Brian E; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Krukowski, Rebecca A; O'Donohue, Laura S; Gardner, Christopher D; King, Abby C

    2014-07-17

    In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children's meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children's menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children's-meal-only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years. Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent-caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012. Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children's meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children's meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children's side dishes and beverages at Chain A. Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes.

  9. Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality Mark A. Livingston∗ Naval Research Laboratory...effectively impossible with all icon styles, whereas in the case of partial overlap, the Ground Plane had a clear advantage. Keywords: Augmented reality , human

  10. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  11. Reduction from cost-sensitive ordinal ranking to weighted binary classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Tien; Li, Ling

    2012-05-01

    We present a reduction framework from ordinal ranking to binary classification. The framework consists of three steps: extracting extended examples from the original examples, learning a binary classifier on the extended examples with any binary classification algorithm, and constructing a ranker from the binary classifier. Based on the framework, we show that a weighted 0/1 loss of the binary classifier upper-bounds the mislabeling cost of the ranker, both error-wise and regret-wise. Our framework allows not only the design of good ordinal ranking algorithms based on well-tuned binary classification approaches, but also the derivation of new generalization bounds for ordinal ranking from known bounds for binary classification. In addition, our framework unifies many existing ordinal ranking algorithms, such as perceptron ranking and support vector ordinal regression. When compared empirically on benchmark data sets, some of our newly designed algorithms enjoy advantages in terms of both training speed and generalization performance over existing algorithms. In addition, the newly designed algorithms lead to better cost-sensitive ordinal ranking performance, as well as improved listwise ranking performance.

  12. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  14. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saraperä

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The observed groundwater and surface water contamination resulted in a need to characterize the subsurface geology in the whole area of the contaminated esker aquifer. The primary sedimentary units were introduced into a three-dimensional (3-D geologic model of the aquifer made with EarthVision geologic modeling software. The information obtained from the 3-D geological model was then introduced into a numerical groundwater flow model made with MODFLOW code, which was calibrated with MODFLOWP code.The results of this study were used to guide the sealing of the tailings impoundment in order to prevent the further contamination of the Töllinperä aquifer. The groundwater flow model was used to interpret and simulate the flow system, and to provide a plan to safely continue water supply to local inhabitants from the unpolluted parts of the aquifer.

  15. Identifying Major Factors Affecting Groundwater Change in the North China Plain with Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is facing a water crisis under the dual impact of natural and anthropogenic factors. Groundwater levels have declined continuously since 1960, causing a series of environmental problems that have restricted sustainable development in the region. In the present study, we first utilized a previously developed 3D groundwater model to determine changes in groundwater level in the region over the past 50 years (1961–2010. We then applied grey relational analysis (GRA to identify and ordinate major factors that have contributed to these changes. The results show an overall decreasing trend in groundwater levels in this region over the past 50 years and an increase in the water table depth at a rate of approximately 0.36 m/a. Groundwater exploitation showed the most significant correlation with the groundwater table decline, when compared with other factors including precipitation and river leakage. Therefore, human activities should be considered the primary force driving the groundwater level down. The results of this study have implications for developing criteria that consider changes in both climate and socio-economics. Furthermore, since the NCP is one of the most water-scarce and densely populated regions in the world, the analytical approach used in and the insights gained from this study are of international interest.

  16. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  17. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  18. Care co-ordination for older people in the third sector: scoping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendstern, Michele; Hughes, Jane; Jasper, Rowan; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2017-01-24

    The third sector has played a significant role internationally in the delivery of adult social care services for many years. Its contribution to care co-ordination activities for older people, however, in England and elsewhere, is relatively unknown. A scoping review was therefore conducted to ascertain the character of the literature, the nature and extent of third sector care co-ordination activity, and to identify evidence gaps. It was undertaken between autumn 2013 and summer 2014 and updated with additional searches in 2016. Electronic and manual searches of international literature using distinct terms for different approaches to care co-ordination were undertaken. From a total of 835 papers, 26 met inclusion criteria. Data were organised in relation to care co-ordination approaches, types of third sector organisation and care recipients. Papers were predominantly from the UK and published this century. Key findings included that: a minority of literature focused specifically on older people and that those doing so described only one care co-ordination approach; third sector services tended to be associated with independence and person-centred practice; and working with the statutory sector, a prerequisite of care co-ordination, was challenging and required a range of features to be in place to support effective partnerships. Strengths and weaknesses of care co-ordination practice in the third sector according to key stakeholder groups were also highlighted. Areas for future research included the need for: a specific focus on older people's experiences; an investigation of workforce issues; detailed examination of third sector practices, outcomes and costs; interactions with the statutory sector; and an examination of quality assurance systems and their appropriateness to third sector practice. The main implication of the findings is a need to nurture variety within the third sector in order to provide older people and other adults with the range of service

  19. Projected health impact of the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Brian L; Shimkhada, Riti; Morgenstern, Hal; Kominski, Gerald; Fielding, Jonathan E; Wu, Sheng

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the relative health effects of the income and health insurance provisions of the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance. About 10 000 employees of city contractors are subject to the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance, which establishes an annually adjusted minimum wage (7.99 US dollars per hour in July 2002) and requires employers to contribute 1.25 US dollars per hour worked towards employees' health insurance, or, if health insurance is not provided, to add this amount to wages. As part of a comprehensive health impact assessment (HIA), we used estimates of the effects of health insurance and income on mortality from the published literature to construct a model to estimate and compare potential reductions in mortality attributable to the increases in wage and changes in health insurance status among workers covered by the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance. The model predicts that the ordinance currently reduces mortality by 1.4 deaths per year per 10,000 workers at a cost of 27.5 million US dollars per death prevented. If the ordinance were modified so that all uninsured workers received health insurance, mortality would be reduced by eight deaths per year per 10,000 workers at a cost of 3.4 million US dollars per death prevented. The health insurance provisions of the ordinance have the potential to benefit the health of covered workers far more cost effectively than the wage provisions of the ordinance. This analytical model can be adapted and used in other health impact assessments of related policy actions that might affect either income or access to health insurance in the affected population.

  20. Classification management plan of groundwater quality in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun Ming; Chen, Yu Ying; Pan, Shih Cheng; Li, Hui Jun; Hsiao, Fang Ke

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration has been monitoring regional water quality for 14 years. Since the beginning of 2002 till now, there are 453 regional groundwater monitoring wells in ten groundwater subregions in Taiwan, and the monitoring of groundwater quality has been carried out for a long time. Currently, water quality monitoring project has reached 50 items, while the number of water quality monitoring data has reached more than 20,000. In order to use the monitoring data efficiently, this study constructed the localized groundwater quality indicators of Taiwan. This indicator takes into account the different users' point of view, incorporating the Taiwan groundwater pollution monitoring standards (Category II), irrigation water quality standard and drinking water source water quality standard. 50 items of water quality monitoring projects were simplified and classified. The groundwater quality parameters were divided into five items, such as potability for drinking water, salting, external influence, health influences and toxicity hazard. The weight of the five items of groundwater was calculated comprehensively, and the groundwater quality of each monitoring well was evaluated with three grades of good, ordinary, and poor. According to the monitoring results of the groundwater monitoring wells in October to December of 2016, about 70% of groundwater quality in Taiwan is in good to ordinary grades. The areas with poor groundwater quality were mostly distributed in coastal, agriculture and part of the urban areas. The conductivity or ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher in those regions, showing that groundwater may be salinized or affected by external influences. Groundwater quality indicators can clearly show the current comprehensive situation of the groundwater environment in Taiwan and can be used as a tool for groundwater quality classification management. The indicators can coordinate with the Taiwan land planning policy in the

  1. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  2. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  3. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-07-16

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  4. The environmental management system. The centre-piece of the Ordinance on Ecological Auditing; Das Umweltmanagementsystem. Herzstueck der Oeko-Audit-Verordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signon, J. [Unternehmensberatung Umweltschutz Dr. Werner Wohlfarth, Burscheid/Leipzig (Germany). Abt. Genehmigungverfahren/Umweltmanagement

    1996-06-01

    An environmental management system in conformity with the EU Ordinance 1836/93 goes beyond previous demands on the organization of environmental protection at enterprises. What is to be heeded? The article gives hints for implementing the elements of this system at the respective enterprise. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Umweltmanagementsystem nach EG-Verordnung 1836/93 geht ueber die bisherigen Anforderungen an die Organisation des betrieblichen Umweltschutzes hinaus. Worauf kommt es an? Im folgenden sollen einige Hilfestellungen bei der Umsetzung dieser Systemelemente im jeweiligen Unternehmen gegeben werden. (orig.)

  5. Spatial coding of ordinal information in short- and long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique eGinsburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of numerical information induces a spatial response bias: Faster responses to small numbers with the left hand and faster responses to large numbers with the right hand. Most theories agree that long-term representations underlie this so called SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes; Dehaene, Bossini, & Giraux, 1993. However, a spatial response bias was also observed with the activation of temporary position-space associations in working memory (ordinal position effect; van Dijck & Fias, 2011. Items belonging to the beginning of a memorized sequence are responded to faster with the left hand side while items at the end of the sequence are responded to faster with the right hand side. The theoretical possibility was put forward that the SNARC effect is an instance of the ordinal position effect, with the empirical consequence that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect cannot be observed simultaneously. In two experiments we falsify this claim by demonstrating that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect are not mutually exclusive. Consequently, this suggests that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect result from the activation of different representations. We conclude that spatial response biases can result from the activation of both pre-existing positions in long-term memory and from temporary space associations in working memory at the same time.

  6. Spatial coding of ordinal information in short- and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Véronique; Gevers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The processing of numerical information induces a spatial response bias: Faster responses to small numbers with the left hand and faster responses to large numbers with the right hand. Most theories agree that long-term representations underlie this so called SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes; Dehaene et al., 1993). However, a spatial response bias was also observed with the activation of temporary position-space associations in working memory (ordinal position effect; van Dijck and Fias, 2011). Items belonging to the beginning of a memorized sequence are responded to faster with the left hand side while items at the end of the sequence are responded to faster with the right hand side. The theoretical possibility was put forward that the SNARC effect is an instance of the ordinal position effect, with the empirical consequence that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect cannot be observed simultaneously. In two experiments we falsify this claim by demonstrating that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect are not mutually exclusive. Consequently, this suggests that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect result from the activation of different representations. We conclude that spatial response biases can result from the activation of both pre-existing positions in long-term memory and from temporary space associations in working memory at the same time.

  7. A case study of co-ordinative decision-making in disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Dowell, J

    2000-08-01

    A persistent problem in the management of response to disasters is the lack of co-ordination between the various agencies involved. This paper reports a case study of inter-agency co-ordination during the response to a railway accident in the UK. The case study examined two potential sources of difficulty for co-ordination: first, poorly shared mental models; and, second, a possible conflict between the requirements of distributed decision-making and the nature of individual decision-making. Interviews were conducted with six individuals from three response agencies. Analysis of reported events suggested that inter-agency co-ordination suffered through a widespread difficulty in constructing a reflexive shared mental model; that is, a shared mental representation of the distributed decision-making process itself, and its participants. This difficulty may be an inherent problem in the flexible development of temporary multi-agency organizations. The analysis focused on a distributed decision over how to transport casualties from an isolated location to hospital. This decision invoked a technique identified here as the progression of multiple options, which contrasts with both recognition-primed and analytical models of individual decision-making. The progression of multiple options appeared to be an effective technique for dealing with uncertainty, but was a further source of difficulty for inter-agency co-ordination.

  8. Bayesian inference for joint modelling of longitudinal continuous, binary and ordinal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuju; Pan, Jianxin; Belcher, John

    2016-12-01

    In medical studies, repeated measurements of continuous, binary and ordinal outcomes are routinely collected from the same patient. Instead of modelling each outcome separately, in this study we propose to jointly model the trivariate longitudinal responses, so as to take account of the inherent association between the different outcomes and thus improve statistical inferences. This work is motivated by a large cohort study in the North West of England, involving trivariate responses from each patient: Body Mass Index, Depression (Yes/No) ascertained with cut-off score not less than 8 at the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pain Interference generated from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey with values returned on an ordinal scale 1-5. There are some well-established methods for combined continuous and binary, or even continuous and ordinal responses, but little work was done on the joint analysis of continuous, binary and ordinal responses. We propose conditional joint random-effects models, which take into account the inherent association between the continuous, binary and ordinal outcomes. Bayesian analysis methods are used to make statistical inferences. Simulation studies show that, by jointly modelling the trivariate outcomes, standard deviations of the estimates of parameters in the models are smaller and much more stable, leading to more efficient parameter estimates and reliable statistical inferences. In the real data analysis, the proposed joint analysis yields a much smaller deviance information criterion value than the separate analysis, and shows other good statistical properties too.

  9. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  10. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we provid

  11. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and risk to pollution in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Semkuyu, Dickson John; Pandey, Vishnu P

    2016-06-15

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment is a useful tool for groundwater pollution prevention and control. In this study, GIS based DRASTIC model have been used to assess intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to pollution whereas Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) was used to assess the risk to groundwater pollution in the groundwater basin of Kathmandu Valley. Seven hydrogeological factors were used in DRASTIC model to produce DRASTIC Index (DI) map which represent intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the area. The seven hydrogeological factors used were depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of aquifer. GIS based GRAM was used to produce likelihood of release of hazards, likelihood of detection of hazards, consequence of hazards and residual risk of groundwater contamination in terms of nitrate in the groundwater basin. It was found that more than 50% of the groundwater basin area in the valley is susceptible to groundwater pollution and these areas are mostly in Northern groundwater district Low and very low vulnerable areas account for only 13% and are located in Central and Southern groundwater districts. However after taking into account the barriers to groundwater pollution and likelihood of hazards release and detection, it was observed that most areas i.e. about 87% of the groundwater basin are at moderate residual risk to groundwater pollution. The resultant groundwater vulnerability and risk map provides a basis for policy makers and planner's ability to use information effectively for decision making at protecting the groundwater from pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ordinal regression models to describe tourist satisfaction with Sintra's world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño, Helena

    2013-10-01

    In Tourism Research, ordinal regression models are becoming a very powerful tool in modelling the relationship between an ordinal response variable and a set of explanatory variables. In August and September 2010, we conducted a pioneering Tourist Survey in Sintra, Portugal. The data were obtained by face-to-face interviews at the entrances of the Palaces and Parks of Sintra. The work developed in this paper focus on two main points: tourists' perception of the entrance fees; overall level of satisfaction with this heritage site. For attaining these goals, ordinal regression models were developed. We concluded that tourist's nationality was the only significant variable to describe the perception of the admission fees. Also, Sintra's image among tourists depends not only on their nationality, but also on previous knowledge about Sintra's World Heritage status.

  13. Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, S; Doherty, G

    1994-12-01

    Two experiments are reported which demonstrate the development of co-ordinated description languages in two groups of communicators playing Garrod and Anderson's (1987) maze game. The experiments contrast language co-ordination between speakers who always interact with the same partner (isolated pairs) as compared with speakers who interact with different partners drawn from the same community. Whereas the isolated pairs show higher degrees of inter-speaker convergence than the community pairs at the start of the experiment, the situation reverses by the time they have all played six or more games. The results are discussed at two levels: (1) in terms of Lewis's formal theory of conventions, and (2) in relation to a language processing model which abides by the "output/input co-ordination" principle proposed in Garrod and Anderson (1987).

  14. Infants' development of object permanence: a refined methodology and new evidence of Piaget's hypothesized ordinality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J A; Hill, K T; Cohen, L B

    1975-03-01

    To investigate Piaget's theory of object concept development, a series of 6 tasks was administered in a combined longitudinal/cross-sectional design incorporating a number of methodological controls. The tasks spanned the entire sensorimotor period and included single versus sequential displacements combined with visible or invisible hidings. 36 infants from 5 to 32 months of age at initial testing were drawn equally from day-care and home settings. All infants received the 6 tasks during each of 3 testing sessions over a 6-month period. Clear evidence was obtained for task ordinality as proposed by Piaget, with ordinality coefficients ranging from .71 to .82 for the 3 testing sessions. Performance changes across the 3 sessions were also ordinal in 80% of the cases. Expected age, task, and session effects and accompanying interactions were also obtained.

  15. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  16. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  18. Introducing the Ordinance on energy efficiency labelling of household appliances on Croatian market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolega, Vesna [Energy institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-07-01

    The legal basis for the transposition of EU appliances labelling legislation in Croatia is the Energy law which Article 13 says: 'All electricity appliances have to be labelled by energy efficiency labels. The contents and design of energy efficiency labels have to be regulated by sub-law document called the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Households Appliances'. On 17th November 2005 the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Household Appliances entered into force. It is based on the Framework Directive 92/75/EEC and implementing Directives 94/2/EC, 95/12/EC, etc for the following appliances: refrigerators and freezers; washing machines; tumble driers; washing/drying machines; dishwashers; electrical ovens; electrical lamps; air-conditioners. Before 1st May 2006, in the majority of larger retail stores in Croatia, the energy efficiency labels were present on strictly voluntary basis. Such labels could be found mainly on refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, dryers and dishwashers. Recently, air-conditioners were also very often equipped with labels. These labels were correctly translated in Croatian, although text does not completely match the label defined in the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Household Appliances. Although such labels are not recognized as the appropriate labelling according the Ordinance, they do provide some practical basis for the implementation itself. Since 1st May 2006, although the Ordinance has been fully adopted, there are no valid Croatian labels attached on all displayed appliances in a number of HA stores. Aiming at household appliances market transformation in Croatia, it is very important at the moment to find the best ways for the Ordinance verification and enforcement.

  19. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2017-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  20. Occurrence of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater aquifers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    2015-03-01

    More than 25 % of Tanzanian depends on groundwater as the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial activities. The current trend of land use may lead to groundwater contamination and thus increasing risks associated with the usage of contaminated water. Nitrate is one of the contaminants resulting largely from anthropogenic activities that may find its way to the aquifers and thus threatening the quality of groundwater. Elevated levels of nitrate in groundwater may lead to human health and environmental problems. The current trend of land use in Tanzania associated with high population growth, poor sanitation facilities and fertilizer usage may lead to nitrate contamination of groundwater. This paper therefore aimed at providing an overview of to what extent human activities have altered the concentration of nitrate in groundwater aquifers in Tanzania. The concentration of nitrate in Tanzanian groundwater is variable with highest values observable in Dar es Salaam (up to 477.6 mg/l), Dodoma (up to 441.1 mg/l), Tanga (above 100 mg/l) and Manyara (180 mg/l). Such high values can be attributed to various human activities including onsite sanitation in urban centres and agricultural activities in rural areas. Furthermore, there are some signs of increasing concentration of nitrate in groundwater with time in some areas in response to increased human activities. However, reports on levels and trends of nitrate in groundwater in many regions of the country are lacking. For Tanzania to appropriately address the issue of groundwater contamination, a deliberate move to determine nitrate concentration in groundwater is required, as well as protection of recharge basins and improvement of onsite sanitation systems.

  1. Non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature and manifold learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Jin; Zang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical imaging technology, medical image research and application has become a research hotspot. This paper offers a solution to non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature (OF) and manifold learning. The structural features of medical images are extracted by combining ordinal features with local linear embedding (LLE) to improve the precision and speed of the registration algorithm. A physical model based on manifold learning and optimization search is constructed according to the complicated characteristics of non-rigid registration. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed registration scheme.

  2. Asymptotically Optimal Simulation Budget Allocation under Fixed Confidence Level by Ordinal Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-feng; SUNChun-Lin; CHENYong-qing

    2004-01-01

    Ordinal optimization concentrates on isolating a subset of good designs with high probability and reduces the required simulation time dramatically for discrete event simulation. To obtain the same probability level,we may optimally allocate our computing budget among different designs,instead of equally simulating all different designs. In this paper we present an effective approach to optimally allocate computing budget for discrete-event system simulation. While ordinal optimization can dramatically reduce the computation cost, our approach can further reduce the already-low cost.

  3. Establishment of Groundwater Arsenic Potential Distribution and Discrimination in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo Sheng; Chen, Yu Ying; Chung Liu, Chih; Lin, Chien Wen

    2016-04-01

    According to the last 10 years groundwater monitoring data in Taiwan, Arsenic concentration increase rapidly in some areas, similar to Bengal and India, the main source of Arsenic-polluted groundwater is geological sediments, through reducing reactions. There are many researches indicate that high concentration of Arsenic in groundwater poses the risk to water safety, for example, the farm lands irrigation water contains Arsenic cause the concentration of Arsenic increase in soil and crops. Based on the management of water usage instead of remediation in the situation of insufficient water. Taiwan EPA has been developed the procedures of Arsenic contamination potential area establishment and source discriminated process. Taiwan EPA use the procedures to determine the management of using groundwater, and the proposing usage of Arsenic groundwater accordance with different objects. Agencies could cooperate with the water quality standard or water needs, studying appropriate water purification methods and the groundwater depth, water consumption, thus achieve the goal of water safety and environmental protection, as a reference of policy to control total Arsenic concentration in groundwater. Keywords: Arsenic; Distribution; Discrimination; Pollution potential area of Arsenic; Origin evaluation of groundwater Arsenic

  4. Canada's groundwater resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential for life in arid and semiarid region. It is also important in humid regions, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of natural landscapes and aquatic ecosystem...

  5. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  6. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  7. Numerical and Non-Numerical Ordinality Processing in Children with and without Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, L.; Vogel, S. E.; Starke, M.; Kremser, C.; Schocke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinality is--beyond numerical magnitude (i.e., quantity)--an important characteristic of the number system. There is converging empirical evidence that (intra)parietal brain regions mediate number magnitude processing. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supports magnitude and ordinality in a…

  8. Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

  9. Finite Mixture Multilevel Multidimensional Ordinal IRT Models for Large Scale Cross-Cultural Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. de Jong (Martijn); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups

  10. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  11. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... brewed liquor or of wine by any Person to any Person and also includes giving away Liquor, Wine, Beer, or... ``Liquor'' as herein defined in this Ordinance. (b) ``Beer'' means any beverage obtained by the alcoholic... percent of Alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong Beer.'' (c) ``Gaming Facility'' means a...

  12. Educating Leaders for Social Justice: The Case of Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia; Svensson, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In the light of policy imperatives to initiate and maintain inclusive education reforms, the role of special educational needs co-ordinators (SENCOs) in England and Wales should be reconceptualised with a view to their leading school reforms commensurate with the principles of an inclusive discourse. The article concentrates on the social justice…

  13. Kernel conditional ordinal random fields for temporal segmentation of facial action units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of automated recognition of temporal segments (neutral, onset, apex and offset) of Facial Action Units. To this end, we propose the Laplacian-regularized Kernel Conditional Ordinal Random Field model. In contrast to standard modeling approaches to recognition of AUs’ temporal

  14. Pelvic organ prolapse symptoms in relation to POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers, K.B.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Shek, C.; Dietz, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate staging of pelvic organ prolapse is important in clinical practice and research. The ability of the POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between women with and without prolapse symptoms. The leading edge of the predominant

  15. The Standards Agenda: Reflections of a Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This study is a life history account of Bev, a special educational needs co-ordinator who works in a primary school in England. The research examines how, within Bev's experiences, the discourses of integration and inclusion have affected learners with special educational needs. Additionally, the study examines the impact of the…

  16. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  17. Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder (DCD) in Adolescents and Adults in Further and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the strengths and weaknesses and needs of students with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD). This paper describes a cohort of 93 UK students currently studying at further or higher education and who have reported motor difficulties present since childhood. The study group consisted of 21 reporting to have DCD…

  18. 78 FR 14352 - Notice of Approved Class III Tribal Gaming Ordinances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Indians of California 59. Crow Creek Sioux Tribe 60. Crow Indian Tribe of Montana 61. Delaware Tribe of... National Indian Gaming Commission Notice of Approved Class III Tribal Gaming Ordinances AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to inform the public of...

  19. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Mart Superstore to sell liquor on tribal lands, which will general millions of dollars in sales revenue and increase funding for essential government services provided by the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. The ordinance will increase the ability of the tribal government to control the distribution and possession of...

  20. A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…

  1. A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…

  2. A psicose ordinária e os fenômenos de corpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retoma as formulações lacanianas dos anos 50 sobre a psicose, psicose freudiana à la Schreber, e aquelas outras dos anos 1970, propostas a partir do sinthoma joyciano, de modo a discutir uma nova denominação surgida contemporaneamente, a psicose ordinária, e o modo como ela trata o corpo.

  3. Supply Chain Co-ordination and Industry Clockspeed: an Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Hans; Akkermans, Henk; Meijboom, Bert

    2003-01-01

    The increasing velocity of change, or clockspeed, in the business environment is a key challenge for firms and industries nowadays. In this study, the impact of industry and organisation clockspeed on specific mechanisms used for supply chain co-ordination is investigated from an information-process

  4. The Design Co-ordination Framework: key elements for effective product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Bowen, J.; Storm, T.

    1997-01-01

    , organisation, allocations, tasks etc. during the design process, has been identified. Each frame is explained and the co-ordination, i.e. the management of the links between these frames, is presented, based upon characteristic DC situations in Industry. It is concluded that while the DCF provides a basis...

  5. The midwives ordinance of Palestine, 1929: historical perspectives and current lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal; Bartal, Nira

    2010-06-01

    Until 1929, midwifery in Palestine was relatively open to anyone and only partially regulated by the 1918 Public Health Ordinance, legislated shortly after the beginning of British rule. This article describes the factors that guided the shaping of midwifery and suggests possible sources of inspiration for the British legislator in crafting the Midwives Ordinance in 1929, including American, local (Jews and Arabs), and British ones. The Midwives Ordinance reflects the adjustment of midwifery to changes in the society that evolved under the British Mandate. The ordinance shows how the modern midwife's role contracted relative to the traditional one, in the context of social processes in other countries, east and west. This historical research project is based on interviews, archive documents and research literature. It analyzes the British interests in regulating midwifery, including the rationale of preserving public health and reducing infant mortality, against a background of political power struggles as well as cultural, social and professional diversity in Palestine (the tensions between the powers of doctors, nurses, and pharmacists).

  6. Using two-level factor analysis to test for cluster bias in ordinal data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, F.J .; Dolan, Conor V.

    2014-01-01

    The test for cluster bias is a test of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. This article examines the true positive rates (empirical power) and false positive rates of the test for cluster bias using the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and the Wald test with ordinal data. A simulation

  7. 75 FR 22419 - Liquor Control Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... establishments, public buildings, public meeting halls, lobbies, halls and dining room of hotels, restaurants... and attorneys fees and take any other actions reasonably necessary to carry out this ordinance... from time to time by the Tribal Council for this purpose. Said application must be filled...

  8. A New Statistic for Evaluating Item Response Theory Models for Ordinal Data. CRESST Report 839

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Monroe, Scott

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new limited-information goodness of fit test statistic C[subscript 2] for ordinal IRT models. The construction of the new statistic lies formally between the M[subscript 2] statistic of Maydeu-Olivares and Joe (2006), which utilizes first and second order marginal probabilities, and the M*[subscript 2] statistic of Cai and Hansen…

  9. The Standards Agenda: Reflections of a Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This study is a life history account of Bev, a special educational needs co-ordinator who works in a primary school in England. The research examines how, within Bev's experiences, the discourses of integration and inclusion have affected learners with special educational needs. Additionally, the study examines the impact of the…

  10. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  11. Limits to global groundwater consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, L. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is the largest accessible freshwater resource worldwide and is of critical importance for irrigation, and so for global food security. For many regions of the world where groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge, persistent groundwater depletion occurs. A direct consequence of depletion is falling groundwater levels, reducing baseflows to rivers, harming ecosystems. Also, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence can occur. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable limits with all the associated problems. Here, we estimated past and future trends (1960-2050) in groundwater levels resulting from changes in abstractions and climate and predicted when limits of groundwater consumption are reached. We explored these limits by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that low that groundwater becomes unattainable for abstractions and how river flows are affected. Water availabilities, abstractions, and lateral groundwater flows are simulated (5 arcmin. resolution) using a coupled version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and a groundwater model based on MODFLOW. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of the worlds confined and unconfined aquifer systems, needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Results show that, next to the existing regions experiencing groundwater depletion (like India, Pakistan, Central Valley) new regions will develop, e.g. Southern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Using a limit that reflects present-day feasibility of groundwater abstraction, we estimate that in 2050 groundwater becomes unattainable for 20% of the global population, mainly in the developing countries and pumping cost will increase significantly. Largest impacts are found

  12. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  13. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  14. A comparison of ordinal regression models in an analysis of factors associated with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javali Shivalingappa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with periodontal disease (different levels of severity by using different regression models for ordinal data. Design: A cross-sectional design was employed using clinical examination and ′questionnaire with interview′ method. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during June 2008 to October 2008 in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. It involved a systematic random sample of 1760 individuals aged 18-40 years. The periodontal disease examination was conducted by using Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN. Statistical Analysis Used: Regression models for ordinal data with different built-in link functions were used in determination of factors associated with periodontal disease. Results: The study findings indicated that, the ordinal regression models with four built-in link functions (logit, probit, Clog-log and nlog-log displayed similar results with negligible differences in significant factors associated with periodontal disease. The factors such as religion, caste, sources of drinking water, Timings for sweet consumption, Timings for cleaning or brushing the teeth and materials used for brushing teeth were significantly associated with periodontal disease in all ordinal models. Conclusions: The ordinal regression model with Clog-log is a better fit in determination of significant factors associated with periodontal disease as compared to models with logit, probit and nlog-log built-in link functions. The factors such as caste and time for sweet consumption are negatively associated with periodontal disease. But religion, sources of drinking water, Timings for cleaning or brushing the teeth and materials used for brushing teeth are significantly and positively associated with periodontal disease.

  15. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources.

  16. Explosion protection in electric plants. Questions and answers. 3. rev. ed.; Explosionsschutz elektrischer Anlagen. Fragen und Antworten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pester, J.

    2008-07-01

    Subjects: Recent legislation, especially the Explosion Protection Ordinance and the amended Ordinance on Electric Systems in Areas with High Explosion Hazard (ElexV), and interim regulations. - Responsibilities of electricity specialists and their customers. - Physical fundamentals of explosion protection and classification of areas with high explosion hazards. - Types of ignition protection and classification of electric explosion protection, with classification codes and goals. - Types and selection of explosion-protected electric systems. - Special aspects of projecting, construction, maintenance and testing of electric systems in areas with high explosion hazard. (GL)

  17. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  18. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  19. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Coastal Region of Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengshan Ma; Aihua Wei; Qinghai Deng; Haijun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting groundwater samples from the coastal region of Tangshan, China, the hydrochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the quality of resources were analyzed. Chemical constituents, factor analysis, and a graphic method were em-ployed in this research. The results show that human activities obviously affect fresh groundwater. The deep groundwater distributed in the southern part of the region is severely affected by saliniza-tion, and the shallow groundwater in the north is also beginning to show the same deterioration. The chemical concentrations of the deep groundwater depend largely upon the water-rock interaction, the mixing of saline water and the ion exchange processes. With the exception of sample C-33, all the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking. Tests show that roughly half of the deep groundwater samples have at least one water quality index indicating that it is chemically doubtful or unsuitable for irrigation. Therefore, it is concluded that deep groundwater is becoming an unacceptable resource to irrigate areas located near the coastline because the groundwater quality in the study area is exhibiting signs of degradation. This study’s findings contribute to a better under-standing of groundwater resources in order to support regional management and protection.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  1. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  4. The first environmental audit. Practical experiences with ecological auditing under the EC Ordinance on Ecological Auditing; Die Erste Umweltpruefung. Erfahrungen aus der Praxis der EG-Oeko-Audit-Verordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeker, S. [Unternehmensberatung Umweltschutz Dr. Werner Wohlfarth, Burscheid/Leipzig (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Now that the EC Ordinance on Ecological Auditing has been in force for almost three years, it is time to take stock for the period elapsed. The article makes no claim to completeness or representativeness of shortcomings detected. Nor is its object to point out the state of corporate environmental protection in specific sectors. Rather, it wants to report experiences gathered with the first environmental audits under the EC ordinance in the audited sectors. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nachdem die EG-Oeko-Audit-Verordnung seit nun fast drei Jahren in Kraft ist, liegt es nahe, eine Zwischenbilanz zu den Erfahrungen aus der ersten Umweltpruefung zu ziehen. Die nachfolgenden Ausfuehrungen erheben keinen Anspruch auf Vollstaendigkeit und auf Repraesentativitaet in der Darstellung der vorgefundenen Maengel. Ebenso geht es nicht darum, den Stand des betrieblichen Umweltschutzes in einzelnen Branchen darzulegen. Vorgestellt werden vielmehr Erfahrungen, die aus ersten Umweltpruefungen nach EG-Oeko-Audit-Verordnung bei den auditierten Branchen gewonnen worden sind. (orig.)

  5. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  6. Identification of a cis-regulatory element by transient analysis of co-ordinately regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs co-ordinately regulate target genes that are dispersed throughout the genome. This co-ordinate regulation is achieved, in part, through the interaction of transcription factors with conserved cis-regulatory motifs that are in close proximity to the target genes. While much is known about the families of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in plants, there are few well characterised cis-regulatory motifs. In Arabidopsis, over-expression of the MYB transcription factor PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 leads to transgenic plants with elevated anthocyanin levels due to the co-ordinated up-regulation of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In addition to the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, there are a number of un-associated genes that also change in expression level. This may be a direct or indirect consequence of the over-expression of PAP1. Results Oligo array analysis of PAP1 over-expression Arabidopsis plants identified genes co-ordinately up-regulated in response to the elevated expression of this transcription factor. Transient assays on the promoter regions of 33 of these up-regulated genes identified eight promoter fragments that were transactivated by PAP1. Bioinformatic analysis on these promoters revealed a common cis-regulatory motif that we showed is required for PAP1 dependent transactivation. Conclusion Co-ordinated gene regulation by individual transcription factors is a complex collection of both direct and indirect effects. Transient transactivation assays provide a rapid method to identify direct target genes from indirect target genes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoters of these direct target genes is able to locate motifs that are common to this sub-set of promoters, which is impossible to identify with the larger set of direct and indirect target genes. While this type of analysis does not prove a direct interaction between protein and DNA

  7. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  8. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  9. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V. [eds.] [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  10. Thermal use of groundwater: International legislation and ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnlein, S.; Griebler, C.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater fulfills various functions for nature, animals and humans. Certainly, groundwater has highest relevance as freshwater resource. Another increasingly important issue - especially considering rising oil and gas prices - is the use of aquifers as renewable energy reservoirs. In view of these two somehow conflictive uses it seems important to define legal regulations and management strategies where exploitation and protection of aquifers is balanced. Thermal use of groundwater with e.g. ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems results in temperature anomalies (cold or heat plumes) in the subsurface. The extension of these temperture plumes has to be known in order to interpret their influence on adjacent geothermal installations. Beside this technological constraint, there exists an ecological one: man made thermal anomalies may have undesirable effects on the groundwater ecosystem. To promote geothermal energy as an economically attractive, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source, such constraints have to be integrated in regulations, planning and maintenance (Hähnlein et al. 2008a,b). The objective of this study is to review the current legal status of the thermal use of groundwater and to present first results how the ecosystem is influenced. • Legal viewpoint: The international legal situation on thermal groundwater use is very heterogeneous. Nationally and internationally there is no consistent legal situation. Minimum distances between GSHP and temperature limits for heating and cooling the groundwater vary strongly. Until now there are no scientifically based thresholds. And it is also legally unexplained which temperature changes are detrimental. This is due to the fact that there are no ecological and economical parameters established for sustainable groundwater use. • Ecological viewpoint: First results show that temperature changes that arise with the thermal use of groundwater can noticeably influence the composition of

  11. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  12. Quality of bedrock groundwater in western Finland, with special reference to nitrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karro, E.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of bedrock aquifers utilized for water supply in the Vaasa region, western Finland, suggests slight changes in the chemical composition of groundwater resulting both from natural and anthropogenic factors. Applying the permissible limits for parameters in drinking water reveals that the groundwater quality is generally good. Groundwater occurring in fractures and fissures of the crystalline bedrock is protected from anthropogenic pollution by clay and till deposits with low permeability. Temporally, the contents of nitrogen compounds in groundwater exhibit a decreasing trend. Reducing conditions prevailing in bedrock aquifers are reflected in elevated ammonium, iron and manganese contents in water.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Jasper, Monica; Taylor, Kimberly A.

    2017-09-27

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking water supplies. 

  14. Regional differences in climate change impacts on groundwater and stream discharge in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Roosmalen, Lieke Petronella G; Christensen, Britt S.B.; Sonnenborg, Torben O.

    2007-01-01

    groundwater-river interaction. On Sjaelland, where the topsoil is dominated by low-permeability soils and the aquifers are protected by thick clay layers of regional extent, only minor changes in groundwater levels are predicted. The primary effect in this area is the change in stream discharge, caused...... of the hydrological response to the simulated climate change is highly dependant on the geological setting of the model area. In the Jylland area, characterized by sandy top soils and large interconnected aquifers, groundwater recharge increases significantly, resulting in higher groundwater levels and increasing...

  15. Satellite Constellation Configuration Design with Rapid Performance Calculation and Ordinal Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hongzheng; HAN Chao

    2011-01-01

    Satellite constellation configuration design is a complicated and time-consuming simulation optimization problem.In this paper,a new method called the rapid method for satellite constellation performance calculation is developed by the Hermite interpolation technique to reduce the computing complication and time.The constellation configuration optimization model is established on the basis of the rapid performance calculation.To reduce the search space and enhance the optimization efficiency,this paper presents a new constellation optimization strategy based on the ordinal optimization(00)theory and expands the algorithm realization for constellation optimization including precise and crude models,ordered performance curves,selection rules and selected subsets.Two experiments about navigation constellation and space based surveillance system(SBSS)are carried out and the analysis of simulation results indicates that the ordinal optimization for satellite constellation configuration design is effective.

  16. Use and Misuse of the Likert Item Responses and Other Ordinal Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A; Herron, Robert L

    Likert, Likert-type, and ordinal-scale responses are very popular psychometric item scoring schemes for attempting to quantify people's opinions, interests, or perceived efficacy of an intervention and are used extensively in Physical Education and Exercise Science research. However, these numbered measures are generally considered ordinal and violate some statistical assumptions needed to evaluate them as normally distributed, parametric data. This is an issue because parametric statistics are generally perceived as being more statistically powerful than non-parametric statistics. To avoid possible misinterpretation, care must be taken in analyzing these types of data. The use of visual analog scales may be equally efficacious and provide somewhat better data for analysis with parametric statistics.

  17. Measuring information interactions on the ordinal pattern of stock time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Wang, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The interactions among time series as individual components of complex systems can be quantified by measuring to what extent they exchange information among each other. In many applications, one focuses not on the original series but on its ordinal pattern. In such cases, trivial noises appear more likely to be filtered and the abrupt influence of extreme values can be weakened. Cross-sample entropy and inner composition alignment have been introduced as prominent methods to estimate the information interactions of complex systems. In this paper, we modify both methods to detect the interactions among the ordinal pattern of stock return and volatility series, and we try to uncover the information exchanges across sectors in Chinese stock markets.

  18. Using missing ordinal patterns to detect nonlinearity in time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Zunino, Luciano; Osborne, Thomas; Zawadzki, Brianna

    2017-08-01

    The number of missing ordinal patterns (NMP) is the number of ordinal patterns that do not appear in a series after it has been symbolized using the Bandt and Pompe methodology. In this paper, the NMP is demonstrated as a test for nonlinearity using a surrogate framework in order to see if the NMP for a series is statistically different from the NMP of iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) surrogates. It is found that the NMP works well as a test statistic for nonlinearity, even in the cases of very short time series. Both model and experimental time series are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the NMP as a test for nonlinearity.

  19. Insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law for the GM counter tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolićanin Edin Ć.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze application of contemporary methods of insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law in designing a GM counting tube. It has been shown that by applying insulation co-ordination methods the counting tube can be optimally dimensioned. The application of the enlargement law was demonstrated in generalizing the results of test obtained by the GM tube to those obtained by the counting tube with m-times greater dimensions. The investigations were conducted both theoretically and by experiment. Using theoretical analysis, we derived the expressions that may be applied if a performance function of a random variable breakdown voltage is known. The experiments were conducted on a GM counter model under well controlled laboratory conditions.

  20. Constrained Ordination Analysis with Enrichment of Bell-Shaped Response Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Thas, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Constrained ordination methods aims at finding an environmental gradient along which the species abundances are maximally separated. The species response functions, which describe the expected abundance as a function of the environmental score, are according to the ecological fundamental niche theory only meaningful if they are bell-shaped. Many classical model-based ordination methods, however, use quadratic regression models without imposing the bell-shape and thus allowing for meaningless U-shaped response functions. The analysis output (e.g. a biplot) may therefore be potentially misleading and the conclusions are prone to errors. In this paper we present a log-likelihood ratio criterion with a penalisation term to enforce more bell-shaped response shapes. We report the results of a simulation study and apply our method to metagenomics data from microbial ecology.

  1. Node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm for the optimal allocation of water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohua; YANG Zhifeng; SHEN Zhenyao; LI Jianqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method, node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm (NOEGA), is proposed for solving water resources optimal allocation problems, in which the capacity of water resources is split into a number of smaller parts so that successive operations can be overlapped. Our objective is to maximize the whole benefit function. To overcome the "dimensionality and algorithm complexity curse" while searching for solutions and looking for an optimal solution, the operations of one-point crossover operator, gene exchange operator, gene random operator, gene shift operator and node ordinal strings are established. It is proved to be an effective optimal method in searching for global solutions. The NOEGA does not need a diversity of initial population, and it does not have the problem of immature convergence. The results of two cases show that using NOEGA to solve the optimal allocation model is very efficient and robust. In addition, the algorithm complexity of NOEGA is discussed.

  2. Optimization of prostate cancer treatment plans using the adjoint transport method and discrete ordinates codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.; Henderson, D.L. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Thomadsen, B.R. [Dept. of Medical Physics and Dept. of Human Oncology, Madison (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is a type of radiation in which radioactive sources are implanted directly into cancerous tissue. Determination of dose delivered to tissue by photons emitted from implanted seeds is an important step in the treatment plan process. In this paper we will investigate the use of the discrete ordinates method and the adjoint method to calculate absorbed dose in the regions of interest. MIP (mixed-integer programming) is used to determine the optimal seed distribution that conforms the prescribed dose to the tumor and delivers minimal dose to the sensitive structures. The patient treatment procedure consists of three steps: (1) image acquisition with the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and assessing the region of interest, (2) adjoint flux computation with discrete ordinate code for inverse dose calculation, and (3) optimization with the MIP branch-and-bound method.

  3. Co-ordinating innate and adaptive immunity to viral infection: mobility is the key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wern, Jeanette Erbo; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2009-01-01

    The host counters a viral infection through a complex response made up of components belonging to both the innate and the adaptive immune system. In this report, we review the mechanisms underlying this response, how it is induced and how it is co-ordinated. As cell-cell communication represents...... in mounting an efficient host response and co-ordinating innate and adaptive immunity during a primary viral infection....... the very essence of immune system physiology, a key to a rapid, efficient and optimally regulated immune response is the ability of the involved cells to rapidly shift between a stationary and a mobile state, combined with stringent regulation of cell migration during the mobile state. Through the co...

  4. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  5. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  6. GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND CHEMICAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cyc

  7. Regulating groundwater use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    Around the world it has proven very difficult to develop policies and interventions that ensure socio-environmentally sustainable groundwater use and exploitation. In the state of Guanajuato, Central Mexico, both the national government and the decentralized state government have pursued to regulate

  8. Management Can Reduce Mobility of Escherichia coli compared to traditional groundwater tracers within karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of fundamental processes controlling pathogen movement is necessary to protect water resources across the globe. Limited filtration and turbulent flow make karst aquifers susceptible to microbial contamination. Groundwater tracers typically used in karst terrains include fluorescent...

  9. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset was used to create graphics associated with manuscript: Garcia et al., Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a...

  10. Metadata from 12 international groundwater studies: virus and microbial indicator occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains raw data from 12 international groundwater studies that monitored for human viruses and microbial indicators. Please see the first worksheet...

  11. A comparison of ordinal regression models in an analysis of factors associated with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Javali Shivalingappa; Pandit Parameshwar

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with periodontal disease (different levels of severity) by using different regression models for ordinal data. Design: A cross-sectional design was employed using clinical examination and ′questionnaire with interview′ method. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during June 2008 to October 2008 in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. It involved a systematic random sample of 1760 individuals aged 18-40 years. The periodon...

  12. Inferring long memory processes in the climate network via ordinal pattern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, Marcelo; Masoller, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    We use ordinal patterns and symbolic analysis to construct global climate networks and uncover long and short term memory processes. The data analyzed is the monthly averaged surface air temperature (SAT field) and the results suggest that the time variability of the SAT field is determined by patterns of oscillatory behavior that repeat from time to time, with a periodicity related to intraseasonal oscillations and to El Ni\\~{n}o on seasonal-to-interannual time scales.

  13. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted.

  14. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Das Sumonkanti; Rahman Rajwanur M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The study attempts to develop an ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model to identify the determinants of child malnutrition instead of developing traditional binary logistic regression (BLR) model using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Methods Based on weight-for-age anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into three groups-severely undernourished (< -3.0), moderately undernourished (-3.0 to -2.01) and nourished (≥-2.0...

  15. Discrete Ordinates Approximations to the First- and Second-Order Radiation Transport Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, W C; Powell, J L

    2002-01-01

    The conventional discrete ordinates approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation can be described in a matrix form. Specifically, the within-group scattering integral can be represented by three components: a moment-to-discrete matrix, a scattering cross-section matrix and a discrete-to-moment matrix. Using and extending these entities, we derive and summarize the matrix representations of the second-order transport equations.

  16. School-teachers awareness of developmental co-ordination delay (DCD) in children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: Developmental Co-ordination Delay (DCD) is estimated to affect 5-6% of school children (1). School-teachers play an integral role in noting delayed signs of motor development in children (2). Limited research has been carried out investigating the awareness that Irish school-teachers demonstrate of DCD. Objectives: To determine the awareness that Irish primary school-teachers have of DCD, in children. Methods: Qualitative methodology involving three focus grou...

  17. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Derive Health State Utilities from Ordinal Preference Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Brian P; Adams, Roisin; Walsh, Cathal; Barry, Michael; Kind, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire is a standardized instrument used in the economic evaluation of health care to measure health state preferences across disease groups. A time trade-off (TTO) approach is commonly used to elicit preferences from the public. However, there are issues regarding how best to measure worse-than-dead states; at present, extreme valuations are rounded up to more acceptable values. TTO elicitation is also cognitively demanding for respondents and is therefore expensive to investigate. To describe how the analytic hierarchy process approach could be used to generate utilities from the ordinal relationships between the health states instead of the ordinal relationships between health states, allowing potentially useful preference data to be incorporated rather than excluded as they are at present. It was applied to the Measurement and Valuation of Health study data set, measuring health state preferences for the United Kingdom. The analytic hierarchy process approach was explained. Five approaches to structure pairwise comparisons of health state preference were described (two concave, two convex, and one linear). All approaches described predicted the rankings of health states well. However, utilities derived followed an unconventional, bunched shape compared with the original Measurement and Valuation of Health TTO study. An approach was identified by optimizing the parameters, minimizing the sum of squared errors between the ordinal "health state ranking" approach and the original TTO-derived utilities. This approach outlined offers the potential to convert ordinal preference data into cardinal utilities. It is simpler than TTO studies to carry out and removes the need to directly alter results of the preference ranking exercise. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermi co-ordinates and relativistic effects in non-inertial frames

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, H

    2000-01-01

    Fermi co-ordinates are proper co-ordinates of a local observer determined by his trajectory in space-time. Two observers at different positions belong to different Fermi frames even if there is no relative motion between them. Use of Fermi co-ordinates leads to several physical conclusions related to relativistic effects seen by observers in arbitrary motion. In flat space-time, the relativistic length seen by an observer depends only on his instantaneous velocity, not on his acceleration or rotation. In arbitrary space-time, for any observer the velocity of light is isotropic and equal to $c$, provided that it is measured by propagating a light beam in a small neighbourhood of the observer. The value of a covariant field measured at the position of the observer depends only on his instantaneous position and velocity, not on his acceleration. The notion of radiation is observer independent. A "freely" falling charge in curved space-time does not move along a geodesic and therefore radiates.

  19. Serial learning with wild card items by monkeys (Cebus apella): implications for knowledge of ordinal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, M R; Colombo, M

    1989-09-01

    We investigated monkeys' knowledge of the ordinal positions of stimuli that formed a 5-item serial list, ABCDE, by means of wild card items (W) that could substitute for items in the original series. In Experiment 1, training with wild cards was given on 3-, 4-, and 5-item series. In the last of these series, the wild card substitutions created five wild card sequences, WBCDE through ABCDW. During the final 10 sessions of training with each of two different wild cards (Items x and Y), the 3 subjects were able to successfully complete almost 60% of the wild card sequences. In Experiment 2, the two wild cards were presented on the same trial in 10 different double wild card sequences (e.g., AXCDY). The 2 monkey subjects correctly completed about 59% of the double wild card sequences during the final two training sessions. The performance levels achieved on single and on double wild card sequences, although well below that observed on the baseline sequence ABCDE (90% or better), support the view that the monkeys possessed some knowledge regarding the ordinal position of each baseline item. Consequently, an associative chain interpretation, which does not provide for knowledge of ordinal position, falls short as a complete account of the monkey's capacity for serial learning.

  20. UNQUESTIONED GENDER LENS IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIAN SHARI‘A ORDINANCES (PERDA SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Candraningrum

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Muslim participation in the democratic arena is now contested with the arrival of the decentralization process in 423 districts since 1992. The most notable movement is the quest for Islamic identity in the rejuvenation of Shari‘ah Ordinances which is interpreted symbolically and transcripturally. These ordinances have unrecognized the importance of gender lens in its practice. Until the end of 2007 no less than 63 districts have ratified Perda Syari’ah. In general, these ordinances designed to govern three aspects of public life, namely (1 to eradicate social crimes especially prostitutions and gambling; (2 to enforce ritual observances among Muslims such as reading the Qur’an, Friday congregations and fasting during Ramadhan; and (3 to govern the way people dress up in public sphere—especially the head-veiling for women. Although Islam is the religion of the majority there are also non-Muslim among Indonesian and institutionally Indonesia is not an Islamic state, therefore the ratification of Perda Syari’ah betrayed national consensus agreed upon by the founding fathers of the republic.

  1. A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF HIGHWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN POLICY IN "COMMENTARY ON JAPANESE ROAD STRUCTURE ORDINANCE"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hirohisa

    The "Commentary on Japanese Road Structure Ordinance" is a book which narrates the "Japanese Road Structure Ordinance" and was revised three times from the original version published in 1960. This paper puts together and formulates the progress and interpretation of hitory of each revision. The main results derived are as below; the thought of road design is changed from the intent of national uniformity of road structures at the beginning to the flexible application of the ordinance regulations for suitable road design for the regional condition recently; hierarchy in road classification is not clear so that the target level of service and the methodology in design are not fully established yet; the contradiction caused in the treatment of demand and capacity as daily volume should be dissolved; and it is needed that the establishment of new proper standards of lane width, design speed, and so on in road design or traffic operation through confirmation of the course and conotation of the such standards setting.

  2. Groundwater Protection Principles and Management Measures in Saltwater-intruded Region%海水入侵区地下水保护原则及管理措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 赵辉

    2014-01-01

    As the coastal cities population increased dramatically and the economy developed rapidly, water shortage and groundwater overdraft have becoming serious problems. In these regions, saltwater intrusion has been a common environmental prob-lem. Based on field surveys, the paper summaries the current situation of saltwater intrusion and its damage. With previous research results practical experience of saltwater intrusion control, the paper suggests government to make the overall plans and take all fac-tors into consideration, limit groundwater exploitation, pay more attention on prevention, and always keep people-oriented princi-ples in mind.%随着我国滨海地区人口的快速增长、社会经济的快速发展,水资源日益紧缺,地下水超采现象日益严重,海水入侵已成为滨海地区普遍存在的环境地质问题。通过大量的滨海地区调查、分析。系统梳理海水入侵现状及其危害,结合国内外有关海水入侵防治研究成果和实践经验,提出海水入侵区地下水保护要以人为本,人水和谐;严挖开发,防治并重,重在预防,系统规统筹兼顾的原则,采取必要的行政、经济等方面措施。

  3. Entropy weight coefficient model and its application in evaluation of groundwater vulnerability of the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rentao; FU Qiang; GAI Zhaomei

    2007-01-01

    The research of groundwater vulnerability is the basic work to protect the groundwater. For utilizing groundwater resource continuably, groundwater vulnerability evaluation is necessary. Useful reference to protect, exploit and utilize on groundwater resource are provided rationally. According to the real condition of Sanjiang Plain, the indexes system is established based on the traditional DRASTIC model. The new system includes the following seven indexes: Depth of Water, Net Recharge, Aquifer Media, Soil Media, Conductivity of the Aquifer, Land Utilizing Ratio and Populace Density. The related analysis appears that the system is rather reasonable. Because traditional methods, such as analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematics theory, can't be avoided human interference in selection of weights, they could lead to an imprecise result. In order to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability reasonably, entropy weight coefficient method is applied for the first time, which provides a new way to groundwater vulnerability evaluation. The method is a model whose weights are insured by the calculation process, so the artificial disturb can be avoided. It has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability in Sanjiang Plain. The satisfied result is acquired. Comparably, the same result is acquired by the other method named projection pursuit evaluation based on real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm. It shows that entropy weight coefficient method is applicable on groundwater vulnerability evaluation. The evaluation result can provide reference on the decision-making departments.

  4. Groundwater-dependent ecology of the shoreline of the subtropical Lake St Lucia estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ricky; Kelbe, Bruce; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Botha, Greg A.; Wejden, Bente; Været, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne B.

    2006-02-01

    The ecology of the St Lucia estuary in South Africa is of unique international importance. During droughts the estuary experiences high salinities, with values above that of seawater. Ion-poor groundwater flowing into the estuary from prominent sand aquifers along its eastern shoreline forms low-salinity habitats for salt-sensitive biota. During droughts, plants and animals can take refuge in the groundwater discharge zone until the condition in the estuary regains tolerable salinity. Simulations of the groundwater discharge indicate that the flow can persist during droughts over at least a decade, and be of great important for the resilience of the estuary. Anthropogenic activities have reduced the river inflow and made the St Lucia estuary more sensitive to droughts. The groundwater has thereby become increasingly important for the estuary’s ecology. Protection of the groundwater discharge along the shoreline itself and actions to increase the groundwater recharge are therefore important management tasks.

  5. Comparison of multidimensional fuzzy set ordination with CCA and DB-RDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W

    2009-09-01

    Multidimensional fuzzy set ordination (MFSO) is an ordination algorithm based on the principles of fuzzy set theory that employs a dissimilarity matrix and environmental or experimental variables directly in the calculation of ordination coordinates. The objective is similar to constrained ordinations such as canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and distance-based redundancy analysis (DB-RDA), although MFSO employs a different conceptual and algorithmic basis. Results from MFSO, CCA, and DB-RDA are compared on four data sets to determine the relative ability of the methods to identify and quantify environmental variable effect sizes on community variability. Models were fit by best all-subsets solutions and tested for significance by permutation tests. Methods were compared on the basis of variables selected and dimensionality of results and were evaluated on the basis of the correlation of the pair-wise distances of the derived ordination solutions to a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix of the taxon data, and by cross-comparisons of the inertia explained by the fitted or derived values substituted into DB-RDA and CCA analyses. MFSO and DB-RDA achieved the highest correlation with the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix on one data set each, and they tied for highest correlation on the two other data sets (differences set, tied for second on another, and achieved the lowest correlation on two data sets. When substituting MFSO- and DB-RDA-derived values into CCA, MFSO results achieved higher inertia explained on two of the four data sets; MFSO and DB-RDA achieved equivalent results on the other two. Substituting MFSO- or CCA-derived or fitted values into DB-RDA, MFSO results achieved higher inertia explained on all four data sets. While goodness-of-fit statistics were often similar across methods, the methods sometimes chose solutions of different dimensionality or employed different variables. In general, all algorithms performed well, finding relatively low

  6. Variable discrete ordinates method for radiation transfer in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvari, S. M. Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    The traditional form of discrete ordinates method is applied to solve the radiative transfer equation in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index through using the variable discrete ordinate directions and the concept of refracted radiative intensity. The refractive index are taken as constant in each control volume, such that the direction cosines of radiative rays remain non-variant through each control volume, and then, the directions of discrete ordinates are changed locally by passing each control volume, according to the Snell's law of refraction. The results are compared by the previous studies in this field. Despite simplicity, the results show that the variable discrete ordinate method has a good accuracy in solving the radiative transfer equation in the semi-transparent media with arbitrary distribution of refractive index.

  7. GA Based Clustering of Mixed Data Type of Attributes (Numeric, Categorical, Ordinal, Binary and Ratio-Scaled)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohit Rastogi; Pinki Mondal; Kritika Agarwal; Rachit Gupta;

    2015-01-01

    .... Data mining and data clustering, the prominent field of today it is a highly desirable task to apply unsupervised classification analysis on high volume of data sets with combined ordinal, ratio...

  8. Overview of groundwater management approaches at salinisation risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Zuffianò, Livia Emanuela

    2013-04-01

    All natural waters contain dissolved minerals from interactions with atmospheric and soil gases, mixing with other solutions, and/or interactions with the biosphere and lithosphere. In many cases, these processes result in natural waters containing solute or salinity above concentrations recommended for a specified use, which creates significant social and economic problems. Groundwater salinisation can be caused by natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities. For the former case, we can distinguish terrestrial and marine phenomena. Approximately 16% of the total area of continental earth is potentially involved in groundwater salinisation. Seawater intrusion can be considered to be the primary phenomenon to be studied in terms of groundwater salinisation. Three schematic approaches to the protection of groundwater via salinisation mitigation and/or groundwater salinity improvement are described based on the classifications of the primary salinisation sources and focusing on the effect of seawater intrusion. The complexity of these approaches generally increases due to difficulties caused by groundwater quality and quantity degradation and increased demand for quality water. In order from the lowest to the highest complexity, these approaches are the engineering approach, the discharge management approach, and the water and land management approach. The engineering approach is realised on the local or detailed scale with the purpose of controlling the salinisation, optimising the well discharge with specific technical solutions and/or completing works to improve the quality and/or quantity of the discharged fresh groundwater. The discharge management approach encompasses at least an entire coastal aquifer and defines rules concerning groundwater utilisation and well discharge. The water and land management approach should be applied on the regional scale. Briefly, this approach becomes necessary when one or more need creates an overall framework of high

  9. Tax revenue in Mississippi communities following implementation of smoke-free ordinances: an examination of tourism and economic development tax revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Robert; Shackelford, Signe

    2012-10-01

    There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. More than 60 Mississippi communities have passed smoke-free ordinances in the past six years. Opponents claim that these ordinances harm local businesses. Mississippi law allows municipalities to place a tourism and economic development (TED) tax on local restaurants and hotels/motels. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of these ordinances on TED tax revenues. This study applies a pre/post quasi-experimental design to compare TED tax revenue before and after implementing ordinances. Descriptive analyses indicated that inflation-adjusted tax revenues increased during the 12 months following implementation of smoke-free ordinances while there was no change in aggregated control communities. Multivariate fixed-effects analyses found no statistically significant effect of smoke-free ordinances on hospitality tax revenue. No evidence was found that smoke-free ordinances have an adverse effect on the local hospitality industry.

  10. Positive and negative impacts of five Austrian gravel pit lakes on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellegger, Christian; Weilhartner, Andreas; Battin, Tom J; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes (GPLs) affect the biological, organic, and inorganic parameters of inflowing groundwater through combined effects of bank filtration at the inflow, reactions within the lake, and bank filtration at the outflow. GPLs result from wet dredging for sand and gravel and may conflict with groundwater protection programs by removing the protective soil cover and exposing groundwater to the atmosphere. We have investigated the impact on groundwater of five GPLs with different sizes, ages, and mean residence times, and all having low post-excavation anthropogenic usage. The results revealed highly active biological systems within the lake water, in which primary producers significantly reduced inflowing nitrate concentrations. Decalcification also occurred in lake water, reducing water hardness, which could be beneficial for waterworks in hard groundwater areas. Downgradient groundwater nitrate and calcium concentrations were found to be stable, with only minor seasonal variations. Biological degradation of organic material and organic micropollutants was also observed in the GPLs. For young GPLs adequate sediment deposits may not yet have formed and degradation processes at the outflow may consequently not yet be well established. However, our results showed that within 5 years from the cessation of excavation a protective sediment layer is established that is sufficient to prevent the export of dissolved organic carbon to downgradient groundwater. GPLs can improve groundwater quality in anthropogenically (e.g., pesticides and nitrate) or geologically (e.g., hardness) challenging situations. However, post-excavation usage of GPLs is often dominated by human activities such as recreational activities, water sports, or fish farming. These activities will affect lake and groundwater quality and the risks involved are difficult to predict and monitor and can lead to overall negative impacts on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  11. Influence of Limitations on Possible Graph Ordinate Values of Electrical Load on Rated Values of Load Peaks and Troughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of limitations on possible theta-ordinate values of group non-uniform electrical load graphs on the rated values of theta peaks and theta troughs and, particularly, on the rated heating load value is considered in the paper. It is shown that neglect of limitations on graph theta- ordinates of an electrical load leads in some cases to errors in evaluation of load theta peaks and theta troughs that exceed the tolerable values by ±10 %.

  12. Methodology to resolve the transport equation with the discrete ordinates code TORT into the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal García, Álvaro; Abarca Giménez, Agustín; Barrachina Celda, Teresa María; Miró Herrero, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Computer Mathematics in 2014, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/00207160.2013.799668 Resolution of the steady-state Neutron Transport Equation in a nuclear pool reactor is usually achieved by means of two different numerical methods: Monte Carlo (stochastic) and Discrete Ordinates (deterministic). The Discrete Ordinates method solves the Neutron Transport Equation for a...

  13. Impact of San Francisco’s Toy Ordinance on Restaurants and Children’s Food Purchases, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Krukowski, Rebecca A.; O’Donohue, Laura S.; Gardner, Christopher D.; King, Abby C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children’s meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children’s menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children’s-meal–only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years. Methods Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent–caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012. Results Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children’s meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children’s meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children’s side dishes and beverages at Chain A. Conclusion Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes. PMID:25032837

  14. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10(-6). To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10(-6). The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  15. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2016-08-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) - also called sand replenishment or nourishment - was placed on the Dutch coast. The intention is that the sand is redistributed by wind, current, and tide, reinforcing local coastal defence structures and leading to a unique, dynamic environment. In this study we investigated the potential effect of the long-term morphological evolution of the large sand replenishment and climate change on fresh groundwater resources. The potential effects on the local groundwater system were quantified with a calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) groundwater model, in which both variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport were simulated. Model simulations showed that the long-term morphological evolution of the Sand Engine results in a substantial growth of fresh groundwater resources, in all adopted climate change scenarios. Thus, the application of a local sand replenishment could provide coastal areas the opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of the local fresh groundwater availability.

  16. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment of the Pingtung Plain in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liang, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-11-23

    In the Pingtung Plain of southern Taiwan, elevated levels of NO₃(-)-N in groundwater have been reported. Therefore, efforts for assessing groundwater vulnerability are required as part of the critical steps to prevent and control groundwater pollution. This study makes a groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Pingtung Plain using an improved overlay and index-based DRASTIC model. The improvement of the DRASTIC model is achieved by reassigning the weighting coefficients of the factors in this model with the help of a discriminant analysis statistical method. The analytical results obtained from the improved DRASTIC model provide a reliable prediction for use in groundwater vulnerability assessment to nitrate pollution and can correctly identify the groundwater protection zones in the Pingtung Plain. Moreover, the results of the sensitivity analysis conducted for the seven parameters in the improved DRASTIC model demonstrate that the aquifer media (A) is the most sensitive factor when the nitrate-N concentration is below 2.5 mg/L. For the cases where the nitrate-N concentration is above 2.5 mg/L, the aquifer media (A) and net recharge (R) are the two most important factors.

  17. A versatile method for groundwater vulnerability projections in future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenazzi, Stefania; Bonfanti, Marianna; Masetti, Marco; Nghiem, Son V; Sorichetta, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Water scarcity and associated risks are serious societal problems. A major challenge for the future will be to ensure the short-term and long-term provision of accessible and safe freshwater to meet the needs of the rapidly growing human population and changes in land cover and land use, where conservation and protection play a key role. Through a Bayesian spatial statistical method, a time-dependent approach for groundwater vulnerability assessment is developed to account for both the recent status of groundwater contamination and its evolution, as required by the European Union (Groundwater Directive, 2006/118/EC). This approach combines natural and anthropogenic factors to identify areas with a critical combination of high levels and increasing trends of nitrate concentrations, together with a quantitative evaluation of how different future scenarios would impact the quality of groundwater resources in a given area. In particular, the proposed approach can determine potential impacts on groundwater resources if policies are maintained at the status quo or if new measures are implemented for safeguarding groundwater quality, as natural factors are changing under climatic or anthropogenic stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Thieken, A. H.; Grunenberg, H.; Ullrich, K.; Sommer, T.

    2009-07-01

    Flood risk analysis and management plans mostly neglect groundwater flooding, i.e. high groundwater levels. However, rising groundwater may cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. To improve the knowledge about groundwater flooding and support risk management, a survey was undertaken in the city of Dresden (Saxony, Germany), resulting in 605 completed interviews with private households endangered by high groundwater levels. The reported relatively low flood impact and damage of groundwater floods in comparison with mixed floods was reflected by its scarce perception: Hardly anybody thinks about the risk of groundwater flooding. The interviewees thought that public authorities and not themselves, should be mainly responsible for preparedness and emergency response. Up to now, people do not include groundwater risk in their decision processes on self protection. The implementation of precautionary measures does not differ between households with groundwater or with mixed flood experience. However, less households undertake emergency measures when expecting a groundwater flood only. The state of preparedness should be further improved via an intensified risk communication about groundwater flooding by the authorities. Conditions to reach the endangered population are good, since 70% of the interviewed people are willing to inform themselves about groundwater floods. Recommendations for an improved risk communication are given.

  19. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected...

  20. Groundwater hydrology instructional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald G.

    Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, is preparing for its third cycle of the Interactive Remote Instructional System (IRIS) in groundwater hydrology, beginning January 15, 1986. The first cycle finished with an impressive completion ratio for registered participants, and the second cycle has currently been underway since July. This comprehensive hydrogeology program was originally developed for the Soil Conservation Service (of the U.S. Department of Agriculture) to prepare their personnel for professional practice work. Since its evolution into IRIS, an 80% participant completion rate has been recorded for the first cycle, which is a significant departure from success rates traditionally recorded by correspondence courses. This excellent rate of success is the result of 2 years of refinement and demonstrates the progressive nature of the program. IRIS has met the needs of participants by developing a curriculum that reflects current trends in the groundwater industry and has provided a unique educational approach that ensures maximum interaction between the instructional staff and participants.

  1. Classification of groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater occurring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been classified according to the ``Guidelines for Ground-Water Classification Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ground-Water Protection Strategy`` (June 1988). All of the groundwater units at the NTS are Class II, groundwater currently (IIA) or potentially (IIB) a source of drinking water. The Classification Review Area (CRA) for the NTS is defined as the standard two-mile distance from the facility boundary recommended by EPA. The possibility of expanding the CRA was evaluated, but the two-mile distance encompasses the area expected to be impacted by contaminant transport during a 10-year period (EPA,s suggested limit), should a release occur. The CRA is very large as a consequence of the large size of the NTS and the decision to classify the entire site, not individual areas of activity. Because most activities are located many miles hydraulically upgradient of the NTS boundary, the CRA generally provides much more than the usual two-mile buffer required by EPA. The CRA is considered sufficiently large to allow confident determination of the use and value of groundwater and identification of potentially affected users. The size and complex hydrogeology of the NTS are inconsistent with the EPA guideline assumption of a high degree of hydrologic interconnection throughout the review area. To more realistically depict the site hydrogeology, the CRA is subdivided into eight groundwater units. Two main aquifer systems are recognized: the lower carbonate aquifer system and the Cenozoic aquifer system (consisting of aquifers in Quaternary valley fill and Tertiary volcanics). These aquifer systems are further divided geographically based on the location of low permeability boundaries.

  2. Contain contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  3. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  4. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  5. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  6. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office. Annual report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO`s staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater).

  7. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  8. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  9. SPECIFIC SOLUTIONS GROUNDWATER FLOW EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    Geophysic publication Groundwater flow under surface, its usually slow moving, so that in laminer flow condition can find analisys using the Darcy???s law. The combination between Darcy law and continuity equation can find differential Laplace equation as general equation groundwater flow in sub surface. Based on Differential Laplace Equation is the equation that can be used to describe hydraulic head and velocity flow distribution in porous media as groundwater. In the modeling Laplace e...

  10. Waste and resources management. Ordinance on Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from Human Settlements and on Biological Waste Treatment Facilities (Landfill Ordinance - AbfAblV) - one year on; Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. 1 Jahr Abfallablagerungsverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R.; Bidlingmaier, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    As early as the beginning of 2005 there were signs of trouble ahead resulting from the new Landfill Ordinance - it was only the extent of the trouble that was somewhat underestimated. Suddenly and unexpected to everyone, the industrial wastes that were supposed to have been avoided or reutilised were there again. These ''returned wastes'', in most cases arisings that were not taken into account during plant design, are currently causing serious capacity problems both in waste incineration and in mechanical biological waste treatment plants. In not a few cases the originally planned supply rates are being exceeded by up to 35%, with dramatic consequences. Another source of problems is the lack of utilisation capacities for high-caloric waste fractions, especially for those from mechanical biological waste treatment. The underlying causes are manifold, ranging from market misjudgment, insufficient fuel processing capacities to supposed or factual quality problems with the generated secondary fuel. The only remedial option available at present - at least from the legal viewpoint - is interim storage. The changed framework conditions for biowaste and green waste utilisation brought about by the Renewable Energy Law offers new interesting perspectives. Numerous unresolved questions and quite as many solution proposals provide reason enough for making residual waste treatment and biowaste utilisation one of the focal topics of the congress. Many EU countries, but also developing and threshold countries, are on the verge of making decisions on waste utilisation and treatment. The experiences, positive and negative, that have been gained to date in Germany with the full-area implementation of residual waste treatment can serve these countries as a valuable guide. Another focal topic of the congress is climate and resource protection.

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  12. A coupled ordinates method for solution acceleration of rarefied gas dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shankhadeep; Mathur, Sanjay R.; Alexeenko, Alina; Murthy, Jayathi Y.

    2015-05-01

    Non-equilibrium rarefied flows are frequently encountered in a wide range of applications, including atmospheric re-entry vehicles, vacuum technology, and microscale devices. Rarefied flows at the microscale can be effectively modeled using the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ESBGK) form of the Boltzmann kinetic equation. Numerical solutions of these equations are often based on the finite volume method (FVM) in physical space and the discrete ordinates method in velocity space. However, existing solvers use a sequential solution procedure wherein the velocity distribution functions are implicitly coupled in physical space, but are solved sequentially in velocity space. This leads to explicit coupling of the distribution function values in velocity space and slows down convergence in systems with low Knudsen numbers. Furthermore, this also makes it difficult to solve multiscale problems or problems in which there is a large range of Knudsen numbers. In this paper, we extend the coupled ordinates method (COMET), previously developed to study participating radiative heat transfer, to solve the ESBGK equations. In this method, at each cell in the physical domain, distribution function values for all velocity ordinates are solved simultaneously. This coupled solution is used as a relaxation sweep in a geometric multigrid method in the spatial domain. Enhancements to COMET to account for the non-linearity of the ESBGK equations, as well as the coupled implementation of boundary conditions, are presented. The methodology works well with arbitrary convex polyhedral meshes, and is shown to give significantly faster solutions than the conventional sequential solution procedure. Acceleration factors of 5-9 are obtained for low to moderate Knudsen numbers on single processor platforms.

  13. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  14. Exponential Monte Carlo Convergence of a Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, J.A.; Lichtenstein, H.

    1999-11-14

    Recent work on obtaining exponential convergence for three-dimensional solutions to the spatially and angularly continuous monoenergetic transport equation with isotropic scattering using the reduced source method was promising. The method, however, used two separate estimates of the scalar flux, a Legendre expansion (in the spatial variables) and a quadrature of the angular flux. This introduced an inconsistency that may have lead to some convergence problems. To remove this inconsistency and provide a fairer test of the combined reduced source/Monte Carlo method, the method was applied to estimate the coefficients of a Legendre expansion of the solution of the discrete ordinates equations. In this case, no supplementary approximations were required.

  15. Insulation co-ordination in high-voltage electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diesendorf, W

    2015-01-01

    Insulation Co-ordination in High-Voltage Electric Power Systems deals with the methods of insulation needed in different circumstances. The book covers topics such as overvoltages and lightning surges; disruptive discharge and withstand voltages; self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation; lightning overvoltages on transmission lines; and the attenuation and distortion of lightning surges. Also covered in the book are topics such as the switching surge designs of transmission lines, as well as the insulation coordination of high-voltage stations. The text is recommended for electrical en

  16. A Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method for 2D ALE Meshes in HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Britton; Marinak, Marty; Weber, Chris; Peterson, Luc

    2016-10-01

    The Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method in HYDRA has been extended to handle general 2D r-z meshes. Previously the method was only for orthogonal 2D meshes. The new method can be employed with the ALE methodology for managing mesh motion that is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities on NIF capsule implosions. The results of an examination of this kind will be compared to those obtained by the corresponding diffusion method. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. An estimation approach for dividable multiattribute utility of housing via questionnaires of consumers' ordinal multicriteria preferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟凤勇; 王要武

    2004-01-01

    multi-function characteristic. How to evaluate the multi-functional nature of housing is very useful in both theory and in application, yet it is often ignored in China. This paper introduces an approach to estimate the muhicriteria function of housing using multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) based on consumers' ordinal multicriteria peferences as determined via questionnaires. When compared with the classic framework in which MAUT is applied, this approach needs less prior information and subjective comparisons and thus can allay many of the operational difficulties involved in assessment. Some potential applications to the China housing market are also discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  19. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  20. Integration of groundwater information into decision making for regional planning: a portrait for North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Roxane; Lebel, Alexandre; Joerin, Florent; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater is widely used as a source of drinking water in North America. However, it can be contaminated by microbial or chemical agents potentially hazardous to human health. In recent decades, governments have developed better knowledge of groundwater and established measures to protect and preserve the resource. Several studies have shown that relevant information on groundwater might prove very useful for regional planning purposes. However, there is little information on how groundwater information contributes to decision making in urban and regional planning in Canada and the United States. The objective of this study is to explore the level of use of groundwater information for land use planning purposes in Canada and the United States and to identify the factors that may explain why some provinces or states are more proactive than others when it comes to using such data for groundwater protection purposes. This paper presents the results of a survey sent across North America to groundwater information producers. The resulting data from the survey were examined using descriptive analyses and multiple correspondence analysis, and illustrate how groundwater data can be integrated into land planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ordinal preference elicitation methods in health economics and health services research: using discrete choice experiments and ranking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shehzad; Ronaldson, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    The predominant method of economic evaluation is cost-utility analysis, which uses cardinal preference elicitation methods, including the standard gamble and time trade-off. However, such approach is not suitable for understanding trade-offs between process attributes, non-health outcomes and health outcomes to evaluate current practices, develop new programmes and predict demand for services and products. Ordinal preference elicitation methods including discrete choice experiments and ranking methods are therefore commonly used in health economics and health service research. Cardinal methods have been criticized on the grounds of cognitive complexity, difficulty of administration, contamination by risk and preference attitudes, and potential violation of underlying assumptions. Ordinal methods have gained popularity because of reduced cognitive burden, lower degree of abstract reasoning, reduced measurement error, ease of administration and ability to use both health and non-health outcomes. The underlying assumptions of ordinal methods may be violated when respondents use cognitive shortcuts, or cannot comprehend the ordinal task or interpret attributes and levels, or use 'irrational' choice behaviour or refuse to trade-off certain attributes. CURRENT USE AND GROWING AREAS: Ordinal methods are commonly used to evaluate preference for attributes of health services, products, practices, interventions, policies and, more recently, to estimate utility weights. AREAS FOR ON-GOING RESEARCH: There is growing research on developing optimal designs, evaluating the rationalization process, using qualitative tools for developing ordinal methods, evaluating consistency with utility theory, appropriate statistical methods for analysis, generalizability of results and comparing ordinal methods against each other and with cardinal measures.

  2. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  3. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  4. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  5. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  6. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  7. Rapid, cost-effective estimation of groundwater age based on hydrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Jackson, B. M.; Daughney, C.

    2013-12-01

    In order to manage and protect groundwater resources, the complex and diverse recharge, mixing and flow processes occurring in groundwater systems need to be better understood. Groundwater age information can give valuable information on groundwater flow, recharge sources, and aquifer volumes. However current groundwater dating techniques, for example tracers such as tritium or CFCs, or hydrological models, have limitations and method specific application ranges and uncertainties. Due to this, ambiguous age interpretation is a problem. New technique(s) are essential to overcome limitations and complement existing methods. The aim of this study is to advance the use of hydrochemistry for groundwater dating. To date, hydrochemistry has only been applied sparsely to support groundwater age determination, despite its wide availability from national groundwater monitoring programs. This is due to the lack of any established distinct relationships between hydrochemistry and groundwater age. Establishing these is complex, since hydrochemistry is influenced by complex interrelationships of aquifer specific processes. Therefore underlying processes, such as mineral weathering and redox reactions, and diverse reactions, such as quartz dissolution, are not directly interpretable from hydrochemistry data. Additionally reaction kinetics (of e.g. quartz dissolution) are often aquifer specific, and field data are sparse; furthermore data gained in laboratory environments are difficult to relate back to field situations as comparative studies have found lab and field measurements can differ by orders of magnitude. We wish to establish relationships between hydrochemistry and groundwater age, to allow hydrochemical data to better inform groundwater dating through two separate approaches. Firstly relationships between groundwater age (determined by state of the art dating techniques) and single hydrochemistry parameters, such as silica concentration, can be established in a given

  8. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in the catchment of Goczałkowice reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2014-05-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2 , volume - 100 million m3 at a typical water level) is a very important source of drinking water for Upper Silesian agglomeration. At the catchment of the reservoir there are many potential sources of groundwater pollution (agriculture, bad practices in wastewater management, intensive fish farming). Thus local groundwater contamination, mainly by nitrogen compounds. The paper presents groundwater monitoring system and preliminary results of the research carried on at Goczałkowice reservoir and its catchment in 2010 - 2014 within the project "Integrated system supporting management and protection of dammed reservoir (ZiZoZap)'. The main objective for hydrogeologists in the project is to assess the role of groundwater in total water balance of the reservoir and the influence of groundwater on its water quality. During research temporal variability of groundwater - surface water exchange has been observed. Monitoring Network of groundwater quality consists of 22 observation wells (nested piezometers included) located around the reservoir - 13 piezometers is placed in two transects on northern and southern shore of reservoir. Sampling of groundwater from piezometers was conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were 255 mg/L, 0,16 mg/L and 3,48 mg/L, respectively. Surface water in reservoir (8 points) has also been sampled. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater are higher than in surface water. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations exceeding standards for drinking water were reported in 18% and 50% of monitored piezometers, respectively. High concentration of nitrate (exceeding more than 5 times maximal admissible concentration) have been a significant groundwater contamination problem in the catchment of the reservoir. Periodically decrease of surface water quality is possible. Results of hydrogeological research indicate substantial spatial

  9. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  10. Promoting local management in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  11. GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Huang, Haowei; Fang, Jingyue; Gong, Zhenghu

    2011-07-01

    Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates ( Sn) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.

  12. An experimental test of CSR theory using a globally calibrated ordination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhi; Shipley, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Can CSR theory, in conjunction with a recently proposed globally calibrated CSR ordination ("StrateFy"), using only three easily measured leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content) predict the functional signature of herbaceous vegetation along experimentally manipulated gradients of soil fertility and disturbance? To determine this, we grew 37 herbaceous species in mixture for five years in 24 experimental mesocosms differing in factorial levels of soil resources (stress) and density-independent mortality (disturbance). We measured 16 different functional traits and then ordinated the resulting vegetation within the CSR triangle using StrateFy. We then calculated community-weighted mean (CWM) values of the competitor (CCWM), stress-tolerator (SCWM) and ruderal (RCWM) scores for each mesocosm. We found a significant increase in SCWM from low to high stress mesocosms, and an increase in RCWM from lowly to highly disturbed mesocosms. However, CCWM did not decline significantly as intensity of stress or disturbance increased, as predicted by CSR theory. This last result likely arose because our herbaceous species were relatively poor competitors in global comparisons and thus no strong competitors in our species pool were selectively favoured in low stress and low disturbed mesocosms. Variation in the 13 other traits, not used by StrateFy, largely argeed with the predictions of CSR theory. StrateFy worked surprisingly well in our experimental study except for the C-dimension. Despite loss of some precision, it has great potential applicability in future studies due to its simplicity and generality.

  13. A Comparison of Imputation Strategies for Ordinal Missing Data on Likert Scale Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Jia, Fan; Enders, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article compares a variety of imputation strategies for ordinal missing data on Likert scale variables (number of categories = 2, 3, 5, or 7) in recovering reliability coefficients, mean scale scores, and regression coefficients of predicting one scale score from another. The examined strategies include imputing using normal data models with naïve rounding/without rounding, using latent variable models, and using categorical data models such as discriminant analysis and binary logistic regression (for dichotomous data only), multinomial and proportional odds logistic regression (for polytomous data only). The result suggests that both the normal model approach without rounding and the latent variable model approach perform well for either dichotomous or polytomous data regardless of sample size, missing data proportion, and asymmetry of item distributions. The discriminant analysis approach also performs well for dichotomous data. Naïvely rounding normal imputations or using logistic regression models to impute ordinal data are not recommended as they can potentially lead to substantial bias in all or some of the parameters.

  14. A voice from the margins: Investigating the African Adventist rationale on the quest for female ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Lagat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Discussions surrounding women�s ordination reached a peak with the 60th General Conference Session (GCS 2015 of the Seventh-day Adventist (SDA Church. A report compiled by a section of delegates from the East-Central Africa Division � Biblical Research Committee indicated that this continent was not yet ready to ordain women as pastors. In light of the report, this article aims to investigate the rationale of such a stark decision. Firstly, the report shows that African Adventist women theologians were omitted from the discussions � a lack of good will from the church leadership towards the females as the majority of the membership. Secondly, the decision against ordination of women is suspect and biblically inconclusive. Through an overview of literature on a biblical missional design, the article postulates: Contextualisation and theologising are necessary for Africa, but the SDA Church must remember that globally both theology and culture are subject to the biblical guidelines, and thus to God�s missio Dei as well.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article balances cultural contextualism and gender relations � challenging a cultural bias through a missional hermeneutic. This can lead to fairer representation of African women in Adventist church structures and reroute the equality discourse in light of the missio Dei. The study intersects with cultural theory, social analysis and biblical hermeneutics.�

  15. Night and days in Cassiciacum: The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine’s De ordine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Fuhrer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In his early dialogue ‘On order’ (De ordine Augustine dramatises a discussion of theodicy in which the Manichaean solution is clearly rejected, even though the debate ends in aporia. It is argued in this paper that the dialogue’s dramatic setting at the villa in Cassiciacum is strongly reminiscent of Manichaean imagery and the stock motifs of the Manichaean mythological system. It is proposed in the dialogue itself, that the scenic elements (Augustine’s ill health, night and darkness, the dawning day, dirt and ugliness, fighting cocks have the character of signs which illustrate the significance of the not-beautiful and the negative in the divine order. The dialogue setting thus presents an ontological scale that leads from the levels of reduced being up to the highest being, linking night or darkness to light or day, dirt to purity, sickness to health, defeat to victory, the ugly to the beautiful. The dialogue setting becomes a semiotic system in which even the ontologically deficient forms of phenomenon always also refer to something at the highest level, namely the omnipotent divine creator. The scenic design of De ordine can thus be read as an extension of the Manichaean system of codes, and hence as a message also addressed to a Manichaean readership.

  16. Explosive ordinance disposal technology demonstration using the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Dinkins, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics & Process Systems Div.

    1994-06-01

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), combat engineer, and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during the high risk EOD excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. This feasibility study was performed at the request of the Ordinance Missile and Munitions Center and School (OMMCS) at the Redstone Arsenal to help define requirements for further joint service development activities. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a project funded jointly by the US Army Project Manager for Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, on September 13--17, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote EOD. During the demonstration, approximately 40 EOD specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE and then were asked to complete a series of simulated EOD tasks. Upon completion of the tasks, participants completed an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data.

  17. Hypothesis testing and estimation in ordinal data under a simple crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Since each patient serves as his/her own control, the crossover design can be of use to improve power as compared with the parallel-groups design in studying noncurative treatments to certain chronic diseases. Although the research studies on the crossover design have been quite intensive, the discussions on analyzing ordinal data under such a design are truly limited. We propose using the generalized odds ratio (GOR) for paired sample data to measure the relative effect on patient responses for both treatment and period in ordinal data under a simple crossover trial. Assuming the treatment and period effects are multiplicative, we note that one can easily derive the maximum likelihood estimator (LE) in closed forms for the GOR of treatment and period effects. We develop asymptotic and exact procedures for testing treatment and period effects. We further derive asymptotic and exact interval estimators for the GOR of treatment and period effects. We use the data taken from a crossover trial to assess the clarity of leaflet instructions between two devices among asthma patients to illustrate the use of these test procedures and estimators developed here.

  18. Natural join construction of graded posets versus ordinal sum and discrete hyper boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Kwasniewski, A K

    2009-01-01

    One introduces here the natural join $P \\os Q$ of graded posets $$ and $$ with correspondingly maximal and minimal sets being identical as expressed by ordinal sum $P\\oplus Q$ apart from other definition and due to that one arrives at a simple proof of the $M{\\"{o}}bius $ function formula for cobweb posets. We also quote the other authors explicit formulas for the zeta matrix and its inverse for any graded posets with the finite set of minimal elements from earlier works of the author. These formulas are based on the formulas for cobweb posets and their $Hasse$ diagrams or graphs named $KoDAGs$ which are interpreted as chains of binary complete or universal relations joined by the natural join operation. Natural join of two independent sets is therefore the ordinal sum of this trivially ordered posets represented also by directed biclique named dibiclique and correspondingly by their $Hasse $ diagrams or graphs named $KoDAGs$. Such cobweb posets and equivalently their Hasse diagrams or graphs named $KoDAGs$ a...

  19. Autoregressive transitional ordinal model to test for treatment effect in neurological trials with complex endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Tanadini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of potential therapeutic approaches for neurological disorders have failed to provide convincing evidence of efficacy, prompting pharmaceutical and health companies to discontinue their involvement in drug development. Limitations in the statistical analysis of complex endpoints have very likely had a negative impact on the translational process. Methods We propose a transitional ordinal model with an autoregressive component to overcome previous limitations in the analysis of Upper Extremity Motor Scores, a relevant endpoint in the field of Spinal Cord Injury. Statistical power and clinical interpretation of estimated treatment effects of the proposed model were compared to routinely employed approaches in a large simulation study of two-arm randomized clinical trials. A revisitation of a key historical trial provides further comparison between the different analysis approaches. Results The proposed model outperformed all other approaches in virtually all simulation settings, achieving on average 14 % higher statistical power than the respective second-best performing approach (range: -1 %, +34 %. Only the transitional model allows treatment effect estimates to be interpreted as conditional odds ratios, providing clear interpretation and visualization. Conclusion The proposed model takes into account the complex ordinal nature of the endpoint under investigation and explicitly accounts for relevant prognostic factors such as lesion level and baseline information. Superior statistical power, combined with clear clinical interpretation of estimated treatment effects and widespread availability in commercial software, are strong arguments for clinicians and trial scientists to adopt, and further extend, the proposed approach.

  20. On analyzing ordinal data when responses and covariates are both missing at random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Subrata; Roy, Surupa; Das, Kalyan

    2016-08-01

    In many occasions, particularly in biomedical studies, data are unavailable for some responses and covariates. This leads to biased inference in the analysis when a substantial proportion of responses or a covariate or both are missing. Except a few situations, methods for missing data have earlier been considered either for missing response or for missing covariates, but comparatively little attention has been directed to account for both missing responses and missing covariates, which is partly attributable to complexity in modeling and computation. This seems to be important as the precise impact of substantial missing data depends on the association between two missing data processes as well. The real difficulty arises when the responses are ordinal by nature. We develop a joint model to take into account simultaneously the association between the ordinal response variable and covariates and also that between the missing data indicators. Such a complex model has been analyzed here by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach and also by the Monte Carlo relative likelihood approach. Their performance on estimating the model parameters in finite samples have been looked into. We illustrate the application of these two methods using data from an orthodontic study. Analysis of such data provides some interesting information on human habit.

  1. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

    2014-08-01

    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

  2. Assessing Heterogeneity for Factor Analysis Model with Continuous and Ordinal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Mao Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis models with continuous and ordinal responses are a useful tool for assessing relations between the latent variables and mixed observed responses. These models have been successfully applied to many different fields, including behavioral, educational, and social-psychological sciences. However, within the Bayesian analysis framework, most developments are constrained within parametric families, of which the particular distributions are specified for the parameters of interest. This leads to difficulty in dealing with outliers and/or distribution deviations. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian semiparametric modeling for factor analysis model with continuous and ordinal variables. A truncated stick-breaking prior is used to model the distributions of the intercept and/or covariance structural parameters. Bayesian posterior analysis is carried out through the simulation-based method. Blocked Gibbs sampler is implemented to draw observations from the complicated posterior. For model selection, the logarithm of pseudomarginal likelihood is developed to compare the competing models. Empirical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  3. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...... into the pristine groundwater residing deeper in the aquifer. Reactant-to-product ratios across reaction fronts are altered by dispersive mixing and transience in reactant input functions. Modelling therefore allowed a direct comparison of observed and simulated ratios of concentrations of NO3 (reactant...

  4. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  5. How to quantify realization of WFD-objectives of groundwater resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Cors; Wuijts, Susanne; Boekhold, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major resource for drinking water in the Netherlands . Evaluation of the EU Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) showed that protection of this valuable resource needs improval. Drinking Water Protection Files were set up to assess risks and identify actions needed regarding the identification and implementation of measures enhancing the protection level of groundwater resources in groundwater protection areas. Evaluation of these first generation protection files showed several issues for further improvement, among others on effectiveness of measures. In workshops we analyzed and discussed the feasibility to quantify the impact of measures by combining information on groundwater quality with experiences of stakeholders with success and failure factors. Although there is still a way to go in the quantification of the impact of measures regarding the EU-WFD objectives, these workshops contributed to insight in i) the joint experience we gained on measures and their implementation at different spatial scales, ii) the distribution of the measures over identified risks (i.e. nitrate, pesticides and emerging contaminants) and iii) the estimated contribution of methods to reach the WFD objectives and knowledge gaps. From discussions in the national working group on protection files, it became clear that this analysis is a valuable first step in prioritizing and implementing the measures. Adequate monitoring of implemented measures will additionally contribute to a more quantitative assessment of the realization of the objectives of groundwater resources.

  6. Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

    2013-04-01

    shows tremendous susceptibility of the aquifer to pollution and reinforces the position of groundwater protection zones above aquifer.

  7. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. With the transitional provisions issued in the period leading to the German Unification. Full text edition with detailed index and an introduction by Prof. Dr. Peter-Christoph Storm. As of November 15, 1990. 6. rev. and enlarged ed. Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt. Mit den Ueberleitungsregelungen aus Anlass der Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands. Textausgabe mit ausfuehrlichem Sachverzeichnis und einer Einfuehrung von Prof. Dr. Peter-Christoph Storm. Stand: 15. November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulation on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environments law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment. Common administative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy are radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. The transitional provisons required for estaslishing the unified Germany are given in an annex. (orig.).

  8. Mining and radiation protection law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the hazards of ionising radiation in the mining sector for the mining employees, the neighbouring population and the environment, with regard to prospecting, mining and processing radioactive ores. Due attention must also be paid to stockpiles, radioactive waste and imports of radioactive minerals. International radiation protection laws are to be applied on the basis of Euratom, IAEA, OECP/NEA and ICRP. The national law to be applied is Basic Law, Atomic Energy Law, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976. This law includes all activities having to do with mining of radioactive minerals, transport, imports and exports and waste management. Last not least, questions concerning the supervision carried out by the state and the administration are dealt with. (HSCH).

  9. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  10. A survey of the information on co-ordination compound features which can be gained from electroanalytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempelli, G; Andreuzzi-Sedea, M; Fiorani, M

    1982-12-01

    The information provided by modern electroanalytical techniques on co-ordination compounds is surveyed. The problem of the interaction between the electrode and intermediates or products is also briefly considered; it is pointed out that the electroanalytical approach can be successfully employed to provide new insight into chemical properties of metal complexes only when weakly interacting species are involved. The information obtainable is considered under the following headings: (i) mechanistic studies on metal complexes and electroanalytical evidence for their reactivity and stability; (ii) structural features of co-ordination compounds in solution; (iii) feasibility of electrochemical syntheses; and (iv) stability of intermediate oxidation states with reference to the nature of the ligands co-ordinated to the metal.

  11. Distinct representations of symbolic ordinality and quantity: evidence from neuropsychological investigations in a Chinese patient with Gerstmann's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongqin; Xu, Mingwei; Shang, Desheng; Peng, Guoping; Luo, Benyan

    2014-07-01

    A number of recent studies have shown conflicting evidence as to common or distinct representations between symbolic ordinality and quantity. We investigated this issue through a series of neuropsychological tests in a unique Chinese patient with the left angular gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus lesions. Behavioral experiments revealed that (1) the patient showed Gerstmann syndrome, with minimal anomia and alexia and (2) the patient showed the dissociation among number semantic representations with relatively preserved symbolic quantity knowledge and impaired processing of symbolic order meaning. Together with existing evidence in the literature, results of the current study suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of symbolic ordinality and quantity in logographic language according to this dissociation. Most importantly, another merit of this study is that the left angular gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus might be necessary to symbolic ordinality representation.

  12. Reconstruction of groundwater depletion using a global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater forms an integral part of the global hydrological cycle and is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water to satisfy human water needs. It buffers variable recharge rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of drought as well as evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. Moreover, although lateral groundwater flows are often slow, they cross topographic and administrative boundaries at appreciable rates. Despite the importance of groundwater, most global scale hydrological models do not consider surface water-groundwater interactions or include a lateral groundwater flow component. The main reason of this omission is the lack of consistent global-scale hydrogeological information needed to arrive at a more realistic representation of the groundwater system, i.e. including information on aquifer depths and the presence of confining layers. The latter holds vital information on the accessibility and quality of the global groundwater resource. In this study we developed a high resolution (5 arc-minutes) global scale transient groundwater model comprising confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is based on MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) and coupled with the land-surface model PCR GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011) via recharge and surface water levels. Aquifers properties were based on newly derived estimates of aquifer depths (de Graaf et al., 2014b) and thickness of confining layers from an integration of lithological and topographical information. They were further parameterized using available global datasets on lithology (Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2011) and permeability (Gleeson et al., 2014). In a sensitivity analysis the model was run with various hydrogeological parameter settings, under natural recharge only. Scenarios of past groundwater abstractions and corresponding recharge (Wada et al., 2012, de Graaf et al. 2014a) were evaluated. The resulting estimates of groundwater depletion are lower than

  13. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  14. Computation of 2-D pinhole image-formation process of large-scale furnaces using the discrete ordinates method

    CERN Document Server

    Li Hong; Lu Ji Dong; Zheng Chu Guan

    2003-01-01

    In most of the discrete ordinate schemes (DOS) reported in the literature, the discrete directions are fixed, and unable to be arbitrarily adjusted; therefore, it is difficult to employ these schemes to calculate the radiative energy image-formation of pulverized-coal furnaces. On the basis of a new DOS, named the discrete ordinate scheme with (an) infinitely small weight(s), which was recently proposed by the authors, a novel algorithm for computing the pinhole image-formation process is developed in this work. The performance of this algorithm is tested, and is found to be also suitable for parallel computation.

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  16. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  17. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  18. Particle tracking for selected groundwater wells in the lower Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Matthew P.

    2015-10-21

    The Yakima River Basin in south-central Washington has a long history of irrigated agriculture and a more recent history of large-scale livestock operations, both of which may contribute nutrients to the groundwater system. Nitrate concentrations in water samples from shallow groundwater wells in the lower Yakima River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard, generating concerns that current applications of fertilizer and animal waste may be exceeding the rate at which plants can uptake nutrients, and thus contributing to groundwater contamination.

  19. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  20. Evaluating the implementation of the energy consumption labelling ordinance. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Kling, N.; Mannsbart, W.; Stoeckle, F.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the present degree of compliance with the Energy Consumption Labelling Ordinance for large household appliances in Germany in an empirical inventory. Concrete proposals to improve the degree of compliance with Directive among manufacturers and retailers were to be elaborated based on this inventory and the analysis of possible deficiencies in implementation and and their causes. A further objective of the study was to examine whether there was an increase in the share of appliance sales in the highest efficiency classes, so as to be able to judge the success of the measures provided in the Directive in accordance with the underlying energy and environmental objective of further reducing energy consumption in households. Furthermore, experience of other European countries in implementing the EU Directive was to be considered. (orig./CB)

  1. Posição ordinal dos filhos, sexo e esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios I. Térzis

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a hipótese de associação entre a posição ordinal dos filhos dentro de sua prole e a prevalência da esquizofrenia. Para examinar o objetivo acima proposto, foram observados 404 pacientes esquizofrênicos (201 do sexo masculino e 203 do sexo feminino que estavam internados em 5 hospitais da área metropolitana de São Paulo. O método estatístico utilizado, que permitiu a análise dos efeitos da ordem de nascimento sobre a prevalência de esquizofrenia, foi o de Greenwood-Yule. Verificou-se que existe associação entre ordem de nascimento e esquizofrenia e que esta relação pode ser descrita em termos de um excesso de primogênitos esquizofrênicos, tanto masculinos como femininos.

  2. Analysis of ontogenetic spectra of populations of plants and lichens via ordinal regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G. Yu.; Glotov, N. V.; Ivanov, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    Ontogenetic spectra of plants and lichens tend to vary across the populations. This means that if several subsamples within a sample (or a population) were collected, then the subsamples would not be homogeneous. Consequently, the statistical analysis of the aggregated data would not be correct, which could potentially lead to false biological conclusions. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of the subsamples, we propose to use ordinal regression, which is a type of generalized linear regression. In this paper, we study the populations of cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. We obtain estimates for the proportions of between-sample variability in the total variability of the ontogenetic spectra of the populations.

  3. Note sull'ordine degli elementi in coppie di verbi antonimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Vicario

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La riflessione sulle categorie e le proprieta legate al fenomeno dell'antonimia ri­ guarda, in semantica, una serie di fatti senza dubbio interessanti e di notevole com­ plessita. La definizione comune, tradizionale, di antonimia - in una certa misura anche generica - designa, in buona sostanza, l'antitesi tra elementi della lingua, tra parole, che hanno un "significato contrario"1. A partire da tale definizione, che ri­ chiama per altro il principio binario di opposizione che costituisce uno dei fonda­ menti strutturali delle lingue, vd. Lyons (1980: 294 sgg., numerosi sono i modelli di analisi, le tassonomie e le tipologie elaborate per una migliore descrizione del feno­meno  o di casi particolari  del medesimo 2 . Si proporranno  qui, in particolare, alcune brevi osservazioni sull'ordine in cui si presentano i termini che formano  coppie di verbi  antonimi (reciproci.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor co-ordinates proper development of lung epithelium and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqing; Wang, Ke; Ferrara, Napoleone; Vu, Thiennu H

    2005-07-01

    The vasculature forms an intrinsic functional component of the lung and its development must be tightly regulated and coordinated with lung epithelial morphogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are highly expressed in a complementary pattern in the lungs during embryonic development. VEGF is expressed by epithelium and the receptors in the surrounding mesenchyme. To determine the function of VEGF in lung formation, we inhibited its activity using a soluble receptor in lung renal capsule grafts. Inhibition of VEGF results in inhibition of vascular development and significant alteration in epithelial development. Epithelial proliferation is inhibited, sacculation is impaired, and the epithelium undergoes apoptosis. Interestingly, when VEGF is attenuated, epithelial differentiation still proceeds, as shown by acquisition of both proximal and distal markers. These data show that VEGF co-ordinates epithelial and vascular development. It is required for the development of the lung vasculature and the vasculature is necessary for epithelial proliferation and morphogenesis, but not for cell differentiation.

  5. Characteristics, classification and ordination of riparian plant communities in the Three-Gorges areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen different vegetation types of grassland and shrubland were selected to study the component and diversity of plant species of riparian plant communities along main channel in the Three-Gorges areas. Species richness (s), Simpson index (D), and Shannon-Weiner index (H) were used to study the biodiversity and the hierarchical classification was carried out by the methods of TWINSPAN and DCA ordination. The results showed that the components of flora were complex and dominated by the temperate type in the riparian plant communities. Species diversity was not different between the communities, but Shannon-Weiner indexes of different layers in some grassland were significantly different. TWINSPAN and DCA indicated that riparian plant communities distributed along the gradient of moisture.

  6. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginot, Peter G., E-mail: maginot1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ragusa, Jean C., E-mail: jean.ragusa@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  7. Municipalities' Priority Problems and Prospect of Establishing Ordinance to Measures for Marginal Hamlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Mayumi; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Kuki, Yasuaki

    The problems of Marginal Hamlets are getting worse, in which more than half of the population is over 65 and community-based life is difficult. To contribute to effective policy making, we conducted a questionnaire survey to members of the National Liaison Council of ‘Suigen no Sato’ constituted to share information about problems and effective counter measures for marginal hamlets. Our study clarified that first, most of respondents had common problems such as lack of job-opportunities and animal damage on farm, and second, though most of respondents recognized the effectiveness of selecting target communities in policy implementations, it is difficult for municipal governments to establish such ordinance provided that councilors and those who were not living in areas of policy target wouldn't agree with it. Finally, we pointed out the roles of national and prefectural governments to help municipal governments effectively cope with such entangled situations.

  8. Using Two-Level Factor Analysis to Test for Cluster Bias in Ordinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, Frans J; Dolan, Conor V

    2014-01-01

    The test for cluster bias is a test of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. This article examines the true positive rates (empirical power) and false positive rates of the test for cluster bias using the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and the Wald test with ordinal data. A simulation study indicates that the scaled version of the LRT that accounts for nonnormality of the data gives untrustworthy results, whereas the unscaled LRT and the Wald test have acceptable false positive rates and perform well in terms of empirical power rate if the amount of cluster bias is large. The test for cluster bias is illustrated with data from research on teacher-student relations.

  9. Logistic random effects regression models: a comparison of statistical packages for binary and ordinal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome. Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. Methods We used individual patient data from 8509 patients in 231 centers with moderate and severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI enrolled in eight Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs and three observational studies. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the 5-point Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS as outcome, both dichotomized as well as ordinal, with center and/or trial as random effects, and as covariates age, motor score, pupil reactivity or trial. We then compared the implementations of frequentist and Bayesian methods to estimate the fixed and random effects. Frequentist approaches included R (lme4, Stata (GLLAMM, SAS (GLIMMIX and NLMIXED, MLwiN ([R]IGLS and MIXOR, Bayesian approaches included WinBUGS, MLwiN (MCMC, R package MCMCglmm and SAS experimental procedure MCMC. Three data sets (the full data set and two sub-datasets were analysed using basically two logistic random effects models with either one random effect for the center or two random effects for center and trial. For the ordinal outcome in the full data set also a proportional odds model with a random center effect was fitted. Results The packages gave similar parameter estimates for both the fixed and random effects and for the binary (and ordinal models for the main study and when based on a relatively large number of level-1 (patient level data compared to the number of level-2 (hospital level data. However, when based on relatively sparse data set, i.e. when the numbers of level-1 and level-2 data units were about the same, the frequentist and Bayesian approaches showed somewhat different results. The software implementations differ considerably in flexibility, computation time, and usability. There are also differences in

  10. Test Statistics and Confidence Intervals to Establish Noninferiority between Treatments with Ordinal Categorical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fanghong; Miyaoka, Etsuo; Huang, Fuping; Tanaka, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The problem for establishing noninferiority is discussed between a new treatment and a standard (control) treatment with ordinal categorical data. A measure of treatment effect is used and a method of specifying noninferiority margin for the measure is provided. Two Z-type test statistics are proposed where the estimation of variance is constructed under the shifted null hypothesis using U-statistics. Furthermore, the confidence interval and the sample size formula are given based on the proposed test statistics. The proposed procedure is applied to a dataset from a clinical trial. A simulation study is conducted to compare the performance of the proposed test statistics with that of the existing ones, and the results show that the proposed test statistics are better in terms of the deviation from nominal level and the power.

  11. Medical equipment ordinance and lack of personnel: two contrary factors influencing anesthesia patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, K; Dieterich, H J

    1991-01-01

    In January 1986, West German legislators enacted the Medical Equipment Ordinance (MedGV) to define specific regulations for both manufacturers and operators of medical equipment and to offer a measure of safety to patients. We describe the history of MedGV, its regulations, and the mechanisms developed to enforce those regulations. We also evaluate its impact on clinical practice in light of the current staff shortages in anesthesia practice and research in Germany. Finally, we focus our discussion on the distinction between improved equipment as a minor factor in critical-incidents and the inadequate manpower as a major factor in anesthesia mishaps. It is unclear what will develop after 1993, when the national states in Europe form a common market.

  12. Bayesian structural equations modeling for ordinal response data with missing responses and missing covariates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kim, S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 6.01 Difierent background 8.86 Pay satisfaction 1.25 Supervisor support 7.27 Employee development 1.86 Customer satisfaction 6.83 Innovation 2.94 Employee satisfaction 1.43 Manager goals 5.28 Quality 1.38 Respect 1.48 Retention 0.83 Con ict... for by the facility efiect variability, in the latter the variability is accounted for by the structural dependency as well as the facility efiect. The structural part of the ordinal response SEM is given by ·ij = ¡·ij + »ij; (3.7) where »ij » N (0; diag( 2·1...

  13. A Multinomial Ordinal Probit Model with Singular Value Decomposition Method for a Multinomial Trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonil Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a multinomial ordinal probit model with singular value decomposition for testing a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs simultaneously for association with multidisease status when sample size is much smaller than the number of SNPs. The validity and performance of the method was evaluated via simulation. We applied the method to our real study sample recruited through the Mexican-American Coronary Artery Disease study. We found 3 genes (SORCS1, AMPD1, and PPARα to be associated with the development of both IGT and IFG, while 5 genes (AMPD2, PRKAA2, C5, TCF7L2, and ITR with the IGT mechanism only and 6 genes (CAPN10, IL4, NOS3, CD14, GCG, and SORT1 with the IFG mechanism only. These data suggest that IGT and IFG may indicate different physiological mechanism to prediabetes, via different genetic determinants.

  14. The impact of tourists on Antarctic tardigrades: an ordination-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. McInnes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are important members of the Antarctic biota yet little is known about their role in the soil fauna or whether they are affected by anthropogenic factors. The German Federal Environment Agency commissioned research to assess the impact of human activities on soil meiofauna at 14 localities along the Antarctic peninsula during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 austral summers. We used ordination techniques to re-assess the block-sampling design used to compare areas of high and low human impact, to identify which of the sampled variables were biologically relevant and/or demonstrated an anthropogenic significance. We found the most significant differences between locations, reflecting local habitat and vegetation factor, rather than within-location anthropogenic impact. We noted no evidence of exotic imports but report on new maritime Antarctic sample sites and habitats.

  15. Intersegmental co-ordination of undulatory movements--a "trailing oscillator" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, T; Grillner, S

    1990-10-01

    Intersegmental co-ordination in undulatory locomotion was investigated in the lamprey spinal cord in vitro. It is characterized by a constant phase lag between the activation of consecutive segments. By increasing the excitability (NMDA level) locally, a "travelling wave" could be induced to start in any segment and to be conducted in both rostral and caudal directions. This leading segment, the one with the highest excitability, determined the frequency of all other segments, and the ascending and descending couplings were functionally symmetric. The intersegmental phase lag can be explained by a simple neural mechanism in which a leading oscillator will entrain the adjacent "trailing" segments, which in turn entrain their neighbours and so forth.

  16. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sumonkanti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study attempts to develop an ordinal logistic regression (OLR model to identify the determinants of child malnutrition instead of developing traditional binary logistic regression (BLR model using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Methods Based on weight-for-age anthropometric index (Z-score child nutrition status is categorized into three groups-severely undernourished ( Results All the models determine that age of child, birth interval, mothers' education, maternal nutrition, household wealth status, child feeding index, and incidence of fever, ARI & diarrhoea were the significant predictors of child malnutrition; however, results of PPOM were more precise than those of other models. Conclusion These findings clearly justify that OLR models (POM and PPOM are appropriate to find predictors of malnutrition instead of BLR models.

  17. Evaluating the implementation of the energy consumption labelling ordinance. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Kling, N.; Mannsbart, W.; Stoeckle, F.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the present degree of compliance with the Energy Consumption Labelling Ordinance for large household appliances in Germany in an empirical inventory. Concrete proposals to improve the degree of compliance with Directive among manufacturers and retailers were to be elaborated based on this inventory and the analysis of possible deficiencies in implementation and and their causes. A further objective of the study was to examine whether there was an increase in the share of appliance sales in the highest efficiency classes, so as to be able to judge the success of the measures provided in the Directive in accordance with the underlying energy and environmental objective of further reducing energy consumption in households. Furthermore, experience of other European countries in implementing the EU Directive was to be considered. (orig./CB)

  18. Discrete ordinates method for three-dimensional neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A discrete ordinates method for a threedimensional first-order neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes that avoids the singularity of the second-order neutron transport equation in void regions was derived.The finite element variation equation was obtained using the least-squares method.A three-dimensional transport calculation code was developed.Both the triangular-z and the tetrahedron elements were included.The numerical results of some benchmark problems demonstrated that this method can solve neutron transport problems in unstructuredmeshes very well.For most problems,the error of the eigenvalue and the angular flux is less than 0.3% and 3.0% respectively.

  19. Opg, Rank, and Rankl in tooth development: co-ordination of odontogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohazama, A; Courtney, J-M; Sharpe, P T

    2004-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) are mediators of various cellular interactions, including bone metabolism. We analyzed expression of these three genes during murine odontogenesis from epithelial thickening to cytodifferentiation stages. Opg showed expression in the thickening and bud epithelium. Expression of Opg and Rank was observed in both the internal and the external enamel epithelium as well as in the dental papilla mesenchyme. Although Rankl expression was not detected in tooth epithelium or mesenchyme, it was expressed in pre-osteogenic mesenchymal cells close to developing tooth germs. All three genes were detected in developing dentary bone at P0. The addition of exogenous OPG to explant cultures of tooth primordia produced a delay in tooth development that resulted in reduced mineralization. We propose that the spatiotemporal expression of these molecules in early tooth and bone primordia cells has a role in co-ordinating bone and tooth development.

  20. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  2. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  3. Development of a new adaptive ordinal approach to continuous-variable probabilistic optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Chen, Chun-Hung (George Mason University, Fairfax, VA)

    2006-11-01

    A very general and robust approach to solving continuous-variable optimization problems involving uncertainty in the objective function is through the use of ordinal optimization. At each step in the optimization problem, improvement is based only on a relative ranking of the uncertainty effects on local design alternatives, rather than on precise quantification of the effects. One simply asks ''Is that alternative better or worse than this one?'' -not ''HOW MUCH better or worse is that alternative to this one?'' The answer to the latter question requires precise characterization of the uncertainty--with the corresponding sampling/integration expense for precise resolution. However, in this report we demonstrate correct decision-making in a continuous-variable probabilistic optimization problem despite extreme vagueness in the statistical characterization of the design options. We present a new adaptive ordinal method for probabilistic optimization in which the trade-off between computational expense and vagueness in the uncertainty characterization can be conveniently managed in various phases of the optimization problem to make cost-effective stepping decisions in the design space. Spatial correlation of uncertainty in the continuous-variable design space is exploited to dramatically increase method efficiency. Under many circumstances the method appears to have favorable robustness and cost-scaling properties relative to other probabilistic optimization methods, and uniquely has mechanisms for quantifying and controlling error likelihood in design-space stepping decisions. The method is asymptotically convergent to the true probabilistic optimum, so could be useful as a reference standard against which the efficiency and robustness of other methods can be compared--analogous to the role that Monte Carlo simulation plays in uncertainty propagation.

  4. Biofilm resilience to desiccation in groundwater aquifers: a laboratory and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, L; Webber, J B; Hickson, A C; Abraham, P M; Close, M E

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is used as a precious resource for drinking water worldwide. Increasing anthropogenic activity is putting increasing pressure on groundwater resources. One impact of increased groundwater abstraction coupled with increasing dry weather events is the lowering of groundwater levels within aquifers. Biofilms within groundwater aquifers offer protection to the groundwater by removing contaminants entering the aquifer systems from land use activities. The study presented investigated the impact of desiccation events on the biofilms present in groundwater aquifers using field and laboratory experiments. In both field and laboratory experiments a reduction in enzyme activity (glucosidase, esterase and phosphatase) was seen during desiccation compared to wet controls. However, comparing all the data together no significant differences were seen between either wet or desiccated samples or between the start and end of the experiments. In both field and laboratory experiments enzyme activity recovered to start levels after return to wet conditions. The study shows that biofilms within groundwater systems are resilient and can withstand periods of desiccation (4 months).

  5. A meta-analysis and statistical modelling of nitrates in groundwater at the African scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of groundwater with nitrate poses a major health risk to millions of people around Africa. Assessing the space-time distribution of this contamination, as well as understanding the factors that explain this contamination, is important for managing sustainable drinking water at the regional scale. This study aims to assess the variables that contribute to nitrate pollution in groundwater at the African scale by statistical modelling. We compiled a literature database of nitrate concentration in groundwater (around 250 studies) and combined it with digital maps of physical attributes such as soil, geology, climate, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic data for statistical model development. The maximum, medium, and minimum observed nitrate concentrations were analysed. In total, 13 explanatory variables were screened to explain observed nitrate pollution in groundwater. For the mean nitrate concentration, four variables are retained in the statistical explanatory model: (1) depth to groundwater (shallow groundwater, typically assumptions of the data set, we do not develop a statistical model for these data. The data-based statistical model presented here represents an important step towards developing tools that will allow us to accurately predict nitrate distribution at the African scale and thus may support groundwater monitoring and water management that aims to protect groundwater systems. Yet they should be further refined and validated when more detailed and harmonized data become available and/or combined with more conceptual descriptions of the fate of nutrients in the hydrosystem.

  6. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  7. Groundwater Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Stoker; A. S. Johnson; B. D. Newman; B. M. Gallaher; C. L. Nylander; D. B. Rogers; D. E. Broxton; D. Katzman; E. H. Keating; G. L. Cole; K. A. Bitner; K. I. Mullen; P. Longmire; S. G. McLin; W. J. Stone

    1999-04-01

    Groundwater protection activities and hydrogeologic characterization studies are conducted at LANL annually. A summary of fiscal year 1998 results and findings shows increased understanding of the hydrogeologic environment beneath the Pajarito Plateau and significant refinement to elements of the LANL Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model pertaining to areas and sources of recharge to the regional aquifer. Modeling, drilling, monitoring, and data collection activities are proposed for fiscal year 1999.

  8. Groundwater Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Nylander; K. A. Bitner; K. Henning; A. S. Johnson; E. H. Keating; P. Longmire; B. D. Newman; B. Robinson; D. B. Rogers; W. J. Stone; D. Vaniman

    2000-03-01

    Groundwater protection activities and hydrogeologic characterization studies are conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory annually. A summary of fiscal year 1999 results and findings shows increased understanding of the hydrogeologic environment beneath the Pajarito Plateau and significant refinement to elements of the LANL. Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model pertaining to areas and sources of recharge to the regional aquifer. Modeling, drilling, monitoring, and data collection activities are proposed for fiscal year 2000.

  9. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  11. Dyslexia and Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder in Further and Higher Education--Similarities and Differences. Does the "Label" Influence the Support Given?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa; Edwards, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. The "Diagnostics Statistics Manual"--IV classification for DCD describes difficulties across a range of activities of daily living, impacting on everyday skills and academic performance in school. Recent evidence has shown that…

  12. Modelling wetland-groundwater interactions in the boreal Kälväsvaara esker, Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Anna; Rossi, Pekka; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Many types of boreal peatland ecosystems such as alkaline fens, aapa mires and Fennoscandia spring fens rely on the presence of groundwater. In these ecosystems groundwater creates unique conditions for flora and fauna by providing water, nutrients and constant water temperature enriching local biodiversity. The groundwater-peatland interactions and their dynamics are not, however, in many cases fully understood and their measurement and quantification is difficult due to highly heterogeneous structure of peatlands and large spatial extend of these ecosystems. Understanding of these interactions and their changes due to anthropogenic impact on groundwater resources would benefit the protection of the groundwater dependent peatlands. The groundwater-peatland interactions were investigated using the fully-integrated physically-based groundwater-surface water code HydroGeoSphere in a case study of the Kälväsvaara esker aquifer, Northern Finland. The Kälväsvaara is a geologically complex esker and it is surrounded by vast aapa mire system including alkaline and springs fens. In addition, numerous small springs occur in the discharge zone of the esker. In order to quantify groundwater-peatland interactions a simple steady-state model was built and results were evaluated using expected trends and field measurements. The employed model reproduced relatively well spatially distributed hydrological variables such as soil water content, water depths and groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes within the wetland and esker areas. The wetlands emerged in simulations as a result of geological and topographical conditions. They could be identified by high saturation levels at ground surface and by presence of shallow ponded water over some areas. The model outputs exhibited also strong surface water-groundwater interactions in some parts of the aapa system. These areas were noted to be regions of substantial diffusive groundwater discharge by the earlier studies. In

  13. Finite Element Modelling of Infinite Euler Beams on Kelvin Foundations Exposed to Moving Loads in Convected Co-ordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the finite element method (FEM) solution of the problem with loads moving uniformly along an infinite Euler beam supported by a linear elastic Kelvin foundation with linear viscous damping. Initially, the problem is formulatedin a moving co-ordinate system following the load...

  14. Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

  15. Genetic effects of some platinum co-ordination complexes on E.coli DNA as revealed by transformation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, W.P.M.; Daemen, Toos

    1982-01-01

    E. coli chromosomal DNA was treated with various Pt co-ordination compounds and then used as donor DNA in E. coli transformation. Genetic analysis of transformants obtained with Pt-treated DNA showed effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-Pt(II)) and cis-Pt-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane Cl4

  16. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  17. Application of Multimedia Technology to Study the Ordinal Competences of Children from 3 to 7 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pedro; Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present an ongoing research study on the evolution of pre-numerical and pre-inductive levels of ordinal thought in students from three to seven years old. Our methodology is based on multimedia technology, an automatic and objective record of the data and minimal interaction between students and researcher. A…

  18. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  19. A social simulation-game to explore future co-ordination in knowledge networks at the Amsterdam Police Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Laere, J.; De Vreede, G. J.; Sol, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    The 32 autonomous neighbourhood teams of the Amsterdam Police Force need to utilise each other's knowledge and expertise to deal with the variety and complexity of their daily work assignments. However, despite the creation of organisation wide knowledge networks, communication, co-ordination and kn

  20. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.