WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater pollution sources

  1. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh; Roohollah Noori; Ronny Berndtsson; Jan Adamowski; Elaheh Sadatipour

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a ...

  2. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Md; Srivastava, Rajesh; Jain, Ashu

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in several parts of the world. Contamination of groundwater has become a serious health and environmental problem today. Human activities including industrial and agricultural activities are generally responsible for this contamination. Identification of groundwater pollution source is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation. Complete knowledge of pollution source in terms of its source characteristics is essential to adopt an effective remediation strategy. Groundwater pollution source is said to be identified completely when the source characteristics - location, strength and release period - are known. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an ill-posed inverse problem. It becomes more difficult for real field conditions, when the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. We developed a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of an unknown groundwater pollution source. The model comprises two parts- an optimization model and an ANN model. Decision variables of linked ANN-Optimization model contain source location and release period of pollution source. An objective function is formulated using the spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentrations, and then minimized to identify the pollution source parameters. In the formulation of the objective function, we require the lag time which is not known. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the lag time. Different combinations of source locations and release periods are used as inputs and lag time is obtained as the output. Performance of the proposed model is evaluated for two and three dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. Erroneous data was generated by adding uniformly distributed random error (error level 0-10%) to the analytically computed concentration

  3. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP. Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  4. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Roohollah; Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-22

    Although Iran's Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region's potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  5. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.; Hayes, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  6. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... that the leaching from the landfill could be unevenly distributed. The main specific organic compounds observed in the leachate were aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly xylenes), phenols and the pesticide MCPP. Preliminary investigations of the leach from the landfill indicated, that both a northerly leach to a drainage...

  7. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the U.S. Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. Large-scale management models were formulated as dual linear programing problems to reduce numerical difficulties and computation time. Linear programing problems were solved using a numerically stable, available code. Optimal solutions to problems with successively longer management time horizons indicated that disposal schedules at some sites are relatively independent of the number of disposal periods. Optimal waste disposal schedules exhibited pulsing rather than constant disposal rates. Sensitivity analysis using parametric linear programing showed that a sharp reduction in total waste disposal potential occurs if disposal rates at any site are increased beyond their optimal values.

  8. Impact of point source pollution on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, M.A.; Solehria, B.A.; Rai, N.I.

    2005-01-01

    The management of point source pollution (municipal and industrial waste water) is an important item on Brown Agenda confronting urban planners and policy makers. The industrial concerns and households produce enormous amount of waste water, which has to be disposed of through the municipal sewage system. Generally, municipal wastewater management is done on non-scientific lines, resulting in considerable social and economic loss and gradual degradation of the natural resources. The present study highlights that how the poor management practices, lack of infrastructure, and poor disposal system-comprising of mostly open, un-walled or partially lined drains, affect the groundwater quality and render it unfit for human consumption. Satiana Road sludge carrier at Faisalabad city, receiving effluents of about 67 textile units, 4 oil mills, 2 ice factories, 3 laundris and domestic waste water of Peoples Colony No.1, Maqbool Road and Ghulam Rasool Nagar was selected to derive quantitative and qualitative estimates of TDS, Na, Cl and heavy metals namely Fe, Cu and Pb of the waste water and their leaching around the sludge carrier. The measurement of leaching of TDS, Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -1/ per 1000 m basis in lined section was 818, 550 and 228 tons, respectively. Where as in the unlined section, annual increase of TDS, Na/sup /+, and Cl/sup -/ was 2404,1615 and 669 tons per 1000 m respectively. In case of leaching of metals through the sludge carrier, Cu was at the top with 8.4 tons per annum per 1000 m followed by Fe and Pb with 6.66 and 1.2 tons per annum per 1000 m respectively. The concentration of all the salts/metals studied were higher in groundwater near the sludge carrier which decreased with increase in distance. The groundwater contamination in unlined portions is greater than lined portions, which might be due to higher seepage losses in unlined portions of the sludge carrier (4.9 % per 1000 m) as compared to relatively low seepage losses in lined portion of

  9. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  10. Changes of Groundwater Quality in the Sorrounding Pollution Sources Due to Earthquake Dissaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main domestic water supply of the population of the Yogyakarta Special Region, both in the urban and as well as in the rural area due to its quantity and quality advantages. The rapid population growth has caused an increase of groundwater demand, consequently it is facing some problems to the sustainability of groundwater supply. Lowering of groundwater level has been observed in some places, as well as the degradation of groundwater quality. Earthquake which stroke Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006, damaged buildings and other infrastructures in the area, including roads and bridges. It might also damage the underground structures such as septic tanks, and pipes underneath the earth surface. It might cause cracking of the geologic structures. Furthermore, the damage of underneath infrastructures might create groundwater quality changes in the area. Some complains of local community on lowering and increasing groundwater level and groundwater quality changes were noted. Field observation and investigation were conducted, including collection of groundwater samples close to (the pollution sources. Laboratory analyses indicated that some parameters increased to exceed the drinking water quality standards. The high content of Coli form bacteria possibly was caused by contamination of nearby septic tanks or other pollution sources to the observed groundwater in the dug well.

  11. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl{sup −} concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM{sub (ZS)} is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl{sup -} concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup -} concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM{sub (ZS)} based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl{sup −} concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup −} concentration.

  12. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl − concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM (ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl - concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl - concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM (ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl − concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl − concentration

  13. On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Amano, Hiroki; Takao, Yuji; Hosono, Takahiro; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable for developing effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Known major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizers, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. In general, scatter diagrams of δ18O and δ15N from NO3- can be used to identify these pollution sources. However, this method can be difficult to use for chemical fertilizers and livestock waste sources due to the overlap of δ18O and δ15N ranges. In this study, we propose to use coprostanol as an indicator for the source of pollution. Coprostanol can be used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is a major fecal sterol formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to investigate NO3- pollution sources for groundwater in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Groundwater samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2013 to November 2015. These data were used to quantify relationships between NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and coprostanol. The results show that coprostanol has a potential for source identification of nitrate pollution. For lower coprostanol concentrations (conventional diagrams of isotopic ratios cannot distinguish pollution sources, coprostanol may be a useful tool.

  14. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  15. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  17. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous identification of unknown groundwater pollution sources and estimation of aquifer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Bithin; Chakrabarty, Dibakar; Dhar, Anirban

    2009-09-01

    Pollution source identification is a common problem encountered frequently. In absence of prior information about flow and transport parameters, the performance of source identification models depends on the accuracy in estimation of these parameters. A methodology is developed for simultaneous pollution source identification and parameter estimation in groundwater systems. The groundwater flow and transport simulator is linked to the nonlinear optimization model as an external module. The simulator defines the flow and transport processes, and serves as a binding equality constraint. The Jacobian matrix which determines the search direction in the nonlinear optimization model links the groundwater flow-transport simulator and the optimization method. Performance of the proposed methodology using spatiotemporal hydraulic head values and pollutant concentration measurements is evaluated by solving illustrative problems. Two different decision model formulations are developed. The computational efficiency of these models is compared using two nonlinear optimization algorithms. The proposed methodology addresses some of the computational limitations of using the embedded optimization technique which embeds the discretized flow and transport equations as equality constraints for optimization. Solution results obtained are also found to be better than those obtained using the embedded optimization technique. The performance evaluations reported here demonstrate the potential applicability of the developed methodology for a fairly large aquifer study area with multiple unknown pollution sources.

  19. Pollution sources and groundwater quality in the Coastal region of the Yugoslav part of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatina, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to access the vulnerability and risk of the aquifer system in the Yugoslav part of the Danube, as the primary source of drinking water for a numerically substantial community, industrial purposes and irrigation, as well as a high concentration of civil, industrial and agricultural activities (hence, a potential source of pollution of the groundwater resources through land occupation and use as well as the disposal of solid and liquid wastes), a great hydro-geophysical exploration was performed. Within the lower part of the plain, exploratory test of Salinac field, near Smederevo town, was particularly investigated. The reason why is because that part is also an area of the mouth of the Velika Morava into the Danube, where Derdap reservoir is located. Task of complex exploration was to delineate the aquifer, obtain appropriate parameters (groundwater level, groundwater chemistry, clay content, filtration characteristics and physical parameters of geological functions), as well as to map the aquifer vulnerability, in order to prevent and moderate a harmful influence of the performed reservoir on the environment (increased groundwater infiltration from the reservoir into surrounding rocks, permanent groundwater level raising, etc.). Based on the results, zoning of the study area according to the aquifer vulnerability has been done. Then, land-use planning and development of strategy for groundwater protection and management was possible. In the paper, not only sources of contamination, characteristics of pollutants and their influence on the groundwater quality was presented, but also content of organic matters, phosphates and nitrogen compounds, etc. Further, means of protection and management are discussed, as well as the appropriate legal regulations. (author)

  20. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 − –N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO 3 − –N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO 3 − –N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO 3 − –N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious seasonal variations. • Nitrate of

  1. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  2. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  3. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  4. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  5. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  7. LIQUID WASTE FROM SEPTIC TANKS AS A SOURCE OF MICROBIOLOGICAL POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of soil and water environment by liquid waste originating from septic tanks is a huge problem in Poland. This applies especially to rural areas. Negative changes are observed both in the vicinity of the leaking tanks, from which concentrated and rotten sewage infiltrates into the ground, and in surface water as well as arable land, to which impurities from the emptied tanks are discharged. The paper presents the scale of the practice of uncontrolled domestic sewage discharge into the environment on the example of selected municipality. Presented data were compared with the results of the qualitative assessment of groundwater, which is collected in the same municipality for waterworks. In a significant number of wells, water was not safe in sanitary terms, as the presence of microbiological contamination was recorded. Among determined microorganisms, the indicator organisms of domestic waste pollution prevailed. Water quality problems have been reported at intake points located near the properties equipped with septic tanks or in places, to which sewage from emptying septic tanks were transferred in an uncontrolled manner. In this way it has been shown that there is a relationship between improperly maintained wastewater management and groundwater quality collected for the purpose of water supply.

  8. Fingerprinting groundwater pollution in catchments with contrasting contaminant sources using microorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne E; Lapworth, Dan J; Thomas, Jenny; Edwards, Laura

    2014-01-15

    Evaluating the occurrence of microorganics helps to understand sources and processes which may be controlling the transport and fate of emerging contaminants (ECs). A study was carried out at the contrasting instrumented environmental observatory sites at Oxford, on the peri-urban floodplain gravel aquifer of the River Thames and Boxford, in the rural valley of the River Lambourn on the chalk aquifer, in Southern England to explore the use of ECs to fingerprint contaminant sources and flow pathways in groundwater. At Oxford compounds were typical of a local waste tip plume (not only plasticisers and solvents but also barbiturates and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)) and of the urban area (plasticisers and mood-enhancing drugs such as carbamazepine). At Boxford the results were different with widespread occurrence of agricultural pesticides, their metabolites and the solvent trichloroethene, as well as plasticisers, caffeine, butylated food additives, DEET, parabens and trace polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of compounds used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products of different provenance in the environment could be distinguished, i) historical household and medical waste, ii) long-term household usage persistent in groundwater and iii) current usage and contamination from surface water. Co-contaminant and degradation products can also indicate the likely source of contaminants. A cocktail of contaminants can be used as tracers to provide information on catchment pathways and groundwater/surface water interactions. A prominent feature in this study is the attenuation of many EC compounds in the hyporheic zone. © 2013.

  9. Catchment tracers reveal discharge, recharge and sources of groundwater-borne pollutants in a novel lake modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater-borne contaminants such as nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM and pesticides can have an impact the biological quality of lakes. The sources of pollutants can, however, be difficult to identify due to high heterogeneity in groundwater flow patterns. This study presents a novel approach for fast hydrological surveys of small groundwater-fed lakes using multiple groundwater-borne tracers. Water samples were collected from the lake and temporary groundwater wells, installed every 50 m within a distance of 5–45 m to the shore, were analysed for tracer concentrations of CDOM, DOC, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, groundwater only, total nitrogen (TN, lake only, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP, groundwater only, total phosphorus (TP, lake only, δ18O ∕ δ16O isotope ratios and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM components derived from parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The isolation of groundwater recharge areas was based on δ18O measurements and areas with a high groundwater recharge rate were identified using a microbially influenced FDOM component. Groundwater discharge sites and the fractions of water delivered from the individual sites were isolated with the Community Assembly via Trait Selection model (CATS. The CATS model utilized tracer measurements of TDP, TDN, DOC and CDOM from the groundwater samples and related these to the tracer measurements of TN, TP, DOC and CDOM in the lake. A direct comparison between the lake and the inflowing groundwater was possible as degradation rates of the tracers in the lake were taken into account and related to a range of water retention times (WRTs of the lake (0.25–3.5 years in 0.25-year increments. These estimations showed that WRTs above 2 years required a higher tracer concentration of inflowing water than found in any of the groundwater wells around the lake. From the estimations of inflowing tracer concentration

  10. Catchment tracers reveal discharge, recharge and sources of groundwater-borne pollutants in a novel lake modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Emil; Madsen-Østerbye, Mikkel; Massicotte, Philippe; Pedersen, Ole; Markager, Stiig; Kragh, Theis

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater-borne contaminants such as nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and pesticides can have an impact the biological quality of lakes. The sources of pollutants can, however, be difficult to identify due to high heterogeneity in groundwater flow patterns. This study presents a novel approach for fast hydrological surveys of small groundwater-fed lakes using multiple groundwater-borne tracers. Water samples were collected from the lake and temporary groundwater wells, installed every 50 m within a distance of 5-45 m to the shore, were analysed for tracer concentrations of CDOM, DOC, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, groundwater only), total nitrogen (TN, lake only), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP, groundwater only), total phosphorus (TP, lake only), δ18O / δ16O isotope ratios and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) components derived from parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The isolation of groundwater recharge areas was based on δ18O measurements and areas with a high groundwater recharge rate were identified using a microbially influenced FDOM component. Groundwater discharge sites and the fractions of water delivered from the individual sites were isolated with the Community Assembly via Trait Selection model (CATS). The CATS model utilized tracer measurements of TDP, TDN, DOC and CDOM from the groundwater samples and related these to the tracer measurements of TN, TP, DOC and CDOM in the lake. A direct comparison between the lake and the inflowing groundwater was possible as degradation rates of the tracers in the lake were taken into account and related to a range of water retention times (WRTs) of the lake (0.25-3.5 years in 0.25-year increments). These estimations showed that WRTs above 2 years required a higher tracer concentration of inflowing water than found in any of the groundwater wells around the lake. From the estimations of inflowing tracer concentration, the CATS model isolated

  11. Oil pollution and microbiological quality of groundwater at the location of the water source 'Ratno ostrvo' nearby Novi Sad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, O.; Simeunovic, J.; Radnovic, D.; Matavulj, M.; Gajin, S.

    2002-01-01

    The 'Ratno ostrvo' is the biggest drinking water source in wider area of Novi Sad. It is located on the left bank of the river Danube near the Oil Refinery 'Novi Sad'. One of the consequences of the NATO bombing of the Oil Refinery 'Novi Sad' (which is placed in hinterland of the water source) was the uncontrolled spillage of crude oil and oil derivatives. Because of that, microbiological examinations of groundwaters, from both ecological and sanitary aspects were carried out simultaneously during post-war period. Microbiological analyses from sanitary aspects show very low number of coliform bacteria. Determination of numbers of bacteria of the investigated physiological groups, revealed that there was a constant relatively high number of oil-, phenol oxidizing and lipolytic bacteria which are indicators this kind of specific pollution. Microbiological analysis of oil polluted soil show presence relatively high number of different groups of bacteria. In spite of changed ecological situation caused by war effects, microbiological analyses of groundwater quality showed satisfactory results in source 'Ratno ostrvo' by now. The presence and potential activity of indigenous microflora could be utilized in recultivation processes in examined area. (author)

  12. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  13. Spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a century-old nonferrous metal mining and smelting area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xing; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-12-01

    This study first presents the spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a nonferrous metal mine area in China. Unconfined groundwater was polluted by Pb, Zn, As, and Cu, in order, while confined karst water in the mines showed pollution in the following sequence: Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, and As. Pollution by Pb was widespread, while Zn, As, Cu, and Cd were found to be high in the north-central industrial region and to decrease gradually with distance from smelters and tailings. Vertically, more Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have accumulated in shallow Quaternary groundwater, while more As have migrated into the deeper fracture groundwater in the local discharge area. Zn, Cd, and Cu concentrations in groundwater along the riverside diminished owing to reduced wastewater drainage since 1977, while samples in the confluence area were found to have increasing contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cu, and Cd since industrialization began in the 1990s. Sources of heavy metals in groundwater were of anthropogenic origin except for Cr. Pb originated primarily from airborne volatile particulates, wastewater, and waste residues and deposited continuously, while Zn, Cd, and Cu were derived from the wastewater of smelters and leakage of tailings, which corresponded to the related soil and surface residue researches. Elevated As values around factories might be the result of chemical reactions. Flow patterns in different hydrogeological units and adsorption capability of from Quaternary sediments restricted their cross-border diffusion.

  14. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  15. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  16. Source apportionment of groundwater pollution around landfill site in Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Deshpande, Vijaya

    2005-12-01

    The present work attempts statistical analysis of groundwater quality near a Landfill site in Nagpur, India. The objective of the present work is to figure out the impact of different factors on the quality of groundwater in the study area. Statistical analysis of the data has been attempted by applying Factor Analysis concept. The analysis brings out the effect of five different factors governing the groundwater quality in the study area. Based on the contribution of the different parameters present in the extracted factors, the latter are linked to the geological setting, the leaching from the host rock, leachate of heavy metals from the landfill as well as the bacterial contamination from landfill site and other anthropogenic activities. The analysis brings out the vulnerability of the unconfined aquifer to contamination.

  17. Identification of hydrogeochemical processes and pollution sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming Basin of Hainan island, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaowen, Y.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the evolution of groundwater quality is important for the control and management of groundwater resources. The main aims of the present study are to identify the major factors affecting hydrogeochemistry of groundwater resources and to evaluate the potential sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming basin using chemical and isotopic methods. The majority of samples belong to Na-Cl water type and are followed by Ca-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Na-HCO3. The δ18O and δ2H values in groundwater indicate that the shallow fissure groundwater is mainly recharged by rainfall. The evaporated surface water is another significant origin of groundwater. The weathering and dissolution of different rocks and minerals, input of precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange and anthropogenic activities, especially agricultural activities, influence the hydrogeochemistry of the study area. NO- 3 concentration in the groundwater varies from 0.7 to 51.7 mg/L and high values are mainly occurred in the densely populated area. The combined use of isotopic values and hydrochemical data suggests that the NO- 3 load in Leiming basin is not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as waste water and atmospheric deposition. Fertilizer is considered as the major source of NO- 3 in the groundwater in Leiming basin.

  18. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  19. The use of radium isotopic ratio in groundwater as a tool for pollution source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Goncalves, S.; Francisco, J.T.; Shinomiya, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    Radium isotopes in groundwater, with concentration above natural values have been measured near a radioactive material storage facility, with underground sealed concrete reservoirs, containing pasty residues from monazite sand industrial processing. This situation became a problem last decade, because of general public concern with radium contamination as being a consequence of leaks in reservoirs that could spread in the environment the contained radioactivity. There is a general claim against this stored material, because rain and underground water drain into a nearby creek, which flows to a river, that is used for public water supply of Itu city, (Sao Paulo state, Brazil), some 12 km away. (author)

  20. Belgrade waterworks groundwater source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, A.; Dasic, M.; Vukcevic, G.; Vasiljevic, Lj.; Nikolic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Paper deals with Belgrade Waterworks groundwater source, its characteristics, conception of protection programme, contaminations on source and with parameters of groundwater quality degradation. Groundwaters present natural heritage with their strategic and slow renewable natural resources attributes, and as such they require priority in protection. It is of greatest need that existing source is to be protected and used optimally for producing quality drinkable water. The concept of source protection programme should be based on regular water quality monitoring, identification of contaminators, defining areas of their influences on the source and their permanent control. However, in the last 10 years, but drastically in the last 3, because of the overall situation in the country, it is very characteristic downfall in volume of business, organisation and the level of supply of the technical equipment

  1. Use of 15N/14N Ratio to Evaluate the Sources of Nitrate Pollution in Surface and Groundwaters in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    This work represents the results of using of 15 N technique in the evaluation and interpretation of nitrate pollution sources of surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria). Based on this method, it was possible to distinguish between two groups of water bodies: 1) the group of fresh and non polluted water, which effectively reflects natural mineralization in nitrogen, such as the waters in the Upper Orontes River, the Qattineh Lake in its western and southern parts, as well as the Al-Qoussier well; 2) the group of polluted water, such as the waters in the other sampling sites. The chemical and isotopic 15 N characteristics of this group reflect the impact of different intensities of pollution processes, which could mainly be derived from anthropogenic source. The intensity of this source was maximum in the Al-Domineh well, which was practically close to a sewage sink. (author)

  2. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  3. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  4. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Gorai, A. K.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D), net recharge ( R), aquifer media ( A), soil media ( S), topography or slope ( T), impact of vadose zone ( I) and hydraulic Conductivity( C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  5. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D ), net recharge ( R ), aquifer media ( A ), soil media ( S ), topography or slope ( T ), impact of vadose zone ( I ) and hydraulic Conductivity( C )] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  6. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  7. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  8. Mining-related nonpoint-source pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Gorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the effects of increased mining activity on surface and groundwater. The topics covered include pollutant sources, contaminant transport and fate, trace element toxicity, pollution control and abatement, treating acid mine drainage, modern constructed wetlands and site reclamation including site stabilization, refuse burial and sludge application

  9. 680 SPATIAL VARIATION IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher in Group A water samples, and reduced slightly in the Group B and then the Group C samples, ... Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water quality. ... situation which may likely pose a threat to the.

  10. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  11. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Zhiming; Liu Shufen; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  12. Sources of pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Sources of pollution. Domestic wastewater (Sewage). Organic matter; Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pathogens, viruses, …. Agricultural runoff. Nitrogen & phosphorus; Pesticides; Industrial effluents; Organics (oil &grease, pigments, phenols, organic matter ….) Heavy ...

  13. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menció, Anna; Mas-Pla, Josep; Otero, Neus; Regàs, Oriol; Boy-Roura, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Contamination from agricultural sources and, in particular, nitrate pollution, is one of the main concerns in groundwater management. However, this type of pollution entails the entrance of other substances into the aquifer, as well as it may promote other processes. In this study, we deal with hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater samples from four distinct zones in Catalonia (NE Spain), which include 5 different aquifer types, to investigate the influence of fertilization on the overall hydrochemical composition of groundwater. Results indicate that intense fertilizer application, causing high nitrate pollution in aquifers, also homogenize the contents of the major dissolved ions (i.e.; Cl - , SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ). Thus, when groundwater in igneous and sedimentary aquifers is compared, significant differences are observed under natural conditions for Cl - , Na + and Ca 2+ (with p-values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.038), and when high nitrate concentrations occur, these differences are reduced (most p-values ranged between 0.054 and 0.978). Moreover, positive linear relationships between nitrate and some ions are found indicating the magnitude of the fertilization impact on groundwater hydrochemistry (with R 2 values of 0.490, 0.609 and 0.470, for SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ and Cl - , respectively). Nevertheless, the increasing concentration of specific ions is not only attributed to agricultural pollution, but to their enhancing effect upon the biogeochemical processes that control water-rock interactions. Such results raise awareness that these processes should be evaluated in advance in order to assess an adequate groundwater resources management. - Highlights: • The effects of nitrate pollution have been evaluated in five different aquifer types • Statistical and multivariate analyses are used to identify groundwater changes • Agricultural pollution modifies groundwater conditions and geochemical processes • Manure application

  14. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  15. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  16. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and sensitivity to pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution caused by human activity is a serious environmental problem in cities. Pollution vulnerability assessment of groundwater resources provides information on how to protect areas vulnerable to pollution. The present study is a detailed investigation of the potential for groundwater contamination through ...

  17. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  18. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menció, Anna, E-mail: anna.mencio@udg.edu [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Mas-Pla, Josep, E-mail: jmas@icra.cat [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA) (Spain); Otero, Neus, E-mail: notero@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Geoquímica de Fluids, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C/ Martí i Franquès, s/n – 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Regàs, Oriol [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Boy-Roura, Mercè [Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA) (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    Contamination from agricultural sources and, in particular, nitrate pollution, is one of the main concerns in groundwater management. However, this type of pollution entails the entrance of other substances into the aquifer, as well as it may promote other processes. In this study, we deal with hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater samples from four distinct zones in Catalonia (NE Spain), which include 5 different aquifer types, to investigate the influence of fertilization on the overall hydrochemical composition of groundwater. Results indicate that intense fertilizer application, causing high nitrate pollution in aquifers, also homogenize the contents of the major dissolved ions (i.e.; Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Mg{sup 2+}). Thus, when groundwater in igneous and sedimentary aquifers is compared, significant differences are observed under natural conditions for Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} (with p-values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.038), and when high nitrate concentrations occur, these differences are reduced (most p-values ranged between 0.054 and 0.978). Moreover, positive linear relationships between nitrate and some ions are found indicating the magnitude of the fertilization impact on groundwater hydrochemistry (with R{sup 2} values of 0.490, 0.609 and 0.470, for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -}, respectively). Nevertheless, the increasing concentration of specific ions is not only attributed to agricultural pollution, but to their enhancing effect upon the biogeochemical processes that control water-rock interactions. Such results raise awareness that these processes should be evaluated in advance in order to assess an adequate groundwater resources management. - Highlights: • The effects of nitrate pollution have been evaluated in five different aquifer types • Statistical and multivariate analyses are used to identify groundwater changes • Agricultural pollution modifies

  19. Reliability Analyses of Groundwater Pollutant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Panagiotis

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops a probabilistic finite element model for the analysis of groundwater pollution problems. Two computer codes were developed, (1) one using finite element technique to solve the two-dimensional steady state equations of groundwater flow and pollution transport, and (2) a first order reliability method code that can do a probabilistic analysis of any given analytical or numerical equation. The two codes were connected into one model, PAGAP (Probability Analysis of Groundwater And Pollution). PAGAP can be used to obtain (1) the probability that the concentration at a given point at a given time will exceed a specified value, (2) the probability that the maximum concentration at a given point will exceed a specified value and (3) the probability that the residence time at a given point will exceed a specified period. PAGAP could be used as a tool for assessment purposes and risk analyses, for instance the assessment of the efficiency of a proposed remediation technique or to study the effects of parameter distribution for a given problem (sensitivity study). The model has been applied to study the greatest self sustained, precipitation controlled aquifer in North Europe, which underlies Oslo`s new major airport. 92 refs., 187 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Nuclear techniques to investigate source and origin of groundwater pollutants and their flow path at Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Cochin, Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumalesh, K.; Shivanna, K.; Noble, J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrochemical, environmental isotope and injected radiotracer investigations were carried out in order to investigate the possible source of contaminants and their movement in groundwater at Indian Rare Earths (IRE) site. Water samples were collected from piezometers, dug wells and river in and around IRE site for measurement of physical parameters, chemistry and isotopes. Chemical results show high fluoride, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate concentrations in piezometers whereas dug wells and river samples are free from contamination. Isotope data indicate that the contaminated groundwaters are enriched in δ 2 H and δ 18 O compared to dug well and river samples. Radiotracer experiments were carried out using single-well and multi-well techniques (radiotracers: 82 Br and 3 H) for determining groundwater filtration velocity and flow direction, respectively. Groundwater filtration velocity was found to be about 1.3 cm/day and flow direction is from south to north. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that groundwater is getting contamination from southern part of IRE campus and the possible source for these contaminants could be the Fertilizer and Chemical of Travancore (FACT) industry. (author)

  1. Groundwater pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas with drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandio, B.M.; Azam, M.; Abdullah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted at three selected sites in irrigated areas of Pakistan to assess magnitude and severity of groundwater pollution by nitrates. The results of these studies indicate that concentration of nitrates in most of the samples collected from irrigated areas having drainage facility is much lower than threshold limit. The nitrate-nitrogen level within drainage projects ranges from 0.01-9.00 mg/l and in the area without drainage system ranges from 10.1-12.5 mg/l. The mineral fertilizers though are making contribution of NO3-N to the groundwater sources but that is much lower than threshold limits. The presence of septic tanks or farmyard manure dumps is also significant contributors of NO3-N to the groundwater. Thus drinking water sources near these polluting points are probable danger to human health. It is, therefore, concluded that still there is a lot of potential for fertilizer use in the agriculture but proper drainage facilities should be provided to minimize the potential threat of NO/sub 3/ pollution. (author)

  2. Numerical simulation and impact assessment of a groundwater pollution based on MODFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Zheng Junfang; Yu Jing; Liu Yong; Chen Jianjie; Ma Jinzhu

    2013-01-01

    Based on MODFLOW, SRTM3 DEM data and GIS tool, a saturated-zone groundwater flow and radionuclide transport numerical model in a research area had been developed to evaluate the migration trend and environmental impact. The results showed that 3 H transporting with the groundwater had a fast velocity and a pulse concentration which can not reduce to acceptable level within short times. that may cause groundwater pollution in downstream region. However, 90 Sr was transported slowly with the groundwater, and may only cause a pollution area of about 200 m around the source. (authors)

  3. Application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This publication is a compilation of scientific results from the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution which was implemented from 1995 to 1997. The conclusions of the CRP were presented by scientists from the following participating Member States: Austria, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Senegal and the United Kingdom. The CRP was implemented in recognition of the importance of protecting groundwater resources, and promoting the role of isotope techniques when integrated to classical hydrological methods to identify the sources and mechanisms of by which pollution takes place. The results of the CRP are expected to find practical applications in tackling hydrological problems encountered in technical co-operation projects of the IAEA. This publication could also provide a contribution toward the continuing efforts of various sectors to investigate, mitigate and control the threat of groundwater pollution. This publication includes the results of 16 investigations dealing with isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur integrated to some extent with the classical hydrological tools of investigation. Each document in this compilation is provided with abstract and index

  4. Considerations of stationary-phase interactions in groundwater pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of groundwater pollution are complicated by retention of both pollutant and tracers as static phases associated with the rock matrix. Three types of static phase are considered: (1) immobile pore water, (2) equilibrium adsorbed layers and (3) bulk precipitates, including biological systems. A brief discussion of the systems is given with examples from the work of the Water Research Centre on the problems encountered in quantifying groundwater pollution where static contamination may occur. (author)

  5. Current situation and control measures of groundwater pollution in gas station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qianjin

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, pollution accidents caused by gas station leakage has occurred worldwide which can be persistent in groundwater. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the contaminated groundwater is threatening the ecological environment and human health. In this article, current status and sources of groundwater pollution by gas station are analyzed, and experience of how to prevent groundwater pollution from gas stations are summarized. It is demonstrated that installation of secondary containment measures for the oil storage of the oil tank system, such as installation of double-layer oil tanks or construction of impermeable ponds, is a preferable method to prevent gas stations from groundwater pollution. Regarding to the problems of groundwater pollution caused by gas station, it is proposed that it is urgent to investigate the leakage status of gas station. Relevant precise implementation regulations shall be issued and carried out, and supervision management of gas stations would need to be strengthened. Then single-layer steel oil tanks shall be replaced by double-layer tanks, and the impermeable ponds should be constructed according to the risk ranking. From the control methodology, the groundwater environment monitoring systems, supervision level, laws and regulations as well as pollution remediation should also be carried out and strengthened.

  6. Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo

    1998-01-01

    The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)

  7. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  8. Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater system around ... cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (pb) and arsenic (As) as ... Water samples (from bore holes, hand-dug wells, ponds and streams) were ...

  9. Design of groundwater pollution expert system: forward chaining and interfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    The groundwater pollution expert system (GWPES was developed by C Language Integrate Production System (CLEPS). The control techniques of this system consider some conclusion and then attempts to prove it by searching for supportive information from the database. The inference process goes in forward chaining of this system such as predicting groundwater pollution vulnerability, predicting the effect of nitrogen fertiliser, agricultural impact and project development on groundwater pollution potential. In GWPES, forward chaining system begins with a matching of inputs with the existing database of groundwater environment and activities impact of the project development. While, interaction between an expert system and user is conducted in simple English language. The interaction is highly interactive. A basis design with simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) to input data and by asking simple questions. (author)

  10. Derivation of Threshold Values for Groundwater in Romania, in order to distinguish Point & Diffuse pollution from natural background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, P.N.M.; Radu, E.; Vliegenthart, F.; Balaet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Romania aims to adopt and implement the European Union's legislation, also including that for the field of water management. Like other countries, groundwater in Romania is locally polluted from point sources, such as leaking landfills, as well as from diffuse pollution sources, include fertilizers,

  11. Natural radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Mcginnity, P.; Ciara, M. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (Ireland); Craig, M. [Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) in collaboration with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) undertook a national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources for compliance with parameters set out in the European Communities Drinking Water Directive. The Directive outlines the minimum requirements for the quality of drinking water and water intended for human consumption. Over two hundred samples were screened for radioactivity. Where indicated, analysis for individual radionuclide activity was undertaken and the radiation dose arising calculated. Furthermore, samples were analysed for radon concentration. This survey is the first comprehensive national survey of radioactivity in groundwater sources in Ireland. Approximately 18 per cent of drinking water in Ireland originates from groundwater and springs with the remainder from surface water. Between 2007 and 2011, water samples from a representative network of groundwater sources were analysed and assessed for compliance with the radioactivity parameters set out in the Drinking Water Directive. The assessment was carried out using the methodology for screening drinking water set out by the WHO. For practical purposes the WHO recommended screening levels for drinking water below which no further action is required of 100 mBq/l for gross alpha activity and 1000 mBq/l for gross beta activity were applied. Of the 203 groundwater sources screened for gross alpha and gross beta all met the gross beta activity criteria of less than 1000 mBq/l and 175 supplies had gross alpha activity concentrations of less than 100 mBq/l. For these sources no further analysis was required. The remaining 28 sources required further (radionuclide-specific) analysis from an alpha activity perspective. Results on ranges and distributions of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater as well as ingestion doses estimated for consumers of these water supplies will be presented. Document available in abstract

  12. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  13. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  14. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  15. Radiotracer technique to study pollutant behavior in the vadose zone for groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sinha, U.K.; Navada, S.V.; Datta, P.S.; Sud, Y.K.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Aggrawal, P.; )

    2004-01-01

    Pollutants are generated either by industrial or agricultural activity. Pollutants produced due to industrial activities fall into point source category and those generated from agricultural are grouped into extended source category. Under an International Atomic Energy Agency/Coordinated Research Program study, emphasis has been given on transport of pollutants, generated from agricultural activities, in particular, due to the application of fertilizer inputs to a variety of crops. Pollutants take entry through the vadose zone and ultimately join the saturated zone. Once groundwater is polluted it is rather difficult or impossible to take remedial measures for groundwater protection. Groundwater being an important natural resource, it is important to protect it from getting polluted. It is hence essential to have a clear understanding of the complex processes (physical, biological and chemical etc.) undergoing in the unsaturated zone. Radiotracers give good insight about the pollutant behavior in the vadose zone. Tritiated water and 60 Co (a gamma emitting tracer in the cyanide complex form) were used as tracers and were injected at 60 cm depth in the vadose zone of IARI farm for pollutant transport study. Tritium and 60 Co tracer displacements were measured by liquid scintillation and sodium iodide scintillation method respectively. It was found that the tritium tracer moved up to 2.4 meters in six months and part of the tritium tracer was exchanged with immobile water in the soil, as three distinct peaks were observed in tritium profile. 60 Co and tritium tracers were found to move with the same velocity in the vadose zone. These tracer studies indicate that the pollutants may reach the groundwater in about three years. (author)

  16. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  17. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  18. An isotopic study of nitrate pollution of groundwater in Victoria, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changkakoti, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Cherstnova, L.; Chalk, P.; Krouse, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate in groundwater can be a hard to human and animal health and contribute to the development of algal blooms and subsequent eutrophication of wetlands. Its presence is widespread throughout Australia and its levels overall appear to be increasing. A variety of sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater are known. These include nitrogen fixing plants, termites, animal wastes, industrial wastes, domestic wastes, sewage and fertilizers. In Victoria, nitrate-rich groundwaters have been reported from a number of localities, some of which include Colac, Nepean Peninsula, Shepparton, Deer Park, Benalla and Winchelsea. A multi-isotope method was developed to determine the probable source of pollution in these localities. Changes in the natural abundance ratio of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14 N and 15 N, and the differences in the isotopic ratios ( 15 N/ 14 N) of nitrate from various sources, form the basis of the N-isotope technique for source identification. Differences in the isotopic ratios of oxygen ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hydrogen (D/H) of polluted and unpolluted waters form the basis for the oxygen and hydrogen isotope technique to investigate pollution problems of groundwater. Sites which included clover, industrial wastes, animal and human wastes and fertilized sources, were selected after reviewing existing databases on nitrate concentration, earlier reports and access to a suitable network of bores for collecting reliable samples. The nitrate concentration ranged from less than 1 mg/L to in excess of 22.0 mg/L, whilst ammonium levels in most samples were less than 1 mg/L. The δ 15 N values of the various source types ranged from 8.8 to 19.0 per mill (pastures). The δ 18 O and δD data indicate seawater incursion in the coastal areas of the Nepean Peninsular. The results agree with published data on similar sources from elsewhere in the world, and indicate the potential use of this methodology in groundwater pollution studies in Australia

  19. Compliance Groundwater Monitoring of Nonpoint Sources - Emerging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring networks are typically designed for regulatory compliance of discharges from industrial sites. There, the quality of first encountered (shallow-most) groundwater is of key importance. Network design criteria have been developed for purposes of determining whether an actual or potential, permitted or incidental waste discharge has had or will have a degrading effect on groundwater quality. The fundamental underlying paradigm is that such discharge (if it occurs) will form a distinct contamination plume. Networks that guide (post-contamination) mitigation efforts are designed to capture the shape and dynamics of existing, finite-scale plumes. In general, these networks extend over areas less than one to ten hectare. In recent years, regulatory programs such as the EU Nitrate Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act have forced regulatory agencies to also control groundwater contamination from non-incidental, recharging, non-point sources, particularly agricultural sources (fertilizer, pesticides, animal waste application, biosolids application). Sources and contamination from these sources can stretch over several tens, hundreds, or even thousands of square kilometers with no distinct plumes. A key question in implementing monitoring programs at the local, regional, and national level is, whether groundwater monitoring can be effectively used as a landowner compliance tool, as is currently done at point-source sites. We compare the efficiency of such traditional site-specific compliance networks in nonpoint source regulation with various designs of regional nonpoint source monitoring networks that could be used for compliance monitoring. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the site vs. regional monitoring approaches with respect to effectively protecting groundwater resources impacted by nonpoint sources: Site-networks provide a tool to enforce compliance by an individual landowner. But the nonpoint source character of the contamination

  20. GROUNDWATER, DRINKING WATER, ARSENIC POLLUTION, NORTH DAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Abdulmutalimova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we studied the chemical particularities of ground water of the North Daghestan, using by population as drinking water. In particular we examined the problem of arsenic pollution.

  1. Assessment of groundwater pollution by nitrates using intrinsic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientists are deeply concerned with the state of vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs. It is a complex task because of the difficulties in determining the degree of pollution of the ground water. Many methods have been adopted like DRASTIC, GOD, SI, SINTACS, etc. The present article targets the determination of the ...

  2. Quantitative estimation of pollution in groundwater and surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative estimation of pollution in groundwater and surface water in Benin City and environs. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Physico-chemical parameters were compared with regulatory standards from Federal Ministry of Environment for drinking water and they all fell within ...

  3. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, G.

    2005-01-01

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  4. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  5. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  6. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.G.; Meggyes, T.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  7. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Application of isotope techniques to groundwater pollution research for Xiangshan uranium ore field, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fulin; Liu Peilun; Zhu Chuande; Wu Xiaowei; Zeng Yinsheng

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of groundwater pollution due to uranium deposits focused on the most important uranium metallogenic area-Zhoujiashan district of Xiangshan uranium ore field, China. Groundwater collected from five completed exploration boreholes in the area is regarded as the pollution source and is traced and analysed by using isotope as well as radio-hydrochemical techniques. In addition, the pollution situation of a small uranium ore pile for heap-leaching and a big uranium ore open pit are monitored by the same techniques. It has been experimentally proven that the uranium concentration and the uranium isotope ratio 234 U/ 238 U in natural waters are two sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution in natural waters. It was concluded that under present conditions, exploration of uranium deposits may not cause serious groundwater pollution of radioactive elements (U, Ra, Rn and Th), however, it is difficult to avoid the serious surface water pollution coming from the exploitation of uranium ore by a big open pit. (author)

  9. Pollutants transport and distribution studies in groundwater system by nuclear, geophysics and hydrogeochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Daud Mohamad

    2000-01-01

    In Malaysia, the most common means of managing municipal refuse is by dumping it indiscriminately in piles on the selected open land. Leachate that is formed primarily in association with precipitation that infiltrates through the refuse normally results in the migration of leachate into underlying groundwater zone. The study of pollutant transport derived from domestic refuse and their impact on water quality in groundwater system has been performed in a selected landfill site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan. The study involved the determination of flow velocity and flow direction of pollutants by nuclear techniques and a detail survey by geophysical method as well as hydrogeochemical approach as a supporting evidence of pollution occurrence. Hydrogeochemical approach involved the determination of pollutants species such as chloride and nitrate. A network of about 30 observation points had been identified and sampled. The results of the study have shown that the pollutants were concentrated at the middle of the dumping site and transported with the flow velocity between 0.2-15.4 metres per day toward northeast direction. Furthermore, the study established that the municipal or domestic landfalls are considered as one of the potential sources of groundwater pollution in Malaysia

  10. Sources and flow of north Canterbury Plains groundwater, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.; Brown, L.J.; Stewart, M.K.; Brailsford, G.W.; Wilson, D.D.; Burden, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Geological, hydrological, isotope (tritium and 18 O) and chemical evidence is interpreted to give a mutually consistent picture of the recharge sources and flow patterns of the important groundwater resource in the deep Quaternary deposits of the Canterbury Plains between Selwyn R. and Ashley R. The study period for tritium measurements extends over 27 years, encompassing the peak and decline of thermonuclear tritium fallout in this region. Major rivers emerging from mountain catchments to the west of the Plains are depleted in 18 O relative to average low-level precipitation. Most of the groundwater is river-recharged, but some areas with significant local precipitation recharge are clearly identified by 18 O and chemical concentrations. Artesian groundwater underlying Christchurch ascends from deeper aquifers into the shallowest aquifer via gaps in the confining layers; much of this flow is induced by withdrawal. The Christchurch aquifers are recharged by infiltration from Waimakariri R. in its central Plains reaches, and the resulting flow regime is E- and SE-directed; satisfactory water quality of the deeper Christchurch aquifer appears to be guaranteed for the future provided the river can be maintained in its present condition. Shallow groundwater, and water recharged to depth by other rivers, irrigation and local precipitation on the unconfined western areas of the Plains, are more susceptible to agricultural and other pollutants; none of this water is encountered in the deeper aquifers under Christchurch. (author). 15 refs., 12 figs

  11. Detailing new and emerging groundwater pollutants and their potential risk to groundwater environments

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya

    2014-01-01

    Many different sources and pathways into groundwater: wastewater, biosolids from water treatment and animal wastes are important Frequently detected groups of ECs include antimicrobials, lifestyle compounds, pharmaceuticals Although mostly detected in low ng/L concentrations in groundwater there are many examples of hot spots TPs can be found at concentrations higher than the parent and may be more mobile or polar, and more toxic ECs can be typical of source/landuse Some are re...

  12. Evaluation of nitrate pollution of groundwater in Mnasra region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouane, B.; El hajjaji, S.; Dahchour, A.; Dousset, S.

    2012-01-01

    Gharb area is one of the most important agricultural regions in Morocco, where the application of fertilizers is conducted in many cases without any respect of standards. This situation may generate negative environmental impact in vulnerable areas such as Mnasra groundwater. Our study tends to evaluate the level of contamination by nitrate of groundwater in a Mnasra area. The results show that 80% of the sampled wells are highly concentrated in nitrates in comparison with the standard of WHO. Intensification of agriculture in the area associated to excessive fertilizer application, repeated applications, irrigation and rainfall are reasons for an increasing nitrates pollution of water resources. Leaching of nitrate to the groundwater should receive more attention for its potential high mobile propriety which could cause serious damages for the environment and negative impact to the health of population.

  13. Feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clause, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose was appl......This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose...... was applied to the two Timbre sites : Hunedoara (Romania) and Szprotawa (Poland). Phytoremediation is the technique to clean up (remediate) contaminated sites using plants, typically trees. The principles of the data were deta iled, with focus on obstacles (phytotoxicity) and factors stimulating success...

  14. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  15. Application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Navada, S.V.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Sinha, U.K.; Sharma, S.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental isotopes ( 2 H, 18 O, 34 S, 3 H, and 14 C) techniques have been used along with hydrogeology and hydrochemistry to investigate: (a). the source of salinity and origin of sulphate in groundwaters of coastal Orissa, Orissa State, India and (b) to study the source of salinity in deep saline groundwaters of charnockite terrain at Kokkilimedu, South of Chennai, India. In the first case, as a part of large drinking water supply project, thousands of hand pumps were installed from 1985. Many of them became quickly unacceptable for potable supply due to salinity, increased iron and sulphate contents of the groundwater. In this alluvial, multiaquifer system, fresh, brackish and saline groundwaters occur in a rather complicated fashion. The conditions change from phreatic to confined flowing type with increasing depth. The results of the isotope geochemical investigation indicate that the shallow groundwater (depth/<50m) is fresh and modern. Groundwater salinity in intermediate aquifer (50 - 100m) is due to the Flandrian transgression during Holocene period. Fresh and modern deep groundwater forms a well developed aquifer which receives recharge through weathered basement rock. The saline groundwater found below the fresh deep aquifer have marine water entrapped during late Pleistocene. The source of high sulphate in the groundwater is of marine origin. In the second case, under the host rock characterization programme, the charnockite rock formation at Kokkilimedu, Kalpakkam was evaluated to assess its suitability as host medium for location of a geological repository for high level radioactive waste. Four deep boreholes were drilled in this area, the depth varying from 200 to 618 m. In these boreholes, large variations in groundwater salinity were observed over a distance of only a few hundred meters and no regional pattern could be identified. The results of the isotope investigation show that there are two different sources of salinity in this area. Among

  16. Hzard and risk assessment of pollution on the groundwater resources and residents’ health of Salfit District, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Aliewi

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: There are many pollutants in the Salfit's aquifer recharge area and thus percolating and polluting the groundwater aquifers. Using a Durov diagram, the sources of water proved to be polluted and, therefore, the health of the residents of Salfit District is directly threatened. A hazard map was developed to classify all polluting activities in the district. Microbiological analysis of the drinking water revealed higher levels of total and fecal Coliforms. The high incidence rate of water related diseases is an indication of the drinking water pollution. This paper contains research findings and policy recommendations to help Salfit District alleviate health and pollution problems associated with this vital resource of groundwater. In addition, Salfit governorate is encouraged to begin addressing the institutional issues and improving public awareness.

  17. ZONASI POTENSI PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH PADA TERAS SUNGAI CODE YOGYAKARTA (Zoning The Potential Groundwater Pollution at Code River Terrace, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frista Yorhanita

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk membuktikan bahwa biomassa Fusarium sp dapat mereduksi Cr(VI, dan biomassa Aspergillus niger dapat digunakan untuk mengambil ion krom dari larutan. Fusarium.sp ditumbuhkan pada media cair kentang dekftosa cair, ditambah K2Cr2O7 atau sludge limbah penyamakan kulit. Selanjutnya diamati perubahan warnanya, bila terjadi perubahan warna dan oranye ke ungu atau tak berwarna maka telah terjadi reduksi krom valensi VI menjadi krom valensi Ill. Aspergillus niger ditumbuhkan pada media Potato dectrose agar (PDA padat, dipindahkan ke media cair yang bensi bakto pepton, bakto dektrose dan srukronutrien. Produksi biomassa dilakukan pada labu erlenmeyer; setelah 5 hari dipanen dan dibuat bubuk. Bubuk ini digunakan untuk mengambil krom dari larutan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biomassa Fusarium sp dapat digunakan untuk mengambil krom dan larutan yang.mengandung KrCrrO, atau sludge limbah penyamakan kulit. Waktu inkubasi yang lebih lama meningkatkan absorbsi krom oleh biomassa Fascrium sp. Fusarium sp mampu mereduksi Cr(VI menjadi Cr(Iii. Biomassa Aspergillus niger dapat digunakan untuk mengambil krom dari larutan. Hasil terbaik diperoleh pada konsentrasi awal 100 mg/I, pada pH 2,0, berat biomassa 0,1 g, dan waktu kontak 12 jam, yaitu 96,23% untuk Cr(II| dan96,3 % untuk Cr(VI. Fusarium sp. dan A. niger dapat digunakan sebagai bioremediator dalam penanganan limbah penyamakan kulit secara biologi.   ABSTRACT The study area of this research was parts of the code river terraces, Yogyakarta. The aims of this research were as follows: (1 to determine the part of the code river terrace which has potential groundwater pollution; (2 to assess the natural physical factors (aquifer materials, depth of groundwater table, and the groundwater flow distance and the non-natural physical factors of environmental sanitation (houses density, population density, horizontal distance between pollution source and well, and the number

  18. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta-oun, M.; Daud, M.; Bardaie, M.Z.; Jusop, S.

    1999-01-01

    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  19. Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Anthropogenic and Natural Factors Influencing Groundwater Quality Based on Source Apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueru Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, groundwater resources are being deteriorated by rapid social development. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the combined impacts of natural and enhanced anthropogenic sources on groundwater chemistry. The aim of this study was to identify seasonal characteristics and spatial variations in anthropogenic and natural effects, to improve the understanding of major hydrogeochemical processes based on source apportionment. 34 groundwater points located in a riverside groundwater resource area in northeast China were sampled during the wet and dry seasons in 2015. Using principal component analysis and factor analysis, 4 principal components (PCs were extracted from 16 groundwater parameters. Three of the PCs were water-rock interaction (PC1, geogenic Fe and Mn (PC2, and agricultural pollution (PC3. A remarkable difference (PC4 was organic pollution originating from negative anthropogenic effects during the wet season, and geogenic F enrichment during the dry season. Groundwater exploitation resulted in dramatic depression cone with higher hydraulic gradient around the water source area. It not only intensified dissolution of calcite, dolomite, gypsum, Fe, Mn and fluorine minerals, but also induced more surface water recharge for the water source area. The spatial distribution of the PCs also suggested the center of the study area was extremely vulnerable to contamination by Fe, Mn, COD, and F−.

  20. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  1. Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

    2006-01-01

    Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network

  2. New source review for stationary sources of air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    The Clean Air Act established a pair of programsâ€"known as New Source Review (NSR)â€"that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities...

  3. Toxic fluoride and arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Lahore and Kasur districts, Punjab, Pakistan and possible contaminant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Abida; Masuda, Harue; Firdous, Nousheen

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible sources of As, F - and SO 4 2- contaminated groundwater in the Kalalanwala area, Punjab, Pakistan. Five rainwater and 24 groundwater samples from three different depths were analyzed. Shallow groundwater from 24 to 27 m depth contained high F - (2.47-21.1 mg/L), while the groundwater samples from the deeper depth were free from fluoride contamination. All groundwater samples contained high As (32-1900 μg/L), in excess of WHO drinking water standards. The SO 4 2- ranges from 110 to 1550 mg/L. δ 34 S data indicate three sources for SO 4 2- air pollutants (5.5-5.7 per mille ), fertilizers (4.8 per mille ), and household waste (7.0 per mille ). Our important finding is the presence of SO 4 2- , As and F - in rainwater, indicating the contribution of these elements from air pollution. We propose that pollutants originate, in part, from coal combusted at brick factories and were mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the local groundwater. - Simultaneous As and F - contamination of groundwater and possible pollutant sources are discussed

  4. Urban Sources of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions.......A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions....

  5. Assessing regional groundwater stress for nations using multiple data sources with the groundwater footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource for agricultural production, ecosystems, drinking water and industry, yet groundwater depletion is accelerating, especially in a number of agriculturally important regions. Assessing the stress of groundwater resources is crucial for science-based policy and management, yet water stress assessments have often neglected groundwater and used single data sources, which may underestimate the uncertainty of the assessment. We consistently analyze and interpret groundwater stress across whole nations using multiple data sources for the first time. We focus on two nations with the highest national groundwater abstraction rates in the world, the United States and India, and use the recently developed groundwater footprint and multiple datasets of groundwater recharge and withdrawal derived from hydrologic models and data synthesis. A minority of aquifers, mostly with known groundwater depletion, show groundwater stress regardless of the input dataset. The majority of aquifers are not stressed with any input data while less than a third are stressed for some input data. In both countries groundwater stress affects agriculturally important regions. In the United States, groundwater stress impacts a lower proportion of the national area and population, and is focused in regions with lower population and water well density compared to India. Importantly, the results indicate that the uncertainty is generally greater between datasets than within datasets and that much of the uncertainty is due to recharge estimates. Assessment of groundwater stress consistently across a nation and assessment of uncertainty using multiple datasets are critical for the development of a science-based rationale for policy and management, especially with regard to where and to what extent to focus limited research and management resources. (letter)

  6. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daus, Birgit; Hempel, Michael; Wennrich, Rainer; Weiss, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1 km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16 mg L -1 and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400 μg L -1 ) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity. - The environmental fate and behavior of phenylarsenicals in groundwater are influenced by the geochemical environment.

  7. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daus, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.daus@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hempel, Michael [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wennrich, Rainer [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Weiss, Holger [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1 km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16 mg L{sup -1} and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity. - The environmental fate and behavior of phenylarsenicals in groundwater are influenced by the geochemical environment.

  8. Study of groundwater arsenic pollution in Lanyang Plain using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    chan, S.

    2013-12-01

    The study area, Lanyang Plain in the eastern Taiwan, has highly developed agriculture and aquaculture, which consume over 70% of the water supplies. Groundwater is frequently considered as an alternative water source. However, the serious arsenic pollution of groundwater in Lanyan Plain should be well studied to ensure the safety of groundwater usage. In this study, 39 groundwater samples were collected. The results of hydrochemistry demonstrate two major trends in Piper diagram. The major trend with most of groundwater samples is determined with water type between Ca+Mg-HCO3 and Na+K-HCO3. This can be explained with cation exchange reaction. The minor trend is obviously corresponding to seawater intrusion, which has water type of Na+K-Cl, because the localities of these samples are all in the coastal area. The multivariate statistical analysis on hydrochemical data was conducted for further exploration on the mechanism of arsenic contamination. Two major factors can be extracted with factor analysis. The major factor includes Ca, Mg and Sr while the minor factor includes Na, K and As. This reconfirms that cation exchange reaction mainly control the groundwater hydrochemistry in the study area. It is worth to note that arsenic is positively related to Na and K. The result of cluster analysis shows that groundwater samples with high arsenic concentration can be grouped into that with high Na, K and HCO3. This supports that cation exchange would enhance the release of arsenic and exclude the effect of seawater intrusion. In other words, the water-rock reaction time is key to obtain higher arsenic content. In general, the major source of arsenic in sediments include exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable phases, which are adsorbed ions, Fe-Mn oxides and organic matters/pyrite, respectively. However, the results of factor analysis do not show apparent correlation between arsenic and Fe/Mn. This may exclude Fe-Mn oxides as a major source of arsenic. The other sources

  9. Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution using Optimized DRASTIC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullar, Khiruddin

    2014-01-01

    The prediction accuracy of the conventional DRASTIC model (CDM) algorithm for groundwater vulnerability assessment is severely limited by the inherent subjectivity and uncertainty in the integration of data obtained from various sources. This study attempts to overcome these problems by exploring the potential of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique as a decision support model to optimize the CDM algorithm. The AHP technique was utilized to compute the normalized weights for the seven parameters of the CDM to generate an optimized DRASTIC model (ODM) algorithm. The DRASTIC parameters integrated with the ODM algorithm predicted which among the study areas is more likely to become contaminated as a result of activities at or near the land surface potential. Five vulnerability zones, namely: no vulnerable(NV), very low vulnerable (VLV), low vulnerable (LV), moderate vulnerable (MV) and high vulnerable (HV) were identified based on the vulnerability index values estimated with the ODM algorithm. Results show that more than 50% of the area belongs to both moderate and high vulnerable zones on the account of the spatial analysis of the produced ODM-based groundwater vulnerability prediction map (GVPM).The prediction accuracy of the ODM-based – GVPM with the groundwater pH and manganese (Mn) concentrations established correlation factors (CRs) result of 90 % and 86 % compared to the CRs result of 62 % and 50 % obtained for the validation accuracy of the CDM – based GVPM. The comparative results, indicated that the ODM-based produced GVPM is more reliable than the CDM – based produced GVPM in the study area. The study established the efficacy of AHP as a spatial decision support technique in enhancing environmental decision making with particular reference to future groundwater vulnerability assessment

  10. ASPECTS CONCERNING NITRATE AND NITRITE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UNGUREANU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects concerning nitrate and nitrite pollution of groundwaters. Water is a basic natural resource for the good functioning of all thebiological processes in nature. It is very important for life and for the developmentof human activities. The quality of the ground water has begun to degrade moreand more, as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological changes.Nitrogen compounds pollution of the underground has increased lately. This hasbeen caused by the excessive and irrational use of nitrogen derived fertilizers, bythe wrong storage of the dejections resulted from zootechnical processes and byother chemical substances discharged into water. Samples were collected fromdifferent wells in order to check whether the well water was drinkable. The resultof the test revealed the existence of high concentrations of nitrates as well asvalues exceeding normal microbiological parameters. The value recorded in thetown of Segarcea, the county of Dolj, showed extremely high concentrations ofnitrates of the drinking water in the wells. Thus, Segarcea is the town with thegreatest number of contaminated wells in the country.

  11. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater using a stable isotope and 3DEEM in a landfill in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhifei [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yang, Yu; Lian, Xinying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Jiang, Yonghai, E-mail: jyhai203@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Gansu 730070 (China); Peng, Xing [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); and others

    2016-09-01

    The groundwater was sampled in a typical landfill area of the Northeast China. Coupled stable isotope and three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3DEEM) were applied to dentify diffused NO{sub 3}{sup −} inputs in the groundwater in this area. The results indicated that combined with the feature of groundwater hydrochemistry and three-dimensional fluorescence technology can effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources. The nitrate was derived from manure and sewage by δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −} values of groundwater in the different periods. The excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was further evidence of groundwater DOM mainly which comes from the landfill. The protein-like was very significant at the sampling points near the landfill (SPNL), but only fulvic acid-like appeared at downstream of the landfill groundwater sampling points (DLGSP) in the study area. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration in anaerobic environment. - Highlights: • We used stable isotope and 3DEEM to evaluate of nitrate sources. • Groundwater hydrochemistry was used to assess groundwater recharge. • The degradation process of organic matters was assessed using 3DEEM in groundwater. • This approach is a effective tool for trace to the nitrate sources in groundwater.

  12. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater using a stable isotope and 3DEEM in a landfill in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhifei; Yang, Yu; Lian, Xinying; Jiang, Yonghai; Xi, Beidou; Peng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The groundwater was sampled in a typical landfill area of the Northeast China. Coupled stable isotope and three dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3DEEM) were applied to dentify diffused NO_3"− inputs in the groundwater in this area. The results indicated that combined with the feature of groundwater hydrochemistry and three-dimensional fluorescence technology can effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources. The nitrate was derived from manure and sewage by δ"1"5N and δ"1"8O–NO_3"− values of groundwater in the different periods. The excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy was further evidence of groundwater DOM mainly which comes from the landfill. The protein-like was very significant at the sampling points near the landfill (SPNL), but only fulvic acid-like appeared at downstream of the landfill groundwater sampling points (DLGSP) in the study area. Partial denitrification processes helped to attenuate nitrate concentration in anaerobic environment. - Highlights: • We used stable isotope and 3DEEM to evaluate of nitrate sources. • Groundwater hydrochemistry was used to assess groundwater recharge. • The degradation process of organic matters was assessed using 3DEEM in groundwater. • This approach is a effective tool for trace to the nitrate sources in groundwater.

  13. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  14. Source partitioning of anthropogenic groundwater nitrogen in a mixed-use landscape, Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Christopher K.; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Dulai, Henrietta; Glenn, Craig R.; Fackrell, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a modeling framework for quantifying human impacts and for partitioning the sources of contamination related to water quality in the mixed-use landscape of a small tropical volcanic island. On Tutuila, the main island of American Samoa, production wells in the most populated region (the Tafuna-Leone Plain) produce most of the island's drinking water. However, much of this water has been deemed unsafe to drink since 2009. Tutuila has three predominant anthropogenic non-point-groundwater-pollution sources of concern: on-site disposal systems (OSDS), agricultural chemicals, and pig manure. These sources are broadly distributed throughout the landscape and are located near many drinking-water wells. Water quality analyses show a link between elevated levels of total dissolved groundwater nitrogen (TN) and areas with high non-point-source pollution density, suggesting that TN can be used as a tracer of groundwater contamination from these sources. The modeling framework used in this study integrates land-use information, hydrological data, and water quality analyses with nitrogen loading and transport models. The approach utilizes a numerical groundwater flow model, a nitrogen-loading model, and a multi-species contaminant transport model. Nitrogen from each source is modeled as an independent component in order to trace the impact from individual land-use activities. Model results are calibrated and validated with dissolved groundwater TN concentrations and inorganic δ15N values, respectively. Results indicate that OSDS contribute significantly more TN to Tutuila's aquifers than other sources, and thus should be prioritized in future water-quality management efforts.

  15. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  16. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To iden- tify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 ...

  17. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect...

  18. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  19. Hydrodynamic analysis of the interaction of two operating groundwater sources, case study: Groundwater supply of Bečej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polomčić Dušan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing groundwater source 'Vodokanal' for the public water supply of Bečej city in Serbia tapping groundwater from three water-bearing horizons over 15 wells with summary capacity of 100 l/s. Near the public water source of Bečej exists groundwater source 'Soja Protein' for industry with current capacity of 12 l/s which tapped same horizons. In the coming period is planned to increase summary capacity of this groundwater source up to 57 l/s. Also, the increase of summary city's source capacity is planned for 50 l/s in the next few years. That is means an increase of groundwater abstraction for an additional 84 % from the same water-bearing horizons. Application of hydrodynamic modeling, based on numerical method of finite difference will show the impact of increasing the total capacity of the source 'Soja Protein' on the groundwater level in groundwater source 'Vodokanal' and effects of additional decrease in groundwater levels, in all three water-bearing horizons, on the wells of the 'Vodokanala' groundwater source due to operation of industrial source. It was done 7 variant solutions of the extensions of groundwater sources and are their effects for a period of 10 years with the aim of the sustainable management of groundwater.

  20. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    1999-01-01

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  1. Coordinated research programme on the application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution final research coordination meeting and consultants' meeting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.; Chilton, J.; Travi, Y.; Gerardo-Abaya, J.

    1998-02-01

    This document summarizes the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution. Summaries of 16 completed investigations are given. The completed investigations resulted to the application of 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 34 S, 15 N and boron isotopes integrated to some extend with the classical hydrological tools. These studies have broadly confirmed the use of isotope techniques on two main ways: a) to assist in the interpretation of groundwater flow systems; b) to act as tracers of the origin and pathways of ta range of groundwater pollutants. Several important aspects have become clear in the CRP: it is advisable not to rely on single isotopes, but to combine where possible the use of more than one, particularly oxygen with nitrogen and sulfur; it is essential to integrate isotope techniques with conventional hydrochemistry; trace elements have an important role to play in an integrated approach to the interpretation of contamination sources and pathways. This CRP should be regarded as a stepping stone, considering that the magnitude of the problem of groundwater pollution is enormous in global terms. In order to have an impact on the understanding of groundwater pollution, the need is seen for follow-up by several CRPs targeted at specific areas or problems. Of priorities are: a) urban waste, both human and industrial; b) the origin of saline groundwater; and c) nitrate in groundwater in both agricultural and urban areas

  2. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  3. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  4. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Jensen, S. D.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solidphase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2...... bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background...... characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates....

  5. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Creosote-contaminated groundwater contains a complex mixture of phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-, sulphur- or oxygen-containing heterocyclic, aromatic compounds. One of the most important factors that limits the spreading of these contaminants in groundwater aquifers is degradation by...... enhancement of the native population of subsurface micro-organisms to degrade the contaminants (in situ treatment) and withdrawal of the groundwater followed by treatment by various wastewater treatment processes (above-ground treatment)....

  6. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  7. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  8. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  9. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  10. Uranium in groundwater--Fertilizers versus geogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesch, Tanja; Hinrichsen, Sören; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-12-01

    Due to its radiological and toxicological properties even at low concentration levels, uranium is increasingly recognized as relevant contaminant in drinking water from aquifers. Uranium originates from different sources, including natural or geogenic, mining and industrial activities, and fertilizers in agriculture. The goal of this study was to obtain insights into the origin of uranium in groundwater while differentiating between geogenic sources and fertilizers. A literature review concerning the sources and geochemical processes affecting the occurrence and distribution of uranium in the lithosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere provided the background for the evaluation of data on uranium in groundwater at regional scale. The state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, was selected for this study, because of its hydrogeological and land-use diversity, and for reasons of data availability. Uranium and other parameters from N=1935 groundwater monitoring sites were analyzed statistically and geospatially. Results show that (i) 1.6% of all water samples exceed the German legal limit for drinking water (10 μg/L); (ii) The range and spatial distribution of uranium and occasional peak values seem to be related to geogenic sources; (iii) There is a clear relation between agricultural land-use and low-level uranium concentrations, indicating that fertilizers generate a measurable but low background of uranium in groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer of the Neoplanta source area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a survey on the groundwater aquifer at the Neoplanta source site, standard laboratory analysis of water quality and an electromagnetic geophysical method were used for long-term quantitative and qualitative monitoring of arsenic levels. This study presents only the results of research conducted in the ...

  12. 18O isotopic characterisation of non-point source contributed heavy metals (Zn and Cu) contamination of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Tyagi, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many urbanised areas, fast depletion and severe degradation of the of groundwater resource with contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, and heavy metals is a common phenomenon, resulting in zonal disparity in fresh water availability. Therefore, for protection of groundwater from pollution and depletion, it is a matter of concern for the planners and decision makers to clearly characterise the sources of contamination and to search for an alternative approach for groundwater development and management. In this context, a new approach is presented here, based on monitoring of 18 O stable isotopic and heavy metals composition of groundwater, to clearly characterise non-point source contributed heavy metals pollution of groundwater in northern parts of Delhi area. In the investigated area, the Cu content in the groundwater ranges from 3-41 μg/l and Zn content ranges from 5-182 μg/l, showing considerable variation from location to location as well as within the small parts of a location. Wide variation in the 18 O stable isotope content of groundwater (δ value of -5.7 per mille to -8.5 per mille) is due to significant variation in the δ 18 O-contents of rainfall with space and time, as well as intensity and distribution of rainfall. Enrichment in 18 O composition with increasing Cu and Zn levels in groundwater suggest that infiltration of rain water, irrigation water and surface run-off water from the surrounding farm lands, along with agrochemicals and other salts present in the soil, to be the main processes causing groundwater contamination. The concentration of Cu and Zn in groundwater vary spatially, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge, amounts of fertiliser applied and wastes disposed, adsorption/dispersion of species in the soils and lateral mixing of groundwater. Two opposite mechanisms adsorption and redistribution of infiltrating water along with Zn and Cu species in the soil zone are likely to affect the movement of the Zn and Cu species

  13. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  14. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10 -6 . To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10 -6 . The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  15. Palaeosol control on groundwater flow and pollutant distribution: the example of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John M; Nath, Bibhash; Banerjee, Dhiraj M; Purohit, R; Grassineau, N

    2011-02-15

    The consumption of groundwater polluted by arsenic (As) has a severe and adverse effect on human health, particularly where, as happens in parts of SE Asia, groundwater is supplied largely from fluvial/deltaic aquifers. The lateral distribution of the As-pollution in such aquifers is heterogeneous. The cause of the heterogeneity is obscure. The location and severity of the As-pollution is therefore difficult to predict, despite the importance of such predictions to the protection of consumer health, aquifer remediation, and aquifer development. To explain the heterogeneity, we mapped As-pollution in groundwater using 659 wells across 102 km(2) of West Bengal, and logged 43 boreholes, to reveal that the distribution of As-pollution is governed by subsurface sedimentology. Across 47 km(2) of contiguous palaeo-interfluve, we found that the shallow aquifer (channels, the palaeosol is absent, so invasion of the aquifer by As and dissolved organic matter can occur, so palaeo-channel groundwater is mostly polluted by As (>50 μg/L). The role of palaeosols and, in particular, the LGMP, has been overlooked as a control on groundwater flow and pollutant movement in deltaic and coastal aquifers worldwide. Models of pollutant infiltration in such environments must include the appreciation that, where the LGMP (or other palaeosols) are present, recharge moves downward in palaeo-channel regions that are separated by palaeo-interfluvial regions where vertical recharge to underlying aquifers cannot occur and where horizontal flow occurs above the LGMP and any aquifer it caps.

  16. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  17. Tritium as tracer of groundwater pollution extension: case study of Andralanitra landfill site, Antananarivo-Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, Voahirana; Rakotomalala, Christian Ulrich; Rajaobelison, Joel; Fareze, Lahimamy Paul; Razafitsalama, Falintsoa A.; Rasolofonirina, Mamiseheno

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to understand the extension of groundwater pollution downstream of a landfill, Andralanitra-Antananarivo-Madagascar. Twenty-one samples, composed of dug well waters, spring waters, river, and lake, were measured in stable isotopes ( δ 2H, δ 18O) and tritium. Results showed that only two dug well waters, collected at the immediate vicinity of the landfill, have high tritium activities (22.82 TU and 10.43 TU), probably of artificial origin. Both upstream and further downstream of the landfill, tritium activities represent natural source, with values varying from 0.17 TU to 1.46 TU upstream and from 0.88 TU to 1.88 TU further downstream. Stable isotope data suggest that recharge occurs through infiltration of slightly evaporated rainfall. Using the radioactive decay equation, the calculated tracer ages related to two recent ground water samples collected down gradient of the landfill lay between [8-15] years and [4-7] years, taking into account the uncertainty of tritium measurements. For the calculation, a value of 2.36 TU was taken as A o. The latter was estimated based on similarity between stable isotope compositions of nearby spring and dug well waters as well as tritium activities of the local precipitation. Calculation of the tritium activities from the contaminated water point having 22.82 TU to further downstream using the calculated tracer ages showed values of one order of magnitude higher than the measured values. The absence of hydrological connection from the contaminated water point to further downstream the landfill would explain the lower tritium activities measured. Groundwater pollution seems to be limited to the closest proximity of the landfill.

  18. Validating a continental-scale groundwater diffuse pollution model using regional datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2017-12-11

    In this study, we assess the validity of an African-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrates. In a previous study, we identified a statistical continental-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrate. The model was identified using a pan-African meta-analysis of available nitrate groundwater pollution studies. The model was implemented in both Random Forest (RF) and multiple regression formats. For both approaches, we collected as predictors a comprehensive GIS database of 13 spatial attributes, related to land use, soil type, hydrogeology, topography, climatology, region typology, nitrogen fertiliser application rate, and population density. In this paper, we validate the continental-scale model of groundwater contamination by using a nitrate measurement dataset from three African countries. We discuss the issue of data availability, and quality and scale issues, as challenges in validation. Notwithstanding that the modelling procedure exhibited very good success using a continental-scale dataset (e.g. R 2  = 0.97 in the RF format using a cross-validation approach), the continental-scale model could not be used without recalibration to predict nitrate pollution at the country scale using regional data. In addition, when recalibrating the model using country-scale datasets, the order of model exploratory factors changes. This suggests that the structure and the parameters of a statistical spatially distributed groundwater degradation model for the African continent are strongly scale dependent.

  19. Numerical prediction of 239Pu migration for groundwater pollution in the infiltration case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Wang Qinghai; Yu Jing

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the study on site selection of geological disposal of LIL radioactive waste in north-west China, a numerical prediction of 239 Pu migration for potential groundwater pollution in the unsaturated zone was conducted with the HYDRUS-ID model. The results showed that the groundwater will not be contaminated by the migration of soluble 239 Pu. And there is a faint possibility that 239 Pu migration through groundwater path might have an unacceptable impact on ecosphere. Measurements of the distribution coefficient, K d , are critical in the determination of sorption-induced retardation of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  20. Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the Keiskammahoek Sewage ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Also, significant pollution of the receiving Keiskamma River was indicated for ...

  1. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  2. Distribution and Sources of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Kansas Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Kansas is primarily an agricultural state. Irrigation water and fertilizer use data show long- term increasing trends. Similarly, nitrate-N concentrations in groundwater show long-term increases and exceed the drinking-water standard of 10 mg/l in many areas. A statistical analysis of nitrate-N data collected for local and regional studies in Kansas from 1990 to 1998 (747 samples found significant relationships between nitrate-N concentration with depth, age, and geographic location of wells. Sources of nitrate-N have been identified for 297 water samples by using nitrogen stable isotopes. Of these samples, 48% showed fertilizer sources (+2 to +8 and 34% showed either animal waste sources (+10 to +15 with nitrate-N greater than 10 mg/l or indication that enrichment processes had occurred (+10 or above with variable nitrate-N or both. Ultimate sources for nitrate include nonpoint sources associated with past farming and fertilization practices, and point sources such as animal feed lots, septic systems, and commercial fertilizer storage units. Detection of nitrate from various sources in aquifers of different depths in geographically varied areas of the state indicates that nonpoint and point sources currently impact and will continue to impact groundwater under current land uses.

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Pollution in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the residents in Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, where more than 50% of people extracts groundwater to meet the drinking purpose and monitoring groundwater shows that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration of more than safe drinking water guideline of 10μg/L-1. Exposure and risk assessment are carried out in accordance with the provisional daily intake (PTDI) recommended by the FAO/WHO as well as hazard quotient and cancer risk standards based on the US Environmental Protection Agency. The variability of body weights and drinking water consumption scenarios are considered in exposure and risk assessment. Results shows that daily intake exceeds 2.1μg day-1 kg-1 BW for 2% of population, HQ level above unity for 20% , and can risk greater than 10-6 for 80%. These results implies that drinking water directly from groundwater will place many people at the risk of exposure and any efforts to supply safe drinking water is imperial for governing in order to protect the human health of inhabitants in Pingtung Plain.

  4. Open Source Platform Application to Groundwater Characterization and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Falzone, S.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Slater, L. D.; Robinson, J.; Hammett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater characterization and monitoring commonly rely on the use of multiple point sensors and human labor. Due to the number of sensors, labor, and other resources needed, establishing and maintaining an adequate groundwater monitoring network can be both labor intensive and expensive. To improve and optimize the monitoring network design, open source software and hardware components could potentially provide the platform to control robust and efficient sensors thereby reducing costs and labor. This work presents early attempts to create a groundwater monitoring system incorporating open-source software and hardware that will control the remote operation of multiple sensors along with data management and file transfer functions. The system is built around a Raspberry PI 3, that controls multiple sensors in order to perform on-demand, continuous or `smart decision' measurements while providing flexibility to incorporate additional sensors to meet the demands of different projects. The current objective of our technology is to monitor exchange of ionic tracers between mobile and immobile porosity using a combination of fluid and bulk electrical-conductivity measurements. To meet this objective, our configuration uses four sensors (pH, specific conductance, pressure, temperature) that can monitor the fluid electrical properties of interest and guide the bulk electrical measurement. This system highlights the potential of using open source software and hardware components for earth sciences applications. The versatility of the system makes it ideal for use in a large number of applications, and the low cost allows for high resolution (spatially and temporally) monitoring.

  5. Bentonite as a colloid source in groundwaters at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Hirvonen, H.

    2005-02-01

    In this work bentonite was studied as a potential source of colloids in Olkiluoto groundwaters. Samples were collected at two groundwater stations, PVA1 at 37.5 m dept and PVA3 at 95.6 m depth, in the VLJ-tunnel. The deeper groundwater at PVA3 was more saline (2.6g/L of Cl-) than the shallow at PVA1 (0.8g/L of Cl-). A bentonite source had been assembled at each groundwater station so that two sample lines were available for water samples; one for collecting a sample before and the other for collecting a sample after interaction with bentonite. Before starting the actual colloid sampling groundwaters from both sample lines at both stations were analysed. Only minor alterations, mostly within the uncertainty limits of the analysis methods, were brought about in the water chemistries after interaction with the bentonite sources. The only clear changes were seen in the concentration of iron which decreased after interaction with bentonite in the groundwaters at both stations. After groundwater sampling the actual colloid sampling was performed. The water samples were collected and treated inside a movable nitrogen filled glove-box. The samples could be collected from each sampling line directly in the glove-box via two quick-couplings that had been assembled on the front face of the box. The sample lines had been assembled with 0.45 μm filters before entering the glove-box, because only colloids smaller than 0.45 μm were of interest, as they are not prone to sedimentation in slow groundwater flows and therefore could act as potential radionuclide carriers. Colloid samples were collected and treated similarly from both sampling lines at both groundwater stations. For estimating the colloid content the groundwater samples were filtered with centrifugal ultrafiltration tubes of different cut-off values (0.3 μm, 300kD and 10kD). The ultrafiltrations produced the colloid-containing concentrate fractions and the soluble substances-containing filtrate fractions. In

  6. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  7. Assessing the cost of groundwater pollution: the case of diffuse agricultural pollution in the Upper Rhine valley aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, J-D; Arnal, C; Blanchin, R; Elsass, P; Meilhac, A; Loubier, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the costs of diffuse groundwater pollution by nitrates and pesticides for the industrial and the drinking water sectors in the Upper Rhine valley, France. Pollution costs which occurred between 1988 and 2002 are described and assessed using the avoidance cost method. Geo-statistical methods (kriging) are then used to construct three scenarios of nitrate concentration evolution. The economic consequences of each scenario are then assessed. The estimates obtained are compared with the results of a contingent valuation study carried out in the same study area ten years earlier.

  8. Nature and analysis of chemical species: pollution effects on surface waters and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.H.F.

    1975-01-01

    A literature review of 103 items covers: nutrients in surface waters; runoff and waste discharges primarily from energy-intensive activities; groundwater pollution causes, effects, controls and monitoring; land and subsurface wastewater disposal; radionuclides; biological effects; thermal effluents; and biological and mathematical models for rivers

  9. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian

    1998-01-01

    Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...

  10. Intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central Spain: the risk of nitrate pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastida, Juan J.; Arauzo, Mercedes; Valladolid, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater in the Comunidad de Madrid (central Spain) was evaluated using the DRASTIC and GOD indexes. Groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution was also assessed using the composite DRASTIC (CD) and nitrate vulnerability (NV) indexes. The utility of these methods was tested by analyzing the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations in the different aquifers located in the study area: the Tertiary Detrital Aquifer, the Moor Limestone Aquifer, the Cretaceous Limestone Aquifer and the Quaternary Aquifer. Vulnerability maps based on these four indexes showed very similar results, identifying the Quaternary Aquifer and the lower sub-unit of the Moor Limestone Aquifer as deposits subjected to a high risk of nitrate pollution due to intensive agriculture. As far as the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations is concerned, the NV index showed the greatest statistical significance ( p Comunidad de Madrid, in line with European Union Directive 91/676/EEC.

  11. Identification of groundwater nitrate sources in pre-alpine catchments: a multi-tracer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoewer, Myriam; Stumpp, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Porous aquifers in pre-alpine areas are often used as drinking water resources due to their good water quality status and water yield. Maintaining these resources requires knowledge about possible sources of pollutants and a sustainable management practice in groundwater catchment areas. Of particular interest in agricultural areas, like in pre-alpine regions, is limiting nitrate input as main groundwater pollutant. Therefore, the objective of the presented study is i) to identify main nitrate sources in a pre-alpine groundwater catchment with current low nitrate concentration using stable isotopes of nitrate (d18O and d15N) and ii) to investigate seasonal dynamics of nitrogen compounds. The groundwater catchment areas of four porous aquifers are located in Southern Germany. Most of the land use is organic grassland farming as well as forestry and residential area. Thus, potential sources of nitrate mainly are mineral fertilizer, manure/slurry, leaking sewage system and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. Monthly freshwater samples (precipitation, river water and groundwater) are analysed for stable isotope of water (d2H, d18O), the concentration of major anions and cations, electrical conductivity, water temperature, pH and oxygen. In addition, isotopic analysis of d18O-NO3- and d15N-NO3- for selected samples is carried out using the denitrifier method. In general, all groundwater samples were oxic (10.0±2.6mg/L) and nitrate concentrations were low (0.2 - 14.6mg/L). The observed nitrate isotope values in the observation area compared to values from local precipitation, sewage, manure and mineral fertilizer as well as to data from literature shows that the nitrate in freshwater samples is of microbial origin. Nitrate derived from ammonium in fertilizers and precipitation as well as from soil nitrogen. It is suggested that a major potential threat to the groundwater quality is ammonia and ammonium at a constant level mainly from agriculture activities as

  12. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Law-Related Pollution Prevention Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine

    This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…

  14. Feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    During the past two to three decades numerous studies reporting highly efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by plants have been published. The promises of phytoremediation has been great but till now the technology has not been widely applied and recognized, commercially...... and in a regulatory context, on par with other conventional soil and groundwater remediation technologies. This thesis elucidates the field of phytoremediation and addresses the lack of recognition of the technology. It aims to assesses the overall feasibility of phytoremediation and identify obstacles within...... the field. Further, it provides examples and suggestions of how to overcome these obstacles. The first part of the thesis scrutinizes the literature for data and experiences regarding application of phytoremediation and uncovers potential barriers and where the existing knowledge is insufficient. Further...

  15. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  16. Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

  17. Study of the pollution impact from wastewater reuse for irrigation on the groundwater of the quaternary aquifer, west cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.; Ahmed, M.A.; Hassan, H.B.; Hamza, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The hazards resulting from the extensive application of using sewage and drainage effluent in its form or mixing with fresh water from two sewerage stations(Zenin and Abu-Rawash) for agriculture irrigation were studied by means of chemical, isotopic and biological techniques. The hydrochemical results of major chemical constituents of surface water samples fall in the acceptable range for using this water for irrigation, while minor groups (NO 3 , PO 4 ) and heavy metals measurements showed higher values of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pb in the mixed water more than the maximum permissible limits. The collected groundwater samples from the area of study showed high values of the total dissolved solids, minor groups and heavy metals in most wells around Zenin and abu Rawash sewerage stations. These values increase in the direction of the groundwater flow from south-east to north-west. The isotopic enrichment of delta 18 O, delta D enhanced with tritium values for surface and groundwater samples confirms the direct replenishment from surface and groundwater samples confirms the direct replenishment from surface water bodies by downward infiltration to the underlying aquifer, which permits the migration of wastewater contaminants through the soil layers to reach the groundwater level. The influence of wastewater infiltration was also detected from the high counting numbers of microbes obtained in all samples, which selected from some drains and wells close to the sewerage stations. From the previous results the real hazards for using this water not only depend on the quantitative estimates of total major ions, but the harmful pathogenic attack of micro and macro organisms as well as heavy metals will pose the greatest risk to the human health. On the long run the infiltration of the polluted water will threat the groundwater to different depths of the shallow layer of the quaternary aquifer that is the only source of potable water supply in some locations

  18. Reduction Assessment of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, YiCheng; Zang, Wenbin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    NPS (Non-point source) pollution has become a key impact element to watershed environment at present. With the development of technology, application of models to control NPS pollution has become a very common practice for resource management and Pollutant reduction control in the watershed scale of China. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a semi-conceptual model, which was put forward to estimate pollutant production & the influences on water quantity-quality under different...

  19. Groundwater quality deterioration as a result of anthropogenic organic air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, I.; Schleyer, R.; Muehlhausen, D.

    1990-01-01

    For monitoring the atmospherical depositions of organic materials in soil and in particular groundwater, we measured in rain water, soil seepage water and groundwater from four measuring stations in hessian forest areas the AOX sum parameter (organic halogen compounds which can be adsorbed) and numerous single compounds, above all chlorinated hydrocarbons. Anthropogenic organic pollutants are found in all precipitations. Their concentrations are clearly increased as compared to the open land. Of special importance are the atmospherical reaction products of the primary emissions, for example trichloroacetic acid. In analogy to inorganic pollutants, organic pollutant depositions affect above all poorly protected water-bearing strata with thin topsoil layers with a low capacity for adsorption and buffering. Harmful concentrations may be reached here in some cases. (orig.) [de

  20. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  1. Study on road surface source pollution controlled by permeable pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-06-01

    The increase of impermeable pavement in urban construction not only increases the runoff of the pavement, but also produces a large number of Non-Point Source Pollution. In the process of controlling road surface runoff by permeable pavement, a large number of particulate matter will be withheld when rainwater is being infiltrated, so as to control the source pollution at the source. In this experiment, we determined the effect of permeable road surface to remove heavy pollutants in the laboratory and discussed the related factors that affect the non-point pollution of permeable pavement, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the application of permeable pavement.

  2. Rainfall Deduction Method for Estimating Non-Point Source Pollution Load for Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ming; Li, Huai-en; KAWAKAMI, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    The water pollution can be divided into point source pollution (PSP) and non-point source pollution (NSP). Since the point source pollution has been controlled, the non-point source pollution is becoming the main pollution source. The prediction of NSP load is being increasingly important in water pollution controlling and planning in watershed. Considering the monitoring data shortage of NPS in China, a practical estimation method of non-point source pollution load --- rainfall deduction met...

  3. Treatment of highly polluted groundwater by novel iron removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S J; Kang, C D; Lee, J W; Kim, W S

    2001-01-01

    The removal of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in groundwater has been generally achieved by simple aeration, or the addition of an oxidizing agent. Aeration has been shown to be very efficient in insolubilization ferrous iron at a pH level greater than 6.5. In this study, pH was maintained over 6.5 using limestone granules under constant aeration to oxidize ferrous iron in groundwater in a limestone packed column. A sedimentation unit coupled with a membrane filtration was also developed to precipitate and filtrate the oxidized ferric compound simultaneously. Several bench-scale studies, including the effects of the limestone granule sizes, amounts and hydraulic retention time on iron removal in the limestone packed column were investigated. It was found that 550 g/L of the 7-8 mesh size limestone granules, and 20 min of hydraulic retention time in the limestone packed column, were necessary for the sufficient oxidation of 40 mg/L of iron(II) in groundwater. Long-term operation was successfully achieved in contaminated waters by removing the iron deposits on the surface of the limestone granule by continuous aeration from the bottom of the column. Periodic reverse flow helped to remove caking and fouling of membrane surface caused by the continuous filtration. Recycling of the treated water from the membrane right after reverse flow operation made possible an admissible limit of iron concentration of the treated water for drinking. The pilot-scale process was constructed and has been tested in the rural area of Korea.

  4. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  5. Nitrogen component in nonpoint source pollution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollutants entering a water body can be very destructive to the health of that system. Best Management Practices (BMPs) and/or conservation practices are used to reduce these pollutants, but understanding the most effective practices is very difficult. Watershed models are an effective tool to aid...

  6. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halas, S.; Trembaczowski, A.; Soltyk, W.

    1998-01-01

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO 4 2- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO 4 2- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  7. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  8. A new four-step hierarchy method for combined assessment of groundwater quality and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Henghua; Ren, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhizheng

    2017-12-28

    A new four-step hierarchy method was constructed and applied to evaluate the groundwater quality and pollution of the Dagujia River Basin. The assessment index system is divided into four types: field test indices, common inorganic chemical indices, inorganic toxicology indices, and trace organic indices. Background values of common inorganic chemical indices and inorganic toxicology indices were estimated with the cumulative-probability curve method, and the results showed that the background values of Mg 2+ (51.1 mg L -1 ), total hardness (TH) (509.4 mg L -1 ), and NO 3 - (182.4 mg L -1 ) are all higher than the corresponding grade III values of Quality Standard for Groundwater, indicating that they were poor indicators and therefore were not included in the groundwater quality assessment. The quality assessment results displayed that the field test indices were mainly classified as grade II, accounting for 60.87% of wells sampled. The indices of common inorganic chemical and inorganic toxicology were both mostly in the range of grade III, whereas the trace organic indices were predominantly classified as grade I. The variabilities and excess ratios of the indices were also calculated and evaluated. Spatial distributions showed that the groundwater with poor quality indices was mainly located in the northeast of the basin, which was well-connected with seawater intrusion. Additionally, the pollution assessment revealed that groundwater in well 44 was classified as "moderately polluted," wells 5 and 8 were "lightly polluted," and other wells were classified as "unpolluted."

  9. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  10. Lead pollution of soil and groundwater in clay-pigeon shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the exemplary investigation of soil and groundwater pollution with lead on clay-pigeon shooting ranges, three facilities were sampled. The analyses for depth distribution in the main area of the ammunition deposition showed that the dissolved lead amounts are as a rule smaller than the limiting value of the Sewage Sludge Regulation (100 mg/kg). In two groundwater samples, no lead could be found. Considerable amounts of small lead balls are found on the soil surface, but only a very small part appears to be washed out and adsorbed by the soil matrix. (orig.) [de

  11. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  12. Emerging contaminants in urban groundwater sources in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Nkhuwa, D C W; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bell, R A; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Chibesa, M; Pedley, S

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic contaminants within the aquatic environment in Africa is currently unknown. This study provides early insights by characterising a broad range of emerging organic contaminants (n > 1000) in groundwater sources in Kabwe, Zambia. Groundwater samples were obtained during both the dry and wet seasons from a selection of deep boreholes and shallow wells completed within the bedrock and overlying superficial aquifers, respectively. Groundwater sources were distributed across the city to encompass peri-urban, lower cost housing, higher cost housing, and industrial land uses. The insect repellent DEET was ubiquitous within groundwater at concentrations up to 1.8 μg/L. Other compounds (n = 26) were detected in less than 15% of the sources and included the bactericide triclosan (up to 0.03 μg/L), chlorination by-products - trihalomethanes (up to 50 μg/L), and the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (up to 0.6 μg/L). Emerging contaminants were most prevalent in shallow wells sited in low cost housing areas. This is attributed to localised vulnerability associated with inadequate well protection, sanitation, and household waste disposal. The five-fold increase in median DEET concentration following the onset of the seasonal rains highlights that more mobile compounds can rapidly migrate from the surface to the aquifer suggesting the aquifer is more vulnerable than previously considered. Furthermore it suggests DEET is potentially useful as a wastewater tracer in Africa. There was a general absence of personal care products, life-style compounds, and pharmaceuticals which are commonly detected in the aquatic environment in the developed world. This perhaps reflects some degree of attenuation within the subsurface, but could also be a result of the current limited use of products containing emerging contaminants by locals due to unaffordability and unavailability. As development and population increases in Africa, it is

  13. Studying The Contamination Status And The Sources Of Nitrogen Compounds In Groundwater In Ho Chi Minh City Area Using The Isotope Hydrology Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Kien Chinh; Le Danh Chuan; Nguyen Van Nhien; Huynh Long; Tran Bich Lien; Luong Thu Tra

    2013-01-01

    The obtained data on nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen concentration of 100 groundwater samples collected from 3 main aquifers show that although the nitrate concentration is still lower than the authorized limit of this compound in groundwater but the concentration and, specially the distribution of nitrate in shallow aquifer (Pleistocene) shows the increasing tendency in pollution level while ammonium and also total nitrogen content exceeded the authorized limit of these compounds in groundwater. For deeper aquifers (Upper and Lower Pliocene) groundwater is less polluted by nitrogen compounds. Analysis data on isotopic composition δ 15 N and δ 18 O of nitrate of the collected groundwater samples in compiling with other environmental isotopes data as δ 2 H, δ 18 O of water and natural radioactive isotopes in groundwater ( 3 H and 14 C) show that nitrate in Pleistocene groundwater is derived from both sources, geogenic source such as organic matter buried in aquifer soil layers and anthropogenic source like fertilizers, manure and septic wastes with the dominance of anthropogenic source. At the same time, obtained isotopic data proved the geogenic source of nitrate in water of the deeper aquifers. Study results on infiltration rate and infiltration depth of fertilizers and water using tracer techniques in the zone specializing in legume cultivation of the study area show the possible infiltration into shallow groundwater of water and also fertilizers. The obtained results prove the need of better management of the use of fertilizers for cultivation activities in the study area and to apply the advanced cultural manners for minimizing amount of fertilizers used. At the same time to strengthen wastes management and treatment in whole study area, especially in the zones which intake rain water as a recharge source to shallow groundwater such as Cu Chi, Hoc Mon and also inner city districts. (author)

  14. Statistical approach to modeling transport of pollutants in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Koplik, C.M.; Crawford, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of pollutants in the subsurface can be affected by random geologic events. Prediction of such transport therefore requires solution of a partial differential equation whose coefficients are random processes. A method of finding the expected (mean) values of solutions of such equations is derived. This method is used to assess the impact of fault movement and formation of breccia pipes on risk from radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary results indicate that these events, considered probabilistically, do not make a large contribution to risk

  15. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Source-term release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses

  16. Groundwater pollution with heavy metals in the Ibar alluvium near Raška (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the operation of an ore flotation facility at Donja Rudnica near Raška, Serbia, during the period from 1972 to 2002, flotation tailings and wastewater of highly complex chemical compositions were deposited in the alluvial plain of the Ibar River. Due to the excellent groundwater flow characteristics of the alluvial formations underlying the tailings dump, the groundwater and soil over an extended area were continually polluted. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe = 7.38 mg/L. Zn = 4.04 mg/L, Pb = 2.17 mg/L in the soil and concentrations of sulfate as high as 3709 mg/L, and pH levels of 4.2 in the groundwater have been recorded at some locations. This paper draws attention to the potential risk this site poses for the conservation of biodiversity over the extended area.

  17. Multiobjective optimization for Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Control. Application to El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Peña-Haro, S.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Molina, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality management is complex due to the inter-relations between socio-political, environmental and economic constraints and objectives. In order to choose an appropriate policy to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater it is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict. In this paper, a hydro-economic modeling framework, based on a non-linear optimization(CONOPT) technique, which embeds simulation of groundwater mass transport through concentration response matrices, is used to study optimal policies for groundwater nitrate pollution control under different objectives and constraints. Three objectives were considered: recovery time (for meeting the environmental standards, as required by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive), maximum nitrate concentration in groundwater, and net benefits in agriculture. Another criterion was added: the reliability of meeting the nitrate concentration standards. The approach allows deriving the trade-offs between the reliability of meeting the standard, the net benefits from agricultural production and the recovery time. Two different policies were considered: spatially distributed fertilizer standards or quotas (obtained through multi-objective optimization) and fertilizer prices. The multi-objective analysis allows to compare the achievement of the different policies, Pareto fronts (or efficiency frontiers) and tradeoffs for the set of mutually conflicting objectives. The constraint method is applied to generate the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-objective framework can be used to design groundwater management policies taking into consideration different stakeholders' interests (e.g., policy makers, agricultures or environmental groups). The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer in Spain. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has

  18. Uranium isotopes as radioactive pollutants in groundwaters of the Morro do Ferro thorium deposit, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water samples were collected at Morro do Ferro, a thorium and rare earth deposit located on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate if the mechanisms related to the migration of 238 U and 234 U isotopes can generate concentrations greater than the gross-alpha activity contaminant limit. The 238 U content range was 0.003-0.24 pCi/1 and the 234 U content range was 0.004-0.25 pCi/1, showing that the studied hydrologic environment doesn't indicate pollution by radioactivity due to these nuclides. However, 226 Ra and 228 Ra isotopes can be considered as radioactive pollutants in groundwaters but not in surface waters of the Morro do Ferro. (author)

  19. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  20. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types.

  1. Impact of Cadmium Polluted Groundwater on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhunda Burke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of serious studies have been conducted to decipher relationships between geological environment, potable/drinking water, and diseases as they were considered to have triggered suffering due to diseases among people. Chronic anemia can be caused by prolonged exposure to drinking water contaminated with cadmium (Cd. Under such circumstances, accumulation of Cd is manifested in the kidney, resulting in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to present the impact of Cd-contaminated drinking water on human health among the residents of villages in Winder. Collection of about 48 groundwater samples at an average distance of 1 to 2 km between the sampling sites has enabled a sufficient geological representation of distribution of minerals and elements in the samples. Concentration and comparison of Cd in the study area sample sites reveal highest values (24.2-30.0 ppb in the northeastern and southeastern sectors, covering parts of all three geological areas of Bela Ophiolite of Cretaceous age. Conducted questionnaire surveys provided relevance between cause and effect nature of Cd bearing diseases among which kidney, joint, and night blindness are more prominent. Due to this phenomena, toxic risk of Cd in drinking water was high as per calculated health hazard indices. The use of this water by the villagers may cause health problems and disorders among the inhabitants of the area.

  2. Simulation and Prediction of Groundwater Pollution from Planned Feed Additive Project in Nanning City Based on GMS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yimin; Lan, Junkang; Wen, Zhixiong

    2018-01-01

    In order to predict the pollution of underground aquifers and rivers by the proposed project, Specialized hydrogeological investigation was carried out. After hydrogeological surveying and mapping, drilling, and groundwater level monitoring, the scope of the hydrogeological unit and the regional hydrogeological condition were found out. The permeability coefficients of the aquifers were also obtained by borehole water injection tests. In order to predict the impact on groundwater environment by the project, a GMS software was used in numerical simulation. The simulation results show that when unexpected sewage leakage accident happened, the pollutants will be gradually diluted by groundwater, and the diluted contaminants will slowly spread to southeast with groundwater flow, eventually they are discharged into Gantang River. However, the process of the pollutants discharging into the river is very long, the long-term dilution of the river water will keep Gantang River from being polluted.

  3. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater : a review of sources, fate and occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram...

  4. A new theory and method of preventing harmful waste landfill from pollution to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Zhang Yun; Song Shuhong; Hou Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    It is limited in conventional Soil Liner theory of waste landfill, we must update the theory and the calculational methods must be broke, so that the cost of waste landfill could be reduced in wide scope, this is important to develop economy and environment in sustaining rate. It is an innovation in the theory of the pollution control in the waste landfill groundwater through translated the theories of 'excluding infiltrate to groundwater' into 'insulating waste, allowing water into groundwater', the theory of waste landfill from pollution to groundwater came true. Clayey Soil not only can prevent seepage, but also can obstruct waste. If we can make use of its filtration adequately, just as using experimentation in laboratory to research filtration capability, calculation, we could made new testing technique and calculated technique of liner parameters. This paper take an example of which calculate to liner parameters, such as 'filtration capability' and 'adequacy thickness of effective liner', and make a programming of landfill site by this theory and method in Beijing plain. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution with Heavy Metals at the Oblogo No.1 Dumpsite in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the groundwater pollution risks from heavy metal contaminants near the de-commissioned Oblogo No.1 dumpsite using a combination of USEPA leachate estimation and migration models. The Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP model was used to determine leachate volumes from the base of the dumpsite whereas the Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM was used to determine contaminant concentrations at groundwater wells located at various distances from the dumpsite. It was observed that there is a wide variation in the concentration of the contaminants measured at different sampling periods between 2004 and 2011. Pollution risks from chromium, lead, manganese, cobalt and zinc were determined to be very low since the simulated contaminant concentrations in the wells were less than the reference ground water concentrations. However, the concentrations of cadmium, copper and arsenic were determined to be high enough to constitute a potential risk to groundwater wells which are down-gradient of the dumpsite. It was also determined that the minimum buffer distance of 360 m specified in the Ghana Landfill Guidelines may not ensure adequate protection for groundwater wells located down-gradient of the Oblogo No.1 dumpsite.

  6. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  7. Chemical and Microbial Quality of Groundwater in Siloam Village, Implications to Human Health and Sources of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ogony Odiyo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to inaccessibility of potable water, rural communities drill boreholes within their homesteads despite vulnerability to groundwater contamination and associated health risks. This study assessed the quality of groundwater, identified potential sources of contamination and potential human health risks in Siloam Village, South Africa. Statistical difference between similar water quality parameters at different sites was determined at a significance level (α of 0.05. Water quality parameters with serious potential health effects on human beings were correlated with selected water quality parameters to understand the nature of correlation and possible sources of contamination. Fluorides and nitrates had excessively high concentrations associated with tooth damage and pronounced skeletal fluorosis, and methaemoglobinaemia in infants and mucous membrane irritation in adults, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between means of most water quality parameters. Contrasting correlation of fluoride with calcium and pH indicated the need to further identify local sources and fluoride control mechanisms. Correlation of nitrate with chloride mostly indicated that faecal contamination is the potential source of high nitrates in groundwater. This requires further verification. Presence of total coliforms and E. coli in most boreholes indicated potential presence of faecal contamination. The need to educate borehole owners’ on possible strategies to minimise groundwater pollution was identified.

  8. Assessment of groundwater pollution from the oxidation ponds in tenth of Ramadan city, using isotopic techniques and hydrogeological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Samie, S.G.; Sadek, M.A.; Mahmoud, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    The tenth of ramadan city is an intensive industrial settement on the peripheries of cairo. All types of wastewater from industrial and domestic practices are discharged into three unlined oxidation ponds to eliminate pollutants. The present srudy has been conduted to assess the extent of seepage to groundwater from the ponds and how efficient they are for pollution reduction. The chemical composition is more developed in the groundwater of the miocene aquifer due to the less active recharge and the dominance of readily dissolved salts that interact with the inflow. The seepage from ismailia canal and the excess irrigation from agricultural lands and the infiltration from the oxidation ponds as well as the upleaked water represent the main sources of recharge in the quaternary aquifer. The chemical and isotopic composition of the water in the oxidation ponds is controlled by the nature of the drained water and the geochemical processes affecting the solute content. The isotopic enrichment differs for the three ponds being related to the evaporation intensity in each

  9. Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. J.; Valentine, G. A.; Stauffer, P. H.; Lowry, C. S.; Sonder, I.; Pulgarín, B. A.; Santacoloma, C. C.; Agudelo, A.

    2018-04-01

    One mechanism for generating lahars at volcanoes experiencing unrest is the disruption of internal aquifers. These disruptions can trigger releases of large quantities of groundwater. An example of such aquifer disruption occurred at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia, during February and April 2007 when large fractures formed across the summit area of the volcano and lahars were emitted from them. Previous work interpreted that lahar volumes could not be accounted for by melted glacial snow or precipitation, and by elimination suggested that the primary water source was groundwater. Conceptual models have been developed for perched, confined aquifers that have been heated and pressurized by magma intrusions, followed by sudden pressure release and water emission during fracture formation. We consider an alternative end member wherein water release from large fissures at volcanoes is driven by simple gravity drainage. We apply numerical modeling to quantify water discharge from the porous medium surrounding a fissure with a low-elevation free exit. If a long fracture with high vertical extent (on the order of hundreds of meters) intersects a highly connected saturated porous medium, large volumes (on order 103 m3/m of crack length) of water may be released within tens of minutes. The drainage rates from the model may be adequate to account for the Nevado del Huila events if the medium surrounding the crack contains a large volume of water and has high horizontal permeability. This simple but poorly understood mechanism can present a hazard on its own or compound other processes releasing water from volcanoes.

  10. Seasonal and spatial variation of diffuse (non-point) source zinc pollution in a historically metal mined river catchment, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzard, E., E-mail: emgo@ceh.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Mayes, W.M., E-mail: W.Mayes@hull.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Potter, H.A.B., E-mail: hugh.potter@environment-agency.gov.uk [Environment Agency England and Wales, c/o Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, A.P., E-mail: a.p.jarvis@ncl.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Quantifying diffuse sources of pollution is becoming increasingly important when characterising river catchments in entirety - a prerequisite for environmental management. This study examines both low and high flow events, as well as spatial variability, in order to assess point and diffuse components of zinc pollution within the River West Allen catchment, which lies within the northern England lead-zinc Orefield. Zinc levels in the river are elevated under all flow regimes, and are of environmental concern. Diffuse components are of little importance at low flow, with point source mine water discharges dominating instream zinc concentration and load. During higher river flows 90% of the instream zinc load is attributed to diffuse sources, where inputs from resuspension of metal-rich sediments, and groundwater influx are likely to be more dominant. Remediating point mine water discharges should significantly improve water quality at lower flows, but contribution from diffuse sources will continue to elevate zinc flux at higher flows. - Highlights: > Zinc concentrations breach EU quality thresholds under all river flow conditions. > Contributions from point sources dominate instream zinc dynamics in low flow. > Contributions from diffuse sources dominate instream zinc dynamics in high flow. > Important diffuse sources include river-bed sediment resuspension and groundwater influx. > Diffuse sources would still create significant instream pollution, even with point source treatment. - Diffuse zinc sources are an important source of instream contamination to mine-impacted rivers under varying flow conditions.

  11. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  12. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future.

  13. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  14. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: CSIR Groundwater research into mine closure strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available on innovative ways of managing the impact of mine closure, in particular the decant of polluted mine water. Radon isotopes are being used to determine where mine water is contributing to surface water flows, which helps to identify sources of pollution...

  16. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  17. Sources of nitrate and ammonium contamination in groundwater under developing Asian megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Yu; Hosono, Takahiro; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Siringan, Fernando; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Tayasu, Ichiro; Nagata, Toshi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The status of nitrate (NO 3 - ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) contamination in the water systems, and the mechanisms controlling their sources, pathways, and distributions were investigated for the Southeast Asian cities of Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta. GIS-based monitoring and dual isotope approach (nitrate δ 15 N and δ 18 O) suggested that human waste via severe sewer leakage was the major source of nutrient contaminants in Metro Manila and Jakarta urban areas. Furthermore, the characteristics of the nutrient contamination differed depending on the agricultural land use pattern in the suburban areas: high nitrate contamination was observed in Jakarta (dry fields), and relatively lower nutrients consisting mainly of ammonium were detected in Bangkok (paddy fields). The exponential increase in NO 3 - -δ 15 N along with the NO 3 - reduction and clear δ 18 O/δ 15 N slopes of NO 3 - (∼ 0.5) indicated the occurrence of denitrification. An anoxic subsurface system associated with the natural geological setting (e.g., the old tidal plain at Bangkok) and artificial pavement coverage served to buffer NO 3 - contamination via active denitrification and reduced nitrification. Our results showed that NO 3 - and NH 4 + contamination of the aquifers in Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta was not excessive, suggesting low risk of drinking groundwater to human health, at present. However, the increased nitrogen load and increased per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in these developing cities may increase this contamination in the very near future. Continuous monitoring and management of the groundwater system is needed to minimize groundwater pollution in these areas, and this information should be shared among adjacent countries with similar geographic and cultural settings

  18. The geological controls of geothermal groundwater sources in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Amin [National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalaf-Keyrouz, Layla [Notre Dame University-Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon)

    2013-07-01

    Lebanon is a country that is relatively rich in water resources, as compared to its neighboring states in the Middle East. Several water sources are issuing on the surface or subsurface, including nonconventional water sources as the geothermal groundwater. This aspect of water sources exists in Lebanon in several localities, as springs or in deep boreholes. To the present little attention has been given to these resources and their geological setting is still unidentified. The preliminary geological field surveys revealed that they mainly occur in the vicinity of the basalt outcrops. Therefore, understanding their geological controls will help in exploring their origin, and thus giving insights into their economical exploitation. This can be investigated by applying advanced detection techniques, field surveys along with detailed geochemical analysis. This study aims at assessing the geographic distribution of the geothermal water in Lebanon with respect to the different geological settings and controls that govern their hydrogeologic regimes. It will introduce an approach for an integrated water resources management which became of utmost significance for the country.

  19. Pollution Sources in the nile and their environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Bary, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decades , the natural quality of water sources has been altered by the impact of various human activities and water uses. In Egypt, the Nile River which is considered as the main water source is still a recipient of most of the wastewater discharged by industrial effluents and several agriculture drains contains mixed wastes (sewage and industrial). These wastes includes a variety of pollutants which have considerable potential effect on both water ecosystem and human health. Monitoring of these pollutant is the first step for the improvement and protection of the Nile River .The Nile Research Institute designed a monitoring program includes collection and analysis of samples from 35 stations along the Nile River from Aswan to the Mediterranean Sea and from all points sources of pollution discharge their wastes into the Nile. The most important pollutant in these wastes are heavy metals, organic matters, inorganic compounds and micro organism causing disease

  20. An estimation of the health impact of groundwater pollution caused by dumping of chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Chen, Chien-Hung; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hazardous waste sites are major environmental concerns, but few studies have quantified their expected utility loss on health. Objectives: To evaluate the health impact of groundwater pollution by an electronics manufacturing factory, we conducted a health risk assessment based on expected utility loss from liver cancer. Methods: Based on measurements of major pollutants, we estimated the likelihood of developing liver cancer after exposure to groundwater contamination. All patients with liver cancer between 1990 and 2005 in the Taiwan Cancer Registry were followed through 2007 using the National Mortality Registry to obtain survival function. Quality of life was assessed with two cross-sectional surveys, one employing the standard gamble method, and the other using the EQ-5D instrument. Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was estimated by multiplying the utility values with survival function under the unit of quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The difference of QALE between the cancer cohort and the age- and gender-matched reference population was calculated to represent the utility loss due to liver cancer. Results: A total of 94,144 patients with liver cancer were identified. The average utility loss to development of liver cancer was 17.5 QALYs. Based on toxicological approach, we estimated that groundwater pollution caused 1.7 extra cases of liver cancer, with an overall loss of 29.8 QALYs. Based on epidemiological approach, the expected annual excess number of liver cancer would be 3.65, which would have been accumulated through the years, had the pollution not mitigated. Conclusions: We demonstrated a practical approach for comparative health risk assessment using QALY as the common unit. This approach can be used for policy decisions based on possible health risks.

  1. An estimation of the health impact of groundwater pollution caused by dumping of chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Hung [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Yin [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Saou-Hsing [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-15

    Background: Hazardous waste sites are major environmental concerns, but few studies have quantified their expected utility loss on health. Objectives: To evaluate the health impact of groundwater pollution by an electronics manufacturing factory, we conducted a health risk assessment based on expected utility loss from liver cancer. Methods: Based on measurements of major pollutants, we estimated the likelihood of developing liver cancer after exposure to groundwater contamination. All patients with liver cancer between 1990 and 2005 in the Taiwan Cancer Registry were followed through 2007 using the National Mortality Registry to obtain survival function. Quality of life was assessed with two cross-sectional surveys, one employing the standard gamble method, and the other using the EQ-5D instrument. Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was estimated by multiplying the utility values with survival function under the unit of quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The difference of QALE between the cancer cohort and the age- and gender-matched reference population was calculated to represent the utility loss due to liver cancer. Results: A total of 94,144 patients with liver cancer were identified. The average utility loss to development of liver cancer was 17.5 QALYs. Based on toxicological approach, we estimated that groundwater pollution caused 1.7 extra cases of liver cancer, with an overall loss of 29.8 QALYs. Based on epidemiological approach, the expected annual excess number of liver cancer would be 3.65, which would have been accumulated through the years, had the pollution not mitigated. Conclusions: We demonstrated a practical approach for comparative health risk assessment using QALY as the common unit. This approach can be used for policy decisions based on possible health risks.

  2. Holocene estuarine sediments as a source of arsenic in Pleistocene groundwater in suburbs of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Funabiki, Ayako; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater pollution by arsenic is a major health threat in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. The present study evaluates the effect of the sedimentary environments of the Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, and the recharge systems, on the groundwater arsenic pollution in Hanoi suburbs distant from the Red River. At two study sites (Linh Dam and Tai Mo communes), undisturbed soil cores identified a Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA) and Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) as major aquifers, and Holocene estuarine and deltaic sediments as an aquitard layer between the two aquifers. The Holocene estuarine sediments (approximately 25-40 m depth, 9.6-4.8 cal ka BP) contained notably high concentrations of arsenic and organic matter, both likely to have been accumulated by mangroves during the Holocene sea-level highstand. The pore waters in these particular sediments exhibited elevated levels of arsenic and dissolved organic carbon. Arsenic in groundwater was higher in the PCA (25-94 μg/L) than in the HUA (5.2-42 μg/L), in both the monitoring wells and neighboring household tubewells. Elevated arsenic concentration in the PCA groundwater was likely due to vertical infiltration through the arsenic-rich and organic-matter-rich overlying Holocene estuarine sediments, caused by massive groundwater abstraction from the PCA. Countermeasures to prevent arsenic pollution of the PCA groundwater may include seeking alternative water resources, reducing water consumption, and/or appropriate choice of aquifers for groundwater supply.

  3. Source apportionment of toxic chemical pollutants at Trombay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities like industrial production and transportation, a wide range of chemical pollutants such as trace and toxic metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons etc. eventually find their way into various environmental compartments. One of the main issues of environmental pollution is the chemical composition of aerosols and their sources. In spite of all the efforts a considerable part of the atmospheric aerosol mass is still not accounted for. This report describes some of the activities of Environmental Assessment Division which are having direct relevance to the public health and regulatory bodies. Extensive studies were carried out in our laboratories for the Trombay site, over the years; on the organic as well as inorganic pollution in the environment to understand inter compartmental behaviour of these chemical pollutants. In this report an attempt has been made to collect different size fractionated ambient aerosols and to quantify the percentage contribution of each size fraction to the total aerosol mass. Subsequently, an effort has been made for chemical characterization (inorganic, organic and carbon content) of these particulate matter using different analytical techniques. The comprehensive data set on chemical characterization of particulate matter thus generated is being used with receptor modeling techniques to identify the possible sources contributing to the observed concentrations of the measured pollutants. The use of this comprehensive data set in receptor modeling has been helpful in distinguishing the source types in a better way. Receptor modeling techniques are powerful tools that can be used to locate sources of pollutants to the atmosphere. The major advantage of the receptor models is that actual ambient data are used to apportion source contributions, negating the need for dispersion calculations. Pollution sources affecting the sampling site were statistically identified using varimax rotated factor analysis of

  4. Pollutant Source Tracking (PST) Technical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    in the context of heavy metals (lead, copper), is considered to be a minor process contribution to the source fingerprint. 3.7 RAPID SCREENING...limits (summarized in Table 2) support the use of ICP-AES (ICP-OES) for heavy metal determination in soils , sediments, wastewater and other matrices...are included here. Isotopic ratios of stable isotopes of the metal of interest can be used for source identification and apportionment in complex

  5. A modified SINTACS method for groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment in highly anthropized regions based on NO3- and SO42- concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Voudouris, Konstantinos; Tedesco, Dario

    2017-12-31

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment are worldwide tools in supporting groundwater protection and land planning. In this study, we used three of these different methodologies applied to the Campanian Plain located in southern Italy: SINTACS, AVI and LOS. However, their capability to describe the observed chemical pollution of the area has resulted quite poor. For such a reason, a modified SINTACS method has been then implemented in the area in order to get a more reliable view of groundwater vulnerability. NO 3 - and SO 4 2- from more than 400 monitoring wells were used for specific vulnerability assessment. Land use was chosen as key parameter to infer the risk of groundwater pollution in our area. The new methodology seems to show a higher correlation with observed NO 3 - concentrations and a more reliable identification of aquifer's pollution hot spots. The main sources of NO 3 - were found in sub-urban areas, where vulnerability and risk are higher than in other areas. Otherwise due to reducing conditions triggered by the presence of elevated sedimentary organic matter and peat, concentrations below agricultural areas were lower than in sub-urban areas. The SO 4 2- specific vulnerability map showed a positive correlation with observed concentrations, due to geogenic and anthropogenic SO 4 2- sources present in the area. The combination of both NO 3 - and SO 4 2- derived risk maps becomes essential to improve the conceptual model of aquifer pollution in this severely anthropized area. The application of this new and original approach shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the described previous methods and clearly showed how anthropogenic activities have to be taken into account in the assessment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of heavy metal pollution of groundwater in a phreatic aquifer in Mersin-Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Z

    2007-09-01

    In this study, heavy metal contents of groundwater from the Mersin aquifer were determined with photometric methods and used to determine the main factors controlling the pollution of groundwater in the area. Using MapInfo GIS software, spatial analysis and integration were carried out for mapping drinking water quality in the basin. From the photometric heavy metal analysis, it is inferred that the excess concentration of Fe, Ni, Mn, Mo and Cu at some locations is the cause of undesirable quality for drinking purposes. Similarly, the EC thematic map shows that considerable areas in the basin are having high salinity hazards. The reason for excess concentration of various heavy metals is the industrial activities and petroleum pipelines and salinity levels show the sea water intrusion.

  7. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  8. Distribution and sources of 226Rain groundwater of arid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M. J.; Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.

    2016-01-01

    As a part of characterizing radioactivity in groundwater of the eastern Arabian Peninsula, a first systematic evaluation of 226Ra activity in groundwater indicates a wide range (0.65-203.66 mBq L-1) with average of 17.56 mBq L-1. Adsorption/desorption process, groundwater residence time and urani...... concentration are the main controlling factors of 226Ra distribution in groundwater of the different aquifers. Estimation of 226Ra effective dose from water ingestion suggests potential risk of drinking water from the carbonate aquifer....

  9. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Marbury, M.C.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications. 243 references

  10. Behavior of pollutants from the instantaneous sources in mine airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuel-Kassem, M. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt)

    1993-12-31

    The air quality management of roadway tunnels is an important task; that is the roadway tunnels either natural or mechanical ventilation is required to keep air quality within the acceptable levels for pollutants. The main objective of this paper is to study the behavior of pollutants from the blasting operation during tunneling as an instantaneous source in mines based on the diffusion modeling. Diffusion models are modified and applied to estimate the concentration of pollutants using a computer program. (Author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO 3 - , with the concentration varying from 0.1mg/L to 206mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh (shallow groundwater of the Poyang Lake basin has Eh>100mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ 15 N and δ 18 О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ 18 О values from -4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15 N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on the Influence of Building Materials on Indoor Pollutants and Pollution Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the achievements and problems of indoor air quality research at home and abroad. The pollutants and pollution sources in the room are analyzed systematically. The types of building materials and pollutants are also discussed. The physical and chemical properties and health effects of main pollutants were analyzed and studied. According to the principle of mass balance, the basic mathematical model of indoor air quality is established. Considering the release rate of pollutants and indoor ventilation, a mathematical model for predicting the concentration of indoor air pollutants is derived. The model can be used to analyze and describe the variation of pollutant concentration in indoor air, and to predict and calculate the concentration of pollutants in indoor air at a certain time. The results show that the mathematical model established in this study can be used to analyze and predict the variation law of pollutant concentration in indoor air. The evaluation model can be used to evaluate the impact of indoor air quality and evaluation of current situation. Especially in the process of building and interior decoration, through pre-evaluation, it can provide reliable design parameters for selecting building materials and determining ventilation volume.

  13. Methodical studies of groundwater pollution caused by fly ash deposits from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuziak-Salzenberg, D.

    1990-01-01

    The risk potential of fly ash deposits from fossil-fuel power plants was investigated through laboratory elution experiments (single elution, multiple elution, column leaching). The groundwater risk potential in the case of indiscriminate, unsealed dumping is high because of an increased water hardness and due to sulfate, molybdenum, selenium, boron, chromium, barium, strontium and arsenic contamination. Higher barium and strontium concentrations are typical of fly ash deposits. Barium and strontium thus serve as target elements for identification of sites of long-standing pollution. The risks of arsenic leaching are discussed in detail. (orig./LU) [de

  14. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram-microgram per litre concentrations are present in groundwater for a large range of EOCs as well as metabolites and transformation products and under certain conditions may pose a threat to freshwater bodies for decades due to relatively long groundwater residence times. In the coming decades, more of these EOCs are likely to have drinking water standards, environmental quality standards and/or groundwater threshold values defined, and therefore a better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation remains a priority. - Highlights: ► First review to focus on EOCs in groundwater. ► A large range (n > 180) of EOCs are detected in groundwater. ► Significant concentrations (10 2 –10 4 ng/L) for a range of EOCs, including endocrine disruptors. ► Groundwater EOC occurrence is poorly characterised compared to other freshwater resources. - A large range of emerging organic contaminants are now being detected in groundwater as a result of recent and historical anthropogenic activities.

  15. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports

  16. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  17. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  18. The main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, J.; Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Markantonis, K.; Grigorakou, E.; Vassiliou, E.

    2003-04-01

    The research team of the laboratory of Engineering Geology &Hydrogeology of NTUA and P.P.C. have carried out several research projects since 1990. The conclusions of these projects for the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas are the following: Human activities : a) Urban and industrial wastes (solid and liquids) are disposed or discharged to the surface or groundwater bodies causing degradation of their quality (case studies of Athens Basin, Lavrio region, Atalanti plain), b) intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers for agriculture, through the process of percolation or leaching causes the deterioration of aquifers and surface water (case studies of Plolemais Basin, Korinth region, Elassona Basin, Atalanti plain, Thrapsana Basin Iraklio), c) current exploitations and old or abandoned mining sites, disturb the aquatic environment and create new hydraulic connections between clean and polluted aquifers or the sea (case studies of Lavrio region, Ptolemais Basin, Megalopoli Basin), d) over-pumping of aquifers mainly for irrigation but also in some cases for dewatering of mines, results in continues drawdown of the groundwater level and intrusion of sea (case studies of Korinth region, Athens basin, Naxos island, Nea Peramos Kavala, Marathon, Argolida Field, Atalanti plain, Achaia region, Stratoni area Chalkidiki, Gouves Iraklio). Geological Environment: a) extensive karstification of limestones that spread up all over the Greek region (33%) causes the intrusion of the sea far into the land (case studies of Lavrio region, Kefalonia island, Hymettus mountain), b) the chemical composition of the geological formations through the process of ion exchange and solubility pollute the groundwater resources (case studies of Vegoritis Basin, Katsika Chalkidiki, Florina region). The proposed measures to face these problems are : - the orthological management of the water resources - the artificial recharge of the aquifers, - proper waste management

  19. Characterization and indentification of air pollution sources in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Morco, Ryan P.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.

    2010-01-01

    Air particulates matter (PM 1 0 and PM 2 .5) is a mixture of different pollutant sources which can be of anthropogenic and/or natural origin. Identification and apportionment of pollutant sources is important to be able to have better understanding of prevailing conditions in the area and thus better air quality management can be applied. Results have shown that in all the sampling sites, a major fraction of pollutant sources come from vehicular or traffic-oriented sources, comprising more than 30% of PM 2 .5. Of particular great concern especially in the residents of the area are the high Pb levels in Valenzuela City. In 2005, the annual mean level of PM 1 0 Pb in Valenzuela was 0.267 μg/m 3 while the other PNRI sampling sites registered annual mean levels between 0033 to 0.085 μ/m 3 . The high Pb condition is reflected in the source apportionment studies with Pb sources showing up in both the coarse (PM 1 0-2.5) and the fine fractions (PM 2 .5). The CPF analysis plots of 2008 Pb levels in both the coarse and the fine fractions show patterns for probable sources in 2008. Further study of the location of battery recycling facilities and other possible sources of lead is needed to validate the results of the CPF determination. (author)

  20. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  1. Identifiability and Identification of Trace Continuous Pollutant Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental pollution events often threaten people’s health and lives, and a pollutant source is very necessary so that prompt remedial actions can be taken. In this paper, a trace continuous pollutant source identification method is developed to identify a sudden continuous emission pollutant source in an enclosed space. The location probability model is set up firstly, and then the identification method is realized by searching a global optimal objective value of the location probability. In order to discuss the identifiability performance of the presented method, a conception of a synergy degree of velocity fields is presented in order to quantitatively analyze the impact of velocity field on the identification performance. Based on this conception, some simulation cases were conducted. The application conditions of this method are obtained according to the simulation studies. In order to verify the presented method, we designed an experiment and identified an unknown source appearing in the experimental space. The result showed that the method can identify a sudden trace continuous source when the studied situation satisfies the application conditions.

  2. Tracing freshwater nitrate sources in pre-alpine groundwater catchments using environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoewer, M. M.; Knöller, K.; Stumpp, C.

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is one of the main resources for drinking water. Its quality is still threatened by the widespread contaminant nitrate (NO3-). In order to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable manner, we need to find options of lowering nitrate input. Particularly, a comprehensive knowledge of nitrate sources is required in areas which are important current and future drinking water reservoirs such as pre-alpine aquifers covered with permanent grassland. The objective of the present study was to identify major sources of nitrate in groundwater with low mean nitrate concentrations (8 ± 2 mg/L). To achieve the objective, we used environmental tracer approaches in four pre-alpine groundwater catchments. The stable isotope composition and tritium content of water were used to study the hydrogeology and transit times. Furthermore, nitrate stable isotope methods were applied to trace nitrogen from its sources to groundwater. The results of the nitrate isotope analysis showed that groundwater nitrate was derived from nitrification of a variety of ammonium sources such as atmospheric deposition, mineral and organic fertilizers and soil organic matter. A direct influence of mineral fertilizer, atmospheric deposition and sewage was excluded. Since temporal variation in stable isotopes of nitrate were detected only in surface water and locally at one groundwater monitoring well, aquifers appeared to be well mixed and influenced by a continuous nitrate input mainly from soil derived nitrogen. Hydrogeological analysis supported that the investigated aquifers were less vulnerable to rapid impacts due to long average transit times, ranging from 5 to 21 years. Our study revealed the importance of combining environmental tracer approaches and a comprehensive sampling campaign (local sources of nitrate, soil water, river water, and groundwater) to identify the nitrate sources in groundwater and its vulnerability. In future, the achieved results will help develop targeted

  3. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  4. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, H.; Owen, B.; Raper, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km 2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

  5. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations.

  6. Temporal-Spatial Evolution of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution Over Seven Years in a Highly Urbanized City in the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaorui; Qian, Jiazhong; Liu, Zufa; Lu, Yuehan; Ma, Lei; Zhao, Weidong; Kang, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the temporospatial variation in nitrogen pollution in groundwater and the associated controlling factors is important to establish management practices that ensure sustainable use of groundwater. In this study, we analyzed inorganic nitrogen content (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) in 1164 groundwater samples from shallow, middle-deep, and deep aquifers in Zhanjiang, a highly urbanized city in the southern China. Our data span a range of 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Results show that shallow aquifers had been heavily contaminated by nitrate and ammonium. Temporal patterns show that N contamination levels remained high and relatively stable over time in urban areas. This stability and high concentration is hypothesized as a result of uncontrolled, illicit sewer discharges from nearby business facilities. Groundwater in urban land and farmland displays systematic differences in geochemical characteristics. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the importance of continuously monitoring groundwater quality and strictly regulating sewage discharges in Zhanjiang.

  7. Analysis of arsenic pollution in groundwater aquifers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbarato, V.M.; Sanchez, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The serious contamination of groundwater in the southeastern plain of the province of Cordoba (Argentina), a phenomenon mentioned in the literature for over 80 years, has given rise to this initial hydrologic study covering an area over 250 km 2 . This study analyzes a rural area near a little town called La Francia, and is motivated by the existence of an important pollution with arsenic in the first-aquifer groundwater of the region. This phenomenon has been mentioned for a long time and evidenced by the high incidence of diseases associated with this element in the local population. By means of the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique, and using an energy-dispersive spectrometer, 50 samples of groundwater of the rural zone of La Francia from about 100 m deep (second aquifer), were analyzed. The samples were excited with a 3 kW X-ray tube and measured using a reflecting geometry with 45 deg. of incident and take-off directions. Preconcentration techniques for the preparation of the samples were employed in order to obtain an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. The As concentration in water was obtained using calibration curves and the internal standard method for quantification. A high percentage of the analyzed samples showed concentrations lesser than or equal to 0.05 mg l -1 . This value corresponds to the maximum pollutant level for humans. The maximum measured value reaches 3 mg l -1 in samples collected in perforations of first-aquifer wells and in some second-aquifer isolated wells

  8. Remediation of Groundwater Polluted by Aromatic Compounds by Means of Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Canzano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental and modeling analysis of the adsorption of four aromatic compounds (i.e., toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene onto a commercial activated carbon is carried out. The aim is to assess the suitability of the adsorption process for the treatment of polluted groundwater, also when a multiple contamination is detected. Batch adsorption tests from simulated polluted groundwater are performed in single-compound systems and in two binary systems (i.e., toluene + naphthalene and o-xylene + ethylbenzene, at constant temperature (20 °C and pH (7. Experimental results in single-compound systems reveal that all of the analytes are significantly adsorbed on the tested activated carbon. In particular, toluene and naphthalene adsorption capacities are the highest and of similar value, while for o-xylene and ethylbenzene, the performances are lower. The adsorption of these compounds seems to be influenced by a combined effect of several parameters, such as hydrophobicity, molecule size, structure of the molecule, etc. Experimental results in binary systems show a different behavior of the two systems, which confirms their complexity and explains the interest in these complex adsorption systems. In particular, toluene and naphthalene are mutually competitive, while in the case of o-xylene + ethylbenzene, only the former undergoes competitive effects. The analysis of the entire experimental data set is integrated with a dedicated modeling analysis using the extended Langmuir model. For both single-compound and binary systems, this model provides acceptable results, in particular for low equilibrium concentrations, like those more commonly found in groundwater, and for the compounds involved in adsorptive competitive effects.

  9. Pollutants in drinking water - sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2005-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemicals and radionuclide etc. This is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  10. [Groundwater quality in an arid area of Morocco: impact of pollution on the biodiversity and relationships between crustaceans and bacteria of health interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, F; Yacoubi-Khebiza, M; Oufdou, K; Boulanouar, M

    2008-11-01

    In the north of Marrakesh (Morocco), the high anthropogenic activity and the permeable nature of the geological ground makes the water of Jbilet vulnerable to contamination. The results of physico-chemical analyses conducted in 2006 showed that two groups of wells could be distinguished. Groundwater of wells located on the right bank of the Tensift River, which are far from any source of pollution, is of fairly good quality, well oxygenated, at neutral pH and with rather weak levels of organic compounds. In contrast, in the other wells in the area of the landfill of the city of Marrakesh and those in the peri-urban area demonstrate deteriorated water quality. The nutriment and organic matter content is quite high. Results of bacteriological analyses of water showed a fairly high faecal contamination. In this area the soil is highly permeable and promotes infiltration of organic pollutants and minerals as well as of pathogen and opportunistic bacteria into groundwater. After their penetration, these microorganisms form films around grain particles. The movements of the stygofauna in the interstices allow bacteria to settle on their exoskeleton and seep into their gut, thus being a potential source of groundwater contamination. An analysis of bacterial flora showed that the rate of bacteria is high in the digestive tract of two crustacean species of the stygobites Typhlocirolana haouzensis and Metacrangonyx spinicaudatus, and that it depends on the species and the bacteria. Bacteria may be one of the potential nutritional resources for stygobites.

  11. A Summary of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    and concrete block material, and structures and systems for soil stabilization including erosion checks, revetments , retaining structures, and...industrial storage areas, and coal/ slag piles. Rural NPS pollution includes runoff from Some of the above sources plus runoff from agriculture...water quality. The effectiveness of detention ponds is reduced, however, when maintenance is neglected. Common problems include blocked outlets

  12. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    continuous tide on the coastal side. The integrated surface water-groundwater numerical model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009, Spanoudaki, 2010) was also used in the study, with the numerical model predictions being compared with experimental results, which provide a valuable database for model calibration and validation. IRENE couples the 3D, non-steady state Navier-Stokes equations, after Reynolds averaging and with the assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution, to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. The model uses the finite volume method with a cell-centered structured grid providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection-diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. References Ebrahimi, K., Falconer, R.A. and Lin B. (2007). Flow and solute fluxes in integrated wetland and coastal systems. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22 (9), 1337-1348. Hughes, S.A. (1995). Physical Modelling and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Kuan, W.K., Jin, G., Xin, P., Robinson, C. Gibbes, B. and Li. L. (2012). Tidal influence on seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research, 48 (2), doi:10.1029/2011WR010678. Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek

  13. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO3-, with the concentration varying from 0.1 mg/L to 206 mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh ( 100 mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ15N and δ18О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ18О values from - 4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions.

  14. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  15. Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, Fredric C

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since regulations were first established in the Clean Air Act of 1970. Highlights in the policy and trends in vehicle emissions over the 1970 to 2000 time period are discussed. The second section of the paper discusses the range of policy instruments that could be used to control vehicle pollution, ranging from traditional direct regulations to market-based instruments. Experiences with the use of economic incentives in the United States and elsewhere are also discussed. The third section of the paper discusses possible implications of the U.S. experience for controlling vehicle pollution in China. While market-based instruments might be particularly appropriate for use in several aspects of China's pollution control policies, important differences between the institutional structures in China and the United States suggest that they should be phased in gradually. The paper closes with concluding remarks. (author)

  16. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model ( p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  17. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  18. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. - Highlights: • Hydrochemical investigations were carried out in Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia. • The factors controlling potential groundwater pollution in an arid region were studied. • Chemical and statistical analyses are integrated to assess these factors. • Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. • The chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions

  19. Nonpoint source pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a methodology for source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Guido; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Shorshani, Masoud Fallah; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-09-01

    The characterization and control of runoff pollution from nonpoint sources in urban areas are a major issue for the protection of aquatic environments. We propose a methodology to quantify the sources of pollutants in an urban catchment and to analyze the associated uncertainties. After describing the methodology, we illustrate it through an application to the sources of Cu, Pb, Zn, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a residential catchment (228 ha) in the Paris region. In this application, we suggest several procedures that can be applied for the analysis of other pollutants in different catchments, including an estimation of the total extent of roof accessories (gutters and downspouts, watertight joints and valleys) in a catchment. These accessories result as the major source of Pb and as an important source of Zn in the example catchment, while activity-related sources (traffic, heating) are dominant for Cu (brake pad wear) and PAH (tire wear, atmospheric deposition).

  20. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  1. Sources of fluoride pollution in Kasur district, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Haq, M.M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Serious bone problems were reported in certain localities in Pakistan due to contamination of drinking water by fluoride pollution. Against WHO recommended threshold limit of 0.7 mg/L, about 40 mg/L of fluoride is determined by ion chromatographic technique of HPLC. The compositions of pollutants were investigated in the present study by examination the chemical and mineralogical studies of water and soil samples. It is found that main problem in Manga Mandi area of District Kasur, was caused due to the decomposition of phosphorus containing minerals in soil under acidic conditions. The other sources of fluoride contamination in different areas of Pakistan is being investigated. (author)

  2. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  3. Pollution of water sources and removal of pollutants by advanced drinking-water treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    The pollution of water resources and drinking water sources in China is described in this paper with basic data. About 90% of surface waters and over 60% of drinking water sources in urban areas have been polluted to different extents. The main pollutants present in drinking water sources are organic substances, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms, some of which cannot be removed effectively by the traditional water treatment processes like coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination, and the product water usually does not meet Chinese national drinking water standards, when polluted source water is treated. In some drinking-water plants in China, advanced treatment processes including activated carbon filtration and adsorption, ozonation, biological activated carbon and membrane separation have been employed for further treatment of the filtrate from a traditional treatment system producing unqualified drinking water, to make final product water meet the WHO guidelines and some developed countries' standards, as well as the Chinese national standards for drinking water. Some case studies of advanced water treatment plants are described in this paper as well.

  4. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  5. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-10-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock-water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  7. Leaf water relations and sapflow in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees planted for phytoremediation of a groundwater pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Gregory J. Harvey; Barton D. Clinton; Christine Sobek

    2000-01-01

    Plants that remediate groundwater pollutants may offer a feasible alternative to the traditional and more expensive practices. Because its success depends on water use, this approach requires a complete understanding of species-specific transpiration patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify tree and stand-level transpiration in two age classes (whips...

  8. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  9. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  10. Interaction between different groundwaters in brittany catchments (france): characterizing multiple sources through Sr- and S isotope tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Ph; Pauwels, H.

    2003-04-01

    Water resources in hard-rocks commonly involve different hydrogeological compartments such as overlying sediments, weathered rock, the weathered-fissured zone, and fractured bedrock. Streams, lakes and wetlands that drain such environments can drain groundwater, recharge groundwater, or do both. Groundwater resources in many countries are increasingly threatened by growing demand, wasteful use, and contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater are particularly vulnerable to pollution, while deeper resources are more protected from contamination. Sr- and S-isotope data as well as major ions, from shallow and deep groundwater in three granite and Brioverian "schist" areas of the Armorican Massif (NW France) with intensive agriculture covering large parts are presented. The stable-isotope signatures of the waters plot close to the general meteoric-water line, reflecting a meteoric origin and the lack of significant evaporation or water-rock interaction. The water chemistry from the different catchments shows large variation in the major-element contents. Plotting Na, Mg, NO_3, K, SO_4 and Sr vs. Cl contents concentrations reflect agricultural input from hog and livestock farming and fertilizer applications, with local sewage-effluent influence, although some water samples are clearly unpolluted. The δ34S(SO_4) is controlled by several potential sources (atmospheric sulphate, pyrite-derived sulphates, fertilizer sulphates). Some δ18O and δ34S values are expected to increase through sulphate reduction, with higher effect on δ34S for the dissimilatory processes and on δ18O for assimilatory processes. The range in Sr contents in groundwater from different catchments agrees with previous work on groundwater sampled from granites in France. The Sr content is well correlated with Mg and both are related to agricultural practises. As in granite-gneiss watersheds in France, 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.71265 to 0.72009. The relationship between 87Sr/86Sr and Mg

  11. Calculation of pollutant removal during groundwater restoration with adsorption and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for calculating pollutant removal rates during groundwater restoration processes. The hydraulic information required by the method is obtained from the conservative tracer breakthrough curve for a flow system. The influence of adsorption and ion exchange chemistry on species transport is included through application of the method of characteristics. The combined result gives the effluent concentration at a production well as a function of time during a restoration project. The method is applicable for any well pattern and its economy is such that a pencil and paper calculation will suffice for yielding quantitative answers for complex flow problems. The method is applied to calculate ammonium removal rates for site restoration by recirculation with chemical sweeps following in situ leach mining of uranium

  12. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  13. Lead isotopes as an environmental indicator of pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, G.; Pacyna, J.; Stray, H.

    1997-02-01

    An interesting question when determining and quantifying pollution is the characterisation of the sources. Also, is the pollution locally derived or is it longtransported? Analyses of Pb isotope ratios and Pb concentrations on airfilter from Oslo, Norway, together with analyses of coal of different origin and wood, show that the decrease in total Pb in the first half of the 1990's is not due only to the reduction of leaded petrol but that there are other important sources for the pollution which have been cut down. The reduction in emissions from coal burning in Europe can be seen on airfilter from Oslo and also the following reduction in leaded petrol. An isotopic study of lead on airfilter from the countryside outside Oslo implies that the finer particles have been atmospherically long transported while the coarser particles are of a more local origin, e.g. from domestic burning of wood. The above results show that the use of a natural isotopic system like Pb is a powerful tool for e.g. the determination of pollution, routes of its transportation, for the monitoring of processes of the present, and for provenance determinations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Nitrate pollution in intensively farmed regions: What are the prospects for sustaining high-quality groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Burt, Tim P.; Worrall, Fred; Mathias, Simon; Whelan, Mick J.

    2011-06-01

    Widespread pollution of groundwater by nutrients due to 20th century agricultural intensification has been of major concern in the developed world for several decades. This paper considers the River Thames catchment (UK), where water-quality monitoring at Hampton (just upstream of London) has produced continuous records for nitrate for the last 140 years, the longest continuous record of water chemistry anywhere in the world. For the same period, data are available to characterize changes in both land use and land management at an annual scale. A modeling approach is used that combines two elements: an estimate of nitrate available for leaching due to land use and land management; and, an algorithm to route this leachable nitrate through to surface or groundwaters. Prior to agricultural intensification at the start of World War II, annual average inputs were around 50 kg ha-1, and river concentrations were stable at 1 to 2 mg l-1, suggesting in-stream denitrification capable of removing 35 (±15) kt N yr-1. Postintensification data suggest an accumulation of 100 (±40) kt N yr-1 in the catchment, most of which is stored in the aquifer. This build up of reactive N species within the catchments means that restoration of surface nitrate concentrations typical of the preintensification period would require massive basin-wide changes in land use and management that would compromise food security and take decades to be effective. Policy solutions need to embrace long-term management strategies as an urgent priority.

  15. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Abidjan like numerous African cities is experiencing a significant and uncontrolled population growth. The annual growth rate is estimated at 3.99% by the National Institute of Statistics. This rapid population growth also generates growing needs in general and especially for drinking water and economic activities. In the District of Abidjan, groundwater comes from the Mio-Pliocene age aquifer called "Continental Terminal". This unconfined aquifer is the main source of water supply. Its lithology consists of four levels. Actually only the two upper levels outcrop and constitute the main part of the Continental Terminal aquifer. Some recent studies report a potential overexploitation and pollution of Abidjan groundwater (Jourda, 1986, Kouame 2007, Deh, 2013). This deterioration in water quality could be due to the release of domestic and industrial waste water, pesticide and fertilizer from crops and toxic waste sites containing high doses of organochlorines, of hydrogen sulfide and sulfides. This risk is also linked to the economic activities such as car workshops, gas stations and the sand exploitation in the lagoon. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface and we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and transport with FEFLOW software. The model is composed of a sandy layer where two constant hydraulic heads of 55 m and 0.2 m are imposed on the north and the south respectively. We carried out grain size analysis of some samples (E2, E3, E4, E5, and E6) which shows particle size ranging between 0.0001 mm and 8 mm. This grain size analysis performed by sieving underwater and laser indicates that these five soils are: loamy sand with traces of clay and gravel for E2 and E5; Sandy loam with traces of clay for E3; Sand with traces of clay and gravel for E4 and Sand with traces of silt and clay for E6. Their porosity and average values of permeability coefficient K measured in the laboratory range from 0.2 to 0

  16. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  17. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample. - Highlights: • Chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used as the first step in source tracking. • Similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of pollution. • The fingerprints strongly depend on the chromatographic conditions. • A more effective and robust method for identifying similarities is required

  18. Summary of pollutant emissions from individual sources in the Republic of Macedonia (air pollution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davkova, Katica; Simeva, Radmila

    1995-01-01

    The air pollution is one of the heaviest and one of the most actual problems in the industrial developed countries. The sudden development of the cities, industry and automobile traffic brings to the atmosphere natural composition disturbance, which means that the environment, material goods and the whole ecosystem are endangered. This paper presents the results from the measurements taken in the territory of the Macedonia, from 1989-1993. 95 measuring objects, more exactly 156 individual measuring pollutants emission sources are encompassed. The main air pollutants, as a result of the solid as well as liquid fuels combustion, are SO 2 , Co 2 , No x as well as ashes. The measuring results are given tabular. 3 tabs., 6 figs., 1 ill

  19. Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the aquatic environment may pose potential threat to the ecosystem and human health, hence PPCPs have aroused much concern over the world. The contamination of PPCPs in the groundwater, the main source of drinking water supply in many countries and regions, has been extensively studied in the last decade. This paper reviews the occurrence of frequently detected PPCPs, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, lipid-regulators, carbamazepine, caffeine, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in groundwater, with special concern to the progress made over the past three years. Possible emission sources for PPCPs in groundwater, such as wastewater and contaminated surface water, landfills, septic systems, livestock breeding and sewer leakage, are summarized. Besides, adsorption, migration and degradation, the dominant mechanisms in the subsurface transport and fate of PPCPs, are discussed, and the insights into the future study of PPCPs in the groundwater are provided.

  20. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria are indicators of very recent human faecal pollution in streams and groundwater habitats in urban tropical lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria (SFB) proved to be an excellent indicator of very recent human faecal pollution (hours to days) in the investigated tropical stream and groundwater habitats. SFB were recovered from human faeces and sources potentially contaminated with human excreta. SFB were undetectable in animal faeces and environmental samples not contaminated with human faeces. Microcosm studies demonstrated a rapid die-off rate in groundwater (T90 value 0.6 days) and stream water (T90 value 0.9–1.7 days). Discrimination sensitivity analysis, including E. coli, faecal coliforms, total coliforms and Clostridium perfringens spores, revealed high ability of SFB to distinguish differing levels of faecal pollution especially for streams although high background levels of interfering bacteria can complicate its recovery on the used medium. Due to its faster die-off, as compared to many waterborne pathogens, SFB cannot replace microbiological standard parameters for routine water quality monitoring but it is highly recommendable as a specific and complementary tool when human faecal pollution has to be localized or verified. Because of its exclusive faecal origin and human specificity it seems also worthwhile to include SFB in future risk evaluation studies at tropical water resources in order to evaluate under which situations risks of infection may be indicated. PMID:20375476

  1. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  2. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  3. PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios have recently come into common use as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. Some diagnostic ratios are based on parent PAHs, others on the proportions of alkyl-substituted to non-substituted molecules. The ratios are applicable to PAHs determined in different environmental media: air (gas + particle phase), water, sediment, soil, as well as biomonitor organisms such as leaves or coniferous needles, and mussels. These ratios distinguish PAH pollution originating from petroleum products, petroleum combustion and biomass or coal burning. The compounds involved in each ratio have the same molar mass, so it is assumed they have similar physicochemical properties. Numerous studies show that diagnostic ratios change in value to different extents during phase transfers and environmental degradation. The paper reviews applications of diagnostic ratios, comments on their use and specifies their limitations. - Highlights: ► PAH diagnostic ratios may identify pollution coming from petroleum spills, fuel combustion and coal or biomass burning. ► They are sensitive to changes during PAHs environmental fate processes. ► Some diagnostic ratios are of limited value due to fast photodegradation of one of the compounds. - The paper reviews PAH diagnostic ratios that are applied to identify pollution emission originating from petroleum products, fuel combustion or coal and biomass burning.

  4. Evaluating the Potential of Groundwater Pollution in Kherran and Zoweircherry Plains through GIS-based DRASTIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Chitsazan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Zoweircherry and Kherran plains are located in the northeast ofAhwazin Khuzestan province. The water supply of these plains is a crucial issue and the quality of groundwater is also under the threat as a result of an increase in the use of agrochemicals. For this reason, assessing the vulnerability is an important factor in any policy-making decision for these plains. Focusing on this issue, this paper attempts to produce a groundwater vulnerability map for Zoweircherry and Kherran plains. The map is designed to show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution on the basis of hydro-geological conditions and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors (depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity were incorporated into DRASTIC model and Geographical Information System (GIS was used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The results of model exhibit that the west and southwest of the aquifer are dominated by medium vulnerability while small areas on northwest and east of the study area have no risk of pollution. Other parts of aquifer have low vulnerability. The nitrate analysis of groundwater samples shows that the existing nitrate on the west and southwest parts of aquifer is more than the existing nitrate on its other parts which, therefore, confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  5. Assessment of nitrate pollution of groundwater in South-East of Isfahan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheisari, M. M.; Hoodaji, M.; Najafi, P.; Abdollahi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Because the increasing population and food in the world, as well as unavailability and limitation of agricultural lands, needs to increase the agricultural yield quality and quantity. One way to have high quality products is applying fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizer is the most common one used for this purpose. Impractical and weak management in controlling the improper use of fertilizer causes high concentration of Nitrate in soil and groundwater resources. High concentration of Nitrate in water causes many health problems. This research is conducted to determine the rate of Nitrate polluted water in South-East of Isfahan. In this research, sampling was done from selected water wells and the amount of Nitrate in water was determined by using special Electrodes and Ion -Selective method. Surfer Software identified the variation process. Then, the results were compared with US-Environmental Protected Agency (US-EPA). In some areas, the results show the concentration of Nitrate more than US-EPA standards, especially in South-East of the region. The highest Nitrate concentrations in the first and second sampling in the polluted area were 189.1 and 248.3 mg per liters, respectively. In the first sampling 80.0% and in the second sampling 90.0% of wells were identified to have high concentration of Nitrate. The Nitrate pollution averages in the first and second sampling were 76.9 ppm and 93.1 ppm, respectively. Therefore, in order to apply this kind of fertilizer, proper management, scientific and practical control must be employed so that increasing concentration of Nitrate can be controlled

  6. Source and Processes of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Bangladesh Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.; Simone, B. E.; Mladenov, N.; Zheng, Y.; Legg, T. M.; Nemergut, D.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global health crisis, especially in Bangladesh where an estimated 40 million people are at risk. The release of geogenic arsenic bound to sediments into groundwater is thought to be influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) through several biogeochemical processes. Abiotically, DOM can promote the release of sediment bound As through the formation of DOM-As complexes and competitive interactions between As and DOM for sorption sites on the sediment. Additionally, the labile portion of groundwater DOM can serve as an electron donor to support microbial growth and the more recalcitrant humic DOM may serve as an electron shuttle, facilitating the eventual reduction of ferric iron present as iron oxides in sediments and consequently the mobilization of sorbed As and organic material. The goal of this study is to understand the source of DOM in representative Bangladesh groundwaters and the DOM sorption processes that occur at depth. We report chemical characteristics of representative DOM from a surface water, a shallow low-As groundwater, mid-depth high-As groundwater from the Araihazar region of Bangladesh. The humic DOM from groundwater displayed a more terrestrial chemical signature, indicative of being derived from plant and soil precursor materials, while the surface water humic DOM had a more microbial signature, suggesting an anthropogenic influence. In terms of biogeochemical processes occurring in the groundwater system, there is evidence from a diverse set of chemical characteristics, ranging from 13C-NMR spectroscopy to the analysis of lignin phenols, for preferential sorption onto iron oxides influencing the chemistry and reactivity of humic DOM in high As groundwater in Bangladesh. Taken together, these results provide chemical evidence for anthropogenic influence and the importance of sorption reactions at depth controlling the water quality of high As groundwater in Bangladesh.

  7. Nitrate pollution of a karstic groundwater system in Svaty Jan Pod Skalou, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Kadlecova, R.; Zak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Due to increasing agricultural activity after the 1960's both shallow and deep water resources in the Czech Republic including karstic systems have been contaminated by infiltrating nitrate. Nitrate content of one of the largest spring (19L/s) now varies from 50 to 60 mg/L. To specify the sources of nitrate pollution and collect sufficient data for the prediction of possible future development, flow dynamics, chemical and isotopic composition (δ 18 O in water, δ 15 N in nitrate) were monitored in the spring and precipitation together with potential sources of pollution (fertilizers, solutes in soil profile). Observed data were modelled by a simple mixing cell model to specify system parameters (volume and mean residence time). (author)

  8. Locating Shallow Groundwater Discharge to Streams Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Using Aerial Infrared Thermography: A Novel Potential Pollution Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, K. L.; Pricope, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Fear River Basin (CFRB) has some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) in the United States (factoryfarmmap.org) and was recently named one of the country's most endangered rivers (americanrivers.org). There is high potential for CAFO land use to degrade stream water quality by introducing pollutants, primarily nitrates and fecal coliform, into sub-surface and surface waters. The regionally high water table in the Lower CFRB increases the risk of water quality degradation due to increased connectivity of ground- and surface water. The Lower CFRB is periodically subjected to frequent or intense hurricanes, which have been shown to exacerbate water quality issues associated with CAFOs. Additionally, the growing population in this region is placing more pressure on an already taxed water source and will continue to rely on the Cape Fear River for drinking water and wastewater discharge. While there are documented occurrences of groundwater contamination from CAFOs, we still have little understanding on how and where pollution may be entering streams by shallow sub-surface discharge. Shallow groundwater discharge to streams is becoming easier to detect using thermal infrared imaging cameras onboard unmanned aerial systems. The temperature differences between groundwater and stream water are easily distinguished in the resulting images. While this technology cannot directly measure water quality, it can locate areas of shallow groundwater discharge that can later be tested for pollutants using conventional methods. We will utilize a thermal infrared camera onboard a SenseFly eBee Plus to determine the feasibility of using this technology on a larger scale within the Lower CFRB as an inexpensive means of identifying sites of potential pollution input. Aerial surveys will be conducted in two sub-watersheds: one containing swine CAFO and a control that lacks swine CAFO. Information from this study can be integrated into

  9. Screening for exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from sub-tropical polluted groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUSCONI R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of exopolysaccharide (EPS -- producing bacterial strains was conducted in groundwater adjacent to an old controlled landfill in the City of São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil. The strains were isolated in P and E media under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions at 25ºC. A total of 26 strains were isolated and based on the mucoid mode of the colonies, 6 were selected and their morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects were characterized. All strains presented pigmentation, ranging from yellow to orange and from pink to salmon, with a shiny glistening aspect in all tested media. Strains Lb, Lc and Lg, which excelled the others with regard to the mucoid mode of the colonies, were selected to be cultured in E medium with alternate sucrose and glucose as carbon sources in anaerobiosis at 25ºC to analyze the production of EPS. Strains Lc and Lg were classified as being of order Actinomycelates, suborder Corynebacterineae. Lg strain was identified as Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Lc strain did not correspond to a known description and therefore a more detailed study is under preparation. Considering all ecological aspects and the metabolic potential associated with the microorganisms of the environment studied, as well as the capacity to produce pigment and EPS, and the presence of G. polyisoprenivorans, a rubber degrader bacterium, the potential of the groundwater analyzed is evident as a source of microorganisms to be utilized in studies related to environmental remediation.

  10. Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords

  11. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  12. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Information on the actual input of pesticides into the environment is crucial for proper risk assessment and the design of risk reduction measures. The Crespo basin is found within the Balcarce County, located south-east of the Buenos Aires Province. The whole basin has an area of approximately 490 km2 and the river has a length of 65 km. This study focuses on the upper basin of the Crespo stream, covering an area of 226 km2 in which 94.7% of the land is under agricultural production representing a highly productive area, characteristic of the Austral Pampas region. In this study we evaluated the levels of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils; and the non-point source pollution of surface waters, stream sediments and groundwater, over a period of one year. Stream water samples were taken monthly using propylene bottles, from the center of the bridge. If present, sediment samples from the first 5 cm were collected using cylinder samplers. Groundwater samples were taken from windmills or electric pumps from different farms every two months. At the same time, composite soil samples (at 5 cm depth) were taken from an agricultural plot of each farm. Samples were analyzed for detection and quantification of glyphosate and AMPA using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The limit of detection (LD) in the soil samples was 0.5 μg Kg-1 and the limit of quantification (LQ) was 3 μg Kg-1, both for glyphosate and AMPA. In water samples the LD was 0.1 μg L-1 and the LQ was 0.5 μg L-1. The results showed that the herbicide dispersed into all the studied environmental compartments. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were detected in 34 and 54% of the stream water samples, respectively. Sediment samples had a higher detection frequency (>96%) than water samples, and there was no relationship between the presence in surface water with the detection in sediment samples. The presence in sediment samples

  13. Submarine groundwater discharge driven nitrogen fluxes to Long Island Sound, NY: Terrestrial vs. marine sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborski, J. J.; Cochran, J. K.; Bokuniewicz, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Bottom-waters in Smithtown Bay (Long Island Sound, NY) are subject to hypoxic conditions every summer despite limited nutrient inputs from waste-water and riverine sources, while modeling estimates of groundwater inputs are thought to be insignificant. Terrestrial and marine fluxes of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were quantified to Smithtown Bay using mass balances of 222Rn, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra during the spring and summer of 2014/2015, in order to track this seasonal transition period. Intertidal pore waters from a coastal bluff (terrestrial SGD) and from a barrier beach (marine SGD) displayed substantial differences in N concentrations and sources, traced using a multi-isotope approach (222Rn, Ra, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-). NO3- in terrestrial SGD did not display any seasonality and was derived from residential septic systems and fertilizer. Marine SGD N concentrations varied month-to-month because of mixing between oxic seawater and hypoxic saline pore waters; N concentrations were greatest during the summer, when NO3- was derived from the remineralization of organic matter. Short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra SGD fluxes were used to determine remineralized N loads along tidal recirculation flow paths, while long-lived 228Ra was used to trace inputs of anthropogenic N in terrestrial SGD. 228Ra-derived terrestrial N load estimates were between 20 and 55% lower than 224Ra-derived estimates (excluding spring 2014); 228Ra may be a more appropriate tracer of terrestrial SGD N loads. Terrestrial SGD NO3- (derived from 228Ra) to Smithtown Bay varied from (1.40-12.8) ∗ 106 mol N y-1, with comparable marine SGD NO3- fluxes of (1.70-6.79) ∗ 106 mol N y-1 derived from 222Rn and 224Ra. Remineralized N loads were greater during the summer compared with spring, and these may be an important driver toward the onset of seasonal hypoxic conditions in Smithtown Bay and western Long Island Sound. Seawater recirculation through the coastal aquifer can rival the N load from

  14. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  15. Source-specific pollution exposure and associations with pulmonary response in the Atlanta Commuters Exposure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jenna R; Ladva, Chandresh N; Russell, Armistead G; Golan, Rachel; Peng, Xing; Shi, Guoliang; Greenwald, Roby; Raysoni, Amit U; Waller, Lance A; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2018-01-03

    Concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants are frequently higher within commuting vehicles than in ambient air. Pollutants found within vehicles may include those generated by tailpipe exhaust, brake wear, and road dust sources, as well as pollutants from in-cabin sources. Source-specific pollution, compared to total pollution, may represent regulation targets that can better protect human health. We estimated source-specific pollution exposures and corresponding pulmonary response in a panel study of commuters. We used constrained positive matrix factorization to estimate source-specific pollution factors and, subsequently, mixed effects models to estimate associations between source-specific pollution and pulmonary response. We identified four pollution factors that we named: crustal, primary tailpipe traffic, non-tailpipe traffic, and secondary. Among asthmatic subjects (N = 48), interquartile range increases in crustal and secondary pollution were associated with changes in lung function of -1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.45, -0.22) and -2.19% (95% CI: -3.46, -0.92) relative to baseline, respectively. Among non-asthmatic subjects (N = 51), non-tailpipe pollution was associated with pulmonary response only at 2.5 h post-commute. We found no significant associations between pulmonary response and primary tailpipe pollution. Health effects associated with traffic-related pollution may vary by source, and therefore some traffic pollution sources may require targeted interventions to protect health.

  16. Parametric and comparative study of the impact of waste pollutants in groundwater: the case of the district of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and polluted site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater as natural resources is one of the main sources of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic in developed or developing countries. However this resource, which was considered of good quality, is now threatened by various sources of contamination by human activities. This is the case of the District of Abidjan which has been the victim of toxic waste in 2006 and of an alpine valley in Western Switzerland. Groundwater from these two sites is located in sandy and unconfined aquifers. In fact, the pollutant transport in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical, chemical or biological, complex and interdependent. In Switzerland, where data are available, we simulated steady-state flow and tetrachloroethene transport with a good result showing the tetrachloroethene plume. While in Abidjan, where the data are insufficient, we developed in steady and transient states, flow and contaminants transport models in order to predict the likely evolution of the contaminants in the basement. Contaminants are composed of a very high contents of hydrogen sulfide, organochlorines, sulfur, mercaptan sulfur, and hydrocarbons such as olefins, Paraffins. We made two parametric and comparative studies. The probability of contamination of groundwater is observed over time, taking into account the input parameters of the model and some assumptions.

  17. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  18. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system.

  19. Isotope ratios of lead as pollutant source indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.J.; Snyder, C.B.; Earal, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Each lead ore deposit has its characteristic isotope ratios which are fixed during mineral ore genesis, and this unique property can be used to indicate the source of lead pollutants in the environment. The wolld production of primary lead is tabulated, and the geochemical significances of lead isotope ratios are discussed. The manufacture of lead alkyl additives for gasoline, which is the major source of lead pollutants, utilizes about 10% of the world annual consumption of lead. The isotope ratios of lead in gasoline, aerosols, soils and plants are correlated. Lead additives in various brands of gasoline sold in one region do not have the same isotope ratios. Regional variations in isotope ratios of lead additives were observed. This reflects the fact that petroleum refineries obtained the additives from various lead alkyl manufacturers which utilized lead from different mining districts. A definite changing trend of isotope ratios of lead pollutants in the San Diego, California (USA), area was detected. The lead shows a gradual increase in its radiogenic components during the past decade. This trend can be explained by the change of lead sources used by the additive manufacturers: Lead isotope ratios of the mid-1960's gasoline additives in the United States of America reflected those of less radiogenic leads imported from Canada, Australia, Peru and Mexico. Since then, the U.S. lead production has doubled-mainly from the Missouri district of highly radiogenic lead. Meanwhile, there has been a decrease in total lead imports. These combined effects result in changes in isotope ratios, from the less to more radiogenic, of the pooled lead. (aothor)

  20. Groundwater recharge, circulation and geochemical evolution in the source region of the Blue Nile River, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, Seifu; Travi, Yves; Alemayehu, Tamiru; Ayenew, Tenalem

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical and environmental isotope data were used to gain the first regional picture of groundwater recharge, circulation and its hydrochemical evolution in the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia. Q-mode statistical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify water into objective groups and to conduct inverse geochemical modeling among the groups. Two major structurally deformed regions with distinct groundwater circulation and evolution history were identified. These are the Lake Tana Graben (LTG) and the Yerer Tullu Wellel Volcanic Lineament Zone (YTVL). Silicate hydrolysis accompanied by CO 2 influx from deeper sources plays a major role in groundwater chemical evolution of the high TDS Na-HCO 3 type thermal groundwaters of these two regions. In the basaltic plateau outside these two zones, groundwater recharge takes place rapidly through fractured basalts, groundwater flow paths are short and they are characterized by low TDS and are Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type waters. Despite the high altitude (mean altitude ∼2500 masl) and the relatively low mean annual air temperature (18 deg. C) of the region compared to Sahelian Africa, there is no commensurate depletion in δ 18 O compositions of groundwaters of the Ethiopian Plateau. Generally the highland areas north and east of the basin are characterized by relatively depleted δ 18 O groundwaters. Altitudinal depletion of δ 18 O is 0.1%o/100 m. The meteoric waters of the Blue Nile River basin have higher d-excess compared to the meteoric waters of the Ethiopian Rift and that of its White Nile sister basin which emerges from the equatorial lakes region. The geochemically evolved groundwaters of the YTVL and LTG are relatively isotopically depleted when compared to the present day meteoric waters reflecting recharge under colder climate and their high altitude

  1. Groundwater recharge, circulation and geochemical evolution in the source region of the Blue Nile River, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Seifu [Laboratory of Hydrogeology, University of Avignon, 33 Rue Louis Pasteur, 84000 Avignon (France) and Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)]. E-mail: seifu.kebede@univ-avignon.fr; Travi, Yves [Laboratory of Hydrogeology, University of Avignon, 33 Rue Louis Pasteur, 84000 Avignon (France); Alemayehu, Tamiru [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Ayenew, Tenalem [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2005-09-15

    Geochemical and environmental isotope data were used to gain the first regional picture of groundwater recharge, circulation and its hydrochemical evolution in the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia. Q-mode statistical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify water into objective groups and to conduct inverse geochemical modeling among the groups. Two major structurally deformed regions with distinct groundwater circulation and evolution history were identified. These are the Lake Tana Graben (LTG) and the Yerer Tullu Wellel Volcanic Lineament Zone (YTVL). Silicate hydrolysis accompanied by CO{sub 2} influx from deeper sources plays a major role in groundwater chemical evolution of the high TDS Na-HCO {sub 3} type thermal groundwaters of these two regions. In the basaltic plateau outside these two zones, groundwater recharge takes place rapidly through fractured basalts, groundwater flow paths are short and they are characterized by low TDS and are Ca-Mg-HCO {sub 3} type waters. Despite the high altitude (mean altitude {approx}2500 masl) and the relatively low mean annual air temperature (18 deg. C) of the region compared to Sahelian Africa, there is no commensurate depletion in {delta} {sup 18}O compositions of groundwaters of the Ethiopian Plateau. Generally the highland areas north and east of the basin are characterized by relatively depleted {delta} {sup 18}O groundwaters. Altitudinal depletion of {delta} {sup 18}O is 0.1%o/100 m. The meteoric waters of the Blue Nile River basin have higher d-excess compared to the meteoric waters of the Ethiopian Rift and that of its White Nile sister basin which emerges from the equatorial lakes region. The geochemically evolved groundwaters of the YTVL and LTG are relatively isotopically depleted when compared to the present day meteoric waters reflecting recharge under colder climate and their high altitude.

  2. Source attribution and mitigation strategies for air pollution in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Gregor; Purohit, Pallav; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Liu, Jun; Amann, Markus; Bhanarkar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Indian cities, and the megacity of Delhi in particular, have suffered from high air pollution for years. Recent observations show that ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Delhi strongly exceed the Indian national ambient air quality standards as well as the World Health Organization's interim target levels. At the same time, India is experiencing strong urbanization, and both Delhi's emissions as well as the exposed population are growing. Therefore the question arises how PM2.5 concentrations will evolve in the future, and how they can be improved efficiently. In the past, typical responses of the Delhi government to high pollution episodes have been restrictions on motorized road traffic, on power plant operations and on construction activities. However, to design sustainable and efficient pollution mitigation measures, the contribution of different source sectors and spatial scales needs to be quantified. Here we combine the established emission calculation scheme of the Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model with regional chemistry-transport model simulations (0.5° resolution) as well as local particle dispersion (2 × 2 km resolution) to arrive at a source attribution of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi. Calculated concentrations compare well to observations. We find that roughly 60% of total population-weighted PM2.5 originates from sources outside the national capital territory of Delhi itself. Consequently, mitigation strategies need to involve neighboring states and address the typical sources there. We discuss the likely evolution of ambient concentrations under different scenarios which assume either current emission control legislation, or application of a Clean Air Scenario foreseeing additional regulations in non-industrial sectors which are often overlooked, such as phase-out of solid fuel cookstoves, and road paving. Only in the case where the Clean Air Scenario is applied both in Delhi as well as in

  3. Isotope ratios as pollutant source and behaviour indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed significant advances in isotope techniques for identifying origins and for studying the behaviour of trace contaminants and pollutants of the environment under actual existing environmental conditions. Improvements in the supply of stable isotopes and their labelled compounds, instrumental analysis and information on stable or radioactive isotopic ratios of existing environmental contaminants as a function of origin or behaviour have provided relatively new tools for the environmental scientist. While variations in natural or existing environmental stable and radioactive nuclides could be regarded as 'background noise' in conventional tracer experiments they promised unique information about sources and behaviour to those who listened carefully. (author)

  4. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  5. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie

    2012-01-01

    for this purpose. Methods Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe. Results The SCF is structured...... in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority...

  6. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction. PMID:23560830

  7. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  8. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  9. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values 4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of solid Cr(III) in the soil was estimated at 6600 and 500 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. At the same time, the pool size of dissolved Cr(VI) was estimated at 50 and 1.2 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. It follows that, at both sites, less than 1 % of the entire Cr that had leaked into the aquifer an a liquid form remained in the

  10. Physical parameters of groundwater as indicators of pollution in industrial areas of Taxila, Wah and Hasanabdal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Zaheer-ud-Dln-Qureshi

    2004-01-01

    The Wah area historically famous for having sweet aquifer system is greatly effected due to environmental activities, such as industrialization and poor sewage system in the recent past. Thirty water samples have been collected from dug wells penetrating to shallow two layers in a multi layered aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is located at a depth of 45-85 feet and composed of very fine grained sand to silt in two layers separated by silty clay. To assess the contamination problems, physical parameters of groundwater such as temperature, color, turbidity, odour and taste have been estimated fifty percent of the dug wells have been found as contaminated and not fit for human consumption according 10 WHO standards. High values of electrical conductance determined in fifty percent of wells show trends of chemical contamination and their probable sources near by these wells against the general recharge pattern prevailing in the area can be located. (author)

  11. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda

    2013-01-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m 3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m 3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  12. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both

  13. Non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA in a rural basin from the southeast Pampas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Pérez, Débora; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Massone, Héctor; Costa, José Luis

    2018-05-01

    We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices. We found that both glyphosate and AMPA accumulate in soil, but the metabolite accumulates to a greater extent due to its higher persistence. Knowing that glyphosate and AMPA were present in soils (> 93% of detection for both compounds), we aimed to study the dispersion to other environmental compartments (surface water, stream sediments, and groundwater), in order to establish the degree of non-point source pollution. Also, we assessed the relationship between the water-table depth and glyphosate and AMPA levels in groundwater. All of the studied compartments had variable levels of glyphosate and AMPA. The highest frequency of detections was found in the stream sediments samples (glyphosate 95%, AMPA 100%), followed by surface water (glyphosate 28%, AMPA 50%) and then groundwater (glyphosate 24%, AMPA 33%). Despite glyphosate being considered a molecule with low vertical mobility in soils, we found that its detection in groundwater was strongly associated with the month where glyphosate concentration in soil was the highest. However, we did not find a direct relation between groundwater table depth and glyphosate or AMPA detections. This is the first simultaneous study of glyphosate and AMPA seasonal variations in soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments within a rural basin.

  14. Mitigation of non-point source of fluoride on groundwater by dug well recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, G.; Lakshmanan, E.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater used for drinking purpose is affected in many regions due to the presence of excess fluoride. The excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis to human in many states of India, including Tamil Nadu. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing hydrogeochemistry of groundwater and the feasibility of dug well recharge to reduce the fluoride concentration in Vaniyar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The major source for fluoride in groundwater of this area is the epidote hornblende gneissic and charnockite which are the major rocks occurring in this region. As a pilot study a cost effective induced recharge structure was constructed at Papichettipatty village in the study region. The study shows that the groundwater level around the recharge site raised up to 2 m from 14.5 m (bgl) and fluoride concentration has decreased from 3.8 mg/l to 0.9 mg/l due to dilution. The advantage of this induced recharge structure is of its low cost, the ease of implementation, improved groundwater recharge and dilution of fluoride in groundwater. An area of about 1.5 km2 has benefited due to this dug well recharge system.

  15. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  16. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrates from agricultural sources using a GIS-compatible logic multicriteria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Flotats, Xavier; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2016-04-15

    In the present study an overlay method to assess groundwater vulnerability is proposed. This new method based on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) was developed and validated using an appropriate case study in Aragon area (NE Spain). The Vulnerability Index to Nitrates from Agricultural Sources (VINAS) incorporates a novel Logic Scoring of Preferences (LSP) approach, and it has been developed using public geographic information from the European Union. VINAS-LSP identifies areas with five categories of vulnerability, taking into account the hydrogeological and environmental characteristics of the territory as a whole. The resulting LSP map is a regional screening tool that can provide guidance on the potential risk of nitrate pollution, as well as highlight areas where specific research and farming planning policies are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative identification of nitrate pollution sources and uncertainty analysis based on dual isotope approach in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Xie, Runting; Hao, Yun; Lu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative identification of nitrate (NO 3 - -N) sources is critical to the control of nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in an agricultural watershed. Combined with water quality monitoring, we adopted the environmental isotope (δD-H 2 O, δ 18 O-H 2 O, δ 15 N-NO 3 - , and δ 18 O-NO 3 - ) analysis and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) mixing model to determine the proportions of riverine NO 3 - -N inputs from four potential NO 3 - -N sources, namely, atmospheric deposition (AD), chemical nitrogen fertilizer (NF), soil nitrogen (SN), and manure and sewage (M&S), in the ChangLe River watershed of eastern China. Results showed that NO 3 - -N was the main form of nitrogen in this watershed, accounting for approximately 74% of the total nitrogen concentration. A strong hydraulic interaction existed between the surface and groundwater for NO 3 - -N pollution. The variations of the isotopic composition in NO 3 - -N suggested that microbial nitrification was the dominant nitrogen transformation process in surface water, whereas significant denitrification was observed in groundwater. MCMC mixing model outputs revealed that M&S was the predominant contributor to riverine NO 3 - -N pollution (contributing 41.8% on average), followed by SN (34.0%), NF (21.9%), and AD (2.3%) sources. Finally, we constructed an uncertainty index, UI 90 , to quantitatively characterize the uncertainties inherent in NO 3 - -N source apportionment and discussed the reasons behind the uncertainties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along

  20. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  1. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  2. Local sources of pollution and their impacts in Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molders, N.

    2013-12-01

    The movie 'Into the Wilde' evoke the impression of the last frontier in a great wide and pristine land. With over half a million people living in Alaska an area as larger as the distance from the US West to the East Coast, this idea comes naturally. The three major cities are the main emission source in an otherwise relative clean atmosphere. On the North Slope oil drilling and production is the main anthropogenic emission sources. Along Alaska's coasts ship traffic including cruises is another anthropogenic emission source that is expected to increase as sea-ice recedes. In summer, wildfires in Alaska, Canada and/or Siberia may cause poor air quality. In winter inversions may lead poor air quality and in spring. In spring, aged polluted air is often advected into Alaska. These different emission sources yield quite different atmospheric composition and air quality impacts. While this may make understanding Alaska's atmospheric composition at-large a challenging task, it also provides great opportunities to examine impacts without co-founders. The talk will give a review of the performed research, and insight into the challenges.

  3. On - road mobile source pollutant emissions : identifying hotspots and ranking roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A considerable amount of pollution to the air in the forms of hydrocarbons, carbon : monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and air toxics comes : from the on-road mobile sources. Estimation of the emissions of these pollutants...

  4. Vulnerability of Coral Reefs to Bioerosion From Land-Based Sources of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Cohen, Anne; Yates, Kimberly K.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; White, Darla

    2017-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), the gradual decline in ocean pH and [CO32-] caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2, poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, depressing rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, and enhancing rates of bioerosion and dissolution. As ocean pH and [CO32-] decline globally, there is increasing emphasis on managing local stressors that can exacerbate the vulnerability of coral reefs to the effects of OA. We show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore coral reefs off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes corals to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of coral calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in coral cores collected in the Pacific under equivalent low pH conditions but living in oligotrophic waters. Heavier coral nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values pinpoint not only site-specific eutrophication, but also a sewage nitrogen source enriched in 15N. Our results show that eutrophication of reef seawater by land-based sources of pollution can magnify the effects of OA through nutrient driven-bioerosion. These conditions could contribute to the collapse of coastal coral reef ecosystems sooner than current projections predict based only on ocean acidification.Plain Language SummaryWe show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore coral reefs off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes corals to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of coral calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in coral cores collected in the Pacific. With many of Maui's coral reefs in significant decline reducing any stressors at a local scale is important to sustaining future coral reef ecosystems and planning for resiliency.

  5. Characteristic groundwater level regimes in the capture zones of radial collector wells and importance of identification (Case study of Belgrade Groundwater Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Đorđije

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the operating modes of radial collector wells reveals that the pumping levels in the well caissons are very low relative to the depth/elevation of the laterals, which is a common occurrence at Belgrade Groundwater Source. As a result, well discharge capacities vary over a broad range and groundwater levels in the capture zones differ even when the rate of discharge is the same. Five characteristic groundwater level regimes are identified and their origin is analyzed using representative wells as examples. The scope and type of background information needed to identify the groundwater level regime are presented and an interpretation approach is proposed for preliminary assessment of the aquifer potential at the well site for providing the needed amount of groundwater. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI176022, br. TR33039 i br. III43004

  6. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  7. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  8. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-11-30

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control.

  9. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  10. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  11. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  12. [Tracing the Fecal Contamination Sources Based on Bacteroides 16S rRNA PCR- DGGE in Karst Groundwater: Taking Laolongdong Underground River System, Nanshan, Chongqing as an Example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Yong-jun; Zhang, Yuan-zhu; Duan, Yi-fan; Lü, Xian-fu; He, Qiu-fang

    2016-05-15

    Microbial contamination in karst groundwater continually increases and tracing the source researches has become a hot topic for international researchers. In this study, Laolongdong underground river at Nanshan, Chongqing was chosen as an example to adopt filter membrane methods to monitor the fecal microbial contaminations including the total bacterial concentration (TB), the total E. coli concentration (TE), the total fecal coliform (FC) and the total fecal Streptocoocci (FS). Bacteriodes was used as an indicator and PCR-DGGE analysis was used to trace fecal contamination sources in karst groundwater. The results suggested that groundwater in this area was seriously polluted by microbes from feces. The concentrations of microbial parameters exceeded limited levels greatly and the total bacterial amounts ranged 10-2.9 x 10⁷ CFU · mL⁻¹, the concentrations of E. coli were between 4.3-4.0 x 10⁵ CFU · mL⁻¹, the max concentration of FC was 1.1 x 10⁶ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹ and the max concentration of FS was 1.1 x 10⁵ CFU · (100 mL)⁻¹. The FC/FS ratios were mostly over 2 which suggested that the main fecal source in groundwater was human feces. In addition, PCR-DGGE contrastive analysis of Bacteroides communities showed that the similarities between groundwater samples and human feces were in range of 7. 1% -69. 1% , and the similarity of the groundwater sample from Laolongdong underground river outlet was 69.1% . Bacteroides community similarities between groundwater samples and swine feces were in range of 1.1%-53.4%, and the similarity of Laolongdong underground river outlet was merely 1.5%. The similarity data implied that groundwater contamination resulted mainly from human feces, swine feces contamination composed part of animals' fecal contamination, and other animals' feces participated too. Furthermore, sequencing results of PCR-DGGE products revealed that most Bacteroides in groundwater originated from human intestinal tract and human feces.

  13. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  14. Source-dependent and source-independent controls on plutonium oxidation state and colloid associations in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, Ken O; Kaplan, Daniel I; Dai, Minhan; Pike, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Plutonium (Pu) was characterized for its isotopic composition, oxidation states, and association with colloids in groundwater samples near disposal basins in F-Area of the Savannah River Site and compared to similar samples collected six years earlier. Two sources of Pu were identified, the disposal basins, which contained a 24Pu/l39Pu isotopic signature consistent with weapons grade Pu, and 244Cm, a cocontaminant that is a progenitor radionuclide of 24Pu. 24Pu that originated primarily from 244Cm tended to be appreciably more oxidized (Pu(V/VI)), less associated with colloids (approximately 1 kDa - 0.2 microm), and more mobile than 239Pu, as suggested by our prior studies at this site. This is not evidence of isotope fractionation but rather "source-dependent" controls on 240Pu speciation which are processes that are not at equilibrium, i.e., processes that appear kinetically hindered. There were also "source-independent" controls on 239Pu speciation, which are those processes that follow thermodynamic equilibrium with their surroundings. For example, a groundwater pH increase in one well from 4.1 in 1998 to 6.1 in 2004 resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in groundwater 239Pu concentrations. Similarly, the fraction of 239Pu in the reduced Pu(III/IV) and colloidal forms increased systematically with decreases in redox condition in 2004 vs 1998. This research demonstrates the importance of source-dependent and source-independent controls on Pu speciation which would impact Pu mobility during changes in hydrological, chemical, or biological conditions on both seasonal and decadal time scales, and over short spatial scales. This implies more dynamic shifts in Pu speciation, colloids association, and transport in groundwater than commonly believed.

  15. Case of study of groundwater pollution in a critical area of the southern-Friuli exposed to agricultural and landfill pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, G.; Siviero, P.; Barbieri, P.; Piselli, S.; Reisenhofer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater of the Southern-Friuli displays high levels of agricultural pollutants, such as nitrates and triazinic herbicides not only in the surficial layers, but also in the deeper ones, below 150 m. Some wells of the district of Gonars was monitored. The examined waters, used for irrigation but also for drinkable use, are exposed to environmental risk due to both agricultural practices and presence of many waste disposal sites. Heavy metals, nitrates and triazinic herbicides were measured in samples taken at four wells in three periods having different rain conditions. It was found that the groundwater quality is affected mainly by agricultural practices: nitrates and triazines are present at levels very near as well as superior to the maximum concentration allowable by Italian law. These agricultural contaminants have similar levels at all sampled sites: no difference ws detected between dry periods and rain ones. Heavy metal contents are negligible in all cases; this fact suggests that ion-exchange, sorbing and complexing properties of the soils hinder the way of the metal leachates towards underlying groundwater. Zinc constitutes an exception; it is found at levels near or superior to the maximum allowable concentration (CMA), and the highest contents are observed in rain periods; different sites display different zinc levels, suggesting that this metal could have various point sources. Nitrates fertilisers were found in all sites at similar levels, very near to CMA (50 mg/L). Triazines are specific herbicides for corn growing, highly diffused here: their use in recent years is forbidden by Italian law, but the presence in groundwater of parent triazines and metabolites is a persistent problem of this are. The Italian law indicates a CMA of 0.10 μ/L for the sum of atrazine and desethylatrazine, but it was found that desethylatrazine by itself exceeds largely CMA in all sites [it

  16. Several natural indicators of radial well ageing at the Belgrade groundwater source, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, M; Pusić, M; Vidovic, D; Petković, A; Boreli-Zdravković, D

    2011-01-01

    Over time, the radial collector wells of the Belgrade Groundwater Source, located in the alluvial sediments of the Sava River, exhibit a decline in discharge and a reduction in operating efficiency due to well ageing. An increase in hydraulic losses at the lateral screens, due to chemical and biochemical clogging, has been identified as the primary cause. Certain hydrogeological, hydrochemical and microbiological parameters reflect the well-ageing process and can, therefore, be considered as its indicators. An indicator-based determination of scale is an important aspect in the selection of appropriate well locations, structural characteristics, and maintenance approaches. Well ageing was studied over a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The objective was to investigate the causes of well ageing. The correlations established between the groundwater redox potential, the total iron concentration in groundwater, the grain-size distribution of the aquifer, and well discharge, are presented in the paper.

  17. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, 8010 Graz (Austria); Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan; Campisi, Laura [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich (United Kingdom); Boettcher, Michael E.; Escher, Peter [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, D-18119 Rostock (Germany); Savarino, Joel; Erbland, Joseph [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183 (France); Eisenhauer, Anton [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Ozean Forschung Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O), boron (δ{sup 11}B), water (δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O), and sulphate (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  18. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: A comparison to agricultural and assessment of hazard and vulnerability with respect to groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Since biocides are designed to be toxic to particular organisms, their accidental or deliberate release into the environment has become a growing topic of concern, especially with regards to fracking. The objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in fracking, could be a threat to English groundwater based on past groundwater monitoring data. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study showed that of the 110 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014. The total number of detections was 2234 out of 1475000 observations of 95 compounds, and 38 were compounds that were not applied during the period of record. The detection of these 38 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period implying very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer, then they will be a persistent problem. The study was able to develop binomial regression models of the probability of detecting pesticide in groundwater based upon molecular and application variables; and solely upon molecular properties. The solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard than for most agricultural biocides, but molecular modelling implied that one compound could be safer than others.

  19. A geochemical approach to determine sources and movement of saline groundwater in a coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert; Mendez, Gregory O; Futa, Kiyoto; Danskin, Wesley R

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical evaluation of the sources and movement of saline groundwater in coastal aquifers can aid in the initial mapping of the subsurface when geological information is unavailable. Chloride concentrations of groundwater in a coastal aquifer near San Diego, California, range from about 57 to 39,400 mg/L. On the basis of relative proportions of major-ions, the chemical composition is classified as Na-Ca-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, or Na-Ca-Cl type water. δ(2)H and δ(18)O values range from -47.7‰ to -12.8‰ and from -7.0‰ to -1.2‰, respectively. The isotopically depleted groundwater occurs in the deeper part of the coastal aquifer, and the isotopically enriched groundwater occurs in zones of sea water intrusion. (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios range from about 0.7050 to 0.7090, and differ between shallower and deeper flow paths in the coastal aquifer. (3)H and (14)C analyses indicate that most of the groundwater was recharged many thousands of years ago. The analysis of multiple chemical and isotopic tracers indicates that the sources and movement of saline groundwater in the San Diego coastal aquifer are dominated by: (1) recharge of local precipitation in relatively shallow parts of the flow system; (2) regional flow of recharge of higher-elevation precipitation along deep flow paths that freshen a previously saline aquifer; and (3) intrusion of sea water that entered the aquifer primarily during premodern times. Two northwest-to-southeast trending sections show the spatial distribution of the different geochemical groups and suggest the subsurface in the coastal aquifer can be separated into two predominant hydrostratigraphic layers. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.

  1. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  2. The application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D., E-mail: dcz@ansto.gov.au; Stelcer, E.; Atanacio, A.; Crawford, J.

    2014-01-01

    IBA techniques have been used to measure elemental concentrations of more than 20 different elements found in fine particle (PM2.5) air pollution. These data together with their errors and minimum detectable limits were used in Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) analyses to quantitatively determine source fingerprints and their contributions to the total measured fine mass. Wind speed and direction back trajectory data from the global HYSPLIT codes were then linked to these PMF fingerprints to quantitatively identify the location of the sources.

  3. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    Interpreting and predicting the evolution of water resources and soils at regional scale are continuing challenges for natural scientists. Examples include non-point source (NPS) pollution of soil and surface and subsurface water from agricultural chemicals and pathogens, as well as overexploitation of groundwater resources. The presence and build up of NPS pollutants may be harmful for both soil and groundwater resources. The accumulation of salts and trace elements in soils can significantly impact crop productivity, while loading of salts, nitrates, trace elements and pesticides into groundwater supplies can deteriorate a source of drinking and irrigation water. Consequently, predicting the spatial distribution and fate of NPS pollutants in soils at applicative scales is now considered crucial for maintaining the fragile balance between crop productivity and the negative environmental impacts of NPS pollutants, which is a basis of sustainable agriculture. Soil scientists and hydrologists are regularly asked to assist state agencies to understand these critical environmental issues. The most frequent inquiries are related to the development of mathematical models needed for analyzing the impacts of alternative land-use and best management use and management of soil and water resources. Different modelling solutions exist, mainly differing on the role of the vadose zone and its horizontal and vertical variability in the predictive models. The vadose zone (the region from the soil surface to the groundwater surface) is a complex physical, chemical and biological ecosystem that controls the passage of NPS pollutants from the soil surface where they have been deposited or accumulated due to agricultural activities, to groundwater. Physically based distributed hydrological models require the internal variability of the vadose zone be explored at a variety of scales. The equations describing fluxes and storage of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone used in these

  4. Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Len; Solomon, Keith; Sibley, Paul; Hall, Ken; Keen, Patricia; Mattu, Gevan; Linton, Beth

    2002-01-11

    initiatives, remediation, monitoring, and management. Our discussion is divided into two primary themes. First we discuss the major sources of contaminants from anthropogenic activities to aquatic surface and groundwater and the pathways along which these contaminants move to become incorporated into drinking water supplies. Second, we assess the health significance of the contaminants reported and identify uncertainties associated with exposures and potential effects. Loading of contaminants to surface waters, groundwater, sediments, and drinking water occurs via two primary routes: (1) point-source pollution and (2) non-point-source pollution. Point-source pollution originates from discrete sources whose inputs into aquatic systems can often be defined in a spatially explicit manner. Examples of point-source pollution include industrial effluents (pulp and paper mills, steel plants, food processing plants), municipal sewage treatment plants and combined sewage-storm-water overflows, resource extraction (mining), and land disposal sites (landfill sites, industrial impoundments). Non-point-source pollution, in contrast, originates from poorly defined, diffuse sources that typically occur over broad geographical scales. Examples of non-point-source pollution include agricultural runoff (pesticides, pathogens, and fertilizers), storm-water and urban runoff, and atmospheric deposition (wet and dry deposition of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and mercury). Within each source, we identify the most important contaminants that have either been demonstrated to pose significant risks to human health and/or aquatic ecosystem integrity, or which are suspected of posing such risks. Examples include nutrients, metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), chlorination by-products, and pharmaceuticals. Due to the significant number of toxic contaminants in the environment, we have necessarily restricted our discussion to those chemicals

  5. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  6. Helium sources to groundwater in active volcanic terrain, and implications for tritium-helium dating at Mount St. Helens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, John B. [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 217 Bessey Hall, Lincoln NE 68588 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater helium sources and residence times were investigated using groundwater discharging from springs surrounding Mount St. Helens in the Cascades region of the United States. Significant contributions of mantle helium were found in all samples and are attributable to interaction between groundwater and magmatic gases. Bounding calculations for residence times were made on the basis of helium isotope mixing plots and historical tritium data. (authors)

  7. VESSEL-SOURCED POLLUTION: A SECURITY THREAT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and some other conventions make provisions concerning protection of ma- ... the pollution of the marine in Malaysia, it appears that pollution by vessels .... pollution from ships and maritime safety; providing effective legal, technical and scientific ..... of the offence after the service of the notice on the offending ship through.

  8. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  9. Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Sources, Pathways, and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy. PMID:23590191

  10. Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Weissmann, Gary S; Fogg, Graham E; Lu, Bingqing; Sun, HongGuang; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-05

    Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3- d ), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3- d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3- d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

  11. Groundwater sources and geochemical processes in a crystalline fault aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Aquilina, Luc; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Pauwels, Hélène; Labasque, Thierry; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Hochreutener, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    The origin of water flowing in faults and fractures at great depth is poorly known in crystalline media. This paper describes a field study designed to characterize the geochemical compartmentalization of a deep aquifer system constituted by a graben structure where a permeable fault zone was identified. Analyses of the major chemical elements, trace elements, dissolved gases and stable water isotopes reveal the origin of dissolved components for each permeable domain and provide information on various water sources involved during different seasonal regimes. The geochemical response induced by performing a pumping test in the fault-zone is examined, in order to quantify mixing processes and contribution of different permeable domains to the flow. Reactive processes enhanced by the pumped fluxes are also identified and discussed. The fault zone presents different geochemical responses related to changes in hydraulic regime. They are interpreted as different water sources related to various permeable structures within the aquifer. During the low water regime, results suggest mixing of recent water with a clear contribution of older water of inter-glacial origin (recharge temperature around 7 °C), suggesting the involvement of water trapped in a local low-permeability matrix domain or the contribution of large scale circulation loops. During the high water level period, due to inversion of the hydraulic gradient between the major permeable fault zone and its surrounding domains, modern water predominantly flows down to the deep bedrock and ensures recharge at a local scale within the graben. Pumping in a permeable fault zone induces hydraulic connections with storage-reservoirs. The overlaid regolith domain ensures part of the flow rate for long term pumping (around 20% in the present case). During late-time pumping, orthogonal fluxes coming from the fractured domains surrounding the major fault zone are dominant. Storage in the connected fracture network within the

  12. Integration of GIS, Electromagnetic and Electrical Methods in the Delimitation of Groundwater Polluted by Effluent Discharge (Salamanca, Spain: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Vidal Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work envisages the possible geometry of a contaminated plume of groundwater near hospital facilities by combining GIS (Geographic Information System and geophysical methods. The rock underlying the soil and thin sedimentary cover of the study area is moderately fractured quartzite, which makes aquifers vulnerable to pollution. The GIS methodology is used to calculate the area that would be affected by the effluent source of residual water, based on algorithms that consider ground surface mapping (slopes, orientations, accumulated costs and cost per distance. Geophysical methods (electromagnetic induction and electric resistivity tomography use changes in the electrical conductivity or resistivity of the subsurface to determine the geometry of the discharge and the degree of contamination. The model presented would allow a preliminary investigation regarding potential corrective measures.

  13. Integration of GIS, Electromagnetic and Electrical Methods in the Delimitation of Groundwater Polluted by Effluent Discharge (Salamanca, Spain): A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Rubén Vidal; Martínez-Graña, Antonio Miguel; Martínez Catalán, José Ramón; Arribas, Puy Ayarza; Sánchez San Román, Francisco Javier; Zazo, Caridad

    2017-11-10

    The present work envisages the possible geometry of a contaminated plume of groundwater near hospital facilities by combining GIS (Geographic Information System) and geophysical methods. The rock underlying the soil and thin sedimentary cover of the study area is moderately fractured quartzite, which makes aquifers vulnerable to pollution. The GIS methodology is used to calculate the area that would be affected by the effluent source of residual water, based on algorithms that consider ground surface mapping (slopes, orientations, accumulated costs and cost per distance). Geophysical methods (electromagnetic induction and electric resistivity tomography) use changes in the electrical conductivity or resistivity of the subsurface to determine the geometry of the discharge and the degree of contamination. The model presented would allow a preliminary investigation regarding potential corrective measures.

  14. Using geochemistry to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in Central Arizona, USA: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Montezuma Well is a unique natural spring located in a sinkhole surrounded by travertine. Montezuma Well is managed by the National Park Service, and groundwater development in the area is a potential threat to the water source for Montezuma Well. This research was undertaken to better understand the sources of groundwater to Montezuma Well. Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) indicate that groundwater in the recharge area has flowed through surficial basalts with subsequent contact with the underlying Permian aged sandstones and the deeper, karstic, Mississippian Redwall Limestone. The distinctive geochemistry in Montezuma Well and nearby Soda Springs (higher concentrations of alkalinity, As, B, Cl, and Li) is coincident with added carbon dioxide and mantle-sourced He. The geochemistry and isotopic data from Montezuma Well and Soda Springs allow for the separation of groundwater samples into four categories: (1) upgradient, (2) deep groundwater with carbon dioxide, (3) shallow Verde Formation, and (4) mixing zone. δ18O and δD values, along with noble gas recharge elevation data, indicate that the higher elevation areas to the north and east of Montezuma Well are the groundwater recharge zones for Montezuma Well and most of the groundwater in this portion of the Verde Valley. Adjusted groundwater age dating using likely 14C and δ13C sources indicate an age for Montezuma Well and Soda Springs groundwaters at 5,400–13,300 years, while shallow groundwater in the Verde Formation appears to be older (18,900). Based on water chemistry and isotopic evidence, groundwater flow to Montezuma Well is consistent with a hydrogeologic framework that indicates groundwater flow by (1) recharge in higher elevation basalts to the north and east of Montezuma Well, (2) movement through the upgradient Permian and Mississippian units, especially the Redwall Limestone, and (3) contact with a basalt dike/fracture system that provides a mechanism for groundwater to flow to the surface

  15. MSW: From pollution/degradation source to resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste is one of the biggest challenges that cities are facing: MSW is considered of the main sources of energy consumption, urban degradation and pollution. This paper defines the major negative effects of MSW on cities and proposes new solutions to guide waste policies. Most contemporary waste management efforts are focused at regional government level and based on high tech waste disposal by methods such as landfill and incineration. However, these methods are becoming increasingly expensive, energy inefficient and pollutant: waste disposal is not sustainable and will have negative implications for future generations. In this paper are proposed all the principle solutions that could be undertaken. New policy instruments are presented updating and adapting policies and encouraging innovation for less wasteful systems. Waste management plans are fundamental to increase the ability of urban areas to effectively adapt to waste challenges. These plans have to give an outline of waste streams and treatment options and provide a scenario for the following years that significantly reduce landfills and incinerators in favor of prevention, reuse and recycling. The key aim of an urban waste management plan is to set out the work towards a zero waste economy as part of the transition to a sustainable economy. Other questions remain still opened: How to change people’s behavior? What is the role of environmental education and risk perception? It is sure that the involvement of the various stakeholders and the wider public in the planning process should aim at ensuring acceptance of the waste policy.

  16. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  17. Correlation between co-exposures to noise and air pollution from traffic sources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, H.W.; Vlaanderen, J.J.; Henderson, S.E.; Brauer, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both air and noise pollution associated with motor vehicle traffic have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Similarities in pollution source and health outcome mean that there is potential for noise to confound studies of air pollution and cardiovascular disease, and vice versa,

  18. Fingerprinting groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ali H.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Young, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater salinity sources in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System (GCAS) is a critical issue due to depletion of fresh groundwater and concerns for potential seawater intrusion. The study objective was to assess sources of groundwater salinity in the GCAS using ˜1,400 chemical analyses and ˜90 isotopic analyses along nine well transects in the Texas Gulf Coast, USA. Salinity increases from northeast (median total dissolved solids (TDS) 340 mg/L) to southwest (median TDS 1,160 mg/L), which inversely correlates with the precipitation distribution pattern (1,370- 600 mm/yr, respectively). Molar Cl/Br ratios (median 540-600), depleted δ2H and δ18O (-24.7‰, -4.5‰) relative to seawater (Cl/Br ˜655 and δ2H, δ18O 0‰, 0‰, respectively), and elevated 36Cl/Cl ratios (˜100), suggest precipitation enriched with marine aerosols as the dominant salinity source. Mass balance estimates suggest that marine aerosols could adequately explain salt loading over the large expanse of the GCAS. Evapotranspiration enrichment to the southwest is supported by elevated chloride concentrations in soil profiles and higher δ18O. Secondary salinity sources include dissolution of salt domes or upwelling brines from geopressured zones along growth faults, mainly near the coast in the northeast. The regional extent and large quantities of brackish water have the potential to support moderate-sized desalination plants in this location. These results have important implications for groundwater management, suggesting a current lack of regional seawater intrusion and a suitable source of relatively low TDS water for desalination.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  20. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Partitioning sources of recharge in environments with groundwater recirculation using carbon-14 and CFC-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah A.; Cook, Peter G.; Dogramaci, Shawan; Kipfer, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater recirculation occurs when groundwater is pumped from an aquifer onto the land surface, and a portion of that water subsequently infiltrates back to the aquifer. In environments where groundwater is recirculated, differentiation between various sources of recharge (e.g. natural rainfall recharge vs. recirculated water) can be difficult. Groundwater age indicators, in particular transient trace gases, are likely to be more sensitive tracers of recharge than stable isotopes or chloride in this setting. This is because, unlike stable isotopes or chloride, they undergo a process of equilibration with the atmosphere, and historical atmospheric concentrations are known. In this paper, groundwater age indicators (14C and CFC-12) were used as tracers of recharge by surplus mine water that is discharged to streams. Ternary mixing ratios were calculated based on 14C and CFC-12 concentrations measured along three transects of piezometers and monitoring wells perpendicular to the creeks, and from dewatering wells. Uncertainty in calculated mixing ratios was estimated using a Monte Carlo approach. Ternary mixing ratios in dewatering wells suggest that recharge by mine water accounted for between 10% and 87% of water currently abstracted by dewatering wells. The calculated mixing ratios suggest that recharge by mine water extends to a distance of more than 550 m from the creeks. These results are supported by seepage flux estimates based on the water and chloride balance along the creeks, which suggest that 85-90% of mine water discharged to the creeks recharges the aquifer and recharge by mine water extends between 110 and 730 m from the creeks. Mixing calculations based on gaseous groundwater age indicators could also be used to partition recharge associated with agricultural irrigation or artificial wetland supplementation.

  2. The electric power stations viewed as a source of local and transfrontier pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiu, C.; Sandu, I.

    1994-01-01

    The pollutant emission of the thermal power stations may have an important contribution to the local pollution as well as to regional (transfrontier) and global pollution. Due to the impossibility at present of making continuous monitoring of the emission of pollutants it is necessary to use computational models for obtaining inventories of the pollutant sources and for studying their dispersion into atmosphere. The computational code used to simulate the pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere is a climatologic model giving the annual average concentration and the evaluation of the maximum SO 2 concentration. The paper presents the analyses for the case of 14 thermal power stations of Romania

  3. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective.

  4. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  5. Geothermal energy plants. Technologies and risk of soil and groundwater pollution; Jordvarmeanlaeg. Teknologier og risiko for jord- og grundvandsforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villumsen, B. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    Ground source heat systems utilise the natural heat in the ground to heat houses and domestic hot water. The technology is energy-saving and can therefore contribute to the targets of reducing Denmark's CO{sub 2} emissions. All else being equal, a ground source heat system containing chemicals poses a potential contamination risk to soil and groundwater. Therefore a permit is required when installing a ground source heat system, and the general regulations for implementing the system etc. combined with the municipality's administrative procedures for the area must ensure sufficient protection of the groundwater. This project only deals with the heat exchanging system, which is the part of the ground source heat system which involves risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the project is to procure an overall updated knowledge base about the different types of ground source heat systems and the contamination risk associated with them. The project also reviews how disadvantages can be managed or minimized. (au)

  6. Using stable isotopes to characterize groundwater recharge sources in the volcanic island of Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Susana; Cruz, J. Virgílio; Figueira, Celso

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogeology of volcanic islands remains poorly understood, despite the fact that populations that live on them rely on groundwater as a primary water source. This situation is exacerbated by their complex structure, geological heterogeneity, and sometimes active volcanic processes that hamper easy analysis of their hydrogeological dynamics. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool that has been used to assess groundwater dynamics in complex terrains. In this work, stable isotopes are used to better understand the hydrogeology of Madeira Island and provide a case-study that can serve as a basis for groundwater studies in other similar settings. The stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δ2H) of rain at the main recharge areas of the island is determined, as well as the sources and altitudes of recharge of several springs, groundwater in tunnels and wells. The water in tunnels was found to be recharged almost exclusively by rain in the deforested high plateaus, whilst several springs associated with shallow perched aquifers are recharged from rain and cloud water interception by the vegetated slopes. Nevertheless some springs thought to be sourced from deep perched aquifers, recharge in the central plateaus, and their isotopic composition is similar to the water in the tunnels. Recharge occurs primarily during autumn and winter, as evidenced by the springs and tunnels Water Lines (WL). The groundwater in wells appears to originate from runoff from rain that falls along the slopes that infiltrates near the streams' mouths, where the wells are located. This is evident by the evaporation line along which the wells plot. Irrigation water is also a possible source of recharge. The data is compatible with the hydrogeological conceptual model of Madeira. This work also shows the importance of cloud water interception as a net contributor to groundwater recharge, at least in the perched aquifers that feed numerous springs. As the amount of rainfall is expected to

  7. Applications of lead isotope rations for identification and apportionment on pollution sources in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Duoyong; Wei Yimin; Guo Boli; Wei Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals which can accumulate to an adverse effect level in human bodies through ingestion, inhalation or other pathways. Because of the persistent lead contamination in farmland environment, large risk exists in the primary stage of 'from farm to table' chain. Environmental media such as soils, atmospheric aerosols were the possible lead sources of agro-food. To pinpoint the pollution sources exactly, cut off the contamination pathways in time, and reduce the risk of hazard, pollution sources tracing was very important. Lead isotope ratio combined with certain models is an effective method to discriminate correctly pollution sources and calculate the individual source contributions. In this review, to provide theoretical and technical reference for controlling lead pollution in environment and food, lead pollution sources in food, tracing principle and methods of lead isotope ratios, and its applications on vegetable, tea, wine, cereal and other food products were concerned. (authors)

  8. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m 2 , with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m 2 . The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm 2 month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  9. Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Vyavahare, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...

  10. Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from ...

  11. SOPHIE, a European data base on indoor air pollution sources: Marketing and organisational matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Molina, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    As an outcome of a former project of the JOULE programme of the European Commission, the Database SOPHIE (Sources of Pollution for a Healthy and Comfortable Indoor Environment) represents an attempt to contribute to an objective, permanent and dynamic documentation of indoor air pollution sources.

  12. Land-based sources of pollution and environmental quality of Weija ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of land-based sources of pollution was undertaken in the catchment area of Weija Lake. Activities that may influence the quality of the environment, and the sources, amounts and effects of the pollution of the water body were assessed. Water and precipitation chemistry showed that Na:Ca (0.48) and Na:K (2.0) ...

  13. Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Arnold, L. Rick; Horton, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) seeks additional information to better understand the source(s) of groundwater and associated groundwater flow paths to Montezuma Well in Montezuma Castle National Monument, central Arizona. The source of water to Montezuma Well, a flowing sinkhole in a desert setting, is poorly understood. Water emerges from the middle limestone facies of the lacustrine Verde Formation, but the precise origin of the water and its travel path are largely unknown. Some have proposed artesian flow to Montezuma Well through the Supai Formation, which is exposed along the eastern margin of the Verde Valley and underlies the Verde Formation. The groundwater recharge zone likely lies above the floor of the Verde Valley somewhere to the north or east of Montezuma Well, where precipitation is more abundant. Additional data from groundwater, surface water, and bedrock geology are required for Montezuma Well and the surrounding region to test the current conceptual ideas, to provide new details on the groundwater flow in the area, and to assist in future management decisions. The results of this research will provide information for long-term water resource management and the protection of water rights.

  14. A coupled stochastic inverse-management framework for dealing with nonpoint agriculture pollution under groundwater parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Palacios-Marqués, Daniel; Merigó, José M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a methodology for the stochastic management of groundwater quality problems is presented, which can be used to provide agricultural advisory services. A stochastic algorithm to solve the coupled flow and mass transport inverse problem is combined with a stochastic management approach to develop methods for integrating uncertainty; thus obtaining more reliable policies on groundwater nitrate pollution control from agriculture. The stochastic inverse model allows identifying non-Gaussian parameters and reducing uncertainty in heterogeneous aquifers by constraining stochastic simulations to data. The management model determines the spatial and temporal distribution of fertilizer application rates that maximizes net benefits in agriculture constrained by quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. The quality constraints can be taken, for instance, by those given by water laws such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Furthermore, the methodology allows providing the trade-off between higher economic returns and reliability in meeting the environmental standards. Therefore, this new technology can help stakeholders in the decision-making process under an uncertainty environment. The methodology has been successfully applied to a 2D synthetic aquifer, where an uncertainty assessment has been carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  15. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, (delta) 15 N values greater than 10(per t housand) indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO 3 L -1 . In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low (delta) 15 N value (3.1(per t housand)) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer

  16. Is groundwater discharge a significant source of carbon dioxide in North Creek, NSW, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M. L.; Santos, I. R.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolved carbon dioxide is enriched in groundwater. However, the contribution of groundwater discharge as a source of CO2 to freshwater ecosystems, estuaries and coastal waters is poorly understood. CO2 evasion from waterbodies has been considered a significant contributor to the global carbon cycle. We assessed for radon (natural groundwater tracer), pCO2 and other parameters in the tidal North Creek in northern NSW, Australia. Once a natural wetland area, the floodplain has been extensively drained for agricultural and residential development. A 16km high resolution spatial survey revealed increasing radon (up to 17.3 dpm L-1) and pCO2 (up to 11151 μatm) concentration in the upstream direction. Allocated 24-h time series experiments were performed at two fixed sites downstream and upstream. Creek water was continuously pumped into a shower head equilibrator. A Licor-7000 and RAD7 monitor were connected in series in a closed air loop system incorporating the showerhead exchanger to measure pCO2 and radon at 10 minute intervals. Under normal hydrological conditions, radon (17.5 - 58.7 dpm L-1) and pCO2 (3031 - 14880 μatm) concentrations were high. Upstream measurements demonstrated a strong correlation between pCO2 and radon (r2 = 0.81, n = 142, p standard deviation and median flux for the three time series deployments were 167 mmol m-2 d-1, 44 mmol m-2 d-1 and 154 mmol m-2 d-1 respectively, rendering this aquatic system a major pathway of CO2 to the atmosphere. Our observations imply that groundwater discharge drove CO2 dynamics at the upstream site while mangrove respiration drove CO2 at the downstream site. Overall, groundwater discharge accounted for at least 32% of surface water in North Creek. Our observations demonstrate that groundwater seepage is an important factor driving CO2 supersaturation in this coastal creek. Groundwater should be accounted for in CO2 budgets in coastal waters.

  17. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  18. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Angela M; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    The commercial trade of wildlife occurs on a global scale. In addition to removing animals from their native populations, this trade may lead to the release and subsequent introduction of nonindigenous species and the pathogens they carry. Emerging infectious diseases, such as chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and ranaviral disease have spread with global trade in amphibians and are linked to amphibian declines and die-offs worldwide, which suggests that the commercial trade in amphibians may be a source of pathogen pollution. We screened tiger salamanders involved in the bait trade in the western United States for both ranaviruses and Bd with polymerase chain reaction and used oral reports from bait shops and ranavirus DNA sequences from infected bait salamanders to determine how these animals and their pathogens are moved geographically by commerce. In addition, we conducted 2 surveys of anglers to determine how often tiger salamanders are used as bait and how often they are released into fishing waters by anglers, and organized bait-shop surveys to determine whether tiger salamanders are released back into the wild after being housed in bait shops. Ranaviruses were detected in the tiger salamander bait trade in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, and Bd was detected in Arizona bait shops. Ranaviruses were spread geographically through the bait trade. All tiger salamanders in the bait trade were collected from the wild, and in general they moved east to west and north to south, bringing with them their multiple ranavirus strains. Finally, 26-73% of anglers used tiger salamanders as fishing bait, 26-67% of anglers released tiger salamanders bought as bait into fishing waters, and 4% of bait shops released tiger salamanders back into the wild after they were housed in shops with infected animals. The tiger salamander bait trade in the western United States is a useful model for understanding the consequences of the

  20. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Punjab, Pakistan: source discrimination and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Xiao, Tangfu; Baig, Zenab Tariq; Masood, Sajid; Mostofa, Khan M G; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    The present study discusses elevated groundwater arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in Mailsi, Punjab, Pakistan, and links these elevated concentrations to health risks for the local residents. The results indicate that groundwater samples of two areas of Mailsi, Punjab were severely contaminated with As (5.9-507 ppb) and F(-) (5.5-29.6 ppm), as these values exceeded the permissible limits of World Health Organization (10 ppb for As and 1.5 ppm for F(-)). The groundwater samples were categorized by redox state. The major process controlling the As levels in groundwater was the adsorption of As onto PO4 (3-) at high pH. High alkalinity and low Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations promoted the higher F(-) and As concentrations in the groundwater. A positive correlation was observed between F(-) and As concentrations (r = 0.37; n = 52) and other major ions found in the groundwater of the studied area. The mineral saturation indices calculated by PHREEQC 2.1 suggested that a majority of samples were oversaturated with calcite and fluorite, leading to the dissolution of fluoride minerals at alkaline pH. Local inhabitants exhibited arsenicosis and fluorosis after exposure to environmental concentration doses of As and F(-). Estimated daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) highlighted the risk factors borne by local residents. Multivariate statistical analysis further revealed that both geologic origins and anthropogenic activities contributed to As and F(-) contamination in the groundwater. We propose that pollutants originate, in part, from coal combusted at brick factories, and agricultural activities. Once generated, these pollutants were mobilized by the alkaline nature of the groundwater.

  1. Arsenic pollution of groundwater in Vietnam exacerbated by deep aquifer exploitation for more than a century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Lenny H. E.; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Stengel, Caroline; Amini, Manouchehr; Ha, Nguyen Thi; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow groundwater is among the biggest health threats in the developing world. Targeting uncontaminated deep aquifers is a popular mitigation option although its long-term impact remains unknown. Here we present the alarming results of a large-scale groundwater survey covering the entire Red River Delta and a unique probability model based on three-dimensional Quaternary geology. Our unprecedented dataset reveals that ∼7 million delta inhabitants use groundwater contaminated with toxic elements, including manganese, selenium, and barium. Depth-resolved probabilities and arsenic concentrations indicate drawdown of arsenic-enriched waters from Holocene aquifers to naturally uncontaminated Pleistocene aquifers as a result of > 100 years of groundwater abstraction. Vertical arsenic migration induced by large-scale pumping from deep aquifers has been discussed to occur elsewhere, but has never been shown to occur at the scale seen here. The present situation in the Red River Delta is a warning for other As-affected regions where groundwater is extensively pumped from uncontaminated aquifers underlying high arsenic aquifers or zones. PMID:21245347

  2. Using Major Elements to Determine Sources of Nitrate in Groundwater, Suffolk County, Long Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, J.; Hanson, G.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2004-05-01

    Suffolk County is the eastern most county on Long Island with an area of 2,500 square kilometers and a population of 1.4 million. Groundwater is the only source of potable water for Suffolk County. Nitrate levels have become a concern as a result of the continued eastward urbanization of Long Island since the mid 1900's. In 2003, 2% of 1000 public supply wells had greater than 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate, 8% had 6 to 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate and 62% of the wells were rated as susceptible to increased nitrate contamination based on land use, travel time and prevalence. Nitrogen as nitrate above 10 ppm is harmful to infants and is currently the drinking water standard of the Environmental Protection Agency. The major sources of the nitrate in the urbanized areas are most likely turf grass fertilizer and sewage from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants that provide only secondary treatment. Turf grass occupies about 28% of the land. Two-thirds of the houses have septic tank/cesspool systems and a majority of the sewage treatment plants discharge effluent to the groundwater. Previous investigators of the sources of nitrate in groundwater on Long Island have used 15N values of nitrate-nitrogen to identify nitrate contamination (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Flipse and Bonner, 1985; Flipse et al., 1984; Kreitler et al., 1978). However, due to overlapping source signatures, nitrogen isotopes alone were not sufficient to characterize the sources of nitrate. More recent studies have shown that major elements that accompany nitrate in the groundwater (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Elhatip et al., 2003; Trauth and Xanthopoulos, 1997) may distinguish sources of nitrate with less ambiguity. In this study samples of waste water from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants and samples of soil water collected below turf grass that is not fertilized, fertilized with organic fertilizer and fertilized with chemical fertilizer were analyzed for major elements

  3. Assessing aquifer vulnerability from lumped parameter modeling of modern water proportions in groundwater mixtures - Application to nitrate pollution in California's South Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, B.; Ruane, M.; Clark, N.

    2017-12-01

    In California, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and manure in agriculture have caused nitrate (NO3) to be one of the state's most widespread groundwater pollutants. Given that nitrogen fertilizer applications have steadily increased since the 1950s and given that soil percolation and recharge transit times in California can exceed timescales of decades, the nitrate impact on groundwater resources is likely a legacy for years and even decades to come. This study presents a methodology for groundwater vulnerability assessment that operates independently of difficult-to-constrain soil and aquifer property data (i.e., saturated thickness, texture, porosity, conductivity, etc.), but rather utilizes groundwater age and, more importantly, groundwater mixing information to illustrate actual vulnerability at the water table. To accomplish this, the modern (i.e., less than 60-year old) water proportion (MWP) in groundwater mixtures is computed via lumped parameter modeling of chemical tracer (i.e., 3H, 14C and 3Hetrit) data. These MWPs are then linked to groundwater dissolved oxygen (DO) values to describe the risk for soil zone-derived nitrate to accumulate in the saturated zone. Preliminary studies carried out for 71 wells in California's South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit reveal MWP values derived from binary dispersion models of 3.24% to 21.8%. The fact that high MWPs generally coincide with oxic (DO ≥1.5 mg/L) groundwater conditions underscores the risk towards increased groundwater NO3 pollution for many of the tested wells. These results support the conclusion that best agricultural management and policy objectives should incorporate groundwater vulnerability models that are developed at the same spatial scale as the decision making.

  4. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2002 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases.

  5. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  6. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2004-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  7. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2002-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases. Emission limits are included

  8. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    H. Biabi; H. Mohammadi; L. Abolhassani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic siz...

  9. Investigation on supervising and monitoring of major radioactive pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yibing; Zhang Zongrang; Men Meng; Zhang Peng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: In order to optimize the supervisory monitoring proposal of the major radioactive enterprises. Methods: The authors have worked out the public doses within the range of 0-1 km as well as 1-2 km through monitoring analysis of the radioactive pollutant enterprises on the samples of its surrounding air, water, soil and organism. Results: Generally the pollutant range of the enterprises runs from 0 to 1.5 km. Conclusion: Unnecessary working hours can be shortened as long as we keep the routine supervisory monitor of pollutant enterprises within the range of 2 km. (authors)

  10. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  11. Using hydrogeology to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona: part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2012-01-01

    Montezuma Well is a natural spring located within a “sinkhole” in the desert environment of the Verde Valley in Central Arizona. It is managed by the National Park Service as part of Montezuma Castle National Monument. Because of increasing development of groundwater in the area, this research was undertaken to better understand the sources of groundwater to Montezuma Well. The use of well logs and geophysics provides details on the geology in the area around Montezuma Well. This includes characterizing the extent and position of a basalt dike that intruded a deep fracture zone. This low permeability barrier forces groundwater to the surface at the Montezuma Well “pool” with sufficient velocity to entrain sand-sized particles from underlying bedrock. Permeable fractures along and above the basalt dike provide conduits that carry deep sourced carbon dioxide to the surface, which can dissolve carbonate minerals along the transport path in response to the added carbon dioxide. At the ground surface, CO2 degasses, depositing travertine. Geologic cross sections, rock geochemistry, and semi-quantitative groundwater flow modeling provide a hydrogeologic framework that indicates groundwater flow through a karstic limestone at depth (Redwall Limestone) as the most significant source of groundwater to Montezuma Well. Additional groundwater flow from the overlying formations (Verde Formation and Permian Sandstones) is a possibility, but significant flow from these units is not indicated.

  12. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wei, Jiahua; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-07-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  14. Arsenic in groundwater of the Paraiba do Sul delta, Brazil: An atmospheric source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, N; Baisch, P; Diniz, D

    2014-06-01

    High concentrations of arsenic (>50μg L(-1)) have been detected for the first time in groundwater of the wave-dominated Paraiba do Sul delta, Brazil. The deltaic shallow groundwater aquifer is enriched in arsenic fixed by authigenic sulfides. A study of palynomorphs confirmed that aquifer sediments were formed in inter-dune lakes/swamps lately covered by eolian sands. The organic sediments of contemporaneous inter-dune lake/swamp contain very high concentration of As: up to 180mg kg(-1) and 163μg L(-1) in dry gyttja material and interstitial water, respectively. The As in recent lake/swamp sediments is retained by iron hydroxides in upper and probably by sulfides in lower layers. In the absence of connection of inter-dune lakes/swamps with fluvial currents, the atmospheric input of As could be considered as the principal source in sediments. The calculation demonstrates the possibility of high concentrations of As accumulation in sediments of inter-dune lakes/swamps from atmospheric precipitations within several centuries before they will be covered by eolian sands and turned into shallow aquifer. Considering the commonalities of wave-dominated delta formations, we can predict more prevalent As accumulation in delta plain groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M. [Centro de lnvestigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 11, ETS Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla, (Spain); Crespo, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  16. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M.; Rodriguez P, A.; Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R.; Crespo, T.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  17. Strontium isotopes as an indicator for groundwater salinity sources in the Kirkuk region, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahib, Layth Y. [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Geology Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadreya, Baghdad (Iraq); Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The Kirkuk region in northern Iraq hosts some of the largest oil fields in the Middle East. Several anticline structures enabled vertical migration and entrapment of the oil. Frequently, complex fracture systems and faults cut across the Eocene and middle Oligocene reservoirs and the cap rock, the Fatha Formation of Miocene age. Seepage of crude oil and oil field brines are therefore a common observation in the anticline axes and contamination of shallow groundwater resources is a major concern. In this study, 65 water samples were collected in the Kirkuk region to analyze and distinguish mixing processes between shallow groundwater resources, uprising oil field brines, and dissolution of gypsum and halite from the Fatha Formation. Hydrochemical analyses of the water samples included general hydrochemistry, stable water isotopes, as well as strontium concentrations and for 22 of the samples strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Strontium concentrations increased close to the anticline axes with highest concentrations in the oil field brines (300 mg/l). Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes as isotope signatures of the oil field brines and of waters from the Fatha Formation are significantly different. It could be shown, that mixing of shallow groundwater with oil field brines is occurring close to the major fault zones in the anticlines but high concentrations of strontium in the water samples are mainly due to dissolution from the Fatha Formation. - Highlights: • This field study evaluates the salinity sources in the groundwater in Kirkuk region. • Salinity is related to evaporates dissolving and/or mixing with oil field brine. • Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes.

  18. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  19. Revealing transboundary and local air pollutant sources affecting Metro Manila through receptor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Santos, Flora L.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5) levels at the Metro Manila air sampling stations of the Philippine Nuclear Research Research Institute were found to be above the WHO guideline value of 10 μg m 3 indicating, in general, very poor air quality in the area. The elemental components of the fine particulate matter were obtained using the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Positive matrix factorization, a receptor modelling tool, was used to identify and apportion air pollution sources. Location of probable transboundary air pollutants were evaluated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) while location of probable local air pollutant sources were determined using the conditional probability function (CPF). Air pollutant sources can either be natural or anthropogenic. This study has shown natural air pollutant sources such as volcanic eruptions from Bulusan volcano in 2006 and from Anatahan volcano in 2005 to have impacted on the region. Fine soils was shown to have originated from China's Mu US Desert some time in 2004. Smoke in the fine fraction in 2006 show indications of coming from forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo. Fine particulate Pb in Valenzuela was shown to be coming from the surrounding area. Many more significant air pollution impacts can be evaluated with the identification of probable air pollutant sources with the use of elemental fingerprints and locating these sources with the use of HYSPLIT and CPF. (author)

  20. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  1. REGIONAL FEATURES OF THE USE OF GROUNDWATER AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF THE FORMATION OF THE RADIATION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lisachenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground water is one of the sources of water supply and the most important mineral resources. The enrichment of natural groundwater with radium isotopes is a geochemical regularity, and their use a recognized source of additional exposure to the population and the environment. Forecast resources of groundwater in the territory of the Russian Federation are 869055 thousand m3/day. As of 01.01.2015, 15054 deposits (sections of groundwater have been explored, of which 10556 are in operation. In the federal districts, the volume of extraction and extraction of groundwater varies widely. The percentage of groundwater in domestic and drinking water supply in 35 regions of the Russian Federation ranges from 70 to 100%; in more than 30 regions it exceeds 90%. A whole series of large cities provide water supply through the underground water. Underground waters, depending on the field of application, are divided into drinking, technical, heat power, industrial and medical. The formation of numerous areas with an increased content of natural radionuclides for all types of groundwater is largely determined by the volume of their use. Organized use of groundwater is preceded by special water treatment, where it is possible to form doses of exposure to those above permissible levels established in NRB-99/2009 and the formation of a mass of waste with an increased content of natural radionuclides. In many regions of the country, there is a prospect of a constant increase in the use of all types of groundwater and the creation of new enterprises, which will require monitoring and radiation and hygienic assessment. Particular attention should be paid to the use of associated waters of oil and gas fields that have the highest content of natural radionuclides among groundwaters as a promising source of mineral raw materials.

  2. Recharge sources and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer at Atfih area, the northeastern Nile Valley, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Salah Abdelwahab; Morsy, Samah M.; Zakaria, Khalid M.

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the topic of recharge sources and evolution of groundwater in the Atfih area situated in the northeastern part of the Nile Valley, Egypt. Inventory of water wells and collection of groundwater and surface water samples have been achieved. Water samples are analyzed for major ions according to the American Society for Testing and Materials and for the environmental isotopes analysis (oxygen-18 and deuterium) by using a Triple Liquid Isotopic Water Analyzer (Los Gatos). The groundwater is available from the Quaternary aquifer formed mainly of graded sand and gravel interbedded with clay lenses. The hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations indicate the hydrodynamic nature of the aquifer, where different flow paths, recharge sources and evolution mechanisms are distinguished. The directions of groundwater flow are from E, W and S directions suggesting the contribution from Nile River, the Eocene aquifer and the Nile basin, respectively. The groundwater altitudes range from 13 m (MSL) to 44 m (MSL). The hydraulic gradient varies between 0.025 and 0.0015. The groundwater is alkaline (pH > 7) and has salinity ranging from fresh to brackish water (TDS between 528 mg/l and 6070 mg/l). The observed wide range in the ionic composition and water types reflects the effect of different environmental and geological conditions through which the water has flowed. The isotopic compositions of groundwater samples vary between -14.13‰ and +23.56 for δD and between - 2.91‰ and +3.10 for δ18O. The isotopic data indicates that the Quaternary aquifer receive recharge from different sources including the Recent Nile water, surplus irrigation water, old Nile water before the construction of Aswan High Dam, surface runoff of local rains and Eocene aquifer. Evaporation, water rock interaction and mixing between different types of waters are the main processes in the groundwater evolution. Major suggestions are presented to develop the aquifer

  3. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  4. The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam Source Impact And Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh Hoang; Nam Xuan Chu; Trung Van Tran

    2017-01-01

    Currently the environmental problems is one of the urgent problems for all countries in the world. Vietnam is among of 10 countries with the most polluted air in the world the health of people is affected by the non-guaranteed air quality in Vietnam. According to the EPI in 2015 Vietnam ranked 79 in the total of 132 countries in the overall environmental assessment. However the air pollution index Vietnam ranked 123. On the burden of disease due to environment Vietnam ranked 77. Therefore the...

  5. Estimation of light source colours for light pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziou, D; Kerouh, F

    2018-05-01

    The concept of the smart city raised several technological and scientific issues including light pollution. There are various negative impacts of light pollution on economy, ecology, and heath. This paper deals with the census of the colour of light emitted by lamps used in a city environment. To this end, we derive a light bulb colour estimator based on Bayesian reasoning, directional data, and image formation model in which the usual concept of reflectance is not used. All choices we made are devoted to designing an algorithm which can be run almost in real-time. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The combined use of MODFLOW and precipitation-runoff modeling to simulate groundwater flow in a diffuse-pollution prone watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, A; Karadaş, D; Fistikoğlu, O

    2010-01-01

    A numerical modeling case study of groundwater flow in a diffuse pollution prone area is presented. The study area is located within the metropolitan borders of the city of Izmir, Turkey. This groundwater flow model was unconventional in the application since the groundwater recharge parameter in the model was estimated using a lumped, transient water-budget based precipitation-runoff model that was executed independent of the groundwater flow model. The recharge rate obtained from the calibrated precipitation-runoff model was used as input to the groundwater flow model, which was eventually calibrated to measured water table elevations. Overall, the flow model results were consistent with field observations and model statistics were satisfactory. Water budget results of the model revealed that groundwater recharge comprised about 20% of the total water input for the entire study area. Recharge was the second largest component in the budget after leakage from streams into the subsurface. It was concluded that the modeling results can be further used as input for contaminant transport modeling studies in order to evaluate the vulnerability of water resources of the study area to diffuse pollution.

  8. Air pollution in Australia: review of costs, sources and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dorothy L

    2005-12-01

    Estimated health costs and principal sources of air pollution are reviewed, together with estimated costs of reducing pollution from major sources in Australia. Emissions data from the Australian National Pollutant Inventory were compared with published estimates of pollution costs and converted to the cost per kilogram of emissions. Costs per kg of emissions (and, for the two main sources of pollution, diesel vehicles and wood heaters, costs per heater and per vehicle) are relatively easy to understand, making it easier to compare health costs with costs of pollution-control strategies. Estimated annual costs of morbidity/mortality exceed $1,100 per diesel vehicle and $2,000 per wood heater. Costs of avoiding emissions (about $2.1/kg PM2.5 for phasing out wood heaters and upwards of $70/kg for reducing diesel emissions) are considerably less than the estimated health costs ($166/kg) of those emissions. In other countries, smokeless zones (for domestic heating), heavy vehicle low-emission zones, and lower registration charges for low-emission vehicles reduce pollution and improve health. Similar 'polluter-pays' taxes in Australia to encourage retrofitting of existing diesels and incentives to choose new ones with lowest emissions would provide substantial benefits. Adopting Christchurch's policy of phasing out wood heaters and 'polluter-pays' levies to discourage their use would be extremely cost-effective.

  9. Geochemical and isotopic study to determine sources and processes affecting nitrate and sulphate in groundwater influenced by intensive human activity - carbonate aquifer Gliwice (southern Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakóbczyk-Karpierz, Sabina; Sitek, Sławomir; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    A multi-species, multi-stable-isotope approach (δ"1"5N_N_O_3, δ"1"8O_N_O_3_, δ"3"4S_S_O_4, δ"1"8O_S_O_4, δ"1"8O_H_2_O and δ"2H_H_2_O) was used together with environmental tracers (Ar, Ne, CFC-11 and CFC-12) and geochemical modelling to characterize sources and processes controlling concentrations of NO_3"− and SO_4"2"- in groundwater of the carbonate aquifer Gliwice (southern Poland). The study area represents a strongly transformed environment with a range of human activities i.a. Agriculture, urbanization and industry. The δ"1"5N_N_O_3 and δ"1"8O_N_O_3 indicated that most samples contained NO_3"− of mixed sources: artificial fertilizers, municipal and industrial sewage, while very good correlation between NO_3"− and CFC-12 suggested that nitrate originated primarily from residential and industrial sewage. Conversely, isotopic composition of sulphate in groundwater suggested agriculture as well as oxidation of sulphides as dominant. The conclusion was supported by the comparison of CFCs and sulphate concentrations which revealed no relevant correlation. Geochemical modelling confirmed the presence of sulphate reduction in areas where isotopic analyses were not possible due to undetectable sulphate. Thus, the integrated application of stable isotopes, environmental tracers, groundwater chemistry and geochemical modelling shows a complex origin of groundwater pollution in the study area as well as variety of geochemical processes controlling chemistry of groundwater in a triple-porosity aquifer influenced by different types of human activity. - Highlights: • CFCs helped to identify municipal and industrial sources of NO_3"− in groundwater. • δ"1"8O and δ"3"4S suggested domination of SO_4"2"- from agriculture and sulphide oxidation. • Sulphate reduction was confirmed using geochemical modelling for SO_4"2"-free water.

  10. [Nitrogen non-point source pollution identification based on ArcSWAT in Changle River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ou-Ping; Sun, Si-Yang; Lü, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35%, 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.

  11. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cristina C.; Inocencio, Arlene B.; Gundaya, Debbie M.

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  12. European database on indoor air pollution sources in buildings: Current status of database structure and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, J.L.; Clausen, G.H.; Saarela, K.; Plokker, W.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Bishop, W.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de

    1996-01-01

    the European Joule II Project European Data Base for Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings. The aim of the project is to produce a tool which would be used by designers to take into account the actual pollution of the air from the building elements and ventilation and air conditioning system

  13. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  14. Characterization of non point source pollutants and their dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    landing site in Uganda. N. Banadda. Agricultural and Bio-Systems Engineering Department, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. E-mail: banadda@agric.mak.ac.ug. Fax: +256-414-53.16.41. Accepted 5 January, 2011. The aim of this research is to characterize non point pollutants and their dispersion in ...

  15. Polar Organic Pollutants in Groundwater: Experimental Approaches to Biodegradation During Subsoil Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Knepper

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of polar organic compounds was investigated for their biodegradation on a laboratory scale fixed-bed bioreactor and the decline of the parent compounds besides the formation of metabolites was monitored. Of particular interest was the investigation into the degradation of pesticides, especially isoproturon (IPU, surfactants and industrial by-products of chemical synthesis. The results from the laboratory degradation experiments are compared to findings in groundwater.

  16. Effect of solid waste landfill organic pollutants on groundwater in three areas of Sicily (Italy) characterized by different vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, Serena; Orecchio, Santino; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bellomo, Sergio; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Di Stefano, Vita; Favara, Rocco; Candela, Esterina Gagliano; La Pica, Leonardo; Morici, Sabina; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Pisciotta, Antonino; Scaletta, Claudio; Vita, Fabio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Bongiorno, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs were always below the legal threshold. Overall, the Fl/Fl + Py diagnostic ratio revealed that PAHs had a petrogenic origin. VOC levels, except for two notable exceptions near Palermo landfill, were always below the legal limit. As concerns PCB levels, several samples were found positive with levels exceeding the legal limits. It is worth noting that the % PCB distribution differs from that of commercial compositions. In parallel, some samples of groundwater containing PCDDs and PCDFs exceeding the legal threshold were also found. Among the 17 congeners monitored, the most abundant were the highest molecular weight ones.

  17. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  18. Estimation of the sources and flow system of groundwater in Fuji-Gotenba area by stable isotopic analysis and groundwater flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Shingo; Miyaike, Shusaku; Ii, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Ryota; Ito, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the source and chemical character of the groundwater provides an important strategy for the quality management of mineral water and food materials. In order to identify a source and the flow paths of groundwater used for mineral water, the water quality and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of well water in Gotenba city were studied. The electrical conductivity and chemical character of sampled water are similar to those of well water and spring water discharged elsewhere around Mt. Fuji. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of water samples indicate their origin to be solely meteoric and the oxygen isotopic ratios suggest that the groundwater mainly originated from the mountain-side of Mt. Fuji at altitudes of from 1500 m to 2300 m. A subsequent simulation of groundwater showed that the distribution of the total head and the Darcy velocity are down streamlines from mountain-sides toward the study area in Gotenba city. The altitudes of discharge obtained by the simulation are above 2000 m, and these correspond well with altitudes estimated from δ 18 O values of the samples. (author)

  19. Effects of Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Sources and Initial and Boundary Conditions on Spatiotemporal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. K.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of aquifer heterogeneity and uncertainties in source/sink, and initial and boundary conditions in a groundwater flow model on the spatiotemporal variations of groundwater level, h(x,t), were investigated. Analytical solutions for the variance and covariance of h(x, t) in an unconfined aquifer described by a linearized Boussinesq equation with a white noise source/sink and a random transmissivity field were derived. It was found that in a typical aquifer the error in h(x,t) in early time is mainly caused by the random initial condition and the error reduces as time goes to reach a constant error in later time. The duration during which the effect of the random initial condition is significant may last a few hundred days in most aquifers. The constant error in groundwater in later time is due to the combined effects of the uncertain source/sink and flux boundary: the closer to the flux boundary, the larger the error. The error caused by the uncertain head boundary is limited in a narrow zone near the boundary but it remains more or less constant over time. The effect of the heterogeneity is to increase the variation of groundwater level and the maximum effect occurs close to the constant head boundary because of the linear mean hydraulic gradient. The correlation of groundwater level decreases with temporal interval and spatial distance. In addition, the heterogeneity enhances the correlation of groundwater level, especially at larger time intervals and small spatial distances.

  20. A method to analyze "source-sink" structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-11-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the "source-sink" theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of "source" of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km(2) in 2008, and the "sink" was 172.06 km(2). The "source" of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the "sink" was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of "source" gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while "sink" gets stronger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sources for increased DOC-concentrations in the groundwater downstream of the landfill Hohne (DEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlmann, E.; Seifert, R.; Eschenbach, A.; Kleinschmidt, V.

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste together with drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil had been deposited in the landfill Hohne from 1971. Four groundwater monitoring sites had been installed: one monitoring site upstream and three sites downstream of the landfill in three different directions. Downstream of the landfill increased concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) had been measured over a period of years. Particularly the source of the DOC has remained unclear. Assumptions were (i) leaking of contaminants from the landfill and degradation under the landfill by microbes or plants or (ii) leaching of DOC from the soil under the landfill caused by a change in the redox potential. The determination of the DOC source was the major subject of this study.

  2. The Effects of Leachate on Groundwater in Ota Industrial Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositions of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution were studied at industrial sites landfill, which are located at Ota, Nigeria. The leachate was sampled at 5 different locations at the landfill, and at 15 and 20 m downstream of the landfill. Groundwater samples were collected from 10 different sources to study the ...

  3. Natural sources of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P

    1958-01-01

    Various gaseous pollutants including ozone, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, hydrogen, formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, chlorine compounds and free radicals can be formed by natural processes such as ultraviolet photochemical processes in the upper atmosphere and microbiological processes. The modes of formation and destruction of these gases, especially of their concentrations in the atmosphere, and the various reactions in which these gases can participate with each other are discussed in detail. 114 references.

  4. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  5. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  6. Source apportionment of nitrogen and phosphorus from non-point source pollution in Nansi Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Lei; Cui, Bo-Hao; Zhang, Shu-Min; Wu, Quan-Yuan; Yao, Lei

    2018-05-03

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point source (NPS) pollution in Nansi Lake Basin greatly influenced the water quality of Nansi Lake, which is the determinant factor for the success of East Route of South-North Water Transfer Project in China. This research improved Johnes export coefficient model (ECM) by developing a method to determine the export coefficients of different land use types based on the hydrological and water quality data. Taking NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) as the study objects, this study estimated the contributions of different pollution sources and analyzed their spatial distributions based on the improved ECM. The results underlined that the method for obtaining output coefficients of land use types using hydrology and water quality data is feasible and accurate, and is suitable for the study of NPS pollution at large-scale basins. The average output structure of NPS TN from land use, rural breeding and rural life is 33.6, 25.9, and 40.5%, and the NPS TP is 31.6, 43.7, and 24.7%, respectively. Especially, dry land was the main land use source for both NPS TN and TP pollution, with the contributed proportions of 81.3 and 81.8% respectively. The counties of Zaozhuang, Tengzhou, Caoxian, Yuncheng, and Shanxian had higher contribution rates and the counties of Dingtao, Juancheng, and Caoxian had the higher load intensities for both NPS TN and TP pollution. The results of this study allowed for an improvement in the understanding of the pollution source contribution and enabled researchers and planners to focus on the most important sources and regions of NPS pollution.

  7. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  8. Groundwater nitrate pollution in Souss-Massa basin (south-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon cedex, France. ... the study sites are the main cause of serious nitrate pollution given the superimposition of high nitrate ... development level. ... Location map of the irrigated areas and the sampling network. ... of clay, occur chiefly in the Chtouka-Massa region and in the Atlas.

  9. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  10. Development of Real-Time PCR to Monitor Groundwater Contaminated by Fecal Sources and Leachate from the Carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused about 4,054 carcass burial sites to dispose the carcasses. Potential environmental impacts by leachate of carcass on groundwater have been issued and it still needs to be studied. Therefore, we tried to develop robust and sensitive tool to immediately determine a groundwater contamination by the leachate from carcass burial. For tracking both an agricultural fecal contamination source and the leachate in groundwater, competitive real-time PCR and PCR method were developed using various PCR primer sets designed to detect E. Coli uidA gene and mtDNA(cytochrome B, cytB) of the animal species such as ovine, porcine, caprine, and bovine. The designed methods were applied to tract the animal species in livestock wastewater and leachate of carcass under appropriate PCR or real-time PCR condition. In the result, mtDNA primer sets for individual (Cow or Pig) and multiple (Cow and Pig) amplification, and E. Coli uidA primers for fecal source amplification were specific and sensitive to target genes. To determine contamination source, concentration of amplified mtDNA and uidA was competitively quantified in Livestock wastewater, leachate of carcass, and groundwater. The highest concentration of mtDNA and uidA showed in leachate of carcass and livestock wastewater, respectively. Groundwater samples possibly contaminated by leachate of carcass were analyzed by this assay and it was able to prove contamination source.

  11. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  12. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  13. The source and behavior of iodine dissolving in groundwater in the Mobara gas field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Gento [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-06-01

    The groundwater of the Mobara gas-field in Boso peninsula, eastern Japan, contains considerable amount, around 100 mg/L, of iodine besides dissolved methane. Twelve groundwater samples from gas-producing wells to the aquifer within the Kazusa Group in Mobara and Naruto districts have been analyzed for iodine, pH, Eh, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, SiO{sub 2}(aq), {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} and seventeen elements. There is a good correlation between the concentrations of the dissolved elements to those in marine algae. The principal source of the iodine is believed to be algae buried in the sediments and the iodine has been discharged to the porefluid during decomposition of the tissue. The molar ratio of I{sup -}/Cl{sup -} in the groundwater increases from 1.0 x 10{sup 3} to 2.2 x 10{sup 3} with changing the depth from 2000 to 1000 meters below the surface and turns to decrease from 2.2 x 10{sup 3} to 1.8 x 10{sup 3} with going up from 1000 to 500 meters. This tendency may be caused by the variation of buried organisms due to changing the sedimentary environment. The observed variation in the ratio indicates that the iodine discharged in the pore fluid did not migrate significantly after the deposition of the formation. This paper can be regarded as an English version of Japanese article written by Kamei, which was published on the 'Shigen Chishitsu (Resource Geology)' 51(2)145-151(2000). (author)

  14. Variations of pollution sources of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay 1982-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Li, Haixia; Wang, Qi; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Longlei

    2017-12-01

    Cu pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues in the whole world, and understanding the variations of the pollution sources is essential to environmental protection. This paper identified the sources of Cu in Jiaozhou Bay during 1982-1986, and revealed the variations of the sources. Results showed that there were five Cu sources during study years including marine current, stream flow, island top, overland runoff and marine traffic, respectively, whose source strengths were varying from 0.39-20.60 μg L-1, 0.37-10.57 μg L-1, 0.77-4.86 μg L-1, 2.28-3.56 μg L-1, 9.48 μg L-1, respectively. These findings were helpful information in decision-making of pollution control and environmental remediation practice.

  15. An Analysis of Air Pollution in Makkah - a View Point of Source Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makkah is one of the busiest cities in Saudi Arabia and remains busy all year around, especially during the season of Hajj and the month of Ramadan when millions of people visit this city. This emphasizes the importance of clean air and of understanding the sources of various air pollutants, which is vital for the management and advanced modeling of air pollution. This study intends to identify the major sources of air pollutants in Makkah, near the Holy Mosque (Al-Haram using a graphical approach. Air pollutants considered in this study are nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with aero-dynamic diameter of 10 um or less (PM10. Polar plots, time variation plots and correlation analysis are used to analyse the data and identify the major sources of emissions. Most of the pollutants demonstrate high concentrations during the morning traffic peak hours, suggesting road traffic as the main source of emission. The main sources of pollutant emissions identified in Makkahwere road traffic, re-suspended and windblown dust and sand particles. Further investigation on detailedsource apportionment is required, which is part of the ongoing project.

  16. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  17. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  18. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-07-13

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr 6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr 6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr 6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr 6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.

  19. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion. PMID:28703781

  20. Comparative Analysis of Fluoride Concentrations in Groundwaters in Northern and Southern Ghana: Implications for the Contaminant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkari, Emmanuel Daanoba; Zango, Musah Saeed; Korboe, Harriet Mateko

    2018-04-01

    Bongo and Sekyere South districts, both in the northern and southern parts of Ghana, respectively, have high populations living in rural areas and most of them use groundwater for drinking purposes. The groundwater in these areas is prone to contamination from natural and/or artificial sources. Therefore this study aims; (1) to present a comparative analysis of the fluoride concentration in groundwater samples from Bongo and Sekyere South districts and the associated groundwater-rock interaction that may be the cause for the varied fluoride concentrations, (2) to determine the leaching potential of fluoride from the host rocks as the possible mechanism for groundwater contamination. Sixty (60) groundwater samples from active pumping wells and twelve (12) rock samples from outcrops were collected from various communities in the two districts for fluoride concentration and mineralogical analysis. Based on the variations in fluoride concentration, fluoride spatial distribution maps were prepared using empirical Bayesian kriging interpolation method and analysed by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The fluoride concentration in Bongo district varies between 1.71 and 4.0 mg/L, whereas that in Sekyere South district changes from 0.3 to 0.8 mg/L. From the mineralogical studies, biotite has the highest percentage in the Bongo district and has positive correlation with fluoride concentration in the analysed water samples than in the Sekyere South district. The elevated fluoride concentration in the Bongo district relative to the Sekyere South district is due to the dissolution of biotite in the groundwater and the sufficient groundwater-rock interaction since the water samples are mainly sourced from deeper boreholes. This high fluoride concentration has resulted in a plethora of reported cases of dental fluorosis and other health-related issues in Bongo.

  1. Origin of methane and sources of high concentrations in Los Angeles groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin; McMahon, Peter B.; Land, Michael; Wright, Michael; Johnson, Theodore; Landon, Matthew K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, samples from 37 monitoring wells at 17 locations, within or near oil fields, and one site >5 km from oil fields, in the Los Angeles Basin, California, were analyzed for dissolved hydrocarbon gas isotopes and abundances. The wells sample a variety of depths of an aquifer system composed of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments under various conditions of confinement. Concentrations of methane in groundwater samples ranged from 0.002 to 150 mg/L—some of the highest concentrations reported in a densely populated urban area. The δ13C and δ2H of the methane ranged from −80.8 to −45.5 per mil (‰) and −249.8 to −134.9‰, respectively, and, along with oxidation‐reduction processes, helped to identify the origin of methane as microbial methanogenesis and CO2 reduction as its main formation pathway. The distribution of methane concentrations and isotopes is consistent with the high concentrations of methane in Los Angeles Basin groundwater originating from relatively shallow microbial production in anoxic or suboxic conditions. Source of the methane is the aquifer sediments rather than the upward migration or leakage of thermogenic methane associated with oil fields in the basin.

  2. Use of environmental isotope techniques in studying surface and groundwaters in the Damascus basin (Al-Ghotta): A case study of geochemical modeling of elements and pollutants transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2004-09-01

    This work discuses in details the hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwaters in the Damascus Ghotta basin. In addition, it deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of rainfall of some surrounding stations (Damascus, Bloudan, Arneh, Al-Kounietra, Izraa, Al-Souweida, Homs and Tartous). The objective of this research was to make new assessment of the available water resources in this basin, together with conducting essays to model geochemically the elements and pollutants transport in the groundwater, by the use of PHREEQM code.(author)

  3. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  4. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott

    2016-12-21

    Discharge from springs in Florida is sourced from aquifers, such as the Upper Floridan aquifer, which is overlain by an upper confining unit that locally can have properties of an aquifer. Water levels in aquifers are affected by several factors, such as precipitation, recharge, and groundwater withdrawals, which in turn can affect discharge from springs. Therefore, identifying groundwater sources and recharge characteristics can be important in assessing how these factors might affect flows and water levels in springs and can be informative in broader applications such as groundwater modeling. Recharge characteristics include the residence time of water at the surface, apparent age of recharge, and recharge water temperature.The groundwater sources and recharge characteristics of three springs that discharge from the banks of the Suwannee River in northern Florida were assessed for this study: Bell Springs, White Springs, and Suwannee Springs. Sources of groundwater were also assessed for a 150-foot-deep well finished within the Upper Floridan aquifer, hereafter referred to as the UFA well. Water samples were collected for geochemical analyses in November 2012 and October 2013 from the three springs and the UFA well. Samples were analyzed for a suite of major ions, dissolved gases, and isotopes of sulfur, strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Daily means of water level and specific conductance at White Springs were continuously recorded from October 2012 through December 2013 by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Suwannee River stage at White Springs was computed on the basis of stage at a U.S. Geological Survey streamgage about 2.4 miles upstream. Water levels in two wells, located about 2.5 miles northwest and 13 miles southeast of White Springs, were also used in the analyses.Major ion concentrations were used to differentiate water from the springs and Upper Floridan aquifer into three groups: Bell Springs, UFA well, and White and Suwannee Springs. When

  5. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  6. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Jakóbczyk-Karpierz, Sabina; Rubin, Hanna; Sitek, Sławomir; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the catchment area monitoring network of 22 piezometers, included 14 nested, have been installed. The significant spatial and seasonal differences in chemical composition between northern and southern part of the catchment were indicated based on the groundwater sampling conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate were identified in northern part of the study area 255 mg/L as a results of inappropriate sewage management and agriculture activity. Results, based on the combines multi-scale hydrogeological and hydrochemical field studies, groundwater flow and transport modelling, dual stable isotope approach and geochemical modelling indicate mainly agriculture and inappropriate sewage water management as a sources of NO3- contamination of groundwater which moreover is affected by geochemical processes. In general, contaminated groundwater does not impact surface water quality. However, due to high concentration of nitrate in northern part a continues measurements of nitrogen compounds should be continued and used for reducing uncertainty of the predictive scenarios of the mass transport modelling in the study area.

  7. Mapping groundwater dynamics using multiple sources of exhaustive high resolution data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finke, P.A.; Brus, D.J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Hoogland, T.; Knotters, M.; Vries, de F.

    2004-01-01

    Existing groundwater table (GWT) class maps, available at full coverage for the Netherlands at 1:50,000 scale, no longer satisfy user demands. Groundwater levels have changed due to strong human impact, so the maps are partially outdated. Furthermore, a more dynamic description of groundwater table

  8. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area source facilities engaged in mixing pigments, solvents, and binders... repellant coatings for concrete and masonry. Adhesive Manufacturing......... 325520 Area source facilities... various areas of air pollution control. IV. Why are we amending the rule? Our intention in this area...

  9. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  10. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  11. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures.

  12. Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a Pollutant Ejected by an External Source into a Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a channel. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation, and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum and pollutant concentration are obtained. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, skin friction, and wall mass transfer rate for various parametric values. The model can be a useful tool for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water body.

  13. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai; K. Brindha; Elango Lakshmanan

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese ex...

  14. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals from groundwater by iron oxide based adsorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwamariya, V.

    2013-01-01

    In general groundwater is preferred as a source of drinking water because of its convenient availability and its constant and good quality. However this source is vulnerable to contamination by several substances. Substances that can pollute groundwater are divided into substances that occur

  15. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  16. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holnicki, P. [Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland). Systems Research Inst.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  17. Identification of Pollution Patterns and Sources in a Semi-Arid Urban Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Markogianni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact and occurrence of human-induced pollution sources have been investigated in one of the few remaining urban streams located in Attica, Greece. Baseline information is provided on the presence and concentration of physicochemical parameters, nutrients, total coliforms, hydrocarbons and phenols in 12 key points along the Pikrodafni stream. The aim was to evaluate the relative importance of key water quality variables and their sources. Indicator substances (i.e. concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and total coliforms in certain stations indicating wastewater exposure; PAHs indicating petroleum sources successfully related the water quality variables to pollution sources. Furthermore, a pollution pressure map has been developed with the activities identified from in-situ visits and Google Earth surveys, while the statistical analysis (CA and PCA has contributed to the further exploration of the relative magnitude of pollution sources effects. Our results underline initially the importance of diffuse pollution management accompanied by the necessity for continuous environmental monitoring and the application of legal and environmental restoration actions if water quality is to be improved according to WFD 2000/60/EC.

  18. Pollution assessment and source apportionment of heavy metals in contaminated site soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Ma, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in soil were analyzed with a typical contaminated site as the case area. The pollution degree of the element was evaluated by indexes of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with potential ecological risk index model. Principal component analysis (PCA) model was simultaneously carried out to identify the main sources of heavy metals in topsoils. The results indicated that: 1. Mean values of 11 kinds of metals in topsoils were greater than respective soil background values, following the order: Zn>Pb>V>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co>As>Sb>Cd>Hg. Heavy metals with a certain accumulation in the research area were significantly affected by external factors. 2. Igeo results showed that Cd and Zn reached strongly polluted degree, while Pb with moderately to strongly polluted, Sb and Hg with moderately polluted, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr with unpolluted to moderately polluted, V and As with un-polluted. 3. Potential ecological risk assessment showed the degree of ecological risk with Cd at very high risk, Hg at high risk, Pb at moderate risk and others at low risk. The comprehensive risk of all the metals was very high. 4. PCA got three main sources with contributions, including industrial activities (44.18%), traffic and burning dust (26.68%) and soil parent materials (12.20%).

  19. The phosphorus fertilizer production as a source of rare-earth elements pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokh, A.A.; Gorbunov, A.V.; Revich, B.A.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Chen Sen Pal.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers some peculiarities of the production of phosphorus fertilizers from the point of view of the pollution of the environment with rare-earth elements. The principal possibility is demonstrated of the determination of the influence of a given type of production on the environment by measuring the change in the rare-arth elements interrelationship in the show. The main source of industrial dust is identified. The distribution of pollutants in dependence on the size of aerosol particles is given. The data on the concentrations of the pollutants in agricultural plants, employees hair and hair of local residents are also reported. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. Uncertainty quantification and experimental design based on unsupervised machine learning identification of contaminant sources and groundwater types using hydrogeochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of the original groundwater types present in geochemical mixtures observed in an aquifer is a challenging but very important task. Frequently, some of the groundwater types are related to different infiltration and/or contamination sources associated with various geochemical signatures and origins. The characterization of groundwater mixing processes typically requires solving complex inverse models representing groundwater flow and geochemical transport in the aquifer, where the inverse analysis accounts for available site data. Usually, the model is calibrated against the available data characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of the observed geochemical species. Numerous geochemical constituents and processes may need to be simulated in these models which further complicates the analyses. As a result, these types of model analyses are typically extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a new contaminant source identification approach that performs decomposition of the observation mixtures based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for Blind Source Separation (BSS), coupled with a custom semi-supervised clustering algorithm. Our methodology, called NMFk, is capable of identifying (a) the number of groundwater types and (b) the original geochemical concentration of the contaminant sources from measured geochemical mixtures with unknown mixing ratios without any additional site information. We also demonstrate how NMFk can be extended to perform uncertainty quantification and experimental design related to real-world site characterization. The NMFk algorithm works with geochemical data represented in the form of concentrations, ratios (of two constituents; for example, isotope ratios), and delta notations (standard normalized stable isotope ratios). The NMFk algorithm has been extensively tested on synthetic datasets; NMFk analyses have been actively performed on real-world data collected at the Los Alamos National

  1. Chemometric expertise of the quality of groundwater sources for domestic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Thomas; Ene, Antoaneta; Simeonova, Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 49 representative sites have been selected for the collection of water samples from central water supplies with different geographical locations in the region of Kavala, Northern Greece. Ten physicochemical parameters (pH, electric conductivity, nitrate, chloride, sodium, potassium, total alkalinity, total hardness, bicarbonate and calcium) were analyzed monthly, in the period from January 2010 to December 2010. Chemometric methods were used for monitoring data mining and interpretation (cluster analysis, principal components analysis and source apportioning by principal components regression). The clustering of the chemical indicators delivers two major clusters related to the water hardness and the mineral components (impacted by sea, bedrock and acidity factors). The sampling locations are separated into three major clusters corresponding to the spatial distribution of the sites - coastal, lowland and semi-mountainous. The principal components analysis reveals two latent factors responsible for the data structures, which are also an indication for the sources determining the groundwater quality of the region (conditionally named "mineral" factor and "water hardness" factor). By the apportionment approach it is shown what the contribution is of each of the identified sources to the formation of the total concentration of each one of the chemical parameters. The mean values of the studied physicochemical parameters were found to be within the limits given in the 98/83/EC Directive. The water samples are appropriate for human consumption. The results of this study provide an overview of the hydrogeological profile of water supply system for the studied area.

  2. Activity patterns of Californians: Use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peggy L.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Mulberg, Elliot J.; Hui, Steve P.

    The California Air Resources Board funded a statewide survey of activity patterns of Californians over 11 years of age in order to improve the accuracy of exposure assessments for air pollutants. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1762 respondents over the four seasons from fall 1987 through summer 1988. In addition to completing a 24-h recall diary of activities and locations, participants also responded to questions about their use of and proximity to potential pollutant sources. Results are presented regarding time spent by Californians in different activities and locations relevant to pollutant exposure, and their frequency of use of or proximity to pollutant sources including cigarettes, consumer products such as paints and deodorizers, combustion appliances and motor vehicles. The results show that Californians spend, on average, 87% of their time indoors, 7% in enclosed transit and 6% outdoors. At least 62% of the population over 11 years of age and 46% of nonsmokers are near others' tobacco smoke at some time during the day. Potential exposure to different pollutant sources appears to vary among different gender and age groups. For example, women are more likely to use or be near personal care products and household cleaning agents, while men are more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, solvents and paints. Data from this study can be used to reduce significantly the uncertainty associated with risk assessments for many pollutants.

  3. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  4. Biological and chemical diagnosis of damage to crops caused by air pollution and tracing the source of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Raay, A

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with the biological and chemical diagnosis of damage of crops caused by air pollution. Field observations were made as well as trials in fumigation chambers. The field work showed a great deal of fluoride contamination near industrial plants. A network of monitoring points was set up around the fluoride-emitting sources. The HF pollution was determined by the limed paper method, the fluoride content of plants, leaf necrosis in some plants, and an impinger and tubes filled with coated silver pellets, directed by a weather-vane. These investigations were carried out in two areas of New Zealand as well as near Delfzijl in Groningen. Fluoride was emitted by factories producing aluminum, superphosphate or sodium triphosphate.

  5. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  6. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using index-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Tanko, Adamu Idris; Zaudi, Muhammad Amar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the DRASTIC and GALDIT models were employed to determine the groundwater vulnerability to contamination from anthropogenic activities and seawater intrusion in Kapas Island. In addition, the work also utilized sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of each individual parameter used in developing the final models. Based on these effects and variation indices of the said parameters, new effective weights were determined and were used to create modified DRASTIC and GALDIT models. The final DRASTIC model classified the island into five vulnerability classes: no risk (110-140), low (140-160), moderate (160-180), high (180-200), and very high (>200), covering 4, 26, 59, 4, and 7 % of the island, respectively. Likewise, for seawater intrusion, the modified GALDIT model delineates the island into four vulnerability classes: very low (130) covering 39, 33, 18, and 9 % of the island, respectively. Both models show that the areas that are likely to be affected by anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion are within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island. Pearson correlation was used to verify the reliability of the two models in predicting their respective contaminants. The correlation matrix showed a good relationship between DRASTIC model and nitrate (r = 0.58). In a similar development, the correlation also reveals a very strong negative relationship between GALDIT model and seawater contaminant indicator (resistivity Ωm) values (r = -0.86) suggesting that the model predicts more than 86 % of seawater intrusion. In order to facilitate management strategy, suitable areas for artificial recharge were identified through modeling. The result suggested some areas within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island as suitable for artificial recharge. This work can serve as a guide for a full vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in small islands and will help policy maker and

  7. Semianalytical model predicting transfer of volatile pollutants from groundwater to the soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2010-08-15

    Volatilization of toxic organic contaminants from groundwater to the soil surface is often considered an important pathway in risk analysis. Most of the risk models use simplified linear solutions that may overpredict the volatile flux. Although complex numerical models have been developed, their use is restricted to experienced users and for sites where field data are known in great detail. We present here a novel semianalytical model running on a spreadsheet that simulates the volatilization flux and vertical concentration profile in a soil based on the Van Genuchten functions. These widely used functions describe precisely the gas and water saturations and movement in the capillary fringe. The analytical model shows a good accuracy over several orders of magnitude when compared to a numerical model and laboratory data. The effect of barometric pumping is also included in the semianalytical formulation, although the model predicts that barometric pumping is often negligible. A sensitivity study predicts significant fluxes in sandy vadose zones and much smaller fluxes in other soils. Fluxes are linked to the dimensionless Henry's law constant H for H < 0.2 and increase by approximately 20% when temperature increases from 5 to 25 degrees C.

  8. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  9. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuentes-Leonarte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  10. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonarte, V.F.; Ballester, F.; Leonarte, V.F.; Ballester, F.; Tenias, J.M.; Tenias, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in Pub Med and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DY work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development.

  11. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  12. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

  13. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparison of the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution from Five Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Hime

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews evidence of health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution from five common outdoor emission sources: traffic, coal-fired power stations, diesel exhaust, domestic wood combustion heaters, and crustal dust. The principal purpose of this review is to compare the evidence of health effects associated with these different sources with a view to answering the question: Is exposure to PM from some emission sources associated with worse health outcomes than exposure to PM from other sources? Answering this question will help inform development of air pollution regulations and environmental policy that maximises health benefits. Understanding the health effects of exposure to components of PM and source-specific PM are active fields of investigation. However, the different methods that have been used in epidemiological studies, along with the differences in populations, emission sources, and ambient air pollution mixtures between studies, make the comparison of results between studies problematic. While there is some evidence that PM from traffic and coal-fired power station emissions may elicit greater health effects compared to PM from other sources, overall the evidence to date does not indicate a clear ‘hierarchy’ of harmfulness for PM from different emission sources. Further investigations of the health effects of source-specific PM with more advanced approaches to exposure modeling, measurement, and statistics, are required before changing the current public health protection approach of minimising exposure to total PM mass.

  15. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  16. Use of environmental isotopes in studying surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes basin: A case study of modeling elements and pollutants transport using the code PHREEQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2001-06-01

    This report evaluate the chemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the upper Orontes basin, together with a study of the precipitation behavior of Bloudan, Homs and Tartous stations. It presents also the so far obtained results throughout the application of the geochemical code PHREEQM in studying the elements and pollutant as transport in the groundwater of this basin. The results show that the rainfall chemistry was a moderate dissolved content, and, and accompanied with how ph values and high sulfate contents, as a result of domestic and industrial pollution. the altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.18 % and -1.39% per 100 m elevation of δ 18 O and δ D, respectively. surface water in the Orontes River, up to Qattineh Lake, was characterized by a low solute content, high ph values (higher than 8), high dissolved oxygen content, depleted concentration in heavy stable isotopes and natural mineralization in 15 N and organic pollutants (N and P). Un the opposite, the water of this river was more saline and more enriched in organic pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorous, after its getting out of the Qattineh Lake. The river water was also characterized by low ph values and low concentration in dissolved oxygen, as a consequence of organic matter oxidation. The depleted concentration of heavy stable isotopes in the Cenomanian Turonian aquifer system reveals that the altitude of recharge zone is rather higher than 1000 m, which corresponds to an exposure of these rocks in Lebanon, the altitude of recharge zones for the continental and volcanic pliocene aquifers is not lower than 500 m. The mean turnover time (residence time) of groundwater in the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer was evaluated to be about 40-50 years. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 0.8 billion cubic m was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size. The results of geochemical modeling of elements and

  17. Laser Gas-Analyser for Monitoring a Source of Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of growing air pollution of the Earth is of relevance. Many countries have taken measures to protect the environment in order to limit the negative anthropogenic impacts.In such a situation an objective information on the actual content of pollutants in the atmosphere is of importance. For operational inspection of the pollutant concentrations and for monitoring pollution sources, it is necessary to create high-speed high-sensitivity gas analysers.Laser meters are the most effective to provide operational remote and local inspection of gas pollution of the Earth atmosphere.Laser meter for routine gas analysis should conduct operational analysis of the gas mixture (air. For this a development of appropriate information support is required.Such information support should include a database with absorption coefficients of pollutants (specific to potential sources of pollution at possible measuring wavelengths (holding data for a particular emitter of the laser meter and an efficient algorithms to search the measuring wavelengths and conduct a quantitative analysis of gas mixtures.Currently, the issues, important for practice and related to the development of information support for the laser gas analyzer to conduct important for practice routine measurements remain unclear.In this paper we develop an algorithm to provide an operational search of the measuring wavelengths of laser gas analyser and an algorithm to recover quantitively the gaseous component concentrations of controlled gas mixture from the laser multi-spectral measurements that take into account a priori information about the source-controlled gas pollution and do not require a large amount of computation. The method of mathematical simulation shows the effectiveness of the algorithms described both for seach of measuring wavelengths and for quantitative analysis of gas releases.

  18. Nitrate pollution of groundwater around a sewage stabilization pond, Kerala India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Shahul Hameed, A.; Velayudhan, K.T.; Jacob, S.; Mathew, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of the sewage stabilisation pont of the Calicut Medical College on the quality