WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater pollution potential

  1. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  2. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  3. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  4. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  5. Detailing new and emerging groundwater pollutants and their potential risk to groundwater environments

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya

    2014-01-01

    Many different sources and pathways into groundwater: wastewater, biosolids from water treatment and animal wastes are important Frequently detected groups of ECs include antimicrobials, lifestyle compounds, pharmaceuticals Although mostly detected in low ng/L concentrations in groundwater there are many examples of hot spots TPs can be found at concentrations higher than the parent and may be more mobile or polar, and more toxic ECs can be typical of source/landuse Some are re...

  6. ZONASI POTENSI PENCEMARAN AIR TANAH PADA TERAS SUNGAI CODE YOGYAKARTA (Zoning The Potential Groundwater Pollution at Code River Terrace, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frista Yorhanita

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk membuktikan bahwa biomassa Fusarium sp dapat mereduksi Cr(VI, dan biomassa Aspergillus niger dapat digunakan untuk mengambil ion krom dari larutan. Fusarium.sp ditumbuhkan pada media cair kentang dekftosa cair, ditambah K2Cr2O7 atau sludge limbah penyamakan kulit. Selanjutnya diamati perubahan warnanya, bila terjadi perubahan warna dan oranye ke ungu atau tak berwarna maka telah terjadi reduksi krom valensi VI menjadi krom valensi Ill. Aspergillus niger ditumbuhkan pada media Potato dectrose agar (PDA padat, dipindahkan ke media cair yang bensi bakto pepton, bakto dektrose dan srukronutrien. Produksi biomassa dilakukan pada labu erlenmeyer; setelah 5 hari dipanen dan dibuat bubuk. Bubuk ini digunakan untuk mengambil krom dari larutan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa biomassa Fusarium sp dapat digunakan untuk mengambil krom dan larutan yang.mengandung KrCrrO, atau sludge limbah penyamakan kulit. Waktu inkubasi yang lebih lama meningkatkan absorbsi krom oleh biomassa Fascrium sp. Fusarium sp mampu mereduksi Cr(VI menjadi Cr(Iii. Biomassa Aspergillus niger dapat digunakan untuk mengambil krom dari larutan. Hasil terbaik diperoleh pada konsentrasi awal 100 mg/I, pada pH 2,0, berat biomassa 0,1 g, dan waktu kontak 12 jam, yaitu 96,23% untuk Cr(II| dan96,3 % untuk Cr(VI. Fusarium sp. dan A. niger dapat digunakan sebagai bioremediator dalam penanganan limbah penyamakan kulit secara biologi.   ABSTRACT The study area of this research was parts of the code river terraces, Yogyakarta. The aims of this research were as follows: (1 to determine the part of the code river terrace which has potential groundwater pollution; (2 to assess the natural physical factors (aquifer materials, depth of groundwater table, and the groundwater flow distance and the non-natural physical factors of environmental sanitation (houses density, population density, horizontal distance between pollution source and well, and the number

  7. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  8. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  9. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  10. Evaluating the Potential of Groundwater Pollution in Kherran and Zoweircherry Plains through GIS-based DRASTIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Chitsazan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Zoweircherry and Kherran plains are located in the northeast ofAhwazin Khuzestan province. The water supply of these plains is a crucial issue and the quality of groundwater is also under the threat as a result of an increase in the use of agrochemicals. For this reason, assessing the vulnerability is an important factor in any policy-making decision for these plains. Focusing on this issue, this paper attempts to produce a groundwater vulnerability map for Zoweircherry and Kherran plains. The map is designed to show areas of highest potential for groundwater pollution on the basis of hydro-geological conditions and human impacts. Seven major hydro-geological factors (depth to water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity were incorporated into DRASTIC model and Geographical Information System (GIS was used to create a groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying the available hydro-geological data. The results of model exhibit that the west and southwest of the aquifer are dominated by medium vulnerability while small areas on northwest and east of the study area have no risk of pollution. Other parts of aquifer have low vulnerability. The nitrate analysis of groundwater samples shows that the existing nitrate on the west and southwest parts of aquifer is more than the existing nitrate on its other parts which, therefore, confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  11. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and sensitivity to pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution caused by human activity is a serious environmental problem in cities. Pollution vulnerability assessment of groundwater resources provides information on how to protect areas vulnerable to pollution. The present study is a detailed investigation of the potential for groundwater contamination through ...

  12. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  13. Locating Shallow Groundwater Discharge to Streams Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Using Aerial Infrared Thermography: A Novel Potential Pollution Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, K. L.; Pricope, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Fear River Basin (CFRB) has some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) in the United States (factoryfarmmap.org) and was recently named one of the country's most endangered rivers (americanrivers.org). There is high potential for CAFO land use to degrade stream water quality by introducing pollutants, primarily nitrates and fecal coliform, into sub-surface and surface waters. The regionally high water table in the Lower CFRB increases the risk of water quality degradation due to increased connectivity of ground- and surface water. The Lower CFRB is periodically subjected to frequent or intense hurricanes, which have been shown to exacerbate water quality issues associated with CAFOs. Additionally, the growing population in this region is placing more pressure on an already taxed water source and will continue to rely on the Cape Fear River for drinking water and wastewater discharge. While there are documented occurrences of groundwater contamination from CAFOs, we still have little understanding on how and where pollution may be entering streams by shallow sub-surface discharge. Shallow groundwater discharge to streams is becoming easier to detect using thermal infrared imaging cameras onboard unmanned aerial systems. The temperature differences between groundwater and stream water are easily distinguished in the resulting images. While this technology cannot directly measure water quality, it can locate areas of shallow groundwater discharge that can later be tested for pollutants using conventional methods. We will utilize a thermal infrared camera onboard a SenseFly eBee Plus to determine the feasibility of using this technology on a larger scale within the Lower CFRB as an inexpensive means of identifying sites of potential pollution input. Aerial surveys will be conducted in two sub-watersheds: one containing swine CAFO and a control that lacks swine CAFO. Information from this study can be integrated into

  14. 680 SPATIAL VARIATION IN GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    higher in Group A water samples, and reduced slightly in the Group B and then the Group C samples, ... Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water quality. ... situation which may likely pose a threat to the.

  15. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh; Roohollah Noori; Ronny Berndtsson; Jan Adamowski; Elaheh Sadatipour

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a ...

  16. Design of groundwater pollution expert system: forward chaining and interfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    The groundwater pollution expert system (GWPES was developed by C Language Integrate Production System (CLEPS). The control techniques of this system consider some conclusion and then attempts to prove it by searching for supportive information from the database. The inference process goes in forward chaining of this system such as predicting groundwater pollution vulnerability, predicting the effect of nitrogen fertiliser, agricultural impact and project development on groundwater pollution potential. In GWPES, forward chaining system begins with a matching of inputs with the existing database of groundwater environment and activities impact of the project development. While, interaction between an expert system and user is conducted in simple English language. The interaction is highly interactive. A basis design with simple Graphic User Interface (GUI) to input data and by asking simple questions. (author)

  17. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Zhiming; Liu Shufen; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  18. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta-oun, M.; Daud, M.; Bardaie, M.Z.; Jusop, S.

    1999-01-01

    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  19. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  20. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  1. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  2. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP. Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  3. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Roohollah; Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-22

    Although Iran's Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region's potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  4. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  5. Reliability Analyses of Groundwater Pollutant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Panagiotis

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops a probabilistic finite element model for the analysis of groundwater pollution problems. Two computer codes were developed, (1) one using finite element technique to solve the two-dimensional steady state equations of groundwater flow and pollution transport, and (2) a first order reliability method code that can do a probabilistic analysis of any given analytical or numerical equation. The two codes were connected into one model, PAGAP (Probability Analysis of Groundwater And Pollution). PAGAP can be used to obtain (1) the probability that the concentration at a given point at a given time will exceed a specified value, (2) the probability that the maximum concentration at a given point will exceed a specified value and (3) the probability that the residence time at a given point will exceed a specified period. PAGAP could be used as a tool for assessment purposes and risk analyses, for instance the assessment of the efficiency of a proposed remediation technique or to study the effects of parameter distribution for a given problem (sensitivity study). The model has been applied to study the greatest self sustained, precipitation controlled aquifer in North Europe, which underlies Oslo`s new major airport. 92 refs., 187 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.G.; Meggyes, T.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of nitrate pollution of groundwater in Mnasra region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marouane, B.; El hajjaji, S.; Dahchour, A.; Dousset, S.

    2012-01-01

    Gharb area is one of the most important agricultural regions in Morocco, where the application of fertilizers is conducted in many cases without any respect of standards. This situation may generate negative environmental impact in vulnerable areas such as Mnasra groundwater. Our study tends to evaluate the level of contamination by nitrate of groundwater in a Mnasra area. The results show that 80% of the sampled wells are highly concentrated in nitrates in comparison with the standard of WHO. Intensification of agriculture in the area associated to excessive fertilizer application, repeated applications, irrigation and rainfall are reasons for an increasing nitrates pollution of water resources. Leaching of nitrate to the groundwater should receive more attention for its potential high mobile propriety which could cause serious damages for the environment and negative impact to the health of population.

  8. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... that the leaching from the landfill could be unevenly distributed. The main specific organic compounds observed in the leachate were aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly xylenes), phenols and the pesticide MCPP. Preliminary investigations of the leach from the landfill indicated, that both a northerly leach to a drainage...

  9. Groundwater pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas with drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandio, B.M.; Azam, M.; Abdullah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted at three selected sites in irrigated areas of Pakistan to assess magnitude and severity of groundwater pollution by nitrates. The results of these studies indicate that concentration of nitrates in most of the samples collected from irrigated areas having drainage facility is much lower than threshold limit. The nitrate-nitrogen level within drainage projects ranges from 0.01-9.00 mg/l and in the area without drainage system ranges from 10.1-12.5 mg/l. The mineral fertilizers though are making contribution of NO3-N to the groundwater sources but that is much lower than threshold limits. The presence of septic tanks or farmyard manure dumps is also significant contributors of NO3-N to the groundwater. Thus drinking water sources near these polluting points are probable danger to human health. It is, therefore, concluded that still there is a lot of potential for fertilizer use in the agriculture but proper drainage facilities should be provided to minimize the potential threat of NO/sub 3/ pollution. (author)

  10. Considerations of stationary-phase interactions in groundwater pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of groundwater pollution are complicated by retention of both pollutant and tracers as static phases associated with the rock matrix. Three types of static phase are considered: (1) immobile pore water, (2) equilibrium adsorbed layers and (3) bulk precipitates, including biological systems. A brief discussion of the systems is given with examples from the work of the Water Research Centre on the problems encountered in quantifying groundwater pollution where static contamination may occur. (author)

  11. Establishment of Groundwater Arsenic Potential Distribution and Discrimination in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo Sheng; Chen, Yu Ying; Chung Liu, Chih; Lin, Chien Wen

    2016-04-01

    According to the last 10 years groundwater monitoring data in Taiwan, Arsenic concentration increase rapidly in some areas, similar to Bengal and India, the main source of Arsenic-polluted groundwater is geological sediments, through reducing reactions. There are many researches indicate that high concentration of Arsenic in groundwater poses the risk to water safety, for example, the farm lands irrigation water contains Arsenic cause the concentration of Arsenic increase in soil and crops. Based on the management of water usage instead of remediation in the situation of insufficient water. Taiwan EPA has been developed the procedures of Arsenic contamination potential area establishment and source discriminated process. Taiwan EPA use the procedures to determine the management of using groundwater, and the proposing usage of Arsenic groundwater accordance with different objects. Agencies could cooperate with the water quality standard or water needs, studying appropriate water purification methods and the groundwater depth, water consumption, thus achieve the goal of water safety and environmental protection, as a reference of policy to control total Arsenic concentration in groundwater. Keywords: Arsenic; Distribution; Discrimination; Pollution potential area of Arsenic; Origin evaluation of groundwater Arsenic

  12. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R.; Iqbal, J.; Gorai, A. K.; Pathak, G.; Tuluri, F.; Tchounwou, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D), net recharge ( R), aquifer media ( A), soil media ( S), topography or slope ( T), impact of vadose zone ( I) and hydraulic Conductivity( C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  13. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D ), net recharge ( R ), aquifer media ( A ), soil media ( S ), topography or slope ( T ), impact of vadose zone ( I ) and hydraulic Conductivity( C )] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  14. Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pollution status of heavy metals in the groundwater system around ... cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (pb) and arsenic (As) as ... Water samples (from bore holes, hand-dug wells, ponds and streams) were ...

  15. Aquifer Characterization and Groundwater Potential Assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Aquifer Characterization, Groundwater Potential, Electrical Resistivity, Lithologic Logs ... State Water Corporation currently cannot meet the daily water ... METHOD OF STUDY ... sections which were constrained with the available.

  16. Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

    2006-01-01

    Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network

  17. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the U.S. Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. Large-scale management models were formulated as dual linear programing problems to reduce numerical difficulties and computation time. Linear programing problems were solved using a numerically stable, available code. Optimal solutions to problems with successively longer management time horizons indicated that disposal schedules at some sites are relatively independent of the number of disposal periods. Optimal waste disposal schedules exhibited pulsing rather than constant disposal rates. Sensitivity analysis using parametric linear programing showed that a sharp reduction in total waste disposal potential occurs if disposal rates at any site are increased beyond their optimal values.

  18. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menció, Anna; Mas-Pla, Josep; Otero, Neus; Regàs, Oriol; Boy-Roura, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Contamination from agricultural sources and, in particular, nitrate pollution, is one of the main concerns in groundwater management. However, this type of pollution entails the entrance of other substances into the aquifer, as well as it may promote other processes. In this study, we deal with hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater samples from four distinct zones in Catalonia (NE Spain), which include 5 different aquifer types, to investigate the influence of fertilization on the overall hydrochemical composition of groundwater. Results indicate that intense fertilizer application, causing high nitrate pollution in aquifers, also homogenize the contents of the major dissolved ions (i.e.; Cl - , SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ). Thus, when groundwater in igneous and sedimentary aquifers is compared, significant differences are observed under natural conditions for Cl - , Na + and Ca 2+ (with p-values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.038), and when high nitrate concentrations occur, these differences are reduced (most p-values ranged between 0.054 and 0.978). Moreover, positive linear relationships between nitrate and some ions are found indicating the magnitude of the fertilization impact on groundwater hydrochemistry (with R 2 values of 0.490, 0.609 and 0.470, for SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ and Cl - , respectively). Nevertheless, the increasing concentration of specific ions is not only attributed to agricultural pollution, but to their enhancing effect upon the biogeochemical processes that control water-rock interactions. Such results raise awareness that these processes should be evaluated in advance in order to assess an adequate groundwater resources management. - Highlights: • The effects of nitrate pollution have been evaluated in five different aquifer types • Statistical and multivariate analyses are used to identify groundwater changes • Agricultural pollution modifies groundwater conditions and geochemical processes • Manure application

  19. Hydrogeological Investigation and Groundwater Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses groundwater quality and productivity in Haromaya watershed, eastern. Ethiopia. ... zones, quantity and quality of plant and animal life (Tamire H., 1981). Steep to very ... Present research work was proposed to conduct hydrogeological investigation and assess ...... Water Balance of Haromaya basin,.

  20. Numerical prediction of 239Pu migration for groundwater pollution in the infiltration case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Wang Qinghai; Yu Jing

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the study on site selection of geological disposal of LIL radioactive waste in north-west China, a numerical prediction of 239 Pu migration for potential groundwater pollution in the unsaturated zone was conducted with the HYDRUS-ID model. The results showed that the groundwater will not be contaminated by the migration of soluble 239 Pu. And there is a faint possibility that 239 Pu migration through groundwater path might have an unacceptable impact on ecosphere. Measurements of the distribution coefficient, K d , are critical in the determination of sorption-induced retardation of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  1. GROUNDWATER, DRINKING WATER, ARSENIC POLLUTION, NORTH DAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Abdulmutalimova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we studied the chemical particularities of ground water of the North Daghestan, using by population as drinking water. In particular we examined the problem of arsenic pollution.

  2. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menció, Anna, E-mail: anna.mencio@udg.edu [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Mas-Pla, Josep, E-mail: jmas@icra.cat [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA) (Spain); Otero, Neus, E-mail: notero@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Geoquímica de Fluids, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C/ Martí i Franquès, s/n – 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Regàs, Oriol [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Boy-Roura, Mercè [Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA) (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    Contamination from agricultural sources and, in particular, nitrate pollution, is one of the main concerns in groundwater management. However, this type of pollution entails the entrance of other substances into the aquifer, as well as it may promote other processes. In this study, we deal with hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater samples from four distinct zones in Catalonia (NE Spain), which include 5 different aquifer types, to investigate the influence of fertilization on the overall hydrochemical composition of groundwater. Results indicate that intense fertilizer application, causing high nitrate pollution in aquifers, also homogenize the contents of the major dissolved ions (i.e.; Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Mg{sup 2+}). Thus, when groundwater in igneous and sedimentary aquifers is compared, significant differences are observed under natural conditions for Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} (with p-values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.038), and when high nitrate concentrations occur, these differences are reduced (most p-values ranged between 0.054 and 0.978). Moreover, positive linear relationships between nitrate and some ions are found indicating the magnitude of the fertilization impact on groundwater hydrochemistry (with R{sup 2} values of 0.490, 0.609 and 0.470, for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -}, respectively). Nevertheless, the increasing concentration of specific ions is not only attributed to agricultural pollution, but to their enhancing effect upon the biogeochemical processes that control water-rock interactions. Such results raise awareness that these processes should be evaluated in advance in order to assess an adequate groundwater resources management. - Highlights: • The effects of nitrate pollution have been evaluated in five different aquifer types • Statistical and multivariate analyses are used to identify groundwater changes • Agricultural pollution modifies

  3. Assessment of groundwater pollution by nitrates using intrinsic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientists are deeply concerned with the state of vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs. It is a complex task because of the difficulties in determining the degree of pollution of the ground water. Many methods have been adopted like DRASTIC, GOD, SI, SINTACS, etc. The present article targets the determination of the ...

  4. Quantitative estimation of pollution in groundwater and surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative estimation of pollution in groundwater and surface water in Benin City and environs. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Physico-chemical parameters were compared with regulatory standards from Federal Ministry of Environment for drinking water and they all fell within ...

  5. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  6. On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Amano, Hiroki; Takao, Yuji; Hosono, Takahiro; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable for developing effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Known major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizers, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. In general, scatter diagrams of δ18O and δ15N from NO3- can be used to identify these pollution sources. However, this method can be difficult to use for chemical fertilizers and livestock waste sources due to the overlap of δ18O and δ15N ranges. In this study, we propose to use coprostanol as an indicator for the source of pollution. Coprostanol can be used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is a major fecal sterol formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to investigate NO3- pollution sources for groundwater in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Groundwater samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2013 to November 2015. These data were used to quantify relationships between NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and coprostanol. The results show that coprostanol has a potential for source identification of nitrate pollution. For lower coprostanol concentrations (conventional diagrams of isotopic ratios cannot distinguish pollution sources, coprostanol may be a useful tool.

  7. Pollutants transport and distribution studies in groundwater system by nuclear, geophysics and hydrogeochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Daud Mohamad

    2000-01-01

    In Malaysia, the most common means of managing municipal refuse is by dumping it indiscriminately in piles on the selected open land. Leachate that is formed primarily in association with precipitation that infiltrates through the refuse normally results in the migration of leachate into underlying groundwater zone. The study of pollutant transport derived from domestic refuse and their impact on water quality in groundwater system has been performed in a selected landfill site at Gemencheh, Negeri Sembilan. The study involved the determination of flow velocity and flow direction of pollutants by nuclear techniques and a detail survey by geophysical method as well as hydrogeochemical approach as a supporting evidence of pollution occurrence. Hydrogeochemical approach involved the determination of pollutants species such as chloride and nitrate. A network of about 30 observation points had been identified and sampled. The results of the study have shown that the pollutants were concentrated at the middle of the dumping site and transported with the flow velocity between 0.2-15.4 metres per day toward northeast direction. Furthermore, the study established that the municipal or domestic landfalls are considered as one of the potential sources of groundwater pollution in Malaysia

  8. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.; Hayes, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  9. Parameter determination in a groundwater field polluted by radioactive pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, P.; Barokah A; Syafalni; Wibagiyo

    1998-01-01

    The determination of source location and the corresponding parameters in a contaminated groundwater is very important. To be able to predict the distribution of radioactive contaminant in a contaminated field, the knowledge about the source location and the corresponding parameters is a necessity. The model developed in this paper is based on the fact that the relation between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is linear. The contaminant transport parameters as well as the a straight line. In other words, the parameters and the source location are determined in a such way that the linear correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the concentration of the radio active contaminant with the squared coordinate is optimized. The developed model is tested with a synthetic data with a satisfactory results. The synthetic data is generated such that can represent the real field. The synthetic data are generated because the real field data is not available. (authors)

  10. Feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clause, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose was appl......This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose...... was applied to the two Timbre sites : Hunedoara (Romania) and Szprotawa (Poland). Phytoremediation is the technique to clean up (remediate) contaminated sites using plants, typically trees. The principles of the data were deta iled, with focus on obstacles (phytotoxicity) and factors stimulating success...

  11. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Md; Srivastava, Rajesh; Jain, Ashu

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in several parts of the world. Contamination of groundwater has become a serious health and environmental problem today. Human activities including industrial and agricultural activities are generally responsible for this contamination. Identification of groundwater pollution source is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation. Complete knowledge of pollution source in terms of its source characteristics is essential to adopt an effective remediation strategy. Groundwater pollution source is said to be identified completely when the source characteristics - location, strength and release period - are known. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an ill-posed inverse problem. It becomes more difficult for real field conditions, when the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. We developed a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of an unknown groundwater pollution source. The model comprises two parts- an optimization model and an ANN model. Decision variables of linked ANN-Optimization model contain source location and release period of pollution source. An objective function is formulated using the spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentrations, and then minimized to identify the pollution source parameters. In the formulation of the objective function, we require the lag time which is not known. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the lag time. Different combinations of source locations and release periods are used as inputs and lag time is obtained as the output. Performance of the proposed model is evaluated for two and three dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. Erroneous data was generated by adding uniformly distributed random error (error level 0-10%) to the analytically computed concentration

  12. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  13. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  14. Application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This publication is a compilation of scientific results from the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution which was implemented from 1995 to 1997. The conclusions of the CRP were presented by scientists from the following participating Member States: Austria, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Senegal and the United Kingdom. The CRP was implemented in recognition of the importance of protecting groundwater resources, and promoting the role of isotope techniques when integrated to classical hydrological methods to identify the sources and mechanisms of by which pollution takes place. The results of the CRP are expected to find practical applications in tackling hydrological problems encountered in technical co-operation projects of the IAEA. This publication could also provide a contribution toward the continuing efforts of various sectors to investigate, mitigate and control the threat of groundwater pollution. This publication includes the results of 16 investigations dealing with isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur integrated to some extent with the classical hydrological tools of investigation. Each document in this compilation is provided with abstract and index

  15. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  16. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  17. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  18. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. An isotopic study of nitrate pollution of groundwater in Victoria, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changkakoti, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Cherstnova, L.; Chalk, P.; Krouse, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate in groundwater can be a hard to human and animal health and contribute to the development of algal blooms and subsequent eutrophication of wetlands. Its presence is widespread throughout Australia and its levels overall appear to be increasing. A variety of sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater are known. These include nitrogen fixing plants, termites, animal wastes, industrial wastes, domestic wastes, sewage and fertilizers. In Victoria, nitrate-rich groundwaters have been reported from a number of localities, some of which include Colac, Nepean Peninsula, Shepparton, Deer Park, Benalla and Winchelsea. A multi-isotope method was developed to determine the probable source of pollution in these localities. Changes in the natural abundance ratio of the stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14 N and 15 N, and the differences in the isotopic ratios ( 15 N/ 14 N) of nitrate from various sources, form the basis of the N-isotope technique for source identification. Differences in the isotopic ratios of oxygen ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hydrogen (D/H) of polluted and unpolluted waters form the basis for the oxygen and hydrogen isotope technique to investigate pollution problems of groundwater. Sites which included clover, industrial wastes, animal and human wastes and fertilized sources, were selected after reviewing existing databases on nitrate concentration, earlier reports and access to a suitable network of bores for collecting reliable samples. The nitrate concentration ranged from less than 1 mg/L to in excess of 22.0 mg/L, whilst ammonium levels in most samples were less than 1 mg/L. The δ 15 N values of the various source types ranged from 8.8 to 19.0 per mill (pastures). The δ 18 O and δD data indicate seawater incursion in the coastal areas of the Nepean Peninsular. The results agree with published data on similar sources from elsewhere in the world, and indicate the potential use of this methodology in groundwater pollution studies in Australia

  20. Simultaneous identification of unknown groundwater pollution sources and estimation of aquifer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Bithin; Chakrabarty, Dibakar; Dhar, Anirban

    2009-09-01

    Pollution source identification is a common problem encountered frequently. In absence of prior information about flow and transport parameters, the performance of source identification models depends on the accuracy in estimation of these parameters. A methodology is developed for simultaneous pollution source identification and parameter estimation in groundwater systems. The groundwater flow and transport simulator is linked to the nonlinear optimization model as an external module. The simulator defines the flow and transport processes, and serves as a binding equality constraint. The Jacobian matrix which determines the search direction in the nonlinear optimization model links the groundwater flow-transport simulator and the optimization method. Performance of the proposed methodology using spatiotemporal hydraulic head values and pollutant concentration measurements is evaluated by solving illustrative problems. Two different decision model formulations are developed. The computational efficiency of these models is compared using two nonlinear optimization algorithms. The proposed methodology addresses some of the computational limitations of using the embedded optimization technique which embeds the discretized flow and transport equations as equality constraints for optimization. Solution results obtained are also found to be better than those obtained using the embedded optimization technique. The performance evaluations reported here demonstrate the potential applicability of the developed methodology for a fairly large aquifer study area with multiple unknown pollution sources.

  1. Pollution sources and groundwater quality in the Coastal region of the Yugoslav part of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatina, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to access the vulnerability and risk of the aquifer system in the Yugoslav part of the Danube, as the primary source of drinking water for a numerically substantial community, industrial purposes and irrigation, as well as a high concentration of civil, industrial and agricultural activities (hence, a potential source of pollution of the groundwater resources through land occupation and use as well as the disposal of solid and liquid wastes), a great hydro-geophysical exploration was performed. Within the lower part of the plain, exploratory test of Salinac field, near Smederevo town, was particularly investigated. The reason why is because that part is also an area of the mouth of the Velika Morava into the Danube, where Derdap reservoir is located. Task of complex exploration was to delineate the aquifer, obtain appropriate parameters (groundwater level, groundwater chemistry, clay content, filtration characteristics and physical parameters of geological functions), as well as to map the aquifer vulnerability, in order to prevent and moderate a harmful influence of the performed reservoir on the environment (increased groundwater infiltration from the reservoir into surrounding rocks, permanent groundwater level raising, etc.). Based on the results, zoning of the study area according to the aquifer vulnerability has been done. Then, land-use planning and development of strategy for groundwater protection and management was possible. In the paper, not only sources of contamination, characteristics of pollutants and their influence on the groundwater quality was presented, but also content of organic matters, phosphates and nitrogen compounds, etc. Further, means of protection and management are discussed, as well as the appropriate legal regulations. (author)

  2. Groundwater pollution with heavy metals in the Ibar alluvium near Raška (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the operation of an ore flotation facility at Donja Rudnica near Raška, Serbia, during the period from 1972 to 2002, flotation tailings and wastewater of highly complex chemical compositions were deposited in the alluvial plain of the Ibar River. Due to the excellent groundwater flow characteristics of the alluvial formations underlying the tailings dump, the groundwater and soil over an extended area were continually polluted. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe = 7.38 mg/L. Zn = 4.04 mg/L, Pb = 2.17 mg/L in the soil and concentrations of sulfate as high as 3709 mg/L, and pH levels of 4.2 in the groundwater have been recorded at some locations. This paper draws attention to the potential risk this site poses for the conservation of biodiversity over the extended area.

  3. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2010-07-01

    Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution). Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (2.1 mm day-1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day-1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  4. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution with Heavy Metals at the Oblogo No.1 Dumpsite in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the groundwater pollution risks from heavy metal contaminants near the de-commissioned Oblogo No.1 dumpsite using a combination of USEPA leachate estimation and migration models. The Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP model was used to determine leachate volumes from the base of the dumpsite whereas the Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM was used to determine contaminant concentrations at groundwater wells located at various distances from the dumpsite. It was observed that there is a wide variation in the concentration of the contaminants measured at different sampling periods between 2004 and 2011. Pollution risks from chromium, lead, manganese, cobalt and zinc were determined to be very low since the simulated contaminant concentrations in the wells were less than the reference ground water concentrations. However, the concentrations of cadmium, copper and arsenic were determined to be high enough to constitute a potential risk to groundwater wells which are down-gradient of the dumpsite. It was also determined that the minimum buffer distance of 360 m specified in the Ghana Landfill Guidelines may not ensure adequate protection for groundwater wells located down-gradient of the Oblogo No.1 dumpsite.

  5. Potential impacts of climate change and variability on groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential impacts of climate change and variability on groundwater resources in Nigeria. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... of climate change induced groundwater impacts due to largely multi-scale local and regional heterogeneity, there is need to evaluate groundwater resources, quality and ...

  6. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  8. Methodical studies of groundwater pollution caused by fly ash deposits from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuziak-Salzenberg, D.

    1990-01-01

    The risk potential of fly ash deposits from fossil-fuel power plants was investigated through laboratory elution experiments (single elution, multiple elution, column leaching). The groundwater risk potential in the case of indiscriminate, unsealed dumping is high because of an increased water hardness and due to sulfate, molybdenum, selenium, boron, chromium, barium, strontium and arsenic contamination. Higher barium and strontium concentrations are typical of fly ash deposits. Barium and strontium thus serve as target elements for identification of sites of long-standing pollution. The risks of arsenic leaching are discussed in detail. (orig./LU) [de

  9. Feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    During the past two to three decades numerous studies reporting highly efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by plants have been published. The promises of phytoremediation has been great but till now the technology has not been widely applied and recognized, commercially...... and in a regulatory context, on par with other conventional soil and groundwater remediation technologies. This thesis elucidates the field of phytoremediation and addresses the lack of recognition of the technology. It aims to assesses the overall feasibility of phytoremediation and identify obstacles within...... the field. Further, it provides examples and suggestions of how to overcome these obstacles. The first part of the thesis scrutinizes the literature for data and experiences regarding application of phytoremediation and uncovers potential barriers and where the existing knowledge is insufficient. Further...

  10. Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution using Optimized DRASTIC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullar, Khiruddin

    2014-01-01

    The prediction accuracy of the conventional DRASTIC model (CDM) algorithm for groundwater vulnerability assessment is severely limited by the inherent subjectivity and uncertainty in the integration of data obtained from various sources. This study attempts to overcome these problems by exploring the potential of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique as a decision support model to optimize the CDM algorithm. The AHP technique was utilized to compute the normalized weights for the seven parameters of the CDM to generate an optimized DRASTIC model (ODM) algorithm. The DRASTIC parameters integrated with the ODM algorithm predicted which among the study areas is more likely to become contaminated as a result of activities at or near the land surface potential. Five vulnerability zones, namely: no vulnerable(NV), very low vulnerable (VLV), low vulnerable (LV), moderate vulnerable (MV) and high vulnerable (HV) were identified based on the vulnerability index values estimated with the ODM algorithm. Results show that more than 50% of the area belongs to both moderate and high vulnerable zones on the account of the spatial analysis of the produced ODM-based groundwater vulnerability prediction map (GVPM).The prediction accuracy of the ODM-based – GVPM with the groundwater pH and manganese (Mn) concentrations established correlation factors (CRs) result of 90 % and 86 % compared to the CRs result of 62 % and 50 % obtained for the validation accuracy of the CDM – based GVPM. The comparative results, indicated that the ODM-based produced GVPM is more reliable than the CDM – based produced GVPM in the study area. The study established the efficacy of AHP as a spatial decision support technique in enhancing environmental decision making with particular reference to future groundwater vulnerability assessment

  11. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. - Highlights: • Hydrochemical investigations were carried out in Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia. • The factors controlling potential groundwater pollution in an arid region were studied. • Chemical and statistical analyses are integrated to assess these factors. • Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. • The chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock–water interactions

  12. Impact of point source pollution on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, M.A.; Solehria, B.A.; Rai, N.I.

    2005-01-01

    The management of point source pollution (municipal and industrial waste water) is an important item on Brown Agenda confronting urban planners and policy makers. The industrial concerns and households produce enormous amount of waste water, which has to be disposed of through the municipal sewage system. Generally, municipal wastewater management is done on non-scientific lines, resulting in considerable social and economic loss and gradual degradation of the natural resources. The present study highlights that how the poor management practices, lack of infrastructure, and poor disposal system-comprising of mostly open, un-walled or partially lined drains, affect the groundwater quality and render it unfit for human consumption. Satiana Road sludge carrier at Faisalabad city, receiving effluents of about 67 textile units, 4 oil mills, 2 ice factories, 3 laundris and domestic waste water of Peoples Colony No.1, Maqbool Road and Ghulam Rasool Nagar was selected to derive quantitative and qualitative estimates of TDS, Na, Cl and heavy metals namely Fe, Cu and Pb of the waste water and their leaching around the sludge carrier. The measurement of leaching of TDS, Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -1/ per 1000 m basis in lined section was 818, 550 and 228 tons, respectively. Where as in the unlined section, annual increase of TDS, Na/sup /+, and Cl/sup -/ was 2404,1615 and 669 tons per 1000 m respectively. In case of leaching of metals through the sludge carrier, Cu was at the top with 8.4 tons per annum per 1000 m followed by Fe and Pb with 6.66 and 1.2 tons per annum per 1000 m respectively. The concentration of all the salts/metals studied were higher in groundwater near the sludge carrier which decreased with increase in distance. The groundwater contamination in unlined portions is greater than lined portions, which might be due to higher seepage losses in unlined portions of the sludge carrier (4.9 % per 1000 m) as compared to relatively low seepage losses in lined portion of

  13. ASPECTS CONCERNING NITRATE AND NITRITE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UNGUREANU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects concerning nitrate and nitrite pollution of groundwaters. Water is a basic natural resource for the good functioning of all thebiological processes in nature. It is very important for life and for the developmentof human activities. The quality of the ground water has begun to degrade moreand more, as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological changes.Nitrogen compounds pollution of the underground has increased lately. This hasbeen caused by the excessive and irrational use of nitrogen derived fertilizers, bythe wrong storage of the dejections resulted from zootechnical processes and byother chemical substances discharged into water. Samples were collected fromdifferent wells in order to check whether the well water was drinkable. The resultof the test revealed the existence of high concentrations of nitrates as well asvalues exceeding normal microbiological parameters. The value recorded in thetown of Segarcea, the county of Dolj, showed extremely high concentrations ofnitrates of the drinking water in the wells. Thus, Segarcea is the town with thegreatest number of contaminated wells in the country.

  14. Numerical simulation and impact assessment of a groundwater pollution based on MODFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongxu; Si Gaohua; Zheng Junfang; Yu Jing; Liu Yong; Chen Jianjie; Ma Jinzhu

    2013-01-01

    Based on MODFLOW, SRTM3 DEM data and GIS tool, a saturated-zone groundwater flow and radionuclide transport numerical model in a research area had been developed to evaluate the migration trend and environmental impact. The results showed that 3 H transporting with the groundwater had a fast velocity and a pulse concentration which can not reduce to acceptable level within short times. that may cause groundwater pollution in downstream region. However, 90 Sr was transported slowly with the groundwater, and may only cause a pollution area of about 200 m around the source. (authors)

  15. Current situation and control measures of groundwater pollution in gas station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qianjin

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, pollution accidents caused by gas station leakage has occurred worldwide which can be persistent in groundwater. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the contaminated groundwater is threatening the ecological environment and human health. In this article, current status and sources of groundwater pollution by gas station are analyzed, and experience of how to prevent groundwater pollution from gas stations are summarized. It is demonstrated that installation of secondary containment measures for the oil storage of the oil tank system, such as installation of double-layer oil tanks or construction of impermeable ponds, is a preferable method to prevent gas stations from groundwater pollution. Regarding to the problems of groundwater pollution caused by gas station, it is proposed that it is urgent to investigate the leakage status of gas station. Relevant precise implementation regulations shall be issued and carried out, and supervision management of gas stations would need to be strengthened. Then single-layer steel oil tanks shall be replaced by double-layer tanks, and the impermeable ponds should be constructed according to the risk ranking. From the control methodology, the groundwater environment monitoring systems, supervision level, laws and regulations as well as pollution remediation should also be carried out and strengthened.

  16. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-10-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock-water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect...

  18. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  19. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Environment and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, India. 3Groundwater ...... medium acts as a natural filter to percolating fluid and that its ... Atakpo E A 2013 Aquifer vulnerability investigation using.

  20. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  1. Changes of Groundwater Quality in the Sorrounding Pollution Sources Due to Earthquake Dissaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main domestic water supply of the population of the Yogyakarta Special Region, both in the urban and as well as in the rural area due to its quantity and quality advantages. The rapid population growth has caused an increase of groundwater demand, consequently it is facing some problems to the sustainability of groundwater supply. Lowering of groundwater level has been observed in some places, as well as the degradation of groundwater quality. Earthquake which stroke Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006, damaged buildings and other infrastructures in the area, including roads and bridges. It might also damage the underground structures such as septic tanks, and pipes underneath the earth surface. It might cause cracking of the geologic structures. Furthermore, the damage of underneath infrastructures might create groundwater quality changes in the area. Some complains of local community on lowering and increasing groundwater level and groundwater quality changes were noted. Field observation and investigation were conducted, including collection of groundwater samples close to (the pollution sources. Laboratory analyses indicated that some parameters increased to exceed the drinking water quality standards. The high content of Coli form bacteria possibly was caused by contamination of nearby septic tanks or other pollution sources to the observed groundwater in the dug well.

  2. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  3. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  4. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Jensen, S. D.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solidphase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2...... bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background...... characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates....

  5. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Creosote-contaminated groundwater contains a complex mixture of phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-, sulphur- or oxygen-containing heterocyclic, aromatic compounds. One of the most important factors that limits the spreading of these contaminants in groundwater aquifers is degradation by...... enhancement of the native population of subsurface micro-organisms to degrade the contaminants (in situ treatment) and withdrawal of the groundwater followed by treatment by various wastewater treatment processes (above-ground treatment)....

  6. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  7. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  8. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  9. Assessing Contamination Potential of Nitrate-N in Groundwater of Lanyang Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Tu, Yu-Lin; Lin, Chien-Wen; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate-N pollution is often relevant to agricultural activities such as the fertilization of crops. Significant increases in the nitrate-N pollution of groundwater are found in natural recharging zones of Taiwan. The increasing nitrate-N contamination seriously threatens public drinking water supply and human health. Constructing a correct map of aquifer contamination potential is an effective and feasible way to protect groundwater for quality assessment and management. Therefore, in this study, we use DRASTIC model with the help of geographic information system (GIS) to assess and predict the contamination potential of nitrate-N in the aquifer of Lanyang Plain, Taiwan. Seven factors of hydrogeology and hydrology, which includes seven parameters - Depth to groundwater, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic Conductivity, are considered to carry out this assessment. The validity of the presented model is established by comparing the results with the measured nitrate concentration in wells within the study area. Adjusting factor weightings via the discriminant analysis is performed to improve the assessment and prediction. The analyzed results can provide residents with suggestive strategies against nitrate-N pollution in agricultural regions and government administrators with explicit information of Nitrate-N pollution extents when plans of water resources are considered.

  10. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl{sup −} concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM{sub (ZS)} is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl{sup -} concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup -} concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM{sub (ZS)} based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl{sup −} concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl{sup −} concentration.

  11. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl − concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM (ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl - concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl - concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM (ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015–2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl − concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175 mg/l and 200 mg/l. - Highlights: • The parameter uncertainty of seawater intrusion model is evaluated by MCMC. • Groundwater source field won’t be polluted by seawater intrusion in future 5 years. • The pollution risk is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl − concentration

  12. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  13. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  14. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  15. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  16. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    compounds using their inherent properties and environmental fate it was shown that 99 XOCs could be classified as being hazardous with regard to the solid phase and 23 were found to be priority pollutants in the subsequent hazard assessment. The final selected priority pollutants can act as indicators when...... assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed....

  17. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10 -6 . To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10 -6 . The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  18. Palaeosol control on groundwater flow and pollutant distribution: the example of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John M; Nath, Bibhash; Banerjee, Dhiraj M; Purohit, R; Grassineau, N

    2011-02-15

    The consumption of groundwater polluted by arsenic (As) has a severe and adverse effect on human health, particularly where, as happens in parts of SE Asia, groundwater is supplied largely from fluvial/deltaic aquifers. The lateral distribution of the As-pollution in such aquifers is heterogeneous. The cause of the heterogeneity is obscure. The location and severity of the As-pollution is therefore difficult to predict, despite the importance of such predictions to the protection of consumer health, aquifer remediation, and aquifer development. To explain the heterogeneity, we mapped As-pollution in groundwater using 659 wells across 102 km(2) of West Bengal, and logged 43 boreholes, to reveal that the distribution of As-pollution is governed by subsurface sedimentology. Across 47 km(2) of contiguous palaeo-interfluve, we found that the shallow aquifer (channels, the palaeosol is absent, so invasion of the aquifer by As and dissolved organic matter can occur, so palaeo-channel groundwater is mostly polluted by As (>50 μg/L). The role of palaeosols and, in particular, the LGMP, has been overlooked as a control on groundwater flow and pollutant movement in deltaic and coastal aquifers worldwide. Models of pollutant infiltration in such environments must include the appreciation that, where the LGMP (or other palaeosols) are present, recharge moves downward in palaeo-channel regions that are separated by palaeo-interfluvial regions where vertical recharge to underlying aquifers cannot occur and where horizontal flow occurs above the LGMP and any aquifer it caps.

  19. Application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Navada, S.V.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Sinha, U.K.; Sharma, S.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental isotopes ( 2 H, 18 O, 34 S, 3 H, and 14 C) techniques have been used along with hydrogeology and hydrochemistry to investigate: (a). the source of salinity and origin of sulphate in groundwaters of coastal Orissa, Orissa State, India and (b) to study the source of salinity in deep saline groundwaters of charnockite terrain at Kokkilimedu, South of Chennai, India. In the first case, as a part of large drinking water supply project, thousands of hand pumps were installed from 1985. Many of them became quickly unacceptable for potable supply due to salinity, increased iron and sulphate contents of the groundwater. In this alluvial, multiaquifer system, fresh, brackish and saline groundwaters occur in a rather complicated fashion. The conditions change from phreatic to confined flowing type with increasing depth. The results of the isotope geochemical investigation indicate that the shallow groundwater (depth/<50m) is fresh and modern. Groundwater salinity in intermediate aquifer (50 - 100m) is due to the Flandrian transgression during Holocene period. Fresh and modern deep groundwater forms a well developed aquifer which receives recharge through weathered basement rock. The saline groundwater found below the fresh deep aquifer have marine water entrapped during late Pleistocene. The source of high sulphate in the groundwater is of marine origin. In the second case, under the host rock characterization programme, the charnockite rock formation at Kokkilimedu, Kalpakkam was evaluated to assess its suitability as host medium for location of a geological repository for high level radioactive waste. Four deep boreholes were drilled in this area, the depth varying from 200 to 618 m. In these boreholes, large variations in groundwater salinity were observed over a distance of only a few hundred meters and no regional pattern could be identified. The results of the isotope investigation show that there are two different sources of salinity in this area. Among

  20. Validating a continental-scale groundwater diffuse pollution model using regional datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2017-12-11

    In this study, we assess the validity of an African-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrates. In a previous study, we identified a statistical continental-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrate. The model was identified using a pan-African meta-analysis of available nitrate groundwater pollution studies. The model was implemented in both Random Forest (RF) and multiple regression formats. For both approaches, we collected as predictors a comprehensive GIS database of 13 spatial attributes, related to land use, soil type, hydrogeology, topography, climatology, region typology, nitrogen fertiliser application rate, and population density. In this paper, we validate the continental-scale model of groundwater contamination by using a nitrate measurement dataset from three African countries. We discuss the issue of data availability, and quality and scale issues, as challenges in validation. Notwithstanding that the modelling procedure exhibited very good success using a continental-scale dataset (e.g. R 2  = 0.97 in the RF format using a cross-validation approach), the continental-scale model could not be used without recalibration to predict nitrate pollution at the country scale using regional data. In addition, when recalibrating the model using country-scale datasets, the order of model exploratory factors changes. This suggests that the structure and the parameters of a statistical spatially distributed groundwater degradation model for the African continent are strongly scale dependent.

  1. Radiotracer technique to study pollutant behavior in the vadose zone for groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sinha, U.K.; Navada, S.V.; Datta, P.S.; Sud, Y.K.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Aggrawal, P.; )

    2004-01-01

    Pollutants are generated either by industrial or agricultural activity. Pollutants produced due to industrial activities fall into point source category and those generated from agricultural are grouped into extended source category. Under an International Atomic Energy Agency/Coordinated Research Program study, emphasis has been given on transport of pollutants, generated from agricultural activities, in particular, due to the application of fertilizer inputs to a variety of crops. Pollutants take entry through the vadose zone and ultimately join the saturated zone. Once groundwater is polluted it is rather difficult or impossible to take remedial measures for groundwater protection. Groundwater being an important natural resource, it is important to protect it from getting polluted. It is hence essential to have a clear understanding of the complex processes (physical, biological and chemical etc.) undergoing in the unsaturated zone. Radiotracers give good insight about the pollutant behavior in the vadose zone. Tritiated water and 60 Co (a gamma emitting tracer in the cyanide complex form) were used as tracers and were injected at 60 cm depth in the vadose zone of IARI farm for pollutant transport study. Tritium and 60 Co tracer displacements were measured by liquid scintillation and sodium iodide scintillation method respectively. It was found that the tritium tracer moved up to 2.4 meters in six months and part of the tritium tracer was exchanged with immobile water in the soil, as three distinct peaks were observed in tritium profile. 60 Co and tritium tracers were found to move with the same velocity in the vadose zone. These tracer studies indicate that the pollutants may reach the groundwater in about three years. (author)

  2. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    barriers of the sanitary landfill, and the potential risk of contamination of the groundwater were evaluated. The migration of contaminants through the zone of aeration and the engineering barriers are modeled with 2D models, and their potential distribution in groundwater - with 3D models. The models simulate the behavior of highly mobile and less mobile contaminants by the example of chloride and ammonium ions (Cl-and NH4 +).The mechanism of mass transfer is set in its full form: convective transport, accompanied by reversible elimination (sorption), mechanical dispersion (longitudinal and transverse), molecular diffusion and dilution. The concentration of the infiltrating under the bottom of the dump unit pollutants is set to exponentially decreasing function, determined by data from the monitoring. Two-dimensional models are developed using the computer program VS2DTI - v.1.3, and three-dimensional models by Modflow and MT3D-MS.dimensional models by Modflow and MT3D-MS.

  3. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  4. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Pollution in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the residents in Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, where more than 50% of people extracts groundwater to meet the drinking purpose and monitoring groundwater shows that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration of more than safe drinking water guideline of 10μg/L-1. Exposure and risk assessment are carried out in accordance with the provisional daily intake (PTDI) recommended by the FAO/WHO as well as hazard quotient and cancer risk standards based on the US Environmental Protection Agency. The variability of body weights and drinking water consumption scenarios are considered in exposure and risk assessment. Results shows that daily intake exceeds 2.1μg day-1 kg-1 BW for 2% of population, HQ level above unity for 20% , and can risk greater than 10-6 for 80%. These results implies that drinking water directly from groundwater will place many people at the risk of exposure and any efforts to supply safe drinking water is imperial for governing in order to protect the human health of inhabitants in Pingtung Plain.

  7. Brackish groundwater and its potential to augment freshwater supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2017-07-18

    Secure, reliable, and sustainable water resources are fundamental to the Nation’s food production, energy independence, and ecological and human health and well-being. Indications are that at any given time, water resources are under stress in selected parts of the country. The large-scale development of groundwater resources has caused declines in the amount of groundwater in storage and declines in discharges to surface water bodies (Reilly and others, 2008). Water supply in some regions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought intensifies the stresses affecting water resources (National Drought Mitigation Center, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, 2015). If these drought conditions continue, water shortages could adversely affect the human condition and threaten environmental flows necessary to maintain ecosystem health.In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to provide updated information about brackish groundwater as a potential resource to augment or replace freshwater supplies (Stanton and others, 2017). Study objectives were to consolidate available data into a comprehensive database of brackish groundwater resources in the United States and to produce a summary report highlighting the distribution, physical and chemical characteristics, and use of brackish groundwater resources. This assessment was authorized by section 9507 of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (42 U.S.C. 10367), passed by Congress in March 2009. Before this assessment, the last national brackish groundwater compilation was completed in the mid-1960s (Feth, 1965). Since that time, substantially more hydrologic and geochemical data have been collected and now can be used to improve the understanding of the Nation’s brackish groundwater resources.

  8. Application of isotope techniques to groundwater pollution research for Xiangshan uranium ore field, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fulin; Liu Peilun; Zhu Chuande; Wu Xiaowei; Zeng Yinsheng

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of groundwater pollution due to uranium deposits focused on the most important uranium metallogenic area-Zhoujiashan district of Xiangshan uranium ore field, China. Groundwater collected from five completed exploration boreholes in the area is regarded as the pollution source and is traced and analysed by using isotope as well as radio-hydrochemical techniques. In addition, the pollution situation of a small uranium ore pile for heap-leaching and a big uranium ore open pit are monitored by the same techniques. It has been experimentally proven that the uranium concentration and the uranium isotope ratio 234 U/ 238 U in natural waters are two sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution in natural waters. It was concluded that under present conditions, exploration of uranium deposits may not cause serious groundwater pollution of radioactive elements (U, Ra, Rn and Th), however, it is difficult to avoid the serious surface water pollution coming from the exploitation of uranium ore by a big open pit. (author)

  9. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the cost of groundwater pollution: the case of diffuse agricultural pollution in the Upper Rhine valley aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, J-D; Arnal, C; Blanchin, R; Elsass, P; Meilhac, A; Loubier, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the costs of diffuse groundwater pollution by nitrates and pesticides for the industrial and the drinking water sectors in the Upper Rhine valley, France. Pollution costs which occurred between 1988 and 2002 are described and assessed using the avoidance cost method. Geo-statistical methods (kriging) are then used to construct three scenarios of nitrate concentration evolution. The economic consequences of each scenario are then assessed. The estimates obtained are compared with the results of a contingent valuation study carried out in the same study area ten years earlier.

  11. An assessment of groundwater potential and vulnerability in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misi, Alfred; Gumindoga, Webster; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    2018-06-01

    Severe depletion and pollution of groundwater resources are of rising concern in the Upper Manyame Sub-Catchment (UMSC); Zimbabwe's most urbanised sub-catchment. Despite groundwater playing a pivotal role in the provision of potable water in the sub-catchment, it is under serious threat from anthropogenic stressors which include sewage effluents and leachates from landfills, among others. Inadequate scientific knowledge pertaining to the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater storage and vulnerability in the UMSC is further compromising its sustainability. Therefore, comprehensive assessments of UMSC's Groundwater Potential (GP) and vulnerability are crucial for its effective management. This study assessed GP and vulnerability in the UMSC using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques. Groundwater conditioning factors: geology, slope, land-use, drainage density, topographic index, altitude, recharge and rainfall were used to develop GP zones. Validation of the GP map was done by correlating estimated GP with historical borehole yields. An assessment of groundwater vulnerability was done at micro-catchment level (Marimba) using the GOD model; a three parameter Index Overlay Model. Marimba is the most urbanised and has the second highest borehole density. It also exhibits similar landuse characteristics as the UMSC. Furthermore, groundwater quality in Marimba was assessed from 15 sampling sites. Fifteen drinking water parameters were analysed based on the standard methods for Water and Wastewater Examination. The potability of groundwater was then assessed by comparing the measured water quality parameters with the Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ) drinking water standards and/or WHO guidelines for drinking water. Repeated Measures ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to assess the spatio-temporal variations in groundwater quality and to identify key parameters, respectively. About 72% (2725.9 km2) of the UMSC was

  12. Nature and analysis of chemical species: pollution effects on surface waters and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.H.F.

    1975-01-01

    A literature review of 103 items covers: nutrients in surface waters; runoff and waste discharges primarily from energy-intensive activities; groundwater pollution causes, effects, controls and monitoring; land and subsurface wastewater disposal; radionuclides; biological effects; thermal effluents; and biological and mathematical models for rivers

  13. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian

    1998-01-01

    Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...

  14. Intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central Spain: the risk of nitrate pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastida, Juan J.; Arauzo, Mercedes; Valladolid, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater in the Comunidad de Madrid (central Spain) was evaluated using the DRASTIC and GOD indexes. Groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution was also assessed using the composite DRASTIC (CD) and nitrate vulnerability (NV) indexes. The utility of these methods was tested by analyzing the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations in the different aquifers located in the study area: the Tertiary Detrital Aquifer, the Moor Limestone Aquifer, the Cretaceous Limestone Aquifer and the Quaternary Aquifer. Vulnerability maps based on these four indexes showed very similar results, identifying the Quaternary Aquifer and the lower sub-unit of the Moor Limestone Aquifer as deposits subjected to a high risk of nitrate pollution due to intensive agriculture. As far as the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations is concerned, the NV index showed the greatest statistical significance ( p Comunidad de Madrid, in line with European Union Directive 91/676/EEC.

  15. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  17. Potential contamination of groundwater in the World Heritage Site of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid population growth, high levels of tourism and poor sewage waste disposal (at least for the foreseeable future) in St. Katherine have resulted in potential contamination of groundwater and subsequent high risk to human health. To evaluate the safety of well water for human use in St. Katherine, water samples were ...

  18. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Haghizadeh

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven ... growth of these tools has also prepared another ..... Urban. 30467. 3. 0.06. 0.20. 0.74. 0.80. −0.64. Distance from road ..... and artificial neural networks for potential groundwater .... ping: A case study at Mehran region, Iran; Catena 137.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater resource potential in rural part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine groundwater potential in the rural area of Northcentral Nigeria using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES). The VES data was generated from twenty (20) locations in the study area and was later processed and analyzed using IPI2 WIN software. The underlying geo-electric sections ...

  20. Investigation of groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Received 6 August, 2015; ... order to study the groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, north central Nigeria. This was done in thirty .... 600 m above sea level. The drainage consists ..... engineering Studies: A Practical Guide to 2D and 3D Surveys.

  1. Integrated approach for identification of potential groundwater zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The population density of the area is 370 person per sq. km. .... The depth of bore wells on average ranges from 40 to 80m with a ..... draw down pumping test which showed optimum yield of ... izontally stratified earth; Geophysical Prospecting 19. 769–775. ... groundwater potential of India – an estimate based on injected ...

  2. Groundwater quality deterioration as a result of anthropogenic organic air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, I.; Schleyer, R.; Muehlhausen, D.

    1990-01-01

    For monitoring the atmospherical depositions of organic materials in soil and in particular groundwater, we measured in rain water, soil seepage water and groundwater from four measuring stations in hessian forest areas the AOX sum parameter (organic halogen compounds which can be adsorbed) and numerous single compounds, above all chlorinated hydrocarbons. Anthropogenic organic pollutants are found in all precipitations. Their concentrations are clearly increased as compared to the open land. Of special importance are the atmospherical reaction products of the primary emissions, for example trichloroacetic acid. In analogy to inorganic pollutants, organic pollutant depositions affect above all poorly protected water-bearing strata with thin topsoil layers with a low capacity for adsorption and buffering. Harmful concentrations may be reached here in some cases. (orig.) [de

  3. Treatment of highly polluted groundwater by novel iron removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S J; Kang, C D; Lee, J W; Kim, W S

    2001-01-01

    The removal of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in groundwater has been generally achieved by simple aeration, or the addition of an oxidizing agent. Aeration has been shown to be very efficient in insolubilization ferrous iron at a pH level greater than 6.5. In this study, pH was maintained over 6.5 using limestone granules under constant aeration to oxidize ferrous iron in groundwater in a limestone packed column. A sedimentation unit coupled with a membrane filtration was also developed to precipitate and filtrate the oxidized ferric compound simultaneously. Several bench-scale studies, including the effects of the limestone granule sizes, amounts and hydraulic retention time on iron removal in the limestone packed column were investigated. It was found that 550 g/L of the 7-8 mesh size limestone granules, and 20 min of hydraulic retention time in the limestone packed column, were necessary for the sufficient oxidation of 40 mg/L of iron(II) in groundwater. Long-term operation was successfully achieved in contaminated waters by removing the iron deposits on the surface of the limestone granule by continuous aeration from the bottom of the column. Periodic reverse flow helped to remove caking and fouling of membrane surface caused by the continuous filtration. Recycling of the treated water from the membrane right after reverse flow operation made possible an admissible limit of iron concentration of the treated water for drinking. The pilot-scale process was constructed and has been tested in the rural area of Korea.

  4. Assessment of groundwater potential in Ankobra River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarkoh, Charles Prince

    2011-08-01

    Ankobra river basin is endowed with many rich natural resources. The mining activities in the basin and the proposed hydropower generation on the Ankobra river as well as oil discovery in the Western Region would lead to the establishing of new industries in the basin. These would certainly lead to potential population growth. As a result of these developments, there would be stress on surface water resources and therefore there would be demand for ground water. A research was carried out to assess groundwater supply. Hydrogeological data was used to evaluate the ground water storage in the basement complex, regolith. The relevant aquifer characteristics/parameters (extent of the study area, thickness of the ground water zone in the regolith, the porosity and specific capacity of the aquifer zones) were used to compute total groundwater storage and recoverable storage. The groundwater contribution to stream flow was computed using mean monthly discharge data from the filled data and hydrograph drawn. The base flow was then determined from the hydrograph separation using the straight line method. The groundwater potential in the Ankobra basin is 45.82*10 9 m 3 while the recoverable groundwater storage is 29.39*10 9 m 3 . The base flow computed was 13.75m 3/ s. Investigations into groundwater chemistry with particular references to physico-chemical parameters (quality) was analysed. The constituents fall within the acceptable limits of the Ghana Standard Board (GSB) for drinking water standard and are satisfactory for human consumption. However, Tamso, Wantenem, Gyaman, Beyim communities exceeded the GSB'S recommended values of PH (6.5-8.5) and chloride ( 250 mg/I) respectively for drinking water standard.(author)

  5. Dissipation of the herbicide oxyfluorfen in subtropical soils and its potential to contaminate groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Sheu, Wey-Shin; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2003-02-01

    The dissipation and mobility of the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-p-tolyl 3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in field soil of Taiwan were investigated in the laboratory with six tea garden soils. The dissipation coefficients of oxyfluorfen in soils of different moisture content (30%, 60%, and 90% of soil field capacity) and soil temperature (10 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) were studied. Results indicate that the half-life of oxyfluorfen ranged from 72 to 160 days for six tea garden soils. It was found that if the temperature is high, the dissipation rate is rapid, and there is almost no dissipation at 10 degrees C. Possible contamination of groundwater by the herbicide oxyfluorfen was assessed using the behavior assessment model and the groundwater pollution-potential (GWP) model. The results obtained after evaluating the residue and travel time using the GWP model illustrated that oxyfluorfen is not very mobile in soil and may not contaminate groundwater under normal conditions. But in the case of soil of extremely low organic carbon content and coarse texture, oxyfluorfen has the potential to contaminate groundwater less than 3m deep.

  6. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: A comparison to agricultural and assessment of hazard and vulnerability with respect to groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Since biocides are designed to be toxic to particular organisms, their accidental or deliberate release into the environment has become a growing topic of concern, especially with regards to fracking. The objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in fracking, could be a threat to English groundwater based on past groundwater monitoring data. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study showed that of the 110 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014. The total number of detections was 2234 out of 1475000 observations of 95 compounds, and 38 were compounds that were not applied during the period of record. The detection of these 38 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period implying very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer, then they will be a persistent problem. The study was able to develop binomial regression models of the probability of detecting pesticide in groundwater based upon molecular and application variables; and solely upon molecular properties. The solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard than for most agricultural biocides, but molecular modelling implied that one compound could be safer than others.

  7. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  8. A new four-step hierarchy method for combined assessment of groundwater quality and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Henghua; Ren, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhizheng

    2017-12-28

    A new four-step hierarchy method was constructed and applied to evaluate the groundwater quality and pollution of the Dagujia River Basin. The assessment index system is divided into four types: field test indices, common inorganic chemical indices, inorganic toxicology indices, and trace organic indices. Background values of common inorganic chemical indices and inorganic toxicology indices were estimated with the cumulative-probability curve method, and the results showed that the background values of Mg 2+ (51.1 mg L -1 ), total hardness (TH) (509.4 mg L -1 ), and NO 3 - (182.4 mg L -1 ) are all higher than the corresponding grade III values of Quality Standard for Groundwater, indicating that they were poor indicators and therefore were not included in the groundwater quality assessment. The quality assessment results displayed that the field test indices were mainly classified as grade II, accounting for 60.87% of wells sampled. The indices of common inorganic chemical and inorganic toxicology were both mostly in the range of grade III, whereas the trace organic indices were predominantly classified as grade I. The variabilities and excess ratios of the indices were also calculated and evaluated. Spatial distributions showed that the groundwater with poor quality indices was mainly located in the northeast of the basin, which was well-connected with seawater intrusion. Additionally, the pollution assessment revealed that groundwater in well 44 was classified as "moderately polluted," wells 5 and 8 were "lightly polluted," and other wells were classified as "unpolluted."

  9. Lead pollution of soil and groundwater in clay-pigeon shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the exemplary investigation of soil and groundwater pollution with lead on clay-pigeon shooting ranges, three facilities were sampled. The analyses for depth distribution in the main area of the ammunition deposition showed that the dissolved lead amounts are as a rule smaller than the limiting value of the Sewage Sludge Regulation (100 mg/kg). In two groundwater samples, no lead could be found. Considerable amounts of small lead balls are found on the soil surface, but only a very small part appears to be washed out and adsorbed by the soil matrix. (orig.) [de

  10. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  11. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 − –N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO 3 − –N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO 3 − –N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO 3 − –N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious seasonal variations. • Nitrate of

  12. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  13. Statistical approach to modeling transport of pollutants in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Koplik, C.M.; Crawford, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of pollutants in the subsurface can be affected by random geologic events. Prediction of such transport therefore requires solution of a partial differential equation whose coefficients are random processes. A method of finding the expected (mean) values of solutions of such equations is derived. This method is used to assess the impact of fault movement and formation of breccia pipes on risk from radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary results indicate that these events, considered probabilistically, do not make a large contribution to risk

  14. Aquifer Characterization and Groundwater Potential Evaluation in Sedimentary Rock Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M. A. M.; Yusoh, R.; Sazalil, M. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the aquifer and evaluate the ground water potential in the formation of sedimentary rocks. Electrical resistivity and drilling methods were used to develop subsurface soil profile for determining suitable location for tube well construction. The electrical resistivity method was used to infer the subsurface soil layer by use of three types of arrays, namely, the pole–dipole, Wenner, and Schlumberger arrays. The surveys were conducted using ABEM Terrameter LS System, and the results were analyzed using 2D resistivity inversion program (RES2DINV) software. The survey alignments were performed with maximum electrode spreads of 400 and 800 m by employing two different resistivity survey lines at the targeted zone. The images were presented in the form of 2D resistivity profiles to provide a clear view of the distribution of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale as well as the potential groundwater zones. The potential groundwater zones identified from the resistivity results were confirmed using pumping, step drawdown, and recovery tests. The combination among the three arrays and the correlation between the well log and pumping test are reliable and successful in identifying potential favorable zones for obtaining groundwater in the study area.

  15. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  16. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiobjective optimization for Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Control. Application to El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Peña-Haro, S.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Molina, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality management is complex due to the inter-relations between socio-political, environmental and economic constraints and objectives. In order to choose an appropriate policy to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater it is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict. In this paper, a hydro-economic modeling framework, based on a non-linear optimization(CONOPT) technique, which embeds simulation of groundwater mass transport through concentration response matrices, is used to study optimal policies for groundwater nitrate pollution control under different objectives and constraints. Three objectives were considered: recovery time (for meeting the environmental standards, as required by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive), maximum nitrate concentration in groundwater, and net benefits in agriculture. Another criterion was added: the reliability of meeting the nitrate concentration standards. The approach allows deriving the trade-offs between the reliability of meeting the standard, the net benefits from agricultural production and the recovery time. Two different policies were considered: spatially distributed fertilizer standards or quotas (obtained through multi-objective optimization) and fertilizer prices. The multi-objective analysis allows to compare the achievement of the different policies, Pareto fronts (or efficiency frontiers) and tradeoffs for the set of mutually conflicting objectives. The constraint method is applied to generate the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-objective framework can be used to design groundwater management policies taking into consideration different stakeholders' interests (e.g., policy makers, agricultures or environmental groups). The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer in Spain. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has

  18. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Estimating potential groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.; Neuder, S.M.; Pennifill, R.A.; Ginn, T.

    1986-11-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report describe the NRC's methodology for assessing the potential public health and environmental impacts associated with onsite disposal of very low activity radioactive materials. This volume (Vol. 3) describes a general methodology for predicting potential groundwater contamination from onsite disposal. The methodology includes formulating a conceptual model, representing the conceptual model mathematically, estimating conservative parameters, and predicting receptor concentrations. Processes which must generally be considered in the methodology include infiltration, leaching of radionuclides from the waste, transport to the saturated zone, transport within the saturated zone, and withdrawal at a receptor location. A case study of shallow burial of iodine-125 illustrates application of the MOCMOD84 version of the US Geological Survey's 2-D solute transport model and a corresponding analytical solution. The appendices include a description and listing of MOCMOD84, descriptions of several analytical solution techniques, and a procedure for estimating conservative groundwater velocity values

  19. Uranium isotopes as radioactive pollutants in groundwaters of the Morro do Ferro thorium deposit, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater and surface water samples were collected at Morro do Ferro, a thorium and rare earth deposit located on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate if the mechanisms related to the migration of 238 U and 234 U isotopes can generate concentrations greater than the gross-alpha activity contaminant limit. The 238 U content range was 0.003-0.24 pCi/1 and the 234 U content range was 0.004-0.25 pCi/1, showing that the studied hydrologic environment doesn't indicate pollution by radioactivity due to these nuclides. However, 226 Ra and 228 Ra isotopes can be considered as radioactive pollutants in groundwaters but not in surface waters of the Morro do Ferro. (author)

  20. Impact of Cadmium Polluted Groundwater on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhunda Burke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of serious studies have been conducted to decipher relationships between geological environment, potable/drinking water, and diseases as they were considered to have triggered suffering due to diseases among people. Chronic anemia can be caused by prolonged exposure to drinking water contaminated with cadmium (Cd. Under such circumstances, accumulation of Cd is manifested in the kidney, resulting in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to present the impact of Cd-contaminated drinking water on human health among the residents of villages in Winder. Collection of about 48 groundwater samples at an average distance of 1 to 2 km between the sampling sites has enabled a sufficient geological representation of distribution of minerals and elements in the samples. Concentration and comparison of Cd in the study area sample sites reveal highest values (24.2-30.0 ppb in the northeastern and southeastern sectors, covering parts of all three geological areas of Bela Ophiolite of Cretaceous age. Conducted questionnaire surveys provided relevance between cause and effect nature of Cd bearing diseases among which kidney, joint, and night blindness are more prominent. Due to this phenomena, toxic risk of Cd in drinking water was high as per calculated health hazard indices. The use of this water by the villagers may cause health problems and disorders among the inhabitants of the area.

  1. Simulation and Prediction of Groundwater Pollution from Planned Feed Additive Project in Nanning City Based on GMS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yimin; Lan, Junkang; Wen, Zhixiong

    2018-01-01

    In order to predict the pollution of underground aquifers and rivers by the proposed project, Specialized hydrogeological investigation was carried out. After hydrogeological surveying and mapping, drilling, and groundwater level monitoring, the scope of the hydrogeological unit and the regional hydrogeological condition were found out. The permeability coefficients of the aquifers were also obtained by borehole water injection tests. In order to predict the impact on groundwater environment by the project, a GMS software was used in numerical simulation. The simulation results show that when unexpected sewage leakage accident happened, the pollutants will be gradually diluted by groundwater, and the diluted contaminants will slowly spread to southeast with groundwater flow, eventually they are discharged into Gantang River. However, the process of the pollutants discharging into the river is very long, the long-term dilution of the river water will keep Gantang River from being polluted.

  2. A new theory and method of preventing harmful waste landfill from pollution to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Zhang Yun; Song Shuhong; Hou Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    It is limited in conventional Soil Liner theory of waste landfill, we must update the theory and the calculational methods must be broke, so that the cost of waste landfill could be reduced in wide scope, this is important to develop economy and environment in sustaining rate. It is an innovation in the theory of the pollution control in the waste landfill groundwater through translated the theories of 'excluding infiltrate to groundwater' into 'insulating waste, allowing water into groundwater', the theory of waste landfill from pollution to groundwater came true. Clayey Soil not only can prevent seepage, but also can obstruct waste. If we can make use of its filtration adequately, just as using experimentation in laboratory to research filtration capability, calculation, we could made new testing technique and calculated technique of liner parameters. This paper take an example of which calculate to liner parameters, such as 'filtration capability' and 'adequacy thickness of effective liner', and make a programming of landfill site by this theory and method in Beijing plain. (authors)

  3. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  4. Water quality and management - the use of models for the estimation of the hazard potential for groundwater by organic pollutants in solid waste; Gewaesserguete und Wasserwirtschaft - Anwendung von Modellen zur Abschaetzung der Grundwassergefaehrdung durch organische Stoffe aus Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.

    2000-08-31

    In this study the deterministic leaching model PELMO was extended in order to consider two additional transport processes (fast transport via the macro porous flow system without equilibrium conditions with respect to sorption, and transport of pollutants in the soil water bound to humic substances). The extended model was implemented into the stochastic estimation model MCPELMO 2.0. The new development has built in 22 leaching scenarios based on a combination of the German soil regions map (12 soil regions) and 9 representative weather stations. As daily temperature and precipitation data over a period of 30 years were available the influence of climatic fluctuations on the percaloate concentrations could be considered. In parallel to the model development nomograms were calculated based on the algorithms of MCPELMO 2.0 making it possible to estimate concentrations in leachate also graphically. The results of the MCPELMO 2.0 simulations were compared with comprehensive simulations over a period of 1000 years performed with the computer model PELMO. The analysis showed that the screening model MCPELMO 2.0 that was orders of magnitude faster than PELMO was nevertheless able to estimate concentrations close to PELMO for most of the substances. It was additionally concluded that the results of the estimation model behave conservative compared to the comprehensive simulations: MCPELMO is often slightly overestimating pollutant concentrations in the percolate. Only for pollutants having KOC values above 5000 L/kg and DT50 numbers above 2000 days MCPELMO was estimating lower concentrations in the percolate than PELMO. (orig.) [German] In diesem Vorhaben wurde das deterministische Versickerungsmodell PELMO um zwei zusaetzliche Transportprozesse erweitert (schneller Stofftransport ueber das Makroporensystem ohne Einstellung von Sorptionsgleichgewichten, sowie Transport von Stoffen im Bodenwasser gebunden an Huminsaeuren) und das erweiterte Modell in das stochastische

  5. Scoping Calculations for Potential Groundwater Impacts from Operation of the APT Facility at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential travel times and paths of the postulated activated groundwater beneath the facility and to examine the fate and transport of this activated groundwater

  6. Assessment of groundwater recharge potential zone using GIS approach in Purworejo regency, Central Java province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, Daniel Eko; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2018-02-01

    Floods and droughts in Purworejo regency are an indication of problems in groundwater management. The current development progress has led to land conversion which has an impact on the problem of water infiltration in Purworejo regency. This study aims to determine the distribution of groundwater recharge potential zones by using geographic information system as the basis for ground water management. The groundwater recharge potential zone is obtained by overlaying all the thematic maps that affect the groundwater infiltration. Each thematic map is weighted according to its effect on groundwater infiltration such as land-use - 25%, rainfall - 20%, litology - 20%, soil - 15%, slope - 10%, lineament - 5%, and river density - 5% to find groundwater recharge potential zones. The groundwater recharge potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories, viz., very high, high, medium, low and very low zones. The results of this study may be useful for better groundwater planning and management.

  7. Oil pollution and microbiological quality of groundwater at the location of the water source 'Ratno ostrvo' nearby Novi Sad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, O.; Simeunovic, J.; Radnovic, D.; Matavulj, M.; Gajin, S.

    2002-01-01

    The 'Ratno ostrvo' is the biggest drinking water source in wider area of Novi Sad. It is located on the left bank of the river Danube near the Oil Refinery 'Novi Sad'. One of the consequences of the NATO bombing of the Oil Refinery 'Novi Sad' (which is placed in hinterland of the water source) was the uncontrolled spillage of crude oil and oil derivatives. Because of that, microbiological examinations of groundwaters, from both ecological and sanitary aspects were carried out simultaneously during post-war period. Microbiological analyses from sanitary aspects show very low number of coliform bacteria. Determination of numbers of bacteria of the investigated physiological groups, revealed that there was a constant relatively high number of oil-, phenol oxidizing and lipolytic bacteria which are indicators this kind of specific pollution. Microbiological analysis of oil polluted soil show presence relatively high number of different groups of bacteria. In spite of changed ecological situation caused by war effects, microbiological analyses of groundwater quality showed satisfactory results in source 'Ratno ostrvo' by now. The presence and potential activity of indigenous microflora could be utilized in recultivation processes in examined area. (author)

  8. An estimation of the health impact of groundwater pollution caused by dumping of chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Chen, Chien-Hung; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hazardous waste sites are major environmental concerns, but few studies have quantified their expected utility loss on health. Objectives: To evaluate the health impact of groundwater pollution by an electronics manufacturing factory, we conducted a health risk assessment based on expected utility loss from liver cancer. Methods: Based on measurements of major pollutants, we estimated the likelihood of developing liver cancer after exposure to groundwater contamination. All patients with liver cancer between 1990 and 2005 in the Taiwan Cancer Registry were followed through 2007 using the National Mortality Registry to obtain survival function. Quality of life was assessed with two cross-sectional surveys, one employing the standard gamble method, and the other using the EQ-5D instrument. Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was estimated by multiplying the utility values with survival function under the unit of quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The difference of QALE between the cancer cohort and the age- and gender-matched reference population was calculated to represent the utility loss due to liver cancer. Results: A total of 94,144 patients with liver cancer were identified. The average utility loss to development of liver cancer was 17.5 QALYs. Based on toxicological approach, we estimated that groundwater pollution caused 1.7 extra cases of liver cancer, with an overall loss of 29.8 QALYs. Based on epidemiological approach, the expected annual excess number of liver cancer would be 3.65, which would have been accumulated through the years, had the pollution not mitigated. Conclusions: We demonstrated a practical approach for comparative health risk assessment using QALY as the common unit. This approach can be used for policy decisions based on possible health risks.

  9. An estimation of the health impact of groundwater pollution caused by dumping of chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Hung [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Yin [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liou, Saou-Hsing [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-15

    Background: Hazardous waste sites are major environmental concerns, but few studies have quantified their expected utility loss on health. Objectives: To evaluate the health impact of groundwater pollution by an electronics manufacturing factory, we conducted a health risk assessment based on expected utility loss from liver cancer. Methods: Based on measurements of major pollutants, we estimated the likelihood of developing liver cancer after exposure to groundwater contamination. All patients with liver cancer between 1990 and 2005 in the Taiwan Cancer Registry were followed through 2007 using the National Mortality Registry to obtain survival function. Quality of life was assessed with two cross-sectional surveys, one employing the standard gamble method, and the other using the EQ-5D instrument. Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was estimated by multiplying the utility values with survival function under the unit of quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The difference of QALE between the cancer cohort and the age- and gender-matched reference population was calculated to represent the utility loss due to liver cancer. Results: A total of 94,144 patients with liver cancer were identified. The average utility loss to development of liver cancer was 17.5 QALYs. Based on toxicological approach, we estimated that groundwater pollution caused 1.7 extra cases of liver cancer, with an overall loss of 29.8 QALYs. Based on epidemiological approach, the expected annual excess number of liver cancer would be 3.65, which would have been accumulated through the years, had the pollution not mitigated. Conclusions: We demonstrated a practical approach for comparative health risk assessment using QALY as the common unit. This approach can be used for policy decisions based on possible health risks.

  10. Derivation of Threshold Values for Groundwater in Romania, in order to distinguish Point & Diffuse pollution from natural background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, P.N.M.; Radu, E.; Vliegenthart, F.; Balaet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Romania aims to adopt and implement the European Union's legislation, also including that for the field of water management. Like other countries, groundwater in Romania is locally polluted from point sources, such as leaking landfills, as well as from diffuse pollution sources, include fertilizers,

  11. Hzard and risk assessment of pollution on the groundwater resources and residents’ health of Salfit District, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Aliewi

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: There are many pollutants in the Salfit's aquifer recharge area and thus percolating and polluting the groundwater aquifers. Using a Durov diagram, the sources of water proved to be polluted and, therefore, the health of the residents of Salfit District is directly threatened. A hazard map was developed to classify all polluting activities in the district. Microbiological analysis of the drinking water revealed higher levels of total and fecal Coliforms. The high incidence rate of water related diseases is an indication of the drinking water pollution. This paper contains research findings and policy recommendations to help Salfit District alleviate health and pollution problems associated with this vital resource of groundwater. In addition, Salfit governorate is encouraged to begin addressing the institutional issues and improving public awareness.

  12. Monitoring of heavy metal pollution of groundwater in a phreatic aquifer in Mersin-Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Z

    2007-09-01

    In this study, heavy metal contents of groundwater from the Mersin aquifer were determined with photometric methods and used to determine the main factors controlling the pollution of groundwater in the area. Using MapInfo GIS software, spatial analysis and integration were carried out for mapping drinking water quality in the basin. From the photometric heavy metal analysis, it is inferred that the excess concentration of Fe, Ni, Mn, Mo and Cu at some locations is the cause of undesirable quality for drinking purposes. Similarly, the EC thematic map shows that considerable areas in the basin are having high salinity hazards. The reason for excess concentration of various heavy metals is the industrial activities and petroleum pipelines and salinity levels show the sea water intrusion.

  13. Using Groundwater physiochemical properties for assessing potential earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Reuveni, Yuval; Anker, Yaakov; Guttman, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide studies reports pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic reaction of groundwater to earthquakes. The unique hydrological and geological situation in Israel resulted in relatively deep water wells which are located close to seismically active tectonic plate boundary. Moreover, the Israeli experience show that anomalies may occurs 60-90 minutes prior to the seismic event (Guttman et al., 2005; Anker et al., 2016). Here, we try to assess the possible connection between changes in physiochemical parameters of groundwater and earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) region. A designated network of monitoring stations was installed in MEKOROT abandoned deep water wells, continuously measuring water table, conductivity and temperature at a sampling rate of 1 minute. Preliminary analysis compares changes in the measured parameters with rain events, tidal effects and earthquake occurrences of all measured magnitudes (>2.5Md) at monitoring area surroundings. The acquired data set over one year recorded simultaneous abrupt changes in several wells which seems disconnected from standard hydrological occurrences such as precipitation, abstraction or tidal effects. At this stage, our research aims to determine and rationalize a baseline for "normal response" of the measured parameters to external occurrences while isolating those cases in which "deviations" from that base line is recorded. We apply several analysis techniques both in time and frequency domain with the measured signal as well as statistical analysis of several measured earthquake parameters, which indicate potential correlations between earthquakes occurrences and the measured signal. We show that at least in one seismic event (5.1 Md) a potential precursor may have been recorded. Reference: Anker, Y., N. Inbar, A. Y. Dror, Y. Reuveni, J. Guttman, A. Flexer, (2016). Groundwater response to ground movements, as a tool for earthquakes monitoring and a possible precursor. 8th International Conference

  14. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  15. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  16. Natural attenuation potential of phenylarsenicals in anoxic groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Michael; Daus, Birgit; Vogt, Carsten; Weiss, Holger

    2009-09-15

    The extensive production of chemical warfare agents in the 20th century has led to serious contamination of soil and groundwater with phenyl arsenicals at former ammunition depots or warfare agent production sites worldwide. Most phenyl arsenicals are highly toxic for humans. The microbial degradation of phenylarsonic acid (PAA) and diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was investigated in microcosms made of anoxic groundwater/sediment mixtures taken from different depths of an anoxic, phenyl arsenical contaminated aquifer in Central Germany. DPAA was not transformed within 91 days incubation time in any of the microcosms. The removal of PAA can be described by a first order kinetics without a lag-phase (rate: 0.037 d(-1)). In sterilized microcosms, PAA concentrations always remained stable, demonstrating that PAA transformation was a biologically mediated process. PAA transformation occurred under sulfate-reducing conditions due to sulfate consumption and production of sulfide. The addition of lactate (1 mM), a typical substrate of sulfate-reducing bacteria, increased the transformation rate of PAA significantly up to 0.134 d(-1). The content of total arsenic was considerably reduced (> 75%). Intermediates of PAA transformation were detected by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Experiments with a pure strain and sterile controls of Desulfovibrio gigas spiked with PAA showed that the elimination process is linked to the presence of sulfide formed through bacterial activity. Phenyl arsenicals were likely immobilized in the sedimentthrough sulfur substitution and a subsequent sulfur bond under the prevailing sulfate reducing condition. The results of this study indicate that PAA can undergo microbiologically mediated transformation in anoxic aquifers, leading to reduced concentrations in groundwater, which indicate a (enhancend) natural attenuation potential.

  17. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  18. Study of groundwater arsenic pollution in Lanyang Plain using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    chan, S.

    2013-12-01

    The study area, Lanyang Plain in the eastern Taiwan, has highly developed agriculture and aquaculture, which consume over 70% of the water supplies. Groundwater is frequently considered as an alternative water source. However, the serious arsenic pollution of groundwater in Lanyan Plain should be well studied to ensure the safety of groundwater usage. In this study, 39 groundwater samples were collected. The results of hydrochemistry demonstrate two major trends in Piper diagram. The major trend with most of groundwater samples is determined with water type between Ca+Mg-HCO3 and Na+K-HCO3. This can be explained with cation exchange reaction. The minor trend is obviously corresponding to seawater intrusion, which has water type of Na+K-Cl, because the localities of these samples are all in the coastal area. The multivariate statistical analysis on hydrochemical data was conducted for further exploration on the mechanism of arsenic contamination. Two major factors can be extracted with factor analysis. The major factor includes Ca, Mg and Sr while the minor factor includes Na, K and As. This reconfirms that cation exchange reaction mainly control the groundwater hydrochemistry in the study area. It is worth to note that arsenic is positively related to Na and K. The result of cluster analysis shows that groundwater samples with high arsenic concentration can be grouped into that with high Na, K and HCO3. This supports that cation exchange would enhance the release of arsenic and exclude the effect of seawater intrusion. In other words, the water-rock reaction time is key to obtain higher arsenic content. In general, the major source of arsenic in sediments include exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable phases, which are adsorbed ions, Fe-Mn oxides and organic matters/pyrite, respectively. However, the results of factor analysis do not show apparent correlation between arsenic and Fe/Mn. This may exclude Fe-Mn oxides as a major source of arsenic. The other sources

  19. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  20. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  1. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  2. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  3. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daus, Birgit; Hempel, Michael; Wennrich, Rainer; Weiss, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1 km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16 mg L -1 and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400 μg L -1 ) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity. - The environmental fate and behavior of phenylarsenicals in groundwater are influenced by the geochemical environment.

  4. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in groundwater polluted by warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daus, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.daus@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hempel, Michael [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wennrich, Rainer [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Weiss, Holger [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Groundwater Remediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Groundwater polluted with phenylarsenicals from former warfare agent deposits and their metabolites was investigated with respect to the behavior of relevant arsenic species. Depth profiles at the estimated source and at about 1 km downgradient from the source zone were sampled. The source zone is characterized by high total arsenic concentrations up to 16 mg L{sup -1} and is dominated by organic arsenic compounds. The concentrations in the downgradient region are much lower (up to 400 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and show a high proportion of inorganic arsenic species. Iron precipitation seems to be an effective mechanism to prevent dispersion of inorganic arsenic as well as phenylarsonic acid. Reductive conditions were observed in the deeper zone with predominant occurrence of trivalent arsenic species. The inorganic species are in redox equilibrium, whereas the phenylarsenic compounds have variable proportions. Methylphenylarsinic acid was identified in groundwater in traces which indicates microbial degradation activity. - The environmental fate and behavior of phenylarsenicals in groundwater are influenced by the geochemical environment.

  5. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  6. LIQUID WASTE FROM SEPTIC TANKS AS A SOURCE OF MICROBIOLOGICAL POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of soil and water environment by liquid waste originating from septic tanks is a huge problem in Poland. This applies especially to rural areas. Negative changes are observed both in the vicinity of the leaking tanks, from which concentrated and rotten sewage infiltrates into the ground, and in surface water as well as arable land, to which impurities from the emptied tanks are discharged. The paper presents the scale of the practice of uncontrolled domestic sewage discharge into the environment on the example of selected municipality. Presented data were compared with the results of the qualitative assessment of groundwater, which is collected in the same municipality for waterworks. In a significant number of wells, water was not safe in sanitary terms, as the presence of microbiological contamination was recorded. Among determined microorganisms, the indicator organisms of domestic waste pollution prevailed. Water quality problems have been reported at intake points located near the properties equipped with septic tanks or in places, to which sewage from emptying septic tanks were transferred in an uncontrolled manner. In this way it has been shown that there is a relationship between improperly maintained wastewater management and groundwater quality collected for the purpose of water supply.

  7. A GIS/Remote Sensing-based methodology for groundwater potentiality assessment in Tirnavos area, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidis, D.; Dimogianni, S.; Kazakis, N.; Voudouris, K.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the groundwater potentiality combining Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing with data obtained from the field, as an additional tool to the hydrogeological research. The present study was elaborated in the broader area of Tirnavos, covering 419.4 km2. The study area is located in Thessaly (central Greece) and is crossed by two rivers, Pinios and Titarisios. Agriculture is one of the main elements of Thessaly's economy resulting in intense agricultural activity and consequently increased exploitation of groundwater resources. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) were used in order to create a map that depicts the likelihood of existence of groundwater, consisting of five classes, showing the groundwater potentiality and ranging from very high to very low. The extraction of this map is based on the study of input data such as: rainfall, potential recharge, lithology, lineament density, slope, drainage density and depth to groundwater. Weights were assigned to all these factors according to their relevance to groundwater potential and eventually a map based on weighted spatial modeling system was created. Furthermore, a groundwater quality suitability map was illustrated by overlaying the groundwater potentiality map with the map showing the potential zones for drinking groundwater in the study area. The results provide significant information and the maps could be used from local authorities for groundwater exploitation and management.

  8. Temporal-Spatial Evolution of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution Over Seven Years in a Highly Urbanized City in the Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaorui; Qian, Jiazhong; Liu, Zufa; Lu, Yuehan; Ma, Lei; Zhao, Weidong; Kang, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the temporospatial variation in nitrogen pollution in groundwater and the associated controlling factors is important to establish management practices that ensure sustainable use of groundwater. In this study, we analyzed inorganic nitrogen content (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) in 1164 groundwater samples from shallow, middle-deep, and deep aquifers in Zhanjiang, a highly urbanized city in the southern China. Our data span a range of 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Results show that shallow aquifers had been heavily contaminated by nitrate and ammonium. Temporal patterns show that N contamination levels remained high and relatively stable over time in urban areas. This stability and high concentration is hypothesized as a result of uncontrolled, illicit sewer discharges from nearby business facilities. Groundwater in urban land and farmland displays systematic differences in geochemical characteristics. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the importance of continuously monitoring groundwater quality and strictly regulating sewage discharges in Zhanjiang.

  9. Analysis of arsenic pollution in groundwater aquifers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbarato, V.M.; Sanchez, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The serious contamination of groundwater in the southeastern plain of the province of Cordoba (Argentina), a phenomenon mentioned in the literature for over 80 years, has given rise to this initial hydrologic study covering an area over 250 km 2 . This study analyzes a rural area near a little town called La Francia, and is motivated by the existence of an important pollution with arsenic in the first-aquifer groundwater of the region. This phenomenon has been mentioned for a long time and evidenced by the high incidence of diseases associated with this element in the local population. By means of the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique, and using an energy-dispersive spectrometer, 50 samples of groundwater of the rural zone of La Francia from about 100 m deep (second aquifer), were analyzed. The samples were excited with a 3 kW X-ray tube and measured using a reflecting geometry with 45 deg. of incident and take-off directions. Preconcentration techniques for the preparation of the samples were employed in order to obtain an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. The As concentration in water was obtained using calibration curves and the internal standard method for quantification. A high percentage of the analyzed samples showed concentrations lesser than or equal to 0.05 mg l -1 . This value corresponds to the maximum pollutant level for humans. The maximum measured value reaches 3 mg l -1 in samples collected in perforations of first-aquifer wells and in some second-aquifer isolated wells

  10. Remediation of Groundwater Polluted by Aromatic Compounds by Means of Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Canzano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental and modeling analysis of the adsorption of four aromatic compounds (i.e., toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene onto a commercial activated carbon is carried out. The aim is to assess the suitability of the adsorption process for the treatment of polluted groundwater, also when a multiple contamination is detected. Batch adsorption tests from simulated polluted groundwater are performed in single-compound systems and in two binary systems (i.e., toluene + naphthalene and o-xylene + ethylbenzene, at constant temperature (20 °C and pH (7. Experimental results in single-compound systems reveal that all of the analytes are significantly adsorbed on the tested activated carbon. In particular, toluene and naphthalene adsorption capacities are the highest and of similar value, while for o-xylene and ethylbenzene, the performances are lower. The adsorption of these compounds seems to be influenced by a combined effect of several parameters, such as hydrophobicity, molecule size, structure of the molecule, etc. Experimental results in binary systems show a different behavior of the two systems, which confirms their complexity and explains the interest in these complex adsorption systems. In particular, toluene and naphthalene are mutually competitive, while in the case of o-xylene + ethylbenzene, only the former undergoes competitive effects. The analysis of the entire experimental data set is integrated with a dedicated modeling analysis using the extended Langmuir model. For both single-compound and binary systems, this model provides acceptable results, in particular for low equilibrium concentrations, like those more commonly found in groundwater, and for the compounds involved in adsorptive competitive effects.

  11. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    continuous tide on the coastal side. The integrated surface water-groundwater numerical model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009, Spanoudaki, 2010) was also used in the study, with the numerical model predictions being compared with experimental results, which provide a valuable database for model calibration and validation. IRENE couples the 3D, non-steady state Navier-Stokes equations, after Reynolds averaging and with the assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution, to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. The model uses the finite volume method with a cell-centered structured grid providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection-diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. References Ebrahimi, K., Falconer, R.A. and Lin B. (2007). Flow and solute fluxes in integrated wetland and coastal systems. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22 (9), 1337-1348. Hughes, S.A. (1995). Physical Modelling and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Kuan, W.K., Jin, G., Xin, P., Robinson, C. Gibbes, B. and Li. L. (2012). Tidal influence on seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research, 48 (2), doi:10.1029/2011WR010678. Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek

  12. Role of groundwater oxidation potential and radiolysis on waste glass performance in crystalline repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that groundwater conditions in a Stripa granite repository will be as reducing as those in a basalt repository. The final oxidation potential (Eh) at 70 0 C for Stripa groundwater deaerated and equilibrated with crystalline granite was -0.45V. In contrast, the oxidation potential at 60 0 C for Grande Ronde groundwater equilibrated with basalt was -0.40V. The reducing groundwater conditions were found to slightly decrease the time-dependent release of soluble components from the waste glass. Spectrophotometric analysis of the equilibrated groundwaters indicated the presence of Fe 2+ confirming that the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ couple is controlling the oxidation potential. It was also shown that in the alkaline pH regime of these groundwaters the iron species are primarily associated with x-ray amorphous precipitates in the groundwater. Gamma radiolysis in the absence of waste glass and in the absence of oxygen further reduces the oxidation potential of both granitic and basaltic groundwaters. The effect is more pronounced in the basaltic groundwater. The mechanism for this decrease is under investigation but appears related to the reactive amorphous precipitate. The results of these tests suggest that H 2 may not escape from the repository system as postulated and that radiolysis may not cause the groundwaters to become oxidizing in a crystalline repository when abundant Fe 2+ species are present. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Groundwater Radioiodine: Prevalence, Biogeochemistry, And Potential Remedial Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-129 ( 129 I) has not received as much attention in basic and applied research as other contaminants associated with DOE plumes. These other contaminants, such as uranium, plutonium, strontium, and technetium are more widespread and exist at more DOE facilities. Yet, at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site 129 I occurs in groundwater at concentrations significantly above the primary drinking water standard and there is no accepted method for treating it, other than pump-and-treat systems. With the potential arrival of a 'Nuclear Renaissance', new nuclear power facilities will be creating additional 129 I waste at a rate of 1 Ci/gigawatts energy produced. If all 22 proposed nuclear power facilities in the U.S. get approved, they will produce more 129 I waste in seven years than presently exists at the two facilities containing the largest 129 I inventories, (∼146 Ci 129 I at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site). Hence, there is an important need to fully understand 129 I behavior in the environment to clean up existing plumes and to support the expected future expansion of nuclear power production. 129 I is among the key risk drivers at all DOE nuclear disposal facilities where 129 I is buried, because of its long half-life (16 million years), high toxicity (90% of the body's iodine accumulates in the thyroid), high inventory, and perceived high mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that 129 I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define 129 I mass balance and flux at sites, but can not accurately predict its response to changes in the environment. This uncertainty is in part responsible for the low drinking water standard, 1 pCi/L 129 I, and the low permissible inventory limits (Ci) at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the former Yucca Mountain disposal facilities. The objectives of this report are to: (1

  14. GROUNDWATER RADIOIODINE: PREVALENCE, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, AND POTENTIAL REMEDIAL APPROACHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-09-23

    Iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) has not received as much attention in basic and applied research as other contaminants associated with DOE plumes. These other contaminants, such as uranium, plutonium, strontium, and technetium are more widespread and exist at more DOE facilities. Yet, at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site {sup 129}I occurs in groundwater at concentrations significantly above the primary drinking water standard and there is no accepted method for treating it, other than pump-and-treat systems. With the potential arrival of a 'Nuclear Renaissance', new nuclear power facilities will be creating additional {sup 129}I waste at a rate of 1 Ci/gigawatts energy produced. If all 22 proposed nuclear power facilities in the U.S. get approved, they will produce more {sup 129}I waste in seven years than presently exists at the two facilities containing the largest {sup 129}I inventories, ({approx}146 Ci {sup 129}I at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site). Hence, there is an important need to fully understand {sup 129}I behavior in the environment to clean up existing plumes and to support the expected future expansion of nuclear power production. {sup 129}I is among the key risk drivers at all DOE nuclear disposal facilities where {sup 129}I is buried, because of its long half-life (16 million years), high toxicity (90% of the body's iodine accumulates in the thyroid), high inventory, and perceived high mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that {sup 129}I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define {sup 129}I mass balance and flux at sites, but can not accurately predict its response to changes in the environment. This uncertainty is in part responsible for the low drinking water standard, 1 pCi/L {sup 129}I, and the low permissible inventory limits (Ci) at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the

  15. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  16. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  17. Leaf water relations and sapflow in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees planted for phytoremediation of a groundwater pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Gregory J. Harvey; Barton D. Clinton; Christine Sobek

    2000-01-01

    Plants that remediate groundwater pollutants may offer a feasible alternative to the traditional and more expensive practices. Because its success depends on water use, this approach requires a complete understanding of species-specific transpiration patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify tree and stand-level transpiration in two age classes (whips...

  18. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  19. [Groundwater quality in an arid area of Morocco: impact of pollution on the biodiversity and relationships between crustaceans and bacteria of health interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, F; Yacoubi-Khebiza, M; Oufdou, K; Boulanouar, M

    2008-11-01

    In the north of Marrakesh (Morocco), the high anthropogenic activity and the permeable nature of the geological ground makes the water of Jbilet vulnerable to contamination. The results of physico-chemical analyses conducted in 2006 showed that two groups of wells could be distinguished. Groundwater of wells located on the right bank of the Tensift River, which are far from any source of pollution, is of fairly good quality, well oxygenated, at neutral pH and with rather weak levels of organic compounds. In contrast, in the other wells in the area of the landfill of the city of Marrakesh and those in the peri-urban area demonstrate deteriorated water quality. The nutriment and organic matter content is quite high. Results of bacteriological analyses of water showed a fairly high faecal contamination. In this area the soil is highly permeable and promotes infiltration of organic pollutants and minerals as well as of pathogen and opportunistic bacteria into groundwater. After their penetration, these microorganisms form films around grain particles. The movements of the stygofauna in the interstices allow bacteria to settle on their exoskeleton and seep into their gut, thus being a potential source of groundwater contamination. An analysis of bacterial flora showed that the rate of bacteria is high in the digestive tract of two crustacean species of the stygobites Typhlocirolana haouzensis and Metacrangonyx spinicaudatus, and that it depends on the species and the bacteria. Bacteria may be one of the potential nutritional resources for stygobites.

  20. Calculation of pollutant removal during groundwater restoration with adsorption and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for calculating pollutant removal rates during groundwater restoration processes. The hydraulic information required by the method is obtained from the conservative tracer breakthrough curve for a flow system. The influence of adsorption and ion exchange chemistry on species transport is included through application of the method of characteristics. The combined result gives the effluent concentration at a production well as a function of time during a restoration project. The method is applicable for any well pattern and its economy is such that a pencil and paper calculation will suffice for yielding quantitative answers for complex flow problems. The method is applied to calculate ammonium removal rates for site restoration by recirculation with chemical sweeps following in situ leach mining of uranium

  1. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  2. Nitrate pollution in intensively farmed regions: What are the prospects for sustaining high-quality groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Burt, Tim P.; Worrall, Fred; Mathias, Simon; Whelan, Mick J.

    2011-06-01

    Widespread pollution of groundwater by nutrients due to 20th century agricultural intensification has been of major concern in the developed world for several decades. This paper considers the River Thames catchment (UK), where water-quality monitoring at Hampton (just upstream of London) has produced continuous records for nitrate for the last 140 years, the longest continuous record of water chemistry anywhere in the world. For the same period, data are available to characterize changes in both land use and land management at an annual scale. A modeling approach is used that combines two elements: an estimate of nitrate available for leaching due to land use and land management; and, an algorithm to route this leachable nitrate through to surface or groundwaters. Prior to agricultural intensification at the start of World War II, annual average inputs were around 50 kg ha-1, and river concentrations were stable at 1 to 2 mg l-1, suggesting in-stream denitrification capable of removing 35 (±15) kt N yr-1. Postintensification data suggest an accumulation of 100 (±40) kt N yr-1 in the catchment, most of which is stored in the aquifer. This build up of reactive N species within the catchments means that restoration of surface nitrate concentrations typical of the preintensification period would require massive basin-wide changes in land use and management that would compromise food security and take decades to be effective. Policy solutions need to embrace long-term management strategies as an urgent priority.

  3. Tritium as tracer of groundwater pollution extension: case study of Andralanitra landfill site, Antananarivo-Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, Voahirana; Rakotomalala, Christian Ulrich; Rajaobelison, Joel; Fareze, Lahimamy Paul; Razafitsalama, Falintsoa A.; Rasolofonirina, Mamiseheno

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to understand the extension of groundwater pollution downstream of a landfill, Andralanitra-Antananarivo-Madagascar. Twenty-one samples, composed of dug well waters, spring waters, river, and lake, were measured in stable isotopes ( δ 2H, δ 18O) and tritium. Results showed that only two dug well waters, collected at the immediate vicinity of the landfill, have high tritium activities (22.82 TU and 10.43 TU), probably of artificial origin. Both upstream and further downstream of the landfill, tritium activities represent natural source, with values varying from 0.17 TU to 1.46 TU upstream and from 0.88 TU to 1.88 TU further downstream. Stable isotope data suggest that recharge occurs through infiltration of slightly evaporated rainfall. Using the radioactive decay equation, the calculated tracer ages related to two recent ground water samples collected down gradient of the landfill lay between [8-15] years and [4-7] years, taking into account the uncertainty of tritium measurements. For the calculation, a value of 2.36 TU was taken as A o. The latter was estimated based on similarity between stable isotope compositions of nearby spring and dug well waters as well as tritium activities of the local precipitation. Calculation of the tritium activities from the contaminated water point having 22.82 TU to further downstream using the calculated tracer ages showed values of one order of magnitude higher than the measured values. The absence of hydrological connection from the contaminated water point to further downstream the landfill would explain the lower tritium activities measured. Groundwater pollution seems to be limited to the closest proximity of the landfill.

  4. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential analysis (an example of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghizadeh, Ali; Moghaddam, Davoud Davoudi; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater potential analysis prepares better comprehension of hydrological settings of different regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely statistical index (SI) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) to analyze groundwater potential in Broujerd region of Iran. The research was done using 11 groundwater conditioning factors and 496 spring positions. Based on the ground water potential maps (GPMs) of SI and DST methods, 24.22% and 23.74% of the study area is covered by poor zone of groundwater potential, and 43.93% and 36.3% of Broujerd region is covered by good and very good potential zones, respectively. The validation of outcomes displayed that area under the curve (AUC) of SI and DST techniques are 81.23% and 79.41%, respectively, which shows SI method has slightly a better performance than the DST technique. Therefore, SI and DST methods are advantageous to analyze groundwater capacity and scrutinize the complicated relation between groundwater occurrence and groundwater conditioning factors, which permits investigation of both systemic and stochastic uncertainty. Finally, it can be realized that these techniques are very beneficial for groundwater potential analyzing and can be practical for water-resource management experts.

  5. Application of isotopes to the assessment of pollutant behaviour in the unsaturated zone for groundwater protection. Final report of a coordinated research project 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    A coordinated research project (CRP) was conducted by the IAEA with the purpose of studying what isotopic and other ancillary data are required to help understand migration of potential contaminants through the unsaturated zone (UZ) into the underlying groundwater. To this end, research projects were conducted in ten countries to study recharge and infiltration processes, as well as contaminant migration in a wide variety of UZ environments. This publication contains the reports of these ten projects and a summary of the accomplishments of the individual projects. The IAEA-TECDOC reviews the usefulness and current status of application of the combined use of isotope and other hydrogeochemical tools for the assessment of flow and transport processes in the UZ. A number of isotope and hydrochemical tools have been used to simultaneously study groundwater recharge and transport of pollutants in the UZ. This information is relevant for assessing the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. The ten projects covered climates ranging from humid to arid, and water table depths from the near surface to over 600 m. The studies included measuring movement of water, solutes, and gases through the UZ using an assortment of isotope and geochemical tracers and approaches. Contaminant issues have been studied at most of the ten sites and the UZ was found to be very effective in protecting groundwater from most heavy metal contaminants. The publication is expected to be of interest to hydrologists, hydrogeologists and soil scientists dealing with pollution aspects and protection of groundwater resources, as well as counterparts of TC projects in Member States

  6. Geo-Electrical Investigation for Groundwater Potential of Ihievbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-10

    Dec 10, 2017 ... Keywords: Groundwater, Vertical Electrical Sounding, Fractured basement, prospectively ranking. The ease of ... magnetic, electromagnetic etc. Of all these ... ranking, to aid our interpretation and evaluation of the ground ...

  7. electrical resistivity investigation of the groundwater potential in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The VES data generated were processed and interpreted using partial curve matching ... electrical sounding, a technique of electrical resistivity method in identifying viable .... Geoelectric/Electromagnetic VLF Survey for. Groundwater in a ...

  8. Delineation of groundwater potential zone: An AHP/ANP approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater; multi-criteria decision making; analytical network process. J. Earth Syst. ... than AHP for decision making. ... the themes and provide utility weights for the alter- natives ... theory that has been applied to classifying ETM+ image.

  9. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well a...

  10. Application of GIS based data driven evidential belief function model to predict groundwater potential zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampak, Haleh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Manap, Mohammad Abd

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to exploit potential application of an evidential belief function (EBF) model for spatial prediction of groundwater productivity at Langat basin area, Malaysia using geographic information system (GIS) technique. About 125 groundwater yield data were collected from well locations. Subsequently, the groundwater yield was divided into high (⩾11 m3/h) and low yields (divided into a testing dataset 70% (42 wells) for training the model and the remaining 30% (18 wells) was used for validation purpose. To perform cross validation, the frequency ratio (FR) approach was applied into remaining groundwater wells with low yield to show the spatial correlation between the low potential zones of groundwater productivity. A total of twelve groundwater conditioning factors that affect the storage of groundwater occurrences were derived from various data sources such as satellite based imagery, topographic maps and associated database. Those twelve groundwater conditioning factors are elevation, slope, curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), drainage density, lithology, lineament density, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil and rainfall. Subsequently, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence model was applied to prepare the groundwater potential map. Finally, the result of groundwater potential map derived from belief map was validated using testing data. Furthermore, to compare the performance of the EBF result, logistic regression model was applied. The success-rate and prediction-rate curves were computed to estimate the efficiency of the employed EBF model compared to LR method. The validation results demonstrated that the success-rate for EBF and LR methods were 83% and 82% respectively. The area under the curve for prediction-rate of EBF and LR methods were calculated 78% and 72% respectively. The outputs achieved from the current research proved the efficiency of EBF in groundwater

  11. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Abidjan like numerous African cities is experiencing a significant and uncontrolled population growth. The annual growth rate is estimated at 3.99% by the National Institute of Statistics. This rapid population growth also generates growing needs in general and especially for drinking water and economic activities. In the District of Abidjan, groundwater comes from the Mio-Pliocene age aquifer called "Continental Terminal". This unconfined aquifer is the main source of water supply. Its lithology consists of four levels. Actually only the two upper levels outcrop and constitute the main part of the Continental Terminal aquifer. Some recent studies report a potential overexploitation and pollution of Abidjan groundwater (Jourda, 1986, Kouame 2007, Deh, 2013). This deterioration in water quality could be due to the release of domestic and industrial waste water, pesticide and fertilizer from crops and toxic waste sites containing high doses of organochlorines, of hydrogen sulfide and sulfides. This risk is also linked to the economic activities such as car workshops, gas stations and the sand exploitation in the lagoon. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface and we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and transport with FEFLOW software. The model is composed of a sandy layer where two constant hydraulic heads of 55 m and 0.2 m are imposed on the north and the south respectively. We carried out grain size analysis of some samples (E2, E3, E4, E5, and E6) which shows particle size ranging between 0.0001 mm and 8 mm. This grain size analysis performed by sieving underwater and laser indicates that these five soils are: loamy sand with traces of clay and gravel for E2 and E5; Sandy loam with traces of clay for E3; Sand with traces of clay and gravel for E4 and Sand with traces of silt and clay for E6. Their porosity and average values of permeability coefficient K measured in the laboratory range from 0.2 to 0

  12. Transport and potential attenuation of nitrogen in shallow groundwaters in the lower Rangitikei catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S.; Singh, R.; Rivas, A.; Palmer, A.; Horne, D.; Manderson, A.; Roygard, J.; Matthews, A.

    2017-11-01

    Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832 km2), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area. Concurrent river flow gaugings (in January 2015) and a piezometric map, developed from measured depths to groundwater in 110 bores (in October 2014), suggest groundwater discharges to the Rangitikei River in the upper parts of the study area, while there is groundwater recharge near the coast. The groundwater redox characterisation, based on sampling and analysis of 15 mostly shallow bores ( 5 m bgl), despite being installed under intensive land uses, such as dairying and cropping. Our in-field push-pull tests showed NO3-N reduction at four shallow groundwater piezometers, with the rates of reduction varying from 0.04 mg N L- 1 h-1 to 1.57 mg N L- 1 h-1. This highlights the importance of a sound understanding of not only the sources, but also transport and transformation, or fate, of nutrients leached from farms, to mitigate the likely impacts of land use on water quality and ecosystem health in agricultural catchments.

  13. Identification of hydrogeochemical processes and pollution sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming Basin of Hainan island, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaowen, Y.; Zhan, Y., , Dr; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the evolution of groundwater quality is important for the control and management of groundwater resources. The main aims of the present study are to identify the major factors affecting hydrogeochemistry of groundwater resources and to evaluate the potential sources of groundwater nitrate in Leiming basin using chemical and isotopic methods. The majority of samples belong to Na-Cl water type and are followed by Ca-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Na-HCO3. The δ18O and δ2H values in groundwater indicate that the shallow fissure groundwater is mainly recharged by rainfall. The evaporated surface water is another significant origin of groundwater. The weathering and dissolution of different rocks and minerals, input of precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange and anthropogenic activities, especially agricultural activities, influence the hydrogeochemistry of the study area. NO- 3 concentration in the groundwater varies from 0.7 to 51.7 mg/L and high values are mainly occurred in the densely populated area. The combined use of isotopic values and hydrochemical data suggests that the NO- 3 load in Leiming basin is not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as waste water and atmospheric deposition. Fertilizer is considered as the major source of NO- 3 in the groundwater in Leiming basin.

  14. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the musi basin using remote sensing data and gis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapuram, Sreedhar; Vijaya Kumar, G.T.; Murali Krishna, I.V.; Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the groundwater availability for agriculture in the Musi basin. Remote sensing data and geographic information system were used to locate potential zones for groundwater in the Musi basin. Various maps (i.e., base, hydrogeomorphological, geological,

  15. Assessment of nitrate pollution of groundwater in South-East of Isfahan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheisari, M. M.; Hoodaji, M.; Najafi, P.; Abdollahi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Because the increasing population and food in the world, as well as unavailability and limitation of agricultural lands, needs to increase the agricultural yield quality and quantity. One way to have high quality products is applying fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizer is the most common one used for this purpose. Impractical and weak management in controlling the improper use of fertilizer causes high concentration of Nitrate in soil and groundwater resources. High concentration of Nitrate in water causes many health problems. This research is conducted to determine the rate of Nitrate polluted water in South-East of Isfahan. In this research, sampling was done from selected water wells and the amount of Nitrate in water was determined by using special Electrodes and Ion -Selective method. Surfer Software identified the variation process. Then, the results were compared with US-Environmental Protected Agency (US-EPA). In some areas, the results show the concentration of Nitrate more than US-EPA standards, especially in South-East of the region. The highest Nitrate concentrations in the first and second sampling in the polluted area were 189.1 and 248.3 mg per liters, respectively. In the first sampling 80.0% and in the second sampling 90.0% of wells were identified to have high concentration of Nitrate. The Nitrate pollution averages in the first and second sampling were 76.9 ppm and 93.1 ppm, respectively. Therefore, in order to apply this kind of fertilizer, proper management, scientific and practical control must be employed so that increasing concentration of Nitrate can be controlled

  16. A Commune-Level Groundwater Potential Map for the Republic of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Díaz-Alcaide

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater represents an essential resource in sub-Saharan Africa, where several hundred million people rely on aquifers for domestic supply. This paper presents a method to map groundwater potential in the Republic of Mali based on a spatially-distributed database of 26,040 boreholes. The database includes exhaustive information on key parameters such as borehole location, success rate of borehole production, depth, yield, static groundwater level or water quality. Representative variables were classified and interpreted jointly to develop a groundwater potential index for each of the 703 communes in Mali. This provides a methodological novelty because groundwater potential studies typically rely on indirect indicators such as lineaments, slope, soil moisture and landforms. Also, such large borehole databases have seldom been used to estimate groundwater potential. The highest indexes were obtained for the areas in and around the River Niger’s Inner Delta, including southern Tombouctou and the central parts of the Ségou and Mopti Regions. The lower Precambrian formations, which include the country’s thoroughly populated southern plateau, had moderate scores. The lowest groundwater potential was found in the northern part of the Kayes and Koulikoro Regions, as well as in the entire region of Kidal. By providing results at the commune scale, these outcomes show that groundwater potential across the country’s geological and hydrogeological units can be highly variable, and that local and regional-scale information may be useful for groundwater management purposes. These results are policy-relevant in a context of rapid change and population growth, where groundwater resources can be expected to be increasingly relied upon in the coming years.

  17. Engineered passive bioreactive barriers: risk-managing the legacy of industrial soil and groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Permeable reactive barriers are a technology that is one decade old, with most full-scale applications based on abiotic mechanisms. Though there is extensive literature on engineered bioreactors, natural biodegradation potential, and in situ remediation, it is only recently that engineered passive bioreactive barrier technology is being considered at the commercial scale to manage contaminated soil and groundwater risks. Recent full-scale studies are providing the scientific confidence in our understanding of coupled microbial (and genetic), hydrogeologic, and geochemical processes in this approach and have highlighted the need to further integrate engineering and science tools.

  18. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria are indicators of very recent human faecal pollution in streams and groundwater habitats in urban tropical lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria (SFB) proved to be an excellent indicator of very recent human faecal pollution (hours to days) in the investigated tropical stream and groundwater habitats. SFB were recovered from human faeces and sources potentially contaminated with human excreta. SFB were undetectable in animal faeces and environmental samples not contaminated with human faeces. Microcosm studies demonstrated a rapid die-off rate in groundwater (T90 value 0.6 days) and stream water (T90 value 0.9–1.7 days). Discrimination sensitivity analysis, including E. coli, faecal coliforms, total coliforms and Clostridium perfringens spores, revealed high ability of SFB to distinguish differing levels of faecal pollution especially for streams although high background levels of interfering bacteria can complicate its recovery on the used medium. Due to its faster die-off, as compared to many waterborne pathogens, SFB cannot replace microbiological standard parameters for routine water quality monitoring but it is highly recommendable as a specific and complementary tool when human faecal pollution has to be localized or verified. Because of its exclusive faecal origin and human specificity it seems also worthwhile to include SFB in future risk evaluation studies at tropical water resources in order to evaluate under which situations risks of infection may be indicated. PMID:20375476

  19. Transport and potential attenuation of nitrogen in shallow groundwaters in the lower Rangitikei catchment, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S; Singh, R; Rivas, A; Palmer, A; Horne, D; Manderson, A; Roygard, J; Matthews, A

    2017-11-01

    Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832km 2 ), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area. Concurrent river flow gaugings (in January 2015) and a piezometric map, developed from measured depths to groundwater in 110 bores (in October 2014), suggest groundwater discharges to the Rangitikei River in the upper parts of the study area, while there is groundwater recharge near the coast. The groundwater redox characterisation, based on sampling and analysis of 15 mostly shallow bores (shallow groundwater piezometers (3-6mbgl) using single-well push-pull tests. We found generally low levels (shallow groundwater piezometers (>5mbgl), despite being installed under intensive land uses, such as dairying and cropping. Our in-field push-pull tests showed NO 3 -N reduction at four shallow groundwater piezometers, with the rates of reduction varying from 0.04mgNL -1 h - 1 to 1.57mgNL -1 h - 1 . This highlights the importance of a sound understanding of not only the sources, but also transport and transformation, or fate, of nutrients leached from farms, to mitigate the likely impacts of land use on water quality and ecosystem health in agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential impacts of climate change and variability on groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aizebeokhai

    768 ... This is largely due to the risk it poses to the environment ... Nigeria, particularly in rural areas which rely on low-cost domestic ... influenced by groundwater flow under or around the dam. ... densely vegetated mangrove swamps in the south,.

  1. Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.

  2. Screening for exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from sub-tropical polluted groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUSCONI R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of exopolysaccharide (EPS -- producing bacterial strains was conducted in groundwater adjacent to an old controlled landfill in the City of São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil. The strains were isolated in P and E media under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions at 25ºC. A total of 26 strains were isolated and based on the mucoid mode of the colonies, 6 were selected and their morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects were characterized. All strains presented pigmentation, ranging from yellow to orange and from pink to salmon, with a shiny glistening aspect in all tested media. Strains Lb, Lc and Lg, which excelled the others with regard to the mucoid mode of the colonies, were selected to be cultured in E medium with alternate sucrose and glucose as carbon sources in anaerobiosis at 25ºC to analyze the production of EPS. Strains Lc and Lg were classified as being of order Actinomycelates, suborder Corynebacterineae. Lg strain was identified as Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Lc strain did not correspond to a known description and therefore a more detailed study is under preparation. Considering all ecological aspects and the metabolic potential associated with the microorganisms of the environment studied, as well as the capacity to produce pigment and EPS, and the presence of G. polyisoprenivorans, a rubber degrader bacterium, the potential of the groundwater analyzed is evident as a source of microorganisms to be utilized in studies related to environmental remediation.

  3. Assessing biosynthetic potential of agricultural groundwater through metagenomic sequencing: A diverse anammox community dominates nitrate-rich groundwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Ludington

    Full Text Available Climate change produces extremes in both temperature and precipitation causing increased drought severity and increased reliance on groundwater resources. Agricultural practices, which rely on groundwater, are sensitive to but also sources of contaminants, including nitrate. How agricultural contamination drives groundwater geochemistry through microbial metabolism is poorly understood.On an active cow dairy in the Central Valley of California, we sampled groundwater from three wells at depths of 4.3 m (two wells and 100 m (one well below ground surface (bgs as well as an effluent surface water lagoon that fertilizes surrounding corn fields. We analyzed the samples for concentrations of solutes, heavy metals, and USDA pathogenic bacteria of the Escherichia coli and Enterococcus groups as part of a long term groundwater monitoring study. Whole metagenome shotgun sequencing and assembly revealed taxonomic composition and metabolic potential of the community.Elevated nitrate and dissolved organic carbon occurred at 4.3m but not at 100m bgs. Metagenomics confirmed chemical observations and revealed several Planctomycete genomes, including a new Brocadiaceae lineage and a likely Planctomycetes OM190, as well novel diversity and high abundance of nano-prokaryotes from the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR, the Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, Nanohaloarchaea (DPANN and the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota (TACK superphyla. Pathway analysis suggests community interactions based on complimentary primary metabolic pathways and abundant secondary metabolite operons encoding antimicrobials and quorum sensing systems.The metagenomes show strong resemblance to activated sludge communities from a nitrogen removal reactor at a wastewater treatment plant, suggesting that natural bioremediation occurs through microbial metabolism. Elevated nitrate and rich secondary metabolite biosynthetic capacity suggest

  4. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Groundwater nitrate pollution and climate change: learnings from a water balance-based analysis of several aquifers in a western Mediterranean region (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Menció, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources. Besides the fact that climate change will represent a decrease of water availability, we qualitatively discuss the modifications that will result from the future climatic scenarios and their impact on nitrate pollution according to the geological setting of the selected aquifers. Climate effects in groundwater quality are described according to hydrological, environmental, socio-economic, and political concerns. Water reduction stands as a major issue that will control stream-aquifer interactions and subsurface recharge, leading to a general modification of nitrate in groundwater as dilution varies. A nitrate mass balance model provides a gross estimation of potential nitrate evolution in these aquifers, and it points out that the control of the fertilizer load will be crucial to achieve adequate nitrate content in groundwater. Reclaimed wastewater stands as local reliable resource, yet its amount will only satisfy a fraction of the loss of available resources due to climate change. Finally, an integrated management perspective is necessary to avoid unplanned actions from private initiatives that will jeopardize the achievement of sustainable water resources exploitation under distinct hydrological scenarios.

  6. Cognitive Effects of Air Pollution Exposures and Potential Mechanistic Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J L; Klocke, C; Morris-Schaffer, K; Conrad, K; Sobolewski, M; Cory-Slechta, D A

    2017-06-01

    This review sought to address the potential for air pollutants to impair cognition and mechanisms by which that might occur. Air pollution has been associated with deficits in cognitive functions across a wide range of epidemiological studies, both with developmental and adult exposures. Studies in animal models are significantly more limited in number, with somewhat inconsistent findings to date for measures of learning, but show more consistent impairments for short-term memory. Potential contributory mechanisms include oxidative stress/inflammation, altered levels of dopamine and/or glutamate, and changes in synaptic plasticity/structure. Epidemiological studies are consistent with adverse effects of air pollutants on cognition, but additional studies and better phenotypic characterization are needed for animal models, including more precise delineation of specific components of cognition that are affected, as well as definitions of critical exposure periods for such effects and the components of air pollution responsible. This would permit development of more circumscribed hypotheses as to potential behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms.

  7. Removal of pollutants from surface water and groundwater by nanofiltration: overview of possible applications in the drinking water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggen, Bart van der; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    The nanofiltration system has many potential uses in removing chemical and biological contaminants from water. - During the last decade, nanofiltration (NF) made a breakthrough in drinking water production for the removal of pollutants. The combination of new standards for drinking water quality and the steady improvement of the nanofiltration process have led to new insights, possible applications and new projects on lab-scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. This paper offers an overview of the applications in the drinking water industry that have already been realised or that are suggested on the basis of lab-scale research. Applications can be found in the treatment of surface water as well as groundwater. The possibility of using NF for the removal of hardness, natural organic material (NOM), micropollutants such as pesticides and VOCs, viruses and bacteria, salinity, nitrates, and arsenic will be discussed. Some of these applications have proven to be reliable and can be considered as known techniques; other applications are still studied on laboratory scale. Modelling is difficult due to effects of fouling and interaction between different components. The current insight in the separation mechanisms will be briefly discussed

  8. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is the pyrolysis product of biomass, preferably from agricultural and forestry residues and waste materials. Characterized by a polyaromatic structure rich in carbon, it offers a microporous structure with a high specific surface area and active functional groups as binding sites. Because of the high sorption capacity for organic and inorganic soil pollutants biochar is an interesting tool for in-situ soil remediation. Especially if the reduction of contaminant bioavailability and the protection of groundwater from pollutants in the vadose zone are the most relevant issues for remediating a polluted site without excavation and removal of the soil, an in-situ application of biochar may offer a promising remediation strategy. The resulting interest of deploying biochar as sorbent for soil contaminants has stimulated a wealth of studies to develop successful applications for environmental technology. However, the existing studies do not always agree on the efficacy for different pollutants and on the most relevant char and soil characteristics that determine the rate of success when using biochar as sorbent. This makes it necessary to apply advanced literature assessment techniques to allow for the recognition of the extent and the significance of the efficacy of a given pollutant treatment technique. A meta-analysis is a study assessment technique that allows extracting a harmonized answer to a specific research question that has been studied more often than one time, even if the results are partially conflicting. Such a technique also allows getting an overview about the degree of consensus or contradiction in the answers to the question if biochar can be applied successfully for immobilizing certain soil contaminants. The meta-analysis results can also be used to quantify the average extent of effects of a certain treatment, depending on the characteristics of the sorbent and on the application rate. By checking 104 published papers in the peer

  9. Catchment tracers reveal discharge, recharge and sources of groundwater-borne pollutants in a novel lake modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kristensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater-borne contaminants such as nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM and pesticides can have an impact the biological quality of lakes. The sources of pollutants can, however, be difficult to identify due to high heterogeneity in groundwater flow patterns. This study presents a novel approach for fast hydrological surveys of small groundwater-fed lakes using multiple groundwater-borne tracers. Water samples were collected from the lake and temporary groundwater wells, installed every 50 m within a distance of 5–45 m to the shore, were analysed for tracer concentrations of CDOM, DOC, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, groundwater only, total nitrogen (TN, lake only, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP, groundwater only, total phosphorus (TP, lake only, δ18O ∕ δ16O isotope ratios and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM components derived from parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The isolation of groundwater recharge areas was based on δ18O measurements and areas with a high groundwater recharge rate were identified using a microbially influenced FDOM component. Groundwater discharge sites and the fractions of water delivered from the individual sites were isolated with the Community Assembly via Trait Selection model (CATS. The CATS model utilized tracer measurements of TDP, TDN, DOC and CDOM from the groundwater samples and related these to the tracer measurements of TN, TP, DOC and CDOM in the lake. A direct comparison between the lake and the inflowing groundwater was possible as degradation rates of the tracers in the lake were taken into account and related to a range of water retention times (WRTs of the lake (0.25–3.5 years in 0.25-year increments. These estimations showed that WRTs above 2 years required a higher tracer concentration of inflowing water than found in any of the groundwater wells around the lake. From the estimations of inflowing tracer concentration

  10. Catchment tracers reveal discharge, recharge and sources of groundwater-borne pollutants in a novel lake modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Emil; Madsen-Østerbye, Mikkel; Massicotte, Philippe; Pedersen, Ole; Markager, Stiig; Kragh, Theis

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater-borne contaminants such as nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and pesticides can have an impact the biological quality of lakes. The sources of pollutants can, however, be difficult to identify due to high heterogeneity in groundwater flow patterns. This study presents a novel approach for fast hydrological surveys of small groundwater-fed lakes using multiple groundwater-borne tracers. Water samples were collected from the lake and temporary groundwater wells, installed every 50 m within a distance of 5-45 m to the shore, were analysed for tracer concentrations of CDOM, DOC, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN, groundwater only), total nitrogen (TN, lake only), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP, groundwater only), total phosphorus (TP, lake only), δ18O / δ16O isotope ratios and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) components derived from parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The isolation of groundwater recharge areas was based on δ18O measurements and areas with a high groundwater recharge rate were identified using a microbially influenced FDOM component. Groundwater discharge sites and the fractions of water delivered from the individual sites were isolated with the Community Assembly via Trait Selection model (CATS). The CATS model utilized tracer measurements of TDP, TDN, DOC and CDOM from the groundwater samples and related these to the tracer measurements of TN, TP, DOC and CDOM in the lake. A direct comparison between the lake and the inflowing groundwater was possible as degradation rates of the tracers in the lake were taken into account and related to a range of water retention times (WRTs) of the lake (0.25-3.5 years in 0.25-year increments). These estimations showed that WRTs above 2 years required a higher tracer concentration of inflowing water than found in any of the groundwater wells around the lake. From the estimations of inflowing tracer concentration, the CATS model isolated

  11. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Velocity Potential in Engineering Hydraulics versus Force Potential in Groundwater Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, K.

    2013-12-01

    Within engineering practice, the calculation of subsurface flow is dominated by the mathematical pseudo-physics of the engineer's adaptation of continuum methods to mechanics. Continuum mechanics rose to prominence in the 19th century in an successful attempt to solve practical engineering problems. To that end were put in place quite a number of simplifications in geometry and the properties of water and other fluids, as well as simplifications of Darcy's equation, in order to find reasonable answers to practical problems by making use of analytical equations. The proof of the correctness of the approach and its usefulness was in the practicability of results obtained. In the 1930s, a diametrically-opposed duality developed in the theoretical derivation of the laws of subsurface fluid flow between Muskat's (1937) velocity potential (engineering hydraulics) and Hubbert's (1940) force potential. The conflict between these authors lasted a lifetime. In the end Hubbert stated on one occasion that Muskat formulates a refined mathematics but does not know what it means in physical terms. In this author's opinion that can still be said about the application of continuum mechanics by engineers to date, as for example to CO2 sequestration, regional groundwater flow, oil sands work, and geothermal studies. To date, engineering hydraulics is best represented by Bear (1972) and de Marsily (1986). In their well-known textbooks, both authors refer to Hubbert's work as the proper way to deal with the physics of compressible fluids. Water is a compressible fluid. The authors then ignore, however, their own insights (de Marsily states so explicitly, Bear does not) and proceed to deal with water as an incompressible fluid. At places both authors assume the pressure gradients to be the main driving force for flow of fluids in the subsurface. That is not, however, the case. Instead the pressure potential forces are caused by compression initiated by unused gravitational energy not

  13. Role of groundwater oxidation potential and radiolysis on waste glass performance in crystalline repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that groundwater conditions in a granite repository will be as reducing as those in a basalt repository. Chemical analysis of the reduced groundwaters confirmed that the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ couple controls the oxidation potential (Eh). The reducing groundwater conditions were found to decrease the time-dependent release of soluble elements (Li and B) from the waste glass. However, due to the lower solubility of multivalent elements released from the glass when the groundwaters are reducing, these elements have significantly lower concentrations in the leachates. Gamma radiolysis reduced the oxidation potential of both granitic and basaltic groundwater in the absence of both waste glass and oxygen. This occurred in tests at atmospheric pressure where H 2 could have escaped from the solution. The mechanism for this decrease in Eh is under investigation but appears related to the reactive amorphous precipitate in both groundwaters. The results of these tests suggest that radiolysis may not cause the groundwaters to become oxidizing in a crystalline repository when abundant Fe 2+ species are present

  14. Nitrate pollution of a karstic groundwater system in Svaty Jan Pod Skalou, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Kadlecova, R.; Zak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Due to increasing agricultural activity after the 1960's both shallow and deep water resources in the Czech Republic including karstic systems have been contaminated by infiltrating nitrate. Nitrate content of one of the largest spring (19L/s) now varies from 50 to 60 mg/L. To specify the sources of nitrate pollution and collect sufficient data for the prediction of possible future development, flow dynamics, chemical and isotopic composition (δ 18 O in water, δ 15 N in nitrate) were monitored in the spring and precipitation together with potential sources of pollution (fertilizers, solutes in soil profile). Observed data were modelled by a simple mixing cell model to specify system parameters (volume and mean residence time). (author)

  15. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than -200mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150mg/L at the inlet to ∼300mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10 5 to 10 7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of sites potentially polluted by radioactive substances - Methodological guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This document is the update of the 'methodological guidelines for the management of industrial areas potentially contaminated by radioactive substances', published in 2001 by IRSN. Revisions intended to bring coherence between management of areas polluted by radioactive substances and the general policy applied to polluted sites described in a document published in February 2007 by the French Ministry in charge of Environment. Requirements introduced both by the law relative to waste management of June 28, 2006 and the ministerial order of 17 November 2008 were introduced. The involvement of all stakeholders during the process was stressed. The updating, mainly lead to introduce a clear distinction between polluted areas where uses are established and those without use or at redevelopment stage. When the uses are established, an 'Interpretation of the condition of environment' is conducted. Alternatively, the remediation process follows a 'management plan'. The revision also led to the disappearance of the 'doubt removal' phase which has been incorporated as an entire part in the site characterisation. Among other significant changes, it may be noted the evolution of the 'risk assessment' tools from simplified risk assessment and detailed risk assessment to a single tool allowing the quantitative assessment of exposure (EQER). Finally, the guidelines highlight stakeholder involvement in identifying the different participants and in reminding the benefits of a consultative approach. Whatever the remediation process: interpretation of the condition of environment or management plan; site characterisation is required as soon as a pollution is suspected. It includes literature reviews and field investigations primarily to confirm or deny the presence of pollution and, where appropriate, to determine its location, nature and level. The effort accorded to site characterisation must be proportionate to identified issues. The first step consists in comparing the

  17. Investigation of the mobilizability of persistent pollutants in the system groundwater/soil/plant of a former fen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.; Goertz, W.; Leisner-Saaber, J.; Rathje, M.

    1993-01-01

    For a former fen situated at the eastern border of the Lower terraces of the river Rhine in the close neighbourhood of densely populated urban districts a biotope-managementplan suggests the rewetting and restauration of typical landscape forms. High concentrations of heavy metals and low pH-values of the soil imply a potential danger especially for the groundwater. In order to solve this conflict between the aims of protecting rare biotopes and of saving groundwater-resources investigations were carried out considering all environmental compartments concerned: groundwater, surfacewater, soil and plants. The results demonstate that a step-by-step rewetting of the area is possible without a previous exchange of soil. In addition, careful groundwater control has to be carried out. (orig.) [de

  18. Coordinated research programme on the application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution final research coordination meeting and consultants' meeting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.; Chilton, J.; Travi, Y.; Gerardo-Abaya, J.

    1998-02-01

    This document summarizes the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution. Summaries of 16 completed investigations are given. The completed investigations resulted to the application of 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 34 S, 15 N and boron isotopes integrated to some extend with the classical hydrological tools. These studies have broadly confirmed the use of isotope techniques on two main ways: a) to assist in the interpretation of groundwater flow systems; b) to act as tracers of the origin and pathways of ta range of groundwater pollutants. Several important aspects have become clear in the CRP: it is advisable not to rely on single isotopes, but to combine where possible the use of more than one, particularly oxygen with nitrogen and sulfur; it is essential to integrate isotope techniques with conventional hydrochemistry; trace elements have an important role to play in an integrated approach to the interpretation of contamination sources and pathways. This CRP should be regarded as a stepping stone, considering that the magnitude of the problem of groundwater pollution is enormous in global terms. In order to have an impact on the understanding of groundwater pollution, the need is seen for follow-up by several CRPs targeted at specific areas or problems. Of priorities are: a) urban waste, both human and industrial; b) the origin of saline groundwater; and c) nitrate in groundwater in both agricultural and urban areas

  19. The potential for phosphorus pollution remediation by calcite precipitation in UK freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the potential for calcium carbonate to reduce phosphate pollution in freshwaters by co-precipitation, a process known as a "self cleansing mechanism". Calcium carbonate saturation levels and phosphate concentrations (SRP - soluble reactive phosphate across the major eastern UK river basins are examined to test for solubility controls. The study shows that calcite saturation varies for each catchment as a function of flow and biological activity rather than by direct regulation by SRP. Indeed, there is no evidence, for any of the rivers studied, that calcite solubility controls hold. However, for groundwater and groundwater-fed springs in the Chalk of the Thames basin, calcite saturation is observed with associated low SRP levels. A self-cleansing mechanism may well be operative within the Chalk due to two factors. Firstly, there is a high potential for nucleation on the calcite micro-crystals in the aquifer. Secondly, there are within aquifer reactions that remove the calcite nucleating inhibitors (SRP and dissolved organic carbon, DOC to levels lower than those occurring within the rivers do. These inhibitors enter the catchment at very high concentrations in association with agricultural pollution (fertilizer application and animal slurry and household contamination (e.g. sewage sources from septic tanks. Under low flow conditions, when the saturation index for calcite is at its highest, so too is the concentration of the nucleation inhibitor SRP. Companion work shows that calcite precipitation can occur at the water-sediment interface of the river and this may involve SRP removal. The data, as a whole, define an apparent bound for calcite solubility control where in the presence of nucleating centres, SRP must be less than 4 mM-P l-1 and DOC must be less than 150 mM-C l-1: a condition that does not seem to pertain within most UK rivers. Keywords: calcite, calcium carbonate, phosphate, soluble reactive phosphate, dissolved

  20. Study of the pollution impact from wastewater reuse for irrigation on the groundwater of the quaternary aquifer, west cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.; Ahmed, M.A.; Hassan, H.B.; Hamza, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The hazards resulting from the extensive application of using sewage and drainage effluent in its form or mixing with fresh water from two sewerage stations(Zenin and Abu-Rawash) for agriculture irrigation were studied by means of chemical, isotopic and biological techniques. The hydrochemical results of major chemical constituents of surface water samples fall in the acceptable range for using this water for irrigation, while minor groups (NO 3 , PO 4 ) and heavy metals measurements showed higher values of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pb in the mixed water more than the maximum permissible limits. The collected groundwater samples from the area of study showed high values of the total dissolved solids, minor groups and heavy metals in most wells around Zenin and abu Rawash sewerage stations. These values increase in the direction of the groundwater flow from south-east to north-west. The isotopic enrichment of delta 18 O, delta D enhanced with tritium values for surface and groundwater samples confirms the direct replenishment from surface and groundwater samples confirms the direct replenishment from surface water bodies by downward infiltration to the underlying aquifer, which permits the migration of wastewater contaminants through the soil layers to reach the groundwater level. The influence of wastewater infiltration was also detected from the high counting numbers of microbes obtained in all samples, which selected from some drains and wells close to the sewerage stations. From the previous results the real hazards for using this water not only depend on the quantitative estimates of total major ions, but the harmful pathogenic attack of micro and macro organisms as well as heavy metals will pose the greatest risk to the human health. On the long run the infiltration of the polluted water will threat the groundwater to different depths of the shallow layer of the quaternary aquifer that is the only source of potable water supply in some locations

  1. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  2. Adsorptive properties of alluvial soil for arsenic(V) and its potential for protection of the shallow groundwater among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Mei, Jinhua; Luo, Yueping; Qiu, Anni; Wang, Huan

    2017-02-01

    The study area is among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, which was under agricultural use and natural conditions about 10 years ago and now is becoming part of the metropolis because of the urban expansion. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms and capabilities of the local alluvial soil layer for protecting the local shallow groundwater from arsenic pollution by field surveys and batch experiments. The field surveys showed that there was an acidic tendency of the groundwater, and phosphate, nitrate, and arsenic in the groundwater significantly increased comparing to their reference values. It indicates that the disturbance of the former agricultural land due to the change of land use may be responsible for these changes. From the experimental results, the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil for As(V) was as low as 0.334 mg/g, and lower As(V) adsorption capacities were obtained at higher As(V) concentration, higher pH, and lower temperature. The presence of H 2 PO 4 - and SiO 3 2- posed negative, while HCO 3 - slight positive, and SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and Cl - negligible influences on the As(V) adsorption. The surface-derived organic matter played a negative role in the adsorption process, and low specific surface area influenced adsorption capacity of the soil. The study reveals that the local soil layer shows poor potential for protection of the local shallow groundwater from As(V) pollution, and the change trends of the groundwater environments due to more intensive anthropogenic activities will further weaken this potential and increase the risk of the groundwater contamination.

  3. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer, E-mail: odahan@bgu.ac.il; Ronen, Zeev, E-mail: zeevrone@bgu.ac.il

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  4. Using the natural biodegradation potential of shallow soils for in-situ remediation of deep vadose zone and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Lior; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated in-situ remediation treatment for soil, vadose zone and groundwater. • Turning the topsoil into an efficient bioreactor for perchlorate degradation. • Treating perchlorate leachate from the deep vadose zone in the topsoil. • Zero effluents discharge from the remediation process. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the ability of top soil to degrade perchlorate from infiltrating polluted groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Column experiments designed to simulate typical remediation operation of daily wetting and draining cycles of contaminated water amended with an electron donor. Covering the infiltration area with bentonite ensured anaerobic conditions. The soil remained unsaturated, and redox potential dropped to less than −200 mV. Perchlorate was reduced continuously from ∼1150 mg/L at the inlet to ∼300 mg/L at the outlet in daily cycles. Removal efficiency was between 60 and 84%. No signs of bioclogging were observed during three operation months although occasional iron reduction observed due to excess electron donor. Changes in perchlorate reducing bacteria numbers were inferred from an increased in pcrA gene abundances from ∼10"5 to 10"7 copied per gram at the end of the experiment indicating the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria. We proposed that the topsoil may serve as a bioreactor to treat high concentrations of perchlorate from the contaminated groundwater. The treated water that infiltrates from the topsoil through the vadose zone could be used to flush perchlorate from the deep vadose zone into the groundwater where it is retrieved again for treatment in the topsoil.

  5. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches .... The overall 'pollution potential' or DRASTIC index is established by applying the formula: DRASTIC Index: ... affected by the structure of the soil surface.

  6. Potential impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Central Huai Luang Basin, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholkern, Kewaree; Saraphirom, Phayom; Srisuk, Kriengsak

    2018-08-15

    The Central Huai Luang Basin is one of the important rice producing areas of Udon Thani Province in Northeastern Thailand. The basin is underlain by the rock salt layers of the Maha Sarakham Formation and is the source of saline groundwater and soil salinity. The regional and local groundwater flow systems are the major mechanisms responsible for spreading saline groundwater and saline soils in this basin. Climate change may have an impact on groundwater recharge, on water table depth and the consequences of waterlogging, and on the distribution of soil salinity in this basin. Six future climate conditions from the SEACAM and CanESM2 models were downscaled to investigate the potential impact of future climate conditions on groundwater quantity and quality in this basin. The potential impact was investigated by using a set of numerical models, namely HELP3 and SEAWAT, to estimate the groundwater recharge and flow and the salt transport of groundwater simulation, respectively. The results revealed that within next 30years (2045), the future average annual temperature is projected to increase by 3.1°C and 2.2°C under SEACAM and CanESM2 models, respectively, while the future precipitation is projected to decrease by 20.85% under SEACAM and increase by 18.35% under the CanESM2. Groundwater recharge is projected to increase under the CanESM2 model and to slightly decrease under the SEACAM model. Moreover, for all future climate conditions, the depths of the groundwater water table are projected to continuously increase. The results showed the impact of climate change on salinity distribution for both the deep and shallow groundwater systems. The salinity distribution areas are projected to increase by about 8.08% and 56.92% in the deep and shallow groundwater systems, respectively. The waterlogging areas are also projected to expand by about 63.65% from the baseline period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  8. Spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a century-old nonferrous metal mining and smelting area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xing; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-12-01

    This study first presents the spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a nonferrous metal mine area in China. Unconfined groundwater was polluted by Pb, Zn, As, and Cu, in order, while confined karst water in the mines showed pollution in the following sequence: Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, and As. Pollution by Pb was widespread, while Zn, As, Cu, and Cd were found to be high in the north-central industrial region and to decrease gradually with distance from smelters and tailings. Vertically, more Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have accumulated in shallow Quaternary groundwater, while more As have migrated into the deeper fracture groundwater in the local discharge area. Zn, Cd, and Cu concentrations in groundwater along the riverside diminished owing to reduced wastewater drainage since 1977, while samples in the confluence area were found to have increasing contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cu, and Cd since industrialization began in the 1990s. Sources of heavy metals in groundwater were of anthropogenic origin except for Cr. Pb originated primarily from airborne volatile particulates, wastewater, and waste residues and deposited continuously, while Zn, Cd, and Cu were derived from the wastewater of smelters and leakage of tailings, which corresponded to the related soil and surface residue researches. Elevated As values around factories might be the result of chemical reactions. Flow patterns in different hydrogeological units and adsorption capability of from Quaternary sediments restricted their cross-border diffusion.

  9. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  10. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-07-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective.

  11. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  12. Assessing groundwater depletion and dynamics using GRACE and InSAR: Potential and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Galloway, Devin L.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing of the temporal variation of ground level and gravity has improved our understanding of groundwater dynamics and storage. Mass changes are measured by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, whereas ground deformation is measured by processing synthetic aperture radar satellites data using the InSAR (Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques. Both methods are complementary and offer different sensitivities to aquifer system processes. GRACE is sensitive to mass changes over large spatial scales (more than 100,000 km2). As such, it fails in providing groundwater storage change estimates at local or regional scales relevant to most aquifer systems, and at which most groundwater management schemes are applied. However, InSAR measures ground displacement due to aquifer response to fluid-pressure changes. InSAR applications to groundwater depletion assessments are limited to aquifer systems susceptible to measurable deformation. Furthermore, the inversion of InSAR-derived displacement maps into volume of depleted groundwater storage (both reversible and largely irreversible) is confounded by vertical and horizontal variability of sediment compressibility. During the last decade, both techniques have shown increasing interest in the scientific community to complement available in situ observations where they are insufficient. In this review, we present the theoretical and conceptual bases of each method, and present idealized scenarios to highlight the potential benefits and challenges of combining these techniques to remotely assess groundwater storage changes and other aspects of the dynamics of aquifer systems.

  13. Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

  14. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  15. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halas, S.; Trembaczowski, A.; Soltyk, W.

    1998-01-01

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO 4 2- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO 4 2- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  16. Groundwater and quaternary geological studies of potential peat production areas - useful tool for sustainable peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valpola, S.E.; Paalijaervi, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), Email: samu.valpola@gtk.fi, Email: miikka.paalijarvi@gtk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Potential peat production areas in Finland are often situated in vicinity of eskers or other quaternary (glaciofluvial) formations. Frequently these formations are also important groundwater resources and it is essential for sustainable peat production to assure that these resources will not be endangered. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has concluded several quaternary geological studies on potential peat production areas, which are connected to locally important groundwater areas. These studies have been made using mainly ground penetrating radar (GPR) and light drilling equipment. The main objective of these studies has been to establish the local groundwater flow directions and the quality and extent of quaternary deposits. The increasing need of peat production areas has created an evident demand of cost-effective and fast research methods which can be used for providing reliable information for planning of new production areas. (orig.)

  17. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water requirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Hambantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, lithology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49% of Ambalantota area.

  18. Analysis of the functional gene structure and metabolic potential of microbial community in high arsenic groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Yanhong; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Yuan, Tong; Liu, Han; Wei, Dazhun; Zhou, Jizhong

    2017-10-15

    Microbial functional potential in high arsenic (As) groundwater ecosystems remains largely unknown. In this study, the microbial community functional composition of nineteen groundwater samples was investigated using a functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0). Samples were divided into low and high As groups based on the clustering analysis of geochemical parameters and microbial functional structures. The results showed that As related genes (arsC, arrA), sulfate related genes (dsrA and dsrB), nitrogen cycling related genes (ureC, amoA, and hzo) and methanogen genes (mcrA, hdrB) in groundwater samples were correlated with As, SO 4 2- , NH 4 + or CH 4 concentrations, respectively. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results indicated that some geochemical parameters including As, total organic content, SO 4 2- , NH 4 + , oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH were important factors shaping the functional microbial community structures. Alkaline and reducing conditions with relatively low SO 4 2- , ORP, and high NH 4 + , as well as SO 4 2- and Fe reduction and ammonification involved in microbially-mediated geochemical processes could be associated with As enrichment in groundwater. This study provides an overall picture of functional microbial communities in high As groundwater aquifers, and also provides insights into the critical role of microorganisms in As biogeochemical cycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of GIS, Electromagnetic and Electrical Methods in the Delimitation of Groundwater Polluted by Effluent Discharge (Salamanca, Spain: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Vidal Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work envisages the possible geometry of a contaminated plume of groundwater near hospital facilities by combining GIS (Geographic Information System and geophysical methods. The rock underlying the soil and thin sedimentary cover of the study area is moderately fractured quartzite, which makes aquifers vulnerable to pollution. The GIS methodology is used to calculate the area that would be affected by the effluent source of residual water, based on algorithms that consider ground surface mapping (slopes, orientations, accumulated costs and cost per distance. Geophysical methods (electromagnetic induction and electric resistivity tomography use changes in the electrical conductivity or resistivity of the subsurface to determine the geometry of the discharge and the degree of contamination. The model presented would allow a preliminary investigation regarding potential corrective measures.

  20. Integration of GIS, Electromagnetic and Electrical Methods in the Delimitation of Groundwater Polluted by Effluent Discharge (Salamanca, Spain): A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Rubén Vidal; Martínez-Graña, Antonio Miguel; Martínez Catalán, José Ramón; Arribas, Puy Ayarza; Sánchez San Román, Francisco Javier; Zazo, Caridad

    2017-11-10

    The present work envisages the possible geometry of a contaminated plume of groundwater near hospital facilities by combining GIS (Geographic Information System) and geophysical methods. The rock underlying the soil and thin sedimentary cover of the study area is moderately fractured quartzite, which makes aquifers vulnerable to pollution. The GIS methodology is used to calculate the area that would be affected by the effluent source of residual water, based on algorithms that consider ground surface mapping (slopes, orientations, accumulated costs and cost per distance). Geophysical methods (electromagnetic induction and electric resistivity tomography) use changes in the electrical conductivity or resistivity of the subsurface to determine the geometry of the discharge and the degree of contamination. The model presented would allow a preliminary investigation regarding potential corrective measures.

  1. A coupled stochastic inverse-management framework for dealing with nonpoint agriculture pollution under groundwater parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Palacios-Marqués, Daniel; Merigó, José M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a methodology for the stochastic management of groundwater quality problems is presented, which can be used to provide agricultural advisory services. A stochastic algorithm to solve the coupled flow and mass transport inverse problem is combined with a stochastic management approach to develop methods for integrating uncertainty; thus obtaining more reliable policies on groundwater nitrate pollution control from agriculture. The stochastic inverse model allows identifying non-Gaussian parameters and reducing uncertainty in heterogeneous aquifers by constraining stochastic simulations to data. The management model determines the spatial and temporal distribution of fertilizer application rates that maximizes net benefits in agriculture constrained by quality requirements in groundwater at various control sites. The quality constraints can be taken, for instance, by those given by water laws such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Furthermore, the methodology allows providing the trade-off between higher economic returns and reliability in meeting the environmental standards. Therefore, this new technology can help stakeholders in the decision-making process under an uncertainty environment. The methodology has been successfully applied to a 2D synthetic aquifer, where an uncertainty assessment has been carried out by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  2. Assessment of groundwater pollution from the oxidation ponds in tenth of Ramadan city, using isotopic techniques and hydrogeological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Samie, S.G.; Sadek, M.A.; Mahmoud, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    The tenth of ramadan city is an intensive industrial settement on the peripheries of cairo. All types of wastewater from industrial and domestic practices are discharged into three unlined oxidation ponds to eliminate pollutants. The present srudy has been conduted to assess the extent of seepage to groundwater from the ponds and how efficient they are for pollution reduction. The chemical composition is more developed in the groundwater of the miocene aquifer due to the less active recharge and the dominance of readily dissolved salts that interact with the inflow. The seepage from ismailia canal and the excess irrigation from agricultural lands and the infiltration from the oxidation ponds as well as the upleaked water represent the main sources of recharge in the quaternary aquifer. The chemical and isotopic composition of the water in the oxidation ponds is controlled by the nature of the drained water and the geochemical processes affecting the solute content. The isotopic enrichment differs for the three ponds being related to the evaporation intensity in each

  3. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water. © 2013.

  4. Iron cycling potentials of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh as revealed by enrichment cultivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.; Sultana, M.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Khan, S.I.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    The activities of iron-oxidizing and reducing microorganisms impact the fate of arsenic in groundwater. Phylogenetic information cannot exclusively be used to infer the potential for iron oxidation or reduction in aquifers. Therefore, we complemented a previous cultivation-independent microbial

  5. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro...

  6. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delineation of groundwater development potential zones in parts of marginal Ganga Alluvial Plain in South Bihar, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Dhar, Y R; Vittala, S S

    2010-06-01

    A part of the Gangetic Alluvial Plain covering 2,228 km(2), in the state of Bihar, is studied for demarcating groundwater development potential zones. The area is mainly agrarian and experiencing intensive groundwater draft to the tune of 0.12 million cubic metre per square kilometres per year from the Quaternary marginal alluvial deposits, unconformably overlain northerly sloping Precambrian bedrock. Multiparametric data on groundwater comprising water level, hydraulic gradient (pre- and post-monsoon), aquifer thickness, permeability, suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation and groundwater resources vs. draft are spatially analysed and integrated on a Geographical Information System platform to generate thematic layers. By integrating these layers, three zones have been delineated based on groundwater development potential. It is inferred that about 48% of the area covering northern part has high development potential, while medium and low development potential category covers 41% of the area. Further increase in groundwater extraction is not recommended for an area of 173 km(2), affected by over-exploitation. The replenishable groundwater resource available for further extraction has been estimated. The development potential enhances towards north with increase in thickness of sediments. Local deviations are due to variation of-(1) cumulative thickness of aquifers, (2) deeper water level resulting from localised heavy groundwater extraction and (3) aquifer permeability.

  8. Groundwater exploration by self-potential method; Shizen den`iho ni yoru chikasui tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onaru, I; Irie, S; Mizunaga, H; Ushijima, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes results measured from the field experiments and data analysis of the groundwater exploration by self-potential method. The field survey was conducted in the vicinity of spring water source in the suburbs of Fukuoka City. For the field experiments, potential differences from the standard potential electrode set at the distance about 200 m were measured at multi-points, simultaneously. For the laboratory experiments, assuming that the groundwater flows in a permeable layer, streaming potential change was observed against the changes of flow rate and electrical conductivity. Thus, the generation of streaming potential was investigated. For the experiment using specimens obtained at the spring water source, the potential changed to negative and was stabilized in around -80 mV after 15 minutes. Numerical simulation was conducted by means of the three-dimensional finite difference method using parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments. From these results, the groundwater flow image could be obtained. It was also confirmed that the self-potential observed in the spring water source area was caused by the streaming potential. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Deciphering groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geospatial technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran A; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas A

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. This paper mainly deals with the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain. Digitized vector maps pertaining to chosen parameters, viz. geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, lineament, relief, and drainage, were converted to raster data using 23 m×23 m grid cell size. Moreover, curvature of the study area was also considered while manipulating the spatial data. The raster maps of these parameters were assigned to their respective theme weight and class weights. The individual theme weight was multiplied by its respective class weight and then all the raster thematic layers were aggregated in a linear combination equation in Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module. Moreover, the weighted layers were statistically modeled to get the areal extent of groundwater prospects with respect to each thematic layer. The final result depicts the favorable prospective zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources especially in hard rock terrains.

  10. Nitrogen fate in a subtropical mangrove swamp: Potential association with seawater-groundwater exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wu, Jiapeng; Li, Hailong; Hong, Yiguo; Wilson, Alicia M; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shananan, Meghan

    2018-04-18

    Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics. Salinity and hydraulic head measurements taken along the transect were used to estimate the exchange rates between seawater and groundwater over a spring-neap tidal cycle. Results showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred within the tidal creek zone, which facilitated high-oxygen seawater infiltration and subsequent nitrification. In contrast, the lowest exchange rate found in the mangrove zone caused over-loading of organic matter and longer groundwater residence times. This created an anoxic environment conducive to nitrogen loss through the anammox and denitrification processes. Potential oxidation rates of ammonia and nitrite were measured by the rapid and high-throughput method and rates of denitrification and anammox were measured by the modified membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with isotope pairing, respectively. In the whole transect, denitrification accounted for 90% of the total nitrogen loss, and anammox accounted for the remaining 10%. The average nitrogen removal rate was about 2.07g per day per cubic meter of mangrove sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic pollution of groundwater in Vietnam exacerbated by deep aquifer exploitation for more than a century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Lenny H. E.; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Stengel, Caroline; Amini, Manouchehr; Ha, Nguyen Thi; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow groundwater is among the biggest health threats in the developing world. Targeting uncontaminated deep aquifers is a popular mitigation option although its long-term impact remains unknown. Here we present the alarming results of a large-scale groundwater survey covering the entire Red River Delta and a unique probability model based on three-dimensional Quaternary geology. Our unprecedented dataset reveals that ∼7 million delta inhabitants use groundwater contaminated with toxic elements, including manganese, selenium, and barium. Depth-resolved probabilities and arsenic concentrations indicate drawdown of arsenic-enriched waters from Holocene aquifers to naturally uncontaminated Pleistocene aquifers as a result of > 100 years of groundwater abstraction. Vertical arsenic migration induced by large-scale pumping from deep aquifers has been discussed to occur elsewhere, but has never been shown to occur at the scale seen here. The present situation in the Red River Delta is a warning for other As-affected regions where groundwater is extensively pumped from uncontaminated aquifers underlying high arsenic aquifers or zones. PMID:21245347

  12. Assessing aquifer vulnerability from lumped parameter modeling of modern water proportions in groundwater mixtures - Application to nitrate pollution in California's South Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, B.; Ruane, M.; Clark, N.

    2017-12-01

    In California, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and manure in agriculture have caused nitrate (NO3) to be one of the state's most widespread groundwater pollutants. Given that nitrogen fertilizer applications have steadily increased since the 1950s and given that soil percolation and recharge transit times in California can exceed timescales of decades, the nitrate impact on groundwater resources is likely a legacy for years and even decades to come. This study presents a methodology for groundwater vulnerability assessment that operates independently of difficult-to-constrain soil and aquifer property data (i.e., saturated thickness, texture, porosity, conductivity, etc.), but rather utilizes groundwater age and, more importantly, groundwater mixing information to illustrate actual vulnerability at the water table. To accomplish this, the modern (i.e., less than 60-year old) water proportion (MWP) in groundwater mixtures is computed via lumped parameter modeling of chemical tracer (i.e., 3H, 14C and 3Hetrit) data. These MWPs are then linked to groundwater dissolved oxygen (DO) values to describe the risk for soil zone-derived nitrate to accumulate in the saturated zone. Preliminary studies carried out for 71 wells in California's South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit reveal MWP values derived from binary dispersion models of 3.24% to 21.8%. The fact that high MWPs generally coincide with oxic (DO ≥1.5 mg/L) groundwater conditions underscores the risk towards increased groundwater NO3 pollution for many of the tested wells. These results support the conclusion that best agricultural management and policy objectives should incorporate groundwater vulnerability models that are developed at the same spatial scale as the decision making.

  13. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    H. Biabi; H. Mohammadi; L. Abolhassani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic siz...

  14. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  15. Source apportionment of groundwater pollution around landfill site in Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Deshpande, Vijaya

    2005-12-01

    The present work attempts statistical analysis of groundwater quality near a Landfill site in Nagpur, India. The objective of the present work is to figure out the impact of different factors on the quality of groundwater in the study area. Statistical analysis of the data has been attempted by applying Factor Analysis concept. The analysis brings out the effect of five different factors governing the groundwater quality in the study area. Based on the contribution of the different parameters present in the extracted factors, the latter are linked to the geological setting, the leaching from the host rock, leachate of heavy metals from the landfill as well as the bacterial contamination from landfill site and other anthropogenic activities. The analysis brings out the vulnerability of the unconfined aquifer to contamination.

  16. Zeolite-based catalysts for hydrodehalogenation and hydration of pollutants in groundwater; Zeolith-gestuetzte Katalysatoren zur Hydrodehalogenierung und Hydrierung von Schadstoffen im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueth, C.; Kummer, N.A. [Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen, Inst. fuer Angewandte Geologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The present report contains a summary of the results of SAFIRA part-project B 3.2, ''zeolite-based catalysts for hydrodehalogenation and hydration of pollutants in groundwater'' (funding code: 02WT9941/1) which was promoted by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) and which ran from 1 July 1999 to 31 June 2003. The task and goal of this part-project was to determine the potential of and limits to the reductive catalytic dehalogenation and hydration of aqueous-phase halogenated aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures. A further goal was to investigate the long-time stability of the noble metal catalysts developed in the project when used in the pilot plant set up in Bitterfeld under conditions of atmospheric pressure and groundwater temperatures. [German] Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt eine Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse des vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) gefoerderten SAFIRA-Teilprojekts B 3.2: ''Zeolith-gestuetzte Katalysatoren zur Hydrodehalogenierung und Hydrierung von Schadstoffen im Grundwasser'' (Foerderkennzeichen: 02WT9941/1) ueber die Projektlaufzeit vom 01.07.1999 bis zum 31.06.2003. Aufgabenstellung und Ziel dieses Teilprojekts war es, in Laborversuchen das Potenzial sowie die Limitierungen einer reduktiven katalytischen Dehalogenierung und Hydrierung halogenierter aromatischer und aliphatischer Kohlenwasserstoffgemische in waessriger Phase zu ermitteln. Darueber hinaus sollte die Langzeitstabilitaet der entwickelten Edelmetallkatalysatoren beim Einsatz in der in Bitterfeld errichteten Pilotanlage unter Atmosphaerendruck und Grundwassertemperaturen ueberprueft werden. (orig.)

  17. Natural organics in groundwaters and their potential effect on contaminant transport in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.; Richer, D.

    1996-07-01

    Naturally occurring organics in groundwaters of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) of southern Manitoba and of the Atikokan Research Area of northwestern Ontario were investigated to assess their potential role in radionuclide transport within granite fractures of the Canadian Shield. A survey of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, carried out to determine the variability in the organic content of these groundwaters, showed average concentrations in WRA deep groundwaters of 0.8 ± 0.1 mg/L for Fracture Zone 2, 0.8 ± 0.4 mg/L for near-vertical fractures, and 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/L for deeper saline groundwater. Surface waters and near-surface groundwaters had significantly higher DOC with 29.2 ± 0.6 mg/L in streams from the East Swamp. The DOC consisted mainly of hydrophilic neutral compounds 60 to 75%, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids 23 to 39%, along with very small amounts of hydrophobic bases and neutrals, and hydrophilic bases. The average complexing capacity of natural organics in WRA deep groundwaters was calculated to be 6.7 x 10 -6 eq/L. The ability of these organics to complex radionuclides was tested using conditional stability constants from the literature for humic complex formation with trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent actinides. The chemistries of Np(V) and U(VI) were predicted to be dominated by inorganic complexes and not significantly affected by organics. Accurate predictions for AM(III) and Th(IV) could not be made since the literature contains a wide range in values of stability constants for humic complexes with these elements. Surface waters and near-surface groundwaters in many areas of the Canadian Shield contain enough humics to complex a significant fraction of dissolved actinides. Radiocarbon ages of humics from WRA groundwater varied between 3600 and 6200 years before present, indicating that a component of humic substances in deep groundwaters must originate from near-surface waters. 54 refs., 15 tabs., 5

  18. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Magesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of remote sensing data and the geographical information system (GIS for the exploration of groundwater resources has become a breakthrough in the field of groundwater research, which assists in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. In the present paper, various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Theni district have been delineated using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Survey of India toposheets and IRS-1C satellite imageries are used to prepare various thematic layers viz. lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil, and rainfall were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS. The raster maps of these factors are allocated a fixed score and weight computed from multi influencing factor (MIF technique. Moreover, each weighted thematic layer is statistically computed to get the groundwater potential zones. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into four categories, viz., very poor, poor, good, and very good zones. The result depicts the groundwater potential zones in the study area and found to be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  19. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: CSIR Groundwater research into mine closure strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available on innovative ways of managing the impact of mine closure, in particular the decant of polluted mine water. Radon isotopes are being used to determine where mine water is contributing to surface water flows, which helps to identify sources of pollution...

  20. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  1. Potential of aerobic bacteria use for remediation of groundwater of Pavlodar outskirt contaminated with soluble mercury compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan there are some regions contaminated with mercury as a result of technogenic releases from industrial enterprises. The mercury ingress into the environment has resulted in significant pollution of groundwater and surface water with soluble mercury com...

  2. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  3. An analysis of potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring networks in the Central Plateau. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of potential impacts to the four groundwater monitoring projects operating in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. It specifically fulfills Milestone M-15-81A of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Milestone M-15-81A specifies the evaluation of the potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring well systems in the Central Plateau caused by the following activities: reduction of liquids discharged to soil, proposed and operational liquid treatment facilities, and proposed pump-and-treat systems. For this report, an open-quotes impactclose quotes is defined as a restriction of the ability to draw samples from a well and/or a reduction of the ability of a monitoring well to meet its intended purpose (such as the detection of contaminant seepage from a facility). Approximately 20% (74 wells) of the groundwater monitoring wells potentially will experience sampling problems by the year 2005 due to the declining water table in the Central Plateau. Reduction of discharges to the B Pond complex and operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal System will directly cause four additional wells to potentially experience sampling problems. Approximately 90 monitoring wells (35 of which are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [RCRA] wells) will be potentially affected by the operation of pump-and-treat systems in the 200 West Area. Most of the impacts will be caused by local changes to groundwater flow directions that will potentially reduce the ability of the RCRA well network to monitor a limited number of RCRA facilities

  4. The combined use of MODFLOW and precipitation-runoff modeling to simulate groundwater flow in a diffuse-pollution prone watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, A; Karadaş, D; Fistikoğlu, O

    2010-01-01

    A numerical modeling case study of groundwater flow in a diffuse pollution prone area is presented. The study area is located within the metropolitan borders of the city of Izmir, Turkey. This groundwater flow model was unconventional in the application since the groundwater recharge parameter in the model was estimated using a lumped, transient water-budget based precipitation-runoff model that was executed independent of the groundwater flow model. The recharge rate obtained from the calibrated precipitation-runoff model was used as input to the groundwater flow model, which was eventually calibrated to measured water table elevations. Overall, the flow model results were consistent with field observations and model statistics were satisfactory. Water budget results of the model revealed that groundwater recharge comprised about 20% of the total water input for the entire study area. Recharge was the second largest component in the budget after leakage from streams into the subsurface. It was concluded that the modeling results can be further used as input for contaminant transport modeling studies in order to evaluate the vulnerability of water resources of the study area to diffuse pollution.

  5. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse......-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-d-lactose, d,l-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, l-threonine and glycyl-l-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater...... samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster....

  6. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cristina C.; Inocencio, Arlene B.; Gundaya, Debbie M.

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  7. Polar Organic Pollutants in Groundwater: Experimental Approaches to Biodegradation During Subsoil Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Knepper

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of polar organic compounds was investigated for their biodegradation on a laboratory scale fixed-bed bioreactor and the decline of the parent compounds besides the formation of metabolites was monitored. Of particular interest was the investigation into the degradation of pesticides, especially isoproturon (IPU, surfactants and industrial by-products of chemical synthesis. The results from the laboratory degradation experiments are compared to findings in groundwater.

  8. Effect of solid waste landfill organic pollutants on groundwater in three areas of Sicily (Italy) characterized by different vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, Serena; Orecchio, Santino; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bellomo, Sergio; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Di Stefano, Vita; Favara, Rocco; Candela, Esterina Gagliano; La Pica, Leonardo; Morici, Sabina; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Pisciotta, Antonino; Scaletta, Claudio; Vita, Fabio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Bongiorno, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs were always below the legal threshold. Overall, the Fl/Fl + Py diagnostic ratio revealed that PAHs had a petrogenic origin. VOC levels, except for two notable exceptions near Palermo landfill, were always below the legal limit. As concerns PCB levels, several samples were found positive with levels exceeding the legal limits. It is worth noting that the % PCB distribution differs from that of commercial compositions. In parallel, some samples of groundwater containing PCDDs and PCDFs exceeding the legal threshold were also found. Among the 17 congeners monitored, the most abundant were the highest molecular weight ones.

  9. Fingerprinting groundwater pollution in catchments with contrasting contaminant sources using microorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne E; Lapworth, Dan J; Thomas, Jenny; Edwards, Laura

    2014-01-15

    Evaluating the occurrence of microorganics helps to understand sources and processes which may be controlling the transport and fate of emerging contaminants (ECs). A study was carried out at the contrasting instrumented environmental observatory sites at Oxford, on the peri-urban floodplain gravel aquifer of the River Thames and Boxford, in the rural valley of the River Lambourn on the chalk aquifer, in Southern England to explore the use of ECs to fingerprint contaminant sources and flow pathways in groundwater. At Oxford compounds were typical of a local waste tip plume (not only plasticisers and solvents but also barbiturates and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)) and of the urban area (plasticisers and mood-enhancing drugs such as carbamazepine). At Boxford the results were different with widespread occurrence of agricultural pesticides, their metabolites and the solvent trichloroethene, as well as plasticisers, caffeine, butylated food additives, DEET, parabens and trace polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of compounds used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products of different provenance in the environment could be distinguished, i) historical household and medical waste, ii) long-term household usage persistent in groundwater and iii) current usage and contamination from surface water. Co-contaminant and degradation products can also indicate the likely source of contaminants. A cocktail of contaminants can be used as tracers to provide information on catchment pathways and groundwater/surface water interactions. A prominent feature in this study is the attenuation of many EC compounds in the hyporheic zone. © 2013.

  10. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  11. Geochemical tracing of As pollution in the Orbiel Valley (southern France): 87Sr/86Sr as a tracer of the anthropogenic arsenic in surface and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick; Boutin, René

    2014-05-01

    results from redox potential (Eh) measurements in both surface and groundwater. Hence, 87Sr/86Sr appears as an excellent tracer of the origin of pollution associated with CaO treatment widely used in many water treatment processes.

  12. Study on groundwater quality and potential use in shallow coastal East Surabaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyudi; Arief Setiyono; Onie Wiwid Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of coastal area is one of the fast growing urban area in Surabaya. Increasing in population and industrial growth have driven increasing demands for natural resources, particularly water. The objectives of this study are to identify the quality of the coastal groundwater through in situ measurement and laboratory analyses, and to find out its potential to be utilized as a source of water for coastal aquaculture. Groundwater samples from 70 sampling station have been taken from east Surabaya coastal area. Measurements of the temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen of the samples carried out directly in situ, and measurements of concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, sulphide, and phosphate conducted in the Environmental Laboratory of ITS. The results show that coastal groundwater in west part of the study area, in only very small area, can be used as a drinking water, and in almost all area of the east Surabaya coastal area is not permitted. In the central and south part can be utilized as a source of the coastal aquaculture, however in the north part is not potential, in the central area is medium, and in the south part is categorized as a high potential. (author)

  13. Geological and geophysical evaluation of the Ajana area’s groundwater potential, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M Ajibade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acombined geological and geophysical evaluation was madeof the groundwater potential of the Ajana, RemoNorth area in south-western Nigeria; the geology and other structural features of the rocks there strongly influenced and correlated the aquifers' storability and transmissivity. Geological mapping revealed that the area was made up of granite, quartzite and varieties of gneiss, some of which have good secondary porosity and permeability. Ten vertical electric soundings (VES stations were established using a Schlumberger electrode array. Five geoelectric layers consisting of topsoil, sand,
    clayey-sandy, fractured / weathered basement and fresh bedrock were delineated. The aquifer layers were the 38.3m thick 283 ?m resistivity sand/sandy clay and 55 - 518 ?m resistivity fractured/weathered basement. Other geoelectric parameters used in evaluating the area's hydrogeological potential included curve type, anisotropy coefficient and reflection coefficient - The QH curve type was predominant in the area. The anisotropy Coefficients suggested VES stations having high groundwater potential ranging from 1.4 - 1.56; while the reflection coefficients for the area ranged from 0.21 - 0.99. The overall results showed that VES stations 8, 9 and 10 could be possible groundwater sources having high expected yield.

  14. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  15. The use of radium isotopic ratio in groundwater as a tool for pollution source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Goncalves, S.; Francisco, J.T.; Shinomiya, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    Radium isotopes in groundwater, with concentration above natural values have been measured near a radioactive material storage facility, with underground sealed concrete reservoirs, containing pasty residues from monazite sand industrial processing. This situation became a problem last decade, because of general public concern with radium contamination as being a consequence of leaks in reservoirs that could spread in the environment the contained radioactivity. There is a general claim against this stored material, because rain and underground water drain into a nearby creek, which flows to a river, that is used for public water supply of Itu city, (Sao Paulo state, Brazil), some 12 km away. (author)

  16. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  17. Groundwater nitrate pollution in Souss-Massa basin (south-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon cedex, France. ... the study sites are the main cause of serious nitrate pollution given the superimposition of high nitrate ... development level. ... Location map of the irrigated areas and the sampling network. ... of clay, occur chiefly in the Chtouka-Massa region and in the Atlas.

  18. Groundwater Modeling Of Mercury Pollution At A Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility In Pavoldar, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severly contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this chemical pla...

  19. Groundwater potential prediction by using geoelectricity method a case study in Simpang Lima and around it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, D. R.; Supriyadi; Aryani, N. P.; Naufal, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Water is an important natural resource, which is available both on surface as well as in recharge zone of weathered layer and in various other suitable water reservoir formations/structures below the surface. The study was conducted in Semarang City, Indonesian. Simpang Lima area were chosen since they have geology record of thick alluvium. The condition of Simpang Lima and around it which currently has developed into the main business area in Semarang City. This is marked by the presence like hotels, super market, that is more than one. This condition certainly requires a supply of water for various purposes that support economic efforts in the region. During this time the water needs are met by drilling wells and used as much as possible without taking into account the impact of water utilization. This study aims to determine the zones that have the potential existence of groundwater. The method used is Geoelectric method with Shlumberger configuration in 7 distributed spatial point. The results showed that there is a potential groundwater in eastern Pekunden, Erlanga, behind The Hotel Horizon, and Simpang Lima. Groundwater is found successively at an average depth of 15 meters under earth’s surface.

  20. Investigation of the groundwater composition at potential radioactive waste disposal sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.T.

    1984-02-01

    Within an investigation program of sites suitable for an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel the groundwater has been characterized. Until now seven areas have been investigated. The groundwater has been pumped up from several isolated sections at depth of 100 m to 600 m in boreholes in each area. Each test section has been pumped continuously for at least two weeks. During the pumping period the water was characterized in the field and sampled for later analysis. Most of the characterized waters are non saline and the concentration of the different constituents varies within a rather narrow interval. Saline waters with much higher concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and calcium have been encountered. The groundwater characterization includes field monitoring of the physico-chemical parameters pH, redox potential, free sulphide concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration and conductivity. These parameters are measured in a flow through cell where the water passes before coming in contact with the air. The redox potential measurements have been successful. A new equipment for measurements in the sampling section has been constructed. Preliminary tests have given very promising results

  1. Geothermal energy plants. Technologies and risk of soil and groundwater pollution; Jordvarmeanlaeg. Teknologier og risiko for jord- og grundvandsforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villumsen, B. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    Ground source heat systems utilise the natural heat in the ground to heat houses and domestic hot water. The technology is energy-saving and can therefore contribute to the targets of reducing Denmark's CO{sub 2} emissions. All else being equal, a ground source heat system containing chemicals poses a potential contamination risk to soil and groundwater. Therefore a permit is required when installing a ground source heat system, and the general regulations for implementing the system etc. combined with the municipality's administrative procedures for the area must ensure sufficient protection of the groundwater. This project only deals with the heat exchanging system, which is the part of the ground source heat system which involves risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the project is to procure an overall updated knowledge base about the different types of ground source heat systems and the contamination risk associated with them. The project also reviews how disadvantages can be managed or minimized. (au)

  2. Potential atmospheric pollution from the Invergordon industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neustein, S A; Danby, N P

    1971-11-01

    The main atmospheric pollutants from the Invergordon complex will be fluorine and hydrogen fluoride from the aluminum smelter and sulfur dioxide and hydrocarbons from the oil refinery. Both acute and chronic tree damage is expected. The effects of F and SO/sub 2/ on the trees via the soil is expected to be insignificant. Acute tree damage results from high concentrations of pollutants as a result of meteorological conditions or industrial cleansing failure. Chronic tree damage results from long term low level pollution. Broad leaved trees are not regarded as susceptible to chronic pollution. All the conifers are susceptible. Clean air sampling has begun in order to provide before and after comparison. Foliage samplers will be taken for a radius of 16,000 m. A survey of lichens has been completed. Lichenology may assist in discrimination between F and SO/sub 2/ injuries.

  3. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  4. Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal

  5. Evaluation of Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models for Groundwater Potential Mapping Using R and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped and analyzed groundwater potential using two different models, logistic regression (LR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and compared the results. A spatial database was constructed for groundwater well data and groundwater influence factors. Groundwater well data with a high potential yield of ≥70 m3/d were extracted, and 859 locations (70% were used for model training, whereas the other 365 locations (30% were used for model validation. We analyzed 16 groundwater influence factors including altitude, slope degree, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, distance from drainage, drainage density, lithology, distance from fault, fault density, distance from lineament, lineament density, and land cover. Groundwater potential maps (GPMs were constructed using LR and MARS models and tested using a receiver operating characteristics curve. Based on this analysis, the area under the curve (AUC for the success rate curve of GPMs created using the MARS and LR models was 0.867 and 0.838, and the AUC for the prediction rate curve was 0.836 and 0.801, respectively. This implies that the MARS model is useful and effective for groundwater potential analysis in the study area.

  6. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values 4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of solid Cr(III) in the soil was estimated at 6600 and 500 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. At the same time, the pool size of dissolved Cr(VI) was estimated at 50 and 1.2 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. It follows that, at both sites, less than 1 % of the entire Cr that had leaked into the aquifer an a liquid form remained in the

  7. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  8. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-07-13

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr 6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr 6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr 6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr 6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.

  9. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr6+ in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr6+ and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr6 + and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr6+ was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion. PMID:28703781

  10. Use of environmental isotope techniques in studying surface and groundwaters in the Damascus basin (Al-Ghotta): A case study of geochemical modeling of elements and pollutants transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2004-09-01

    This work discuses in details the hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwaters in the Damascus Ghotta basin. In addition, it deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of rainfall of some surrounding stations (Damascus, Bloudan, Arneh, Al-Kounietra, Izraa, Al-Souweida, Homs and Tartous). The objective of this research was to make new assessment of the available water resources in this basin, together with conducting essays to model geochemically the elements and pollutants transport in the groundwater, by the use of PHREEQM code.(author)

  11. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-01-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  12. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  13. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence model to geoelectric and hydraulic parameters for groundwater potential zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San

    2018-06-01

    The application of a GIS - based Dempster - Shafer data driven model named as evidential belief function EBF- methodology to groundwater potential conditioning factors (GPCFs) derived from geophysical and hydrogeological data sets for assessing groundwater potentiality was presented in this study. The proposed method's efficacy in managing degree of uncertainty in spatial predictive models motivated this research. The method procedural approaches entail firstly, the database containing groundwater data records (bore wells location inventory, hydrogeological data record, etc.) and geophysical measurement data construction. From the database, different influencing groundwater occurrence factors, namely aquifer layer thickness, aquifer layer resistivity, overburden material resistivity, overburden material thickness, aquifer hydraulic conductivity and aquifer transmissivity were extracted and prepared. Further, the bore well location inventories were partitioned randomly into a ratio of 70% (19 wells) for model training and 30% (9 wells) for model testing. The synthesized of the GPCFs via applying the DS - EBF model algorithms produced the groundwater productivity potential index (GPPI) map which demarcated the area into low - medium, medium, medium - high and high potential zones. The analyzed percentage degree of uncertainty for the predicted lows potential zones classes and mediums/highs potential zones classes are >10% and used by local authorities for groundwater exploitation and management in the area.

  14. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  15. Physical parameters of groundwater as indicators of pollution in industrial areas of Taxila, Wah and Hasanabdal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Zaheer-ud-Dln-Qureshi

    2004-01-01

    The Wah area historically famous for having sweet aquifer system is greatly effected due to environmental activities, such as industrialization and poor sewage system in the recent past. Thirty water samples have been collected from dug wells penetrating to shallow two layers in a multi layered aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is located at a depth of 45-85 feet and composed of very fine grained sand to silt in two layers separated by silty clay. To assess the contamination problems, physical parameters of groundwater such as temperature, color, turbidity, odour and taste have been estimated fifty percent of the dug wells have been found as contaminated and not fit for human consumption according 10 WHO standards. High values of electrical conductance determined in fifty percent of wells show trends of chemical contamination and their probable sources near by these wells against the general recharge pattern prevailing in the area can be located. (author)

  16. Implications of Self-Potential Distribution for Groundwater Flow System in a Nonvolcanic Mountain Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada-nori Goto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-potential (SP measurements were conducted at Mt. Tsukuba, Japan, which is a nonvolcanic mountain, to infer groundwater flow system in the mountain. Survey routes were set around the northern slope, and the reliability of observed SP anomaly was checked by using SP values along parallel survey routes; the error was almost within 10 mV. The FFT analysis of the spatial SP distribution allows us a separation of raw data into two components with shorter and longer wavelength. In the shorter (altitudinal wavelength than ∼200 meters, several positive SP peaks of more than 100 mV in magnitude are present, which indicate shallow perched water discharges along the slope. In the regional SP pattern of longer wavelength, there are two major perturbations from the general trend reflecting the topographic effect. By comparing the SP and hydrological data, the perturbation around the foothill is interpreted to be caused by heterogeneous infiltration at the ground surface. The perturbation around the summit is also interpreted to be caused by heterogeneous infiltration process, based on a simplified numerical modeling of SP. As a result, the SP pattern is well explained by groundwater flow and infiltration processes. Thus, SP data is thought to be very useful for understanding of groundwater flow system on a mountain scale.

  17. Subsurface Transport Behavior of Micro-Nano Bubbles and Potential Applications for Groundwater Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengzhen Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano bubbles (MNBs are tiny bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers and nanometers, showing great potential in environmental remediation. However, the application is only in the beginning stages and remains to be intensively studied. In order to explore the possible use of MNBs in groundwater contaminant removal, this study focuses on the transport of MNBs in porous media and dissolution processes. The bubble diameter distribution was obtained under different conditions by a laser particle analyzer. The permeability of MNB water through sand was compared with that of air-free water. Moreover, the mass transfer features of dissolved oxygen in water with MNBs were studied. The results show that the bubble diameter distribution is influenced by the surfactant concentration in the water. The existence of MNBs in pore water has no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of sand. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO in water is greatly increased by the MNBs, which will predictably improve the aerobic bioremediation of groundwater. The results are meaningful and instructive in the further study of MNB research and applications in groundwater bioremediation.

  18. Potential effects of the Hawaii Geothermal Project on ground-water resources on the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Hawaii proposed the Hawaii Geothermal Project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. This report uses data from 31 wells and 8 springs to describe the properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. Potential effects of this project on ground-water resources are also discussed. Data show differences in ground-water chemistry and heads within the study area that appear to be related to mixing of waters of different origins and ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. East of Pahoa, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the pumping of freshwater to support geothermal development in that part of the rift zone would have a minimal effect on ground-water levels. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying sufficient fresh water to support geothermal operations. Contamination of ground-water resources by accidental release of geothermal fluids into shallow aquifers is possible because of corrosive conditions in the geothermal wells, potential well blowouts, and high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of water level, temperature, and chemistry in observation wells should continue throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project for early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids within the groundwater system.

  19. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution.

  20. Potential Offshore Submarine Groundwater in the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system (Algarve, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugman, Rui; Stigter, Tibor; Monteiro, Jose Paulo

    2015-04-01

    The Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system on the south coast of Portugal is an important source of groundwater for agriculture and tourism, as well as contributing to significant freshwater discharge along the coast in the form of inter- and sub-tidal springs and maintaining groundwater dependent ecosystems along the Quarteira stream. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the area was investigated within the scope of a multidisciplinary research project FREEZE (PTDC/MAR/102030/2008) which aimed to identify and characterize the effects of the hydrological/hydrogeological conditions on associated ecosystems. As well as near shore submarine springs, signs of SGD were found several kilometres from the shoreline during offshore CTD and geophysical surveys. On-land geophysical and offshore seismic surveys supplied data to update the 3D hydrogeological conceptual model of the aquifer system. Numerical models were applied to test the possibility of an offshore continuation of fresh groundwater over several kilometres under local conditions. Due to the high computational demand of variable density modelling, in an initial phase simplified 2D cross section models were used to test the conceptual model and reduce uncertainty in regards to model parameters. Results confirm the potential for SGD several kilometres from the coast within a range of acceptable values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge of the system. This represents the initial step in developing and calibrating a 3D regional scale model of the system, which aims to supply an estimate of the spatial distribution of SGD as well as serve as a decision support tool for the local water resources management agency.

  1. Investigation of Eh, pH and corrosion potential of steel in anoxic groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, R.; Brabon, S.; Fennell, P.A.H.; Rance, A.P.; Smart, N.R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    SKB intend to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel produced by Sweden's eleven nuclear reactors by encapsulating it in corrosion-resistant copper canisters containing a cast iron or carbon steel insert. After encapsulation, the fuel will be transported to a geological repository, where the containers will be deposited at a depth of 500 to 700 m in granitic rock and surrounded by a bentonite clay backfill material. If, or when the copper corrosion shield fails, the iron insert will be in contact with oxygen-free water and hydrogen-producing, anaerobic corrosion will start. SKB have carried out modelling calculations of the oxidising power (Eh) of groundwater and wished to confirm the results by carrying out experimental measurements. The objective of the work described in this report was to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring Eh, pH and corrosion potential in a cell where anaerobic corrosion of steel in artificial groundwater was occurring. To this end, gas cells similar to those used previously for anaerobic corrosion rate measurements were used as the basis for the design of an electrochemical cell. The cell incorporated electrodes to provide an in situ measurement of the redox potential, Eh, the pH and the corrosion potential of carbon steel. The main stages of the work were: Design of the electrochemical cell; Preparation of silver-silver chloride and calomel reference electrodes; Calibration of the reference electrodes and commercial glass pH electrodes against a standard hydrogen electrode; Assembly of the test cell under anoxic conditions; Monitoring the cell before and after the addition of steel wires to the test solution. Details of the design of the test cell and the experimental procedures used are described. Two cells were set up. The first employed a silver-silver chloride reference electrode, which was failed after approximately 400 hours, and the second cell therefore used a calomel reference electrode. The results of the electrode

  2. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas H.; Bjerg, Poul L.; Banwart, Steven A.; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Heron, Gorm; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2000-10-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial tools, such as MPN counts, PLFA biomarkers and redox bioassays. This paper reviews the principles behind the different approaches, summarizes methods used and evaluates the approaches based on the experience from the reported applications.

  3. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  4. Use of 15N/14N Ratio to Evaluate the Sources of Nitrate Pollution in Surface and Groundwaters in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    This work represents the results of using of 15 N technique in the evaluation and interpretation of nitrate pollution sources of surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes Basin (Central Syria). Based on this method, it was possible to distinguish between two groups of water bodies: 1) the group of fresh and non polluted water, which effectively reflects natural mineralization in nitrogen, such as the waters in the Upper Orontes River, the Qattineh Lake in its western and southern parts, as well as the Al-Qoussier well; 2) the group of polluted water, such as the waters in the other sampling sites. The chemical and isotopic 15 N characteristics of this group reflect the impact of different intensities of pollution processes, which could mainly be derived from anthropogenic source. The intensity of this source was maximum in the Al-Domineh well, which was practically close to a sewage sink. (author)

  5. Implications of Self-Potential Distribution for Groundwater Flow System in a Nonvolcanic Mountain Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Tada-nori; Kondo, Kazuya; Ito, Rina; Esaki, Keisuke; Oouchi, Yasuo; Abe, Yutaka; Tsujimura, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Self-potential (SP) measurements were conducted at Mt. Tsukuba, Japan, which is a nonvolcanic mountain, to infer groundwater flow system in the mountain. Survey routes were set around the northern slope, and the reliability of observed SP anomaly was checked by using SP values along parallel survey routes; the error was almost within 10 mV. The FFT analysis of the spatial SP distribution allows us a separation of raw data into two components with shorter and longer wavelength. In the shorter ...

  6. Geostatistical analysis of prevailing groundwater conditions and potential solute migration at Elstow, Bedfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, R.; Cooper, T.A.; Porter, J.D.; O'Connell, P.E.; Metcalfe, A.V.

    1988-06-01

    A geostatistical approach is applied in a study of the potential migration of contaminants from a hypothetical waste disposal facility near Elstow, Bedfordshire. A deterministic numerical model of groundwater flow in the Kellaways Sands formation and adjacent layers is coupled with geostatistical simulation of the heterogeneous transmissivity field of this principal formation. A particle tracking technique is used to predict the migration pathways for alternative realisations of flow. Alternative statistical descriptions of the spatial structure of the transmissivity field are implemented and the temporal and spatial distributions of escape of contaminants to the biosphere are investigated. (author)

  7. Potential for Methanosarcina to contribute to uranium reduction during acetate-promoted groundwater bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Orellana, Roberto; Giloteaux, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater with acetate injections have focused on the role of Geobacter species in U(VI) reduction because of a lack of other abundant known U(VI)-reducing microorganisms. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit...... an important role in the long-term bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers after depletion of Fe(III) oxides limits the growth of Geobacter species. The results also suggest that Methanosarcina have the potential to influence uranium geochemistry in a diversity of anaerobic sedimentary environments....

  8. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  9. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using index-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Tanko, Adamu Idris; Zaudi, Muhammad Amar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the DRASTIC and GALDIT models were employed to determine the groundwater vulnerability to contamination from anthropogenic activities and seawater intrusion in Kapas Island. In addition, the work also utilized sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of each individual parameter used in developing the final models. Based on these effects and variation indices of the said parameters, new effective weights were determined and were used to create modified DRASTIC and GALDIT models. The final DRASTIC model classified the island into five vulnerability classes: no risk (110-140), low (140-160), moderate (160-180), high (180-200), and very high (>200), covering 4, 26, 59, 4, and 7 % of the island, respectively. Likewise, for seawater intrusion, the modified GALDIT model delineates the island into four vulnerability classes: very low (130) covering 39, 33, 18, and 9 % of the island, respectively. Both models show that the areas that are likely to be affected by anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion are within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island. Pearson correlation was used to verify the reliability of the two models in predicting their respective contaminants. The correlation matrix showed a good relationship between DRASTIC model and nitrate (r = 0.58). In a similar development, the correlation also reveals a very strong negative relationship between GALDIT model and seawater contaminant indicator (resistivity Ωm) values (r = -0.86) suggesting that the model predicts more than 86 % of seawater intrusion. In order to facilitate management strategy, suitable areas for artificial recharge were identified through modeling. The result suggested some areas within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island as suitable for artificial recharge. This work can serve as a guide for a full vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in small islands and will help policy maker and

  10. Semianalytical model predicting transfer of volatile pollutants from groundwater to the soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2010-08-15

    Volatilization of toxic organic contaminants from groundwater to the soil surface is often considered an important pathway in risk analysis. Most of the risk models use simplified linear solutions that may overpredict the volatile flux. Although complex numerical models have been developed, their use is restricted to experienced users and for sites where field data are known in great detail. We present here a novel semianalytical model running on a spreadsheet that simulates the volatilization flux and vertical concentration profile in a soil based on the Van Genuchten functions. These widely used functions describe precisely the gas and water saturations and movement in the capillary fringe. The analytical model shows a good accuracy over several orders of magnitude when compared to a numerical model and laboratory data. The effect of barometric pumping is also included in the semianalytical formulation, although the model predicts that barometric pumping is often negligible. A sensitivity study predicts significant fluxes in sandy vadose zones and much smaller fluxes in other soils. Fluxes are linked to the dimensionless Henry's law constant H for H < 0.2 and increase by approximately 20% when temperature increases from 5 to 25 degrees C.

  11. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A modified SINTACS method for groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment in highly anthropized regions based on NO3- and SO42- concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Voudouris, Konstantinos; Tedesco, Dario

    2017-12-31

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment are worldwide tools in supporting groundwater protection and land planning. In this study, we used three of these different methodologies applied to the Campanian Plain located in southern Italy: SINTACS, AVI and LOS. However, their capability to describe the observed chemical pollution of the area has resulted quite poor. For such a reason, a modified SINTACS method has been then implemented in the area in order to get a more reliable view of groundwater vulnerability. NO 3 - and SO 4 2- from more than 400 monitoring wells were used for specific vulnerability assessment. Land use was chosen as key parameter to infer the risk of groundwater pollution in our area. The new methodology seems to show a higher correlation with observed NO 3 - concentrations and a more reliable identification of aquifer's pollution hot spots. The main sources of NO 3 - were found in sub-urban areas, where vulnerability and risk are higher than in other areas. Otherwise due to reducing conditions triggered by the presence of elevated sedimentary organic matter and peat, concentrations below agricultural areas were lower than in sub-urban areas. The SO 4 2- specific vulnerability map showed a positive correlation with observed concentrations, due to geogenic and anthropogenic SO 4 2- sources present in the area. The combination of both NO 3 - and SO 4 2- derived risk maps becomes essential to improve the conceptual model of aquifer pollution in this severely anthropized area. The application of this new and original approach shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the described previous methods and clearly showed how anthropogenic activities have to be taken into account in the assessment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  14. Use of environmental isotopes in studying surface and groundwaters in the Upper Orontes basin: A case study of modeling elements and pollutants transport using the code PHREEQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2001-06-01

    This report evaluate the chemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the upper Orontes basin, together with a study of the precipitation behavior of Bloudan, Homs and Tartous stations. It presents also the so far obtained results throughout the application of the geochemical code PHREEQM in studying the elements and pollutant as transport in the groundwater of this basin. The results show that the rainfall chemistry was a moderate dissolved content, and, and accompanied with how ph values and high sulfate contents, as a result of domestic and industrial pollution. the altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.18 % and -1.39% per 100 m elevation of δ 18 O and δ D, respectively. surface water in the Orontes River, up to Qattineh Lake, was characterized by a low solute content, high ph values (higher than 8), high dissolved oxygen content, depleted concentration in heavy stable isotopes and natural mineralization in 15 N and organic pollutants (N and P). Un the opposite, the water of this river was more saline and more enriched in organic pollutants such as nitrogen and phosphorous, after its getting out of the Qattineh Lake. The river water was also characterized by low ph values and low concentration in dissolved oxygen, as a consequence of organic matter oxidation. The depleted concentration of heavy stable isotopes in the Cenomanian Turonian aquifer system reveals that the altitude of recharge zone is rather higher than 1000 m, which corresponds to an exposure of these rocks in Lebanon, the altitude of recharge zones for the continental and volcanic pliocene aquifers is not lower than 500 m. The mean turnover time (residence time) of groundwater in the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer was evaluated to be about 40-50 years. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 0.8 billion cubic m was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size. The results of geochemical modeling of elements and

  15. Identification of potential groundwater flow paths using geological and geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1994-09-01

    This project represents the first phase in the development of a methodology for generating three-dimensional equiprobable maps of hydraulic conductivity for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In this study, potential groundwater flow paths were investigated for subsurface tuffs at Yucca Flat by studying how these units are connected. The virtual absence of site-specific hydraulic conductivity data dictates that as a first step a surrogate attribute (geophysical logs) be utilized. In this first phase, the connectivity patterns of densely welded ash-flow tuffs were studied because these tuffs are the most likely to form zones of high hydraulic conductivity. Densely welded tuffs were identified based on the response shown on resistivity logs and this information was transformed into binary indicator values. The spatial correlation of the indicator data was estimated through geostatistical methods. Equiprobable three-dimensional maps of the distribution of the densely-welded and nonwelded tuffs (i.e., subsurface heterogeneity) were then produced using a multiple indicator simulation formalism. The simulations demonstrate that resistivity logs are effective as soft data for indicating densely welded tuffs. The simulated welded tuffs reproduce the stratigraphic relationships of the welded tuffs observed in hydrogeologic cross sections, while incorporating the heterogeneity and anisotropy that is expected in this subsurface setting. Three-dimensional connectivity of the densely welded tuffs suggests potential groundwater flow paths with lengths easily over 1 km. The next phase of this investigation should incorporate other geophysical logs (e.g., gamma-gamma logs) and then calibrate the resulting soft data maps with available hard hydraulic conductivity data. The soft data maps can then augment the hard data to produce the final maps of the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity that can be used as input for numerical solution of groundwater flow and transport

  16. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future.

  17. Potential role of biotechnology in the remediation of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The application of biotechnology to remediation of environmental pollution is discussed, with emphasis on microbial degradation of chlorinated compounds, microbial surfactants for clean-up of oil-related pollution, and biodegradation of the chemical warfare agents mustard gas or the defoliant Agent Orange. Strong genetic selection has led to the isolation of single microbial cultures or products that can allow enhanced degradation or removal of such hazardous compounds. The similarities in gene organization and homology seen between evolved chlorocatechol genes and parent catechol genes suggest that natural microorganisms evolve new degradative functions by recruiting genes that encode analogous functions for structurally similar compounds and introduce mutational or recombinational alterations to allow broadening or changes in the specificity of gene products to use chlorinated compounds as substrates. The use of the microbial surfactant BIO-EM in cleaning up oil spills is discussed. 37 refs., 5 figs

  18. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  19. Methodological guide. Management of sites potentially polluted by radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of an approach for the management and rehabilitation of polluted sites, this updated version of a previous report proposes a set of methodological tools. It presents the main components of the general approach while distinguishing the interpretation of the environment status and a management plan. In both cases, a conceptual scheme is designed on the base of a diagnosis. In the first case, the interpretation aims at examining the compatibility between the pollution level and the observed uses. For the management plan, uses can be chosen: this is the case for industrial land reconversion. Therefore, this guide addresses the different issues and aspects of the diagnosis, interpretation of the environment status, and management plan. A last part deals with involvement of the different actors

  20. Nitrate pollution of groundwater around a sewage stabilization pond, Kerala India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Shahul Hameed, A.; Velayudhan, K.T.; Jacob, S.; Mathew, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of the sewage stabilisation pont of the Calicut Medical College on the quality of water in the open dug wells which are situated in and around the stabilisation pond. The study revealed that domestic wells are becoming increasingly polluted with nitrate in spite of heavy rainfall in the region. The level of nitrate in the observation wells was found to be vary widely during different seasons: from 1.1 to 49.8, 0.7 to 19.5 and from 2.1 to 38.3 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. One well had nitrate exceeding the maximum permissible limit specified for drinking water by Bureau of Indian Standards. The problem is more pronounced in summer when the level of nitrate is observed to be on the higher side. (author)

  1. Experimental plant for the physical-chemical treatment of groundwater polluted by Municipal Solid Waste (MSW leachate, with ammonia recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents the results of the experimental treatment of groundwater (flow rate: 300 m3 h-1 polluted by the leachate of an old MSW landfill (7 million tonnes in northern Italy. The process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, and subsequent ammonia stripping, after heating the water to 35-38 °C by means of the biogas produced by the landfill. The stripped ammonia was recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate, which was reused as a base fertilizer. In addition, the paper reports important operational aspects related to the scaling of the stripping tower’s packing and its effect on pH and temperature profiles inside the towers caused by the closed loop, which recirculates the stripping air coming from the ammonia absorption towers with sulfuric acid. The average removal efficiency of ammonia reached 95.4% with an inlet mean concentration of 199.0 mg L-1.

  2. A comparison between index of entropy and catastrophe theory methods for mapping groundwater potential in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, index of entropy and catastrophe theory methods were used for demarcating groundwater potential in an arid region using weighted linear combination techniques in geographical information system (GIS) environment. A case study from Badra area in the eastern part of central of Iraq was analyzed and discussed. Six factors believed to have influence on groundwater occurrence namely elevation, slope, aquifer transmissivity and storativity, soil, and distance to fault were prepared as raster thematic layers to facility integration into GIS environment. The factors were chosen based on the availability of data and local conditions of the study area. Both techniques were used for computing weights and assigning ranks vital for applying weighted linear combination approach. The results of application of both modes indicated that the most influential groundwater occurrence factors were slope and elevation. The other factors have relatively smaller values of weights implying that these factors have a minor role in groundwater occurrence conditions. The groundwater potential index (GPI) values for both models were classified using natural break classification scheme into five categories: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. For validation of generated GPI, the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used. According to the obtained area under the curve, the catastrophe model with 78 % prediction accuracy was found to perform better than entropy model with 77 % prediction accuracy. The overall results indicated that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones.

  3. Associations between lifestyle and air pollution exposure: Potential for confounding in large administrative data cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strak, Maciej; Janssen, Nicole; Beelen, Rob; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek; Houthuijs, Danny; van den Brink, Carolien; Dijst, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-07-01

    Cohorts based on administrative data have size advantages over individual cohorts in investigating air pollution risks, but often lack in-depth information on individual risk factors related to lifestyle. If there is a correlation between lifestyle and air pollution, omitted lifestyle variables may result in biased air pollution risk estimates. Correlations between lifestyle and air pollution can be induced by socio-economic status affecting both lifestyle and air pollution exposure. Our overall aim was to assess potential confounding by missing lifestyle factors on air pollution mortality risk estimates. The first aim was to assess associations between long-term exposure to several air pollutants and lifestyle factors. The second aim was to assess whether these associations were sensitive to adjustment for individual and area-level socioeconomic status (SES), and whether they differed between subgroups of the population. Using the obtained air pollution-lifestyle associations and indirect adjustment methods, our third aim was to investigate the potential bias due to missing lifestyle information on air pollution mortality risk estimates in administrative cohorts. We used a recent Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults to investigate the associations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , PM 2.5 absorbance, OP DTT, OP ESR and NO 2 annual average concentrations at the residential address from land use regression models with individual smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index. We assessed the associations with and without adjustment for neighborhood and individual SES characteristics typically available in administrative data cohorts. We illustrated the effect of including lifestyle information on the air pollution mortality risk estimates in administrative cohort studies using a published indirect adjustment method. Current smoking and alcohol consumption were generally positively associated with air pollution. Physical activity

  4. Ground-water travel time calculations for the potential nuclear repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Wilson, W.E.; Sinnock, S.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, ground-water travel times were calculated for flow paths in both the saturated and unsaturated zones at Yucca Mountain, a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada. The calculations were made through a combined effort by Science Applications International Corporation, Sandia National Laboratories, and the US Geological Survey. Travel times in the unsaturated zone were estimated by dividing the flow path length by the ground-water velocity, where velocities were obtained by dividing the vertical flux by the effective porosity of the rock types along assumed vertical flow paths. Saturated zone velocities were obtained by dividing the product of the bulk hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient by the effective porosity. Total travel time over an EPA-established 5-km flow path was then calculated to be the sum of the travel times in the two parts of the flow path. Estimates of ground water fluxes and travel times are critical for evaluating the favorability of the Yucca Mountain site because they provide the basis for estimating the potential for radionuclides to reach the accessible environment within certain time limits

  5. A comparative assessment of GIS-based data mining models and a novel ensemble model in groundwater well potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moghaddam, Davood Davoodi; Kalantar, Bahareh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, application of ensemble models has been increased tremendously in various types of natural hazard assessment such as landslides and floods. However, application of this kind of robust models in groundwater potential mapping is relatively new. This study applied four data mining algorithms including AdaBoost, Bagging, generalized additive model (GAM), and Naive Bayes (NB) models to map groundwater potential. Then, a novel frequency ratio data mining ensemble model (FREM) was introduced and evaluated. For this purpose, eleven groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, stream power index (SPI), river density, distance from rivers, topographic wetness index (TWI), land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology were mapped. About 281 well locations with high potential were selected. Wells were randomly partitioned into two classes for training the models (70% or 197) and validating them (30% or 84). AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB algorithms were employed to get groundwater potential maps (GPMs). The GPMs were categorized into potential classes using natural break method of classification scheme. In the next stage, frequency ratio (FR) value was calculated for the output of the four aforementioned models and were summed, and finally a GPM was produced using FREM. For validating the models, area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was calculated. The ROC curve for prediction dataset was 94.8, 93.5, 92.6, 92.0, and 84.4% for FREM, Bagging, AdaBoost, GAM, and NB models, respectively. The results indicated that FREM had the best performance among all the models. The better performance of the FREM model could be related to reduction of over fitting and possible errors. Other models such as AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB also produced acceptable performance in groundwater modelling. The GPMs produced in the current study may facilitate groundwater exploitation

  6. Moss bags as sentinels for human safety in mercury-polluted groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Mattia; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Buora, Clara; Lorenzonetto, Alberta; Pozzobon, Alessandro; Raris, Marina; Rosa, Maria; Salvadori, Michela

    2014-05-01

    An equation to estimate Hg concentrations of monitoring, (3) comparing the performances of two populations of moss collected from different sites, and (4) assessing the environmental impact of Hg contamination on a small river. The main factors affecting Hg uptake in the field were-as expected-water concentration and time of exposure, even though the uptake kinetics in the field were slightly different from those which were previously observed in the lab, since the redox environmental conditions influence the solubility of cationic Fe, which is a negative competitor of Hg(2+). The equation was improved by including the variable 'dissolved oxygen concentration'. A numerical parameter depending on the moss collection site was also provided, since the differences in uptake efficiency were observed between the two populations tested. Predicted Hg concentrations well fitted the values measured in situ (approximately ±50%), while a notable underestimation was observed when the equation was used to predict Hg concentration in a neighbouring river (-96%), probably due to the organic pollution which hampers metal uptake by mosses.

  7. Inverse modeling and uncertainty analysis of potential groundwater recharge to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Markus; Houben, Georg; Lohe, Christoph; Quinger, Martin; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The identification of potential recharge areas and estimation of recharge rates to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) is crucial for its future sustainable use. The KOH-2 is located within the endorheic transboundary Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin (CEB), shared by Angola and Namibia. The main objective was the development of a strategy to tackle the problem of data scarcity, which is a well-known problem in semi-arid regions. In a first step, conceptual geological cross sections were created to illustrate the possible geological setting of the system. Furthermore, groundwater travel times were estimated by simple hydraulic calculations. A two-dimensional numerical groundwater model was set up to analyze flow patterns and potential recharge zones. The model was optimized against local observations of hydraulic heads and groundwater age. The sensitivity of the model against different boundary conditions and internal structures was tested. Parameter uncertainty and recharge rates were estimated. Results indicate that groundwater recharge to the KOH-2 mainly occurs from the Angolan Highlands in the northeastern part of the CEB. The sensitivity of the groundwater model to different internal structures is relatively small in comparison to changing boundary conditions in the form of influent or effluent streams. Uncertainty analysis underlined previous results, indicating groundwater recharge originating from the Angolan Highlands. The estimated recharge rates are less than 1% of mean yearly precipitation, which are reasonable for semi-arid regions.

  8. A comparison between ten advanced and soft computing models for groundwater qanat potential assessment in Iran using R and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Abbaspour, Karim

    2018-02-01

    Considering the unstable condition of water resources in Iran and many other countries in arid and semi-arid regions, groundwater studies are very important. Therefore, the aim of this study is to model groundwater potential by qanat locations as indicators and ten advanced and soft computing models applied to the Beheshtabad Watershed, Iran. Qanat is a man-made underground construction which gathers groundwater from higher altitudes and transmits it to low land areas where it can be used for different purposes. For this purpose, at first, the location of the qanats was detected using extensive field surveys. These qanats were classified into two datasets including training (70%) and validation (30%). Then, 14 influence factors depicting the region's physical, morphological, lithological, and hydrological features were identified to model groundwater potential. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), flexible discriminant analysis (FDA), penalized discriminant analysis (PDA), boosted regression tree (BRT), random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector machine (SVM) models were applied in R scripts to produce groundwater potential maps. For evaluation of the performance accuracies of the developed models, ROC curve and kappa index were implemented. According to the results, RF had the best performance, followed by SVM and BRT models. Our results showed that qanat locations could be used as a good indicator for groundwater potential. Furthermore, altitude, slope, plan curvature, and profile curvature were found to be the most important influence factors. On the other hand, lithology, land use, and slope aspect were the least significant factors. The methodology in the current study could be used by land use and terrestrial planners and water resource managers to reduce the costs of groundwater resource discovery.

  9. Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data around municipal landfill and paper factory and their potential influence on population’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čačić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the level of 15 groundwater quality parameters in groundwater samples collected around municipal landfill and paper factory in order to evaluate usefulness of the groundwater and its possible implication on the human health. Methods Obtained data have been analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA technique, in order to differentiate the groundwater samples on the basis of their compositional differences and origin. Results Wastes and effluents from municipal landfill did not contribute significantly to the pollution of the aquatic medium. Groundwater degradation caused by high contents of nitrate, mineral oils, organic and inorganic matters was particularly expressed in the narrow area of the city centre, near the paper factory and most likely it has occurred over a long period of time. The results have shown that the concentrations of the most measured parameters(NO3-N, NH4-N, oils, organic matter, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cr were above llowed limits for drinking and domestic purposes. onclusion This study has provided important information on cological status of the groundwater systems and for identification f groundwater quality parameters with concentrations above llowable limits for human consumption. The results generally evealed that groundwater assessed in this study mainly does not atisfy safe limits for drinking water and domestic use. As a consequence, ontaminated groundwater becomes a large hygienic nd toxicological problem, since it considerably impedes groundwater tilization. Even though, all of these contaminants havenot yet reached toxic levels, they still represent long term risk for ealth of the population.

  10. Characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in Asian coastal megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S. I.; Jin, G.; Shimizu, Y.; Admajaya, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    For the sustainable use of groundwater resources for the future, it is important to conserve its quality as well as quantity. Especially in the developing megacities, land subsidence and groundwater pollution by several contaminants (e.g. nitrogen, trace metals and organic pollutants etc.) is one of a critical environmental problems, because of the intensive extraction of groundwater and huge amount of contaminant load derived from domestic wastewater as well as agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, the process of groundwater degradation, including depletion and contamination with urbanization, has not been examined well in the previous studies. In the present study, we aim to confirm the characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in coastal Asian megacities such as Osaka and Jakarta. In Osaka, groundwater was used as a water resource during the period of rapid population increase before 1970, and consequently groundwater resources have been degraded. Hydraulic potential of groundwater has been recovered after the regulation for abstraction. However, it is still below sea level in the deeper aquifer (>20 m) of some regions, and higher Cl-, NH4+-N and PO43-P concentrations were detected in these regions. The results also suggest that shallower aquifer (>10 m) is influenced by infiltration of sewage to groundwater. In the Jakarta metropolitan area, current hydraulic potential is below sea level in because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The distribution of Cl- and Mn concentration in groundwater suggests that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. It implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. On the other hands, NO3-N in groundwater is suggested to be attenuated by the processes of denitrification and dilution in the coastal area.

  11. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoporous networks as effective stabilisation matrices for nanoscale zero-valent iron and groundwater pollutant removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Byun, J.; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), with its reductive potentials and wide availability, offers degradative remediation of environmental contaminants. Rapid aggregation and deactivation hinder its application in real-life conditions. Here, we show that by caging nZVI into the micropores of porous ...

  13. Assessing the potential of random forest method for estimating solar radiation using air pollution index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Huaiwei; Gui, Dongwei; Yan, Baowei; Liu, Yi; Liao, Weihong; Zhu, Yan; Lu, Chengwei; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Models based on random forests for daily solar radiation estimation are proposed. • Three sites within different air pollution index conditions are considered. • Performance of random forests is better than that of empirical methodologies. • Special attention is given to the use of air pollution index. • The potential of air pollution index is assessed by random forest models. - Abstract: Simulations of solar radiation have become increasingly common in recent years because of the rapid global development and deployment of solar energy technologies. The effect of air pollution on solar radiation is well known. However, few studies have attempting to evaluate the potential of the air pollution index in estimating solar radiation. In this study, meteorological data, solar radiation, and air pollution index data from three sites having different air pollution index conditions are used to develop random forest models. We propose different random forest models with and without considering air pollution index data, and then compare their respective performance with that of empirical methodologies. In addition, a variable importance approach based on random forest is applied in order to assess input variables. The results show that the performance of random forest models with air pollution index data is better than that of the empirical methodologies, generating 9.1–17.0% lower values of root-mean-square error in a fitted period and 2.0–17.4% lower values of root-mean-square error in a predicted period. Both the comparative results of different random forest models and variance importance indicate that applying air pollution index data is improves estimation of solar radiation. Also, although the air pollution index values varied largely from season to season, the random forest models appear more robust performances in different seasons than different models. The findings can act as a guide in selecting used variables to estimate daily solar

  14. Predicting Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Groundwater Boreholes Using Self-Potential Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M.; MacAllister, D. J.; Jackson, M.; Vinogradov, J.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Many coastal groundwater abstraction wells are under threat from seawater intrusion: this is exacerbated in summer by low water tables and increased abstraction. Existing hydrochemistry or geophysical techniques often fail to predict the timing of intrusion events. We investigate whether the presence and transport of seawater can influence self-potentials (SPs) measured within groundwater boreholes, with the aim of using SP monitoring to provide early warning of saline intrusion. SP data collection: SP data were collected from a coastal groundwater borehole and an inland borehole (> 60 km from the coast) in the Seaford Chalk of southern England. The SP gradient in the inland borehole was approximately 0.05 mV/m, while that in the coastal borehole varied from 0.16-0.26 mV/m throughout the monitoring period. Spectral analysis showed that semi-diurnal fluctuations in the SP gradient were several orders of magnitude higher at the coast than inland, indicating a strong influence from oceanic tides. A characteristic decrease in the gradient, or precursor, was observed in the coastal borehole several days prior to seawater intrusion. Modelling results: Hydrodynamic transport and geoelectric modelling suggest that observed pressure changes (associated with the streaming potential) are insufficient to explain either the magnitude of the coastal SP gradient or the semi-diurnal SP fluctuations. By contrast, a model of the exclusion-diffusion potential closely matches these observations and produces a precursor similar to that observed in the field. Sensitivity analysis suggests that both a sharp saline front and spatial variations in the exclusion efficiency arising from aquifer heterogeneities are necessary to explain the SP gradient observed in the coastal borehole. The presence of the precursor in the model depends also on the presence and depth of fractures near the base of the borehole. Conclusions: Our results indicate that SP monitoring, combined with hydrodynamic

  15. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expression. This review focuses on Arabidopsis studies concerning: 1) the remediation of elemental pollutants; 2) the remediation of organic pollutants; and 3) the phytoremediation genome. Elemental pollutants include heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic) that are immutable. The general goal of phytoremediation is to extract, detoxify, and hyperaccumulate elemental pollutants in above-ground plant tissues for later harvest. A few dozen Arabidopsis genes and proteins that play direct roles in the remediation of elemental pollutants are discussed. Organic pollutants include toxic chemicals such as benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, trinitrotoluene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Phytoremediation of organic pollutants is focused on their complete mineralization to harmless products, however, less is known about the potential of plants to act on complex organic chemicals. A preliminary survey of the Arabidopsis genome suggests that as many as 700 genes encode proteins that have the capacity to act directly on environmental pollutants or could be modified to do so. The potential of the phytoremediation proteome to be used to reduce human exposure to toxic pollutants appears to be enormous and untapped. PMID:22303204

  16. Utilizing potential field data to support delineation of groundwater aquifers in the southern Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elawadi, Eslam; Mogren, Saad; Ibrahim, Elkhedr; Batayneh, Awni; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper potential field data are interpreted to map the undulation of the basement surface, which represents the bottom of the water bearing zones, and to delineate the tectonic framework that controls the groundwater flow and accumulation in the southern Red Sea coastal area of Saudi Arabia. The interpretation reveals that the dominant structural trend is a NW (Red Sea) trend that resulted in a series of faulted tilted blocks. These tilted blocks are dissected by another cross-cut NE trend which shapes and forms a series of fault-bounded small basins. These basins and the bounded structural trends control and shape the flow direction of the groundwater in the study area, i.e. they act as groundwater conduits. Furthermore, the present results indicate that volcanic intrusions are present as subsurface flows, which hinder the groundwater exploration and drilling activities in most of the area; in some localities these volcanic flows crop out at the surface and cover the groundwater bearing formations. Furthermore, the gravity and magnetic data interpretation indicates the possible existence of a large structural basin occupying the southeastern side of the study area. This basin is bounded with NW and NE trending faults and is expected to be a good host for groundwater aquifers; thus it is a promising site for hydrogeological investigation. (paper)

  17. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  18. Economic impacts of urban flooding in South Florida: Potential consequences of managing groundwater to prevent salt water intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Engel, Vic; Martinez, Chris; Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David; Sukop, Michael C; Hughes, Joseph D

    2018-04-15

    High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources. However, higher canal and groundwater levels cause the loss of unsaturated zone storage and lead to an increased risk of inland flooding when the recharge from rainfall exceeds the capacity of the unsaturated zone to absorb it and the water table reaches the surface. Consequently, higher canal and groundwater levels are also associated with increased risk of economic losses, especially during the annual wet seasons. To help water managers and urban planners in this region better understand this trade-off, this study models the relationships between flood insurance claims and groundwater levels in Miami-Dade County. Via regression analyses, we relate the incurred number of monthly flood claims in 16 Miami-Dade County watersheds to monthly groundwater levels over the period from 1996 to 2010. We utilize these estimated statistical relationships to further illustrate various monthly flood loss scenarios that could plausibly result, thereby providing an economic quantification of a "too much water" trade-off. Importantly, this understanding is the first of its kind in South Florida and is exceedingly useful for regional-scale hydro-economic optimization models analyzing trade-offs associated with high water levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Environmental isotope and geophysical techniques to identify groundwater potential zones in drought prone areas of Amravati District, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble

    2017-01-01

    The groundwater potential of Anjangaon village in Amaravati district of Maharashtra is generally poor and the water quality is saline in most of the places. Farmers dig open wells (up to 30 m depth) and drill bore wells (100-150 m depth) for domestic and irrigation purposes. Most of the wells failed and farmers are struggling for fresh water in this region. To evaluate the groundwater recharge and to identify the groundwater potential zones an environmental isotope and geophysical study was carried out. Water samples were collected from rain, springs, open wells, bore wells and detention tanks and measured for environmental isotopes such as "1"8O, "2H and "3H. Isotope results indicate that the groundwater is getting modern component of recharge from the rain as well as from the detention tanks. The percentage contributions from the detention tanks were estimated to be about 40 to 90 %. In the southern part of the Anjagaon village, an electrical resistivity survey of the geological formation was carried out and a groundwater potential zone was delineated at 45m depth. The farmers were asked to drill bore wells at the identified depth. The drilled five bore wells yielded perennial source of good quality water

  20. A GIS-based model of potential groundwater yield zonation for a sandstone aquifer in the Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Shi, Yongli; Niu, Huigong; Xie, Daolei; Wei, Jiuchuan; Lefticariu, Liliana; Xu, Shuanxiang

    2018-02-01

    Resolving the potential groundwater yield zonation of sandstone aquifers occurring at depths of several hundred meters has been an important and challenging objective of the hydrogeological research focused on preventing flood hazards in coal mines. Using accessible geological exploration data we put forward a method of predicting the spatial distribution of groundwater storage potential in sandstone aquifers from Permian-age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China. A Geological, Tectonic and Lithological Composition Index (GTLCI) model was created using the following parameters: sandstone depth and thickness, faults length density (FaLD), faults density (FaD), fault frequency density (FaFD), fault scale density (FaSD), variation coefficient of the slope (VCS) of the coal seam, intensity index of folds in horizontal direction (IIFoH), and lithological composition index (LCI). Each of these factors was subsequently divided into 5 classes. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and trapezoidal fuzzy number (TFN) method was applied to calculate the weight of the conditioning factor and their respective sub-classes. Groundwater yield potential contour map, which was initially constructed using the GTLCI values revealed four groundwater abundance zones. The map was further refined by taking into account hydrogeologic data collected during mining activities. The GTLCI model predictive success rate of 80% was explained by the limited number of boreholes available for validation. It is considered that the GTLCI model is effective at predicting zonation of groundwater yield in the sandstone aquifers from Permian- age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, China.

  1. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-06-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3±8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p7.501; p<0.0001), consisting with delayed central conduction time of brainstem neural transmission. Highly exposed children showed significant evidence of inflammatory markers and their auditory and vestibular nuclei accumulated α synuclein and/or β amyloid(1-42). Medial superior olive neurons, critically involved in BAEPs, displayed significant pathology. Children's exposure to urban air pollution increases their risk for auditory and vestibular impairment. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-{mu}m pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of {approx}24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  3. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-μm pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of ∼24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  4. Comparison of a Conceptual Groundwater Model and Physically Based Groundwater Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zammit, C.; Griffiths, J.; Moore, C.; Woods, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource for human activities including agricultural practice and urban water demand. Hydrologic modelling is an important way to study groundwater recharge, movement and discharge, and its response to both human activity and climate change. To understand the groundwater hydrologic processes nationally in New Zealand, we have developed a conceptually based groundwater flow model, which is fully integrated into a national surface-water model (TopNet), and able to simulate groundwater recharge, movement, and interaction with surface water. To demonstrate the capability of this groundwater model (TopNet-GW), we applied the model to an irrigated area with water shortage and pollution problems in the upper Ruamahanga catchment in Great Wellington Region, New Zealand, and compared its performance with a physically-based groundwater model (MODFLOW). The comparison includes river flow at flow gauging sites, and interaction between groundwater and river. Results showed that the TopNet-GW produced similar flow and groundwater interaction patterns as the MODFLOW model, but took less computation time. This shows the conceptually-based groundwater model has the potential to simulate national groundwater process, and could be used as a surrogate for the more physically based model.

  5. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  7. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayumbu, P.; Phiri, L.K.; Mambo, A.; Sokotela, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  8. Use and groundwater risk potential of additives in heat transfer fluids for borehole heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, Dafina

    2014-01-01

    Ground based heat exchanger systems need to be evaluated in terms of potential effects on groundwater quality due to the risk of leakage of borehole heat exchanger fluids. The aim of this work was to identify the compounds which are present in additive mixtures and to investigate experimentally their biodegradability and effects on the biodegradation of the major organic component in borehole heat exchanger fluids. A data survey was carried out in cooperation with the State Ministry of the Environment Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany to collect detailed information about the identity and application amounts of additives in borehole heat exchanger fluids. The survey revealed that numerous additives of various chemical classes and properties are used as corrosion inhibitors, alkalis, dyes, organic solvents, flavors, defoamers and surfactants. Furthermore, it was shown that glycols are among the most often applied antifreeze agents, the main component of the heat exchanger fluids. Based on the prioritization criteria (i) abundance in the borehole heat exchanger fluids, (ii) persistence, and (iii) mobility in the subsurface, the additives benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, 2-ethylhexanoate, benzoate and decane dicarboxylate were selected for further biodegradation experiments. The biodegradation experiments were carried out in batch systems with 60- or 70-m-deep sediments (sandstone or marl) as inoculum. The samples were taken during the installation of borehole heat exchanger systems at two different sites. The microcosms were conducted under oxic, denitrifying, iron- and sulfate-reducing as well as fermentative conditions at the presumed aquifer temperature of 12 C. The major component ethylene glycol was degraded under all conditions studied. The fastest biodegradation occurred under oxic and nitrate-reducing conditions (< 15 days). In all anoxic, nitrate free experiments with marl-sediment fermentation was the predominant process involved in the biodegradation of ethylene

  9. Excess air in groundwater as a potential indicator of past environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeschenbach-Hertig, W.; Beyerle, U.; Holocher, J.; Peeters, F.; Kipfer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved noble gases in groundwater are used to reconstruct paleotemperature, but also yield information about 'excess air', a component of dissolved gases in excess of solubility equilibrium, derived from dissolution of trapped air in the ground. A good characterization of the excess air component is necessary not only to obtain reliable noble gas temperatures, but also to investigate the potential of excess air as a proxy for past environmental conditions. Two excess air related quantities can be derived from groundwater noble gas data sets: The initial air/water ratio and the pressure exerted on the entrapped air. Under recharge conditions typical for many aquifers, the excess of dissolved gases, expressed by the relative Ne excess ΔNe, is mainly determined by the hydrostatic pressure on the entrapped air. Thus, we suggest that ΔNe is essentially a measure of the amplitude of water table fluctuations in the recharge area. Comparing data sets from three aquifers in temperate, humid latitudes and three aquifers in tropical, semi-arid regions, we find that ΔNe is generally higher in the tropical aquifers, possibly related to larger water table fluctuations in these aquifers characterized by deep unsaturated zones. Whereas ΔNe shows little temporal variation in the mid-latitude aquifers, there is a strong signal of higher ΔNe in the paleowaters of the tropical aquifers as compared to water recharged under modern climate conditions. This finding may indicate a higher variability of recharge in the past at the studied tropical sites. (author)

  10. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence model to geoelectric and hydraulic parameters for groundwater potential zonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of a GIS – based Dempster – Shafer data driven model named as evidential belief function EBF- methodology to groundwater potential conditioning factors (GPCFs derived from geophysical and hydrogeological data sets for assessing groundwater potentiality was presented in this study. The proposed method’s efficacy in managing degree of uncertainty in spatial predictive models motivated this research. The method procedural approaches entail firstly, the database containing groundwater data records (bore wells location inventory, hydrogeological data record, etc. and geophysical measurement data construction. From the database, different influencing groundwater occurrence factors, namely aquifer layer thickness, aquifer layer resistivity, overburden material resistivity, overburden material thickness, aquifer hydraulic conductivity and aquifer transmissivity were extracted and prepared. Further, the bore well location inventories were partitioned randomly into a ratio of 70% (19 wells for model training and 30% (9 wells for model testing. The synthesized of the GPCFs via applying the DS – EBF model algorithms produced the groundwater productivity potential index (GPPI map which demarcated the area into low – medium, medium, medium – high and high potential zones. The analyzed percentage degree of uncertainty for the predicted lows potential zones classes and mediums/highs potential zones classes are >10% and <10%, respectively. The DS theory model-based GPPI map’s validation through ROC approach established prediction rate accuracy of 88.8%. Successively, the determined transverse resistance (TR values in the range of 1280 and 30,000 Ω my for the area geoelectrically delineated aquifer units of the predicted potential zones through Dar – Zarrouk Parameter analysis quantitatively confirm the DS theory modeling prediction results. This research results have expand the capability of DS – EBF model in predictive

  11. Characterisation of the potential hazards of water pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, R.

    1986-01-01

    The danger potential of chemicals to man and environment is essentially a function of exposure and toxicity. For the exposure of ecological systems there is decisive the distribution of the particular substance in and among the hydro-, pedo-, atmo- and biospheres. Proceeding from statistical relations between different molecular structure parameters and the distribution as well as action of substances, the approximate determination of distribution parameters, sorption coefficients and bioconcentration factors is possible. By means of a discriminant analysis the substances can be assigned to given classes of toxicity and mutagenicity. Proceeding from structure-analogy models, for several substances used as examples the distribution and toxicity parameters are calculated and an evaluation of the danger potential for aquatic ecosystems and man is discussed.

  12. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  13. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  15. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  16. Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Oki, Kazuo; Wang, Yi; Oki, Taikan

    2009-01-01

    Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale.

  17. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Jakóbczyk-Karpierz, Sabina; Rubin, Hanna; Sitek, Sławomir; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the catchment area monitoring network of 22 piezometers, included 14 nested, have been installed. The significant spatial and seasonal differences in chemical composition between northern and southern part of the catchment were indicated based on the groundwater sampling conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate were identified in northern part of the study area 255 mg/L as a results of inappropriate sewage management and agriculture activity. Results, based on the combines multi-scale hydrogeological and hydrochemical field studies, groundwater flow and transport modelling, dual stable isotope approach and geochemical modelling indicate mainly agriculture and inappropriate sewage water management as a sources of NO3- contamination of groundwater which moreover is affected by geochemical processes. In general, contaminated groundwater does not impact surface water quality. However, due to high concentration of nitrate in northern part a continues measurements of nitrogen compounds should be continued and used for reducing uncertainty of the predictive scenarios of the mass transport modelling in the study area.

  18. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  20. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, Fernando; Santos, Robson Rodger; Silva, L. Ferreira da; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2008-01-01

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi 8 O 8 ), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO 3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  1. Environmental Isotopes Method For Study Of The Migration Of Nitrate Pollutant In The Shallow Groundwater Of Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill, Bekasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syafalni

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of sanitary landfill of the Bantar Gebang, Bekasi on the origin and migration of pollutant in the shallow groundwater situated in and around the disposal site of Bantar Gebang landfill. The study revealed that domestic shallow wells are becoming increasingly polluted with nitrate in the region which have been distributed more than I Ian from the site. Based on the environmental isotope method (analysis of 18 O and 2 H) and hydrochemistry evaluation, it showed the same trend. The level of nitrate in the observation wells were found vary widely from 0.0 to 94.43 ppm for sampling period of April-May 2001 and 0.0 to 23.9 ppm for sampling period of August-September 2001. Some of the observation wells have indicated exceeding the maximum permissible limit specified for drinking water

  2. Potential hydrologic changes in the Amazon by the end of the 21st century and the groundwater buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N; Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the discussions on the future of the Amazon rainforest under a projected warmer-drier climate from the perspectives of land hydrology. Using IPCC HadGEM2-ES simulations of the present and future Amazon climate to drive a land hydrology model that accounts for groundwater constraint on land drainage, we assess potential hydrologic changes in soil water, evapotranspiration (ET), water table depth, and river discharge, assuming unchanged vegetation. We ask: how will ET regimes shift at the end of the 21st century, and will the groundwater help buffer the anticipated water stress in some places-times? We conducted four 10 yr model simulations, at the end of 20th and 21st century, with and without the groundwater. Our model results suggest that, first, over the western and central Amazon, ET will increase due to increased potential evapotranspiration (PET) with warmer temperatures, despite a decrease in soil water; that is, ET will remain PET or atmospheric demand-limited. Second, in the eastern Amazon dry season, ET will decrease in response to decreasing soil water, despite increasing PET demand; that is, ET in these regions-seasons will remain or become more soil water or supply-limited. Third, the area of water-limited regions will likely expand in the eastern Amazonia, with the dry season, as indicated by soil water store, even drier and longer. Fourth, river discharge will be significantly reduced over the entire Amazon but particularly so in the southeastern Amazon. By contrasting model results with and without the groundwater, we found that the slow soil drainage constrained by shallow groundwater can buffer soil water stress, particularly in southeastern Amazon dry season. Our model suggests that, if groundwater buffering effect is accounted for, the future Amazon water stress may be less than that projected by most climate models. (letter)

  3. Meteorological air pollution potential for Santiago, Chile: Towards an objective episode forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutllant, J; Garreaud, R

    1995-02-01

    The geography and climate of the Santiago basin are, in general, unfavorable for the diffusion of air pollutants. Consequently, extreme events occur frequently during the high pollution season extending from April to August. The meteorological conditions concurrent with those extreme events are mainly associated with the leading edges of coastal lows that bring down the base of the semipermanent temperature inversion reducing the dirunal growth of the surface mixed layer. In order to produce an objective 12 to 24-hour episode forecast, a two-way multivariate discriminant analysis has been used in the definition of a meteorological air-pollution potential index (MAPPI), separating high and low meteorological air-pollution potential days. The same procedure has been applied in the selection of the most efficient predictors for the MAPPI objective forecast, based on 12 and 24 UTC radiosonde data at Quintero, about 100 km to the NW of Santiago. Results indicate about 70% correctly forecasted days, with satisfactory skill-scores relative to persistency. The strong persistency characterizing the most efficient predictors in the 12-hour objective forecast scheme, makes the prediction of the first and last days of any particular air-pollution potential episode particularly difficult. To overcome this problem, a new set of predictors based on continuous measurements near the level of the top of the temperature inversion layer (900 hPa during air-pollution episodes) is being tested. Preliminary results indicate that the time-integrated zonal wind component at that level is a reliable precursor for both the onset and the end of air-pollution potential episodes.

  4. Potential of electrical gas discharges for pollution control of large gas volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-equilibrium gas discharges in many cases offer an innovative approach to the solution cf industrial air pollution problems. Negative corona discharges are used in electrostatic precipitators to collect dust and fly ash particles. Pulsed positive streamer coronas, dielectric-barrier discharges and possibly also flow-stabilised high pressure glow discharges are emerging technologies for the destruction of air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide in flue gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial effluents. The different discharge types are discussed with special emphasis on their potential for upscaling. Major applications are expected particularly in the removal of dilute concentrations of air pollutants, in odour control and in the simultaneous removal of different pollutants. Dielectric-barrier discharges exhibit disposal efficiencies similar to those of pulsed positive streamer coronas and require less sophisticated feeding circuits in large-scale industrial applications. (author)

  5. Echinoderms and oil pollution: a potential stress assay using bacterial symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Oil pollution is a problem in the North Sea. Important sources of oil pollution are spills and drill cutting. Echinoderms are a major component of the macrobenthos in the North Sea (and elsewhere). They tend to be very sensitive to various types of marine pollution. Many species of echinoderms contain symbiotic sub-cuticular bacteria (SCB). The response of Amphiura filiformis, A. chiajei and Ophiothrix fragilis, all of which contain SCB, to oil pollution was studied in laboratory experiments, mesocosms and in the field. Sublethal stress was monitored by examining changes in the tissue loading of SCB. When subjected to hydrocarbon insult, there was a decline in the number of SCB. The potential use of SCB abundance to detect sublethal stress is discussed. (author)

  6. HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AND POTENTIAL INDOOR AIR POLLUTION ISSUES IN RURAL INDONESIAN COMMUNITIES USING FUELWOOD ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Setiyo Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two rural communities using fuel wood energy in mountainous and coastal areas of Java island in Indonesia have been surveyed to know their household characteristics and the related potential indoor air pollution issues. By random sampling, we characterized fuel wood users only. The fuel wood use was mainly due to economic reason since some of the users were categorized as low-income families. Communities in the mountainous area were exposed to higher risk of indoor air pollution than those in coastal area due to their house characteristics and behavior during cooking. Both communities, however, were aware of indoor air pollution issues and indicated the sources. They also prioritized the factors to be controlled, which they perceived as the main cause of indoor air pollution problem.

  7. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon

  8. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  10. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  11. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential occurrence of MTBE and BTEX in groundwater resources of Amman-Zarqa basin, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Saffarini, Ghazi; Yaseen, Najal; Alawi, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates potential occurrence, distribution, and sources of the newly added gasoline oxygenate, methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the petroleum derivatives benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes called collectively, BTEX, in Jordan's heavily populated Amman-Zarqa Basin (AZB). It presents the first data on the levels of MTBE and BTEX in the aquifers of this basin. One hundred and seventy-nine (179) groundwater wells were sampled near petrol service stations, oil refinery storage tanks, car wrecks, bus stations, and chemical industries at different locations in the basin. Headspace GC and purge and trap GC-MS were utilized to determine the target substances in the samples. Concentrations of BTEX varied between no-detection (minimum) for all of them to 6.6 μg/L (maximum) for ethylbenzene. MTBE was found in few samples but none has exceeded the regulated levels; its concentrations ranged between no-detection to 4.1 μg/L. However, though the contamination levels are very low they should be considered alarming. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-08-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `short-lived climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.

  14. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  15. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  16. 3D modelling of groundwater flow and pollutant transport in the vicinity of the phenol-polluted mining lake ''Vollert-Sued'', Sachsen-Anhalt; Dreidimensionale Grundwasserstroemungs- und Schadstofftransportmodellierung im Umkreis des phenolverseuchten Tagebaurestloches Vollert-Sued, Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccarius, B.

    2000-07-01

    In a cooperation project of the Geoscience and Geography Department of TU Darmstadt Technical University and the Leipzig-Halle Environmental Research Center (UFZ), potential transport pathways of organic pollutants from the lake into the groundwater aquifers were investigated. Drill profiles, mining sections and maps, aerial views and hydroacoustic profiles helped to establish a digital terrain model on the basis of a Geographic Information System and, on this basis, a 3D groundwater flow model including pollutant transport using the FEFLOW code. The model parameters were derived from field tests (slug test, pumping test, seepage meter, level gauging) and laboratory tests (grain size analysis, flow meter cell and sorption tests) as well as from relevant publications. Further, the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the groundwater and lake water were described. The 3D model was to yield the current hydrogeological knolwedge and to make predictions on the fate, transport or decomposition of the phenols. The future development of groundwater quality can be simulated in order to assess the danger to freshwater wells and provide a basis for assessing the necessity and possibility of groundwater sanitation. The project will serve as a model for the methodology to be employed in similar cases of damage. [German] Im Rahmen einer Kooperation zwischen dem Fachbereich Geowissenschaften und Geographie der Technischen Universitaet Darmstadt und dem Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (UFZ) wurden im hydrogeologischen Umfeld des Vollert-Sued potentielle Transportwege der organischen Schadstoffe aus dem See in die Grundwasserleiter beispielhaft untersucht. Anhand von Bohrprofilen, Bergbaurissen und -karten sowie durch die Auswertung von Luftbildern und hydroakustischen Profilen wurde ein digitales Gelaendemodell mit einem Geographischen Informationssystem erstellt. Hieraus wurde mit dem Programm FEFLOW ein dreidimensionales Grundwasserstroemungsmodell mit

  17. Parametric and comparative study of the impact of waste pollutants in groundwater: the case of the district of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and polluted site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater as natural resources is one of the main sources of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic in developed or developing countries. However this resource, which was considered of good quality, is now threatened by various sources of contamination by human activities. This is the case of the District of Abidjan which has been the victim of toxic waste in 2006 and of an alpine valley in Western Switzerland. Groundwater from these two sites is located in sandy and unconfined aquifers. In fact, the pollutant transport in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical, chemical or biological, complex and interdependent. In Switzerland, where data are available, we simulated steady-state flow and tetrachloroethene transport with a good result showing the tetrachloroethene plume. While in Abidjan, where the data are insufficient, we developed in steady and transient states, flow and contaminants transport models in order to predict the likely evolution of the contaminants in the basement. Contaminants are composed of a very high contents of hydrogen sulfide, organochlorines, sulfur, mercaptan sulfur, and hydrocarbons such as olefins, Paraffins. We made two parametric and comparative studies. The probability of contamination of groundwater is observed over time, taking into account the input parameters of the model and some assumptions.

  18. Modeling of geoelectric parameters for assessing groundwater potentiality in a multifaceted geologic terrain, Ipinsa Southwest, Nigeria - A GIS-based GODT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Omobude, Osayande Bright

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of groundwater potentiality zones is a vital scheme for effective management of groundwater resources. This study developed a new multi-criteria decision making algorithm for groundwater potentiality modeling through modifying the standard GOD model. The developed model christened as GODT model was applied to assess groundwater potential in a multi-faceted crystalline geologic terrain, southwestern, Nigeria using the derived four unify groundwater potential conditioning factors namely: Groundwater hydraulic confinement (G), aquifer Overlying strata resistivity (O), Depth to water table (D) and Thickness of aquifer (T) from the interpreted geophysical data acquired in the area. With the developed model algorithm, the GIS-based produced G, O, D and T maps were synthesized to estimate groundwater potential index (GWPI) values for the area. The estimated GWPI values were processed in GIS environment to produce groundwater potential prediction index (GPPI) map which demarcate the area into four potential zones. The produced GODT model-based GPPI map was validated through application of both correlation technique and spatial attribute comparative scheme (SACS). The performance of the GODT model was compared with that of the standard analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The correlation technique results established 89% regression coefficients for the GODT modeling algorithm compared with 84% for the AHP model. On the other hand, the SACS validation results for the GODT and AHP models are 72.5% and 65%, respectively. The overall results indicate that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones with the GIS-based GODT model as a good alternative. The GPPI maps produced in this study can form part of decision making model for environmental planning and groundwater management in the area.

  19. A Field Method For Determination of Groundwater and Groundwater-sediment Associated Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1992-01-01

    Determination of the degradation potentials for a mixture of eight organic trace contaminants (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) has been made by specially developed in situ microcosms under aerobic and anaerobi...

  20. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater

  1. Case of study of groundwater pollution in a critical area of the southern-Friuli exposed to agricultural and landfill pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, G.; Siviero, P.; Barbieri, P.; Piselli, S.; Reisenhofer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater of the Southern-Friuli displays high levels of agricultural pollutants, such as nitrates and triazinic herbicides not only in the surficial layers, but also in the deeper ones, below 150 m. Some wells of the district of Gonars was monitored. The examined waters, used for irrigation but also for drinkable use, are exposed to environmental risk due to both agricultural practices and presence of many waste disposal sites. Heavy metals, nitrates and triazinic herbicides were measured in samples taken at four wells in three periods having different rain conditions. It was found that the groundwater quality is affected mainly by agricultural practices: nitrates and triazines are present at levels very near as well as superior to the maximum concentration allowable by Italian law. These agricultural contaminants have similar levels at all sampled sites: no difference ws detected between dry periods and rain ones. Heavy metal contents are negligible in all cases; this fact suggests that ion-exchange, sorbing and complexing properties of the soils hinder the way of the metal leachates towards underlying groundwater. Zinc constitutes an exception; it is found at levels near or superior to the maximum allowable concentration (CMA), and the highest contents are observed in rain periods; different sites display different zinc levels, suggesting that this metal could have various point sources. Nitrates fertilisers were found in all sites at similar levels, very near to CMA (50 mg/L). Triazines are specific herbicides for corn growing, highly diffused here: their use in recent years is forbidden by Italian law, but the presence in groundwater of parent triazines and metabolites is a persistent problem of this are. The Italian law indicates a CMA of 0.10 μ/L for the sum of atrazine and desethylatrazine, but it was found that desethylatrazine by itself exceeds largely CMA in all sites [it

  2. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , NH 4 + , Cl − , Br − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , PO 4 3− ) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. -- Highlights: •Analysis by IC of honeys from two areas with different environmental pollution (Italy and Balkans). •Chemometric techniques such as PCA and HCA used. •In Balkans area higher Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− due to industrial and agricultural activities. •Discrimination of honey botanical origin and authenticity on the base of IC data. •Honey ionic profiles as indicators of environmental pollution and botanical origin. -- Capsule: Ionic profiles of honey could be potential indicators of environmental pollution (industrial and agricultural), botanical origin and authenticity

  3. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miodrag Jelic

    resistance (ρ); dielectric constant (ε); magnetic permeability (η); electrochemical activity ..... comprises grey sands of different particle size distribution ..... groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in. Bangladesh.

  5. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    Interpreting and predicting the evolution of water resources and soils at regional scale are continuing challenges for natural scientists. Examples include non-point source (NPS) pollution of soil and surface and subsurface water from agricultural chemicals and pathogens, as well as overexploitation of groundwater resources. The presence and build up of NPS pollutants may be harmful for both soil and groundwater resources. The accumulation of salts and trace elements in soils can significantly impact crop productivity, while loading of salts, nitrates, trace elements and pesticides into groundwater supplies can deteriorate a source of drinking and irrigation water. Consequently, predicting the spatial distribution and fate of NPS pollutants in soils at applicative scales is now considered crucial for maintaining the fragile balance between crop productivity and the negative environmental impacts of NPS pollutants, which is a basis of sustainable agriculture. Soil scientists and hydrologists are regularly asked to assist state agencies to understand these critical environmental issues. The most frequent inquiries are related to the development of mathematical models needed for analyzing the impacts of alternative land-use and best management use and management of soil and water resources. Different modelling solutions exist, mainly differing on the role of the vadose zone and its horizontal and vertical variability in the predictive models. The vadose zone (the region from the soil surface to the groundwater surface) is a complex physical, chemical and biological ecosystem that controls the passage of NPS pollutants from the soil surface where they have been deposited or accumulated due to agricultural activities, to groundwater. Physically based distributed hydrological models require the internal variability of the vadose zone be explored at a variety of scales. The equations describing fluxes and storage of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone used in these

  6. Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: Examples from Bangkok and Jakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and akarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl - concentration and δ 18 O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3 - -N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas

  7. Potential of cold-adapted microorganisms for bioremediation of oil-polluted Alpine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margesin, R.

    2000-01-01

    The environmental contamination by organic pollutants is a widespread problem in all climates. The most widely distributed pollution can be attributed to oil contamination. Bioremediation methods can provide efficient, inexpensive and environmentally safe cleanup tools. The role of cold-adapted microorganisms for the bioremediation of experimentally and chronically oil-contaminated Alpine soils was evaluated in the studies described. The results demonstrated that there is a considerable potential for oil bioremediation in Alpine soils. Oil biodegradation can be significantly enhanced by biostimulation (inorganic nutrient supply), but a complete oil elimination is not possible by employing biological decontamination alone. (Author)

  8. Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

    1995-10-01

    With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy's waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation

  9. Pesticide and Water management alternatives to mitigate potential ground-water contamination for selected counties in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Requena, Antonio M.; Peralta, R. C.; Deer, Howard M.; Hill, Robert W.; Ranjha, Ahmad Yar

    1990-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. Although pesticides are necessary in today's agriculture, they can be a serious problem if they reach and contaminate ground water, especially in places where drinking water needs are supplied from ground water. The relative reduction of potential ground-water contamination due to agricultural use of pesticides was analyzed for parti...

  10. Integrated experimental and modeling assessment of potential effects of gas leakages on groundwater composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Marton; Dethlefsen, Frank; Ebert, Markus; Schäfer, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Storing renewably produced energy is one of the major challenges for the energy systems of the upcoming decades. Power-to-gas technologies coupled to geological storage of compressed air, methane, and hydrogen offer a comparatively safe and cost-efficient way for large-scale energy storage. However, the stored gases can potentially escape from their geological reservoir and may thus affect protected natural goods such as groundwater. The geochemical reactions responsible for these composition changes are usually investigated separately in experiments and numerical models. Here we present the outcomes of an integrated experimental and modeling approach through the example of a compressed air leakage scenario. A main consequence of the presence of oxygen to be assessed in an aquifer is pyrite oxidation, well known from acid mine drainage sites. However, in contrast to acid mine drainage sites exhibiting unsaturated sediments and fed by meteoric low-carbonate water, aquifers such as in Northern Germany contain a considerable amount of solid and dissolved inorganic carbon species potentially buffering pH changes. High pressure flow-through column experiments representing an intrusion of compressed air into an aquifer were carried out to quantify pyrite oxidation kinetics and to incorporate the observations into a descriptive reaction model. Surface passivation was found to decrease the reactivity of pyrite by more than 90% after a few months of experimental run time. We propose that the carbonate buffer system enables the precipitation of a passivating mineral layer on the pyrite surface reducing the overall reaction rate significantly. Consequently, an established rate law from the literature was extended by a reactive surface passivation term[1]. This improved reaction rate equation was incorporated into a 3D numerical model using OpenGeoSys with parameters representing similarly typical aquifer conditions the experiments had characterized. These boundaries include

  11. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  12. Groundwater circulation and utilisation in an unconfined carbonate system - revealing the potential effect of climate change and humankind activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of gravitational groundwater flow systems in carbonate regions were presented by Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth (2015) based on theoretical considerations, identification and classification of groundwater flow-related field phenomena and numerical simulation. It was revealed that the changes of flow pattern in carbonate framework attributed to groundwater utilization and/or climate change are more apparent due to the effective hydraulic conductivity of carbonates. Consequently, natural or artificial disturbances of water level propagate farther, deeper and faster in carbonates than in siliciclastic basins. These changes could result in degradation and reorganization of hierarchical flow systems, modification of recharge and discharge areas and even alteration of physicochemical parameters (Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth, 2015). This paper presents the application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary, depicting the flow pattern of the area and to a practical problem of a local study area, conflicts of interest of water supply and water use of a golf course. The question is how will the natural discharge on the golf course be influenced by the planned karst drinking water production well. In addition, the effects of climate change on this conflict were evaluated. We demonstrate the importance of the understanding the appropriate scale in karst studies and illustrate how the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept can help to determine it. For this purpose, the hydrogeological conditions of the study site were examined at different scales. The goals were to define the appropriate scale and reveal the effects of tectonic structures; and give prognoses for the possible impact of a planned drinking water well and climate change on the golf course based on numerical simulation. The study also showed the low geothermal potential of the area.

  13. A novel method of sensitivity analysis testing by applying the DRASTIC and fuzzy optimization methods to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution: the case of the Senegal River basin in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymane, Keita; Zhonghua, Tang

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability to groundwater pollution in the Senegal River basin was studied by two different but complementary methods: the DRASTIC method (which evaluates the intrinsic vulnerability) and the fuzzy method (which assesses the specific vulnerability by taking into account the continuity of the parameters). The validation of this application has been tested by comparing the connection in groundwater and distribution of different established classes of vulnerabilities as well as the nitrate distribution in the study area. Three vulnerability classes (low, medium and high) have been identified by both the DRASTIC method and the fuzzy method (between which the normalized model was used). An integrated analysis reveals that high classes with 14.64 % (for the DRASTIC method), 21.68 % (for the normalized DRASTIC method) and 18.92 % (for the fuzzy method) are not the most dominant. In addition, a new method for sensitivity analysis was used to identify (and confirm) the main parameters which impact the vulnerability to pollution with fuzzy membership. The results showed that the vadose zone is the main parameter which impacts groundwater vulnerability to pollution while net recharge contributes least to pollution in the study area. It was also found that the fuzzy method better assesses the vulnerability to pollution with a coincidence rate of 81.13 % versus that of 77.35 % for the DRASTIC method. These results serve as a guide for policymakers to identify areas sensitive to pollution before such sites are used for socioeconomic infrastructures.

  14. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... in the area near Lejre Denmark (approximately 15km to the SW of Roskilde) began in 1937, exporting approximately 18 million m3 of water per year to supply the city of Copenhagen. After abstraction began, streams in the area were observed to go dry after extended periods without precipitation, where......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  15. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  16. Evaluation Of Groundwater Pathways And Travel Times From The Nevada Test Site To The Potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.F. Pohlman; J. Zhu; M. Ye; J. Chapman; C. Russell; D.S. Shafer

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been recommended as a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If YM is licensed as a repository by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, it will be important to identify the potential for radionuclides to migrate from underground nuclear testing areas located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the hydraulically downgradient repository area to ensure that monitoring does not incorrectly attribute repository failure to radionuclides originating from other sources. In this study, we use the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate potential groundwater migration pathways and associated travel times from the NTS to the proposed YM repository area. Using results from the calibrated DVRFS model and the particle tracking post-processing package MODPATH, we modeled three-dimensional groundwater advective pathways in the NTS and YM region. Our study focuses on evaluating the potential for groundwater pathways between the NTS and YM withdrawal area and whether travel times for advective flow along these pathways coincide with the prospective monitoring timeframe at the proposed repository. We include uncertainty in effective porosity, as this is a critical variable in the determination of time for radionuclides to travel from the NTS region to the YM withdrawal area. Uncertainty in porosity is quantified through evaluation of existing site data and expert judgment and is incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulation. Since porosity information is limited for this region, the uncertainty is quite large and this is reflected in the results as a large range in simulated groundwater travel times

  17. Natural colloids in groundwater from granite and their potential impact on radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.

    1997-03-01

    AECL has submitted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel disposal at depth in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. As part of geochemical studies carried out in support of the EIS, the role of natural groundwater colloids (0.001 to 0.45 μm) and suspended particles (>0.45 μm) in radionuclide transport in granite rock has been investigated. This report summarizes the results of investigations carried out in groundwaters from the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) of southern Manitoba and the Atikokan Research Area (ARA) of northwestern Ontario to determine the concentrations, size distributions, and compositions of natural particles in groundwaters from the Canadian Shield. Particles from groundwater were isolated by ultrafiltration under a nitrogen atmosphere and particle concentrations and size distributions were determined by filtration, and by laser-based particle counting and size analysis. Groundwaters from Canadian Shield granites contain particles in a broad range of sizes, with no one particular size being dominant. Particle compositions include aluminosilicates, Fe oxides, carbonate and organics. Suspended particles are most likely generated by the mobilization of fracture-lining minerals by groundwater flow, while colloids are formed by a combination of precipitation and mobilization of colloidal material from fracture surfaces. The average concentration of 0.01 to 0.45 μm colloids in WRA groundwaters was 1.05 ± 0.14 mg/L. Average colloid concentrations were slightly higher in the more highly fractured ARA, although the highest observed colloid concentration in the ARA was below the 7 mg/L maximum observed in a sample from the WRA. The existence of colloids in the 0.001 to 0.01 μm size range was demonstrated using the results of chemical analysis of particle concentrates and data obtained with the laser-based Ultrafine Particle Size Analyzer (UPA). The WRA groundwaters contain on average about 2.7 mg/L of 0

  18. Concentrations of arsenic and other elements in groundwater of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: potential cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Dong, Zhaomin; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the concentrations of 23 elements in groundwater from arsenic (As) contaminated areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India to determine the potential human exposure to metals and metalloids. Elevated concentrations of As was found in all five study areas that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10μg/L. The mean As concentrations in groundwater of Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur were 297μg/L, 262μg/L, 115μg/L, 161μg/L and 349μg/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Mn were also detected in all areas with mean concentrations were 139μg/L, 807μg/L, 341μg/L, 579μg/L and 584μg/L for Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur, respectively. Daily As intakes from drinking water for adults and the potential cancer risk for all areas was also estimated. Results suggest that mitigation activities such as water treatment should not only be focused on As but must also consider other elements including Mn, B and Ba. The groundwater used for public drinking purposes needs to be tested periodically for As and other elements to ensure the quality of drinking water is within the prescribed national guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodology for and uses of a radiological source term assessment for potential impacts to stormwater and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teare, A.; Hansen, K.; DeWilde, J.; Yu, L.; Killey, D.

    2001-01-01

    A Radiological Source Term Assessment (RSTA) was conducted by Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). Tritium had been identified in the groundwater at several locations under the station, and OPG initiated the RSTA as part of its ongoing efforts to improve operations and to identify potential sources of radionuclide impact to groundwater and stormwater at the station. The RSTA provides a systematic approach to collecting information and assessing environmental risk for radioactive contaminants based on a ranking system developed for the purpose. This paper provides an overview of the RSTA focusing on the investigative approach and how it was applied. This approach can find application at other generating stations. (author)

  20. Numerical groundwater-flow modeling to evaluate potential effects of pumping and recharge: implications for sustainable groundwater management in the Mahanadi delta region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sasmita; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based groundwater models are useful to understand complex aquifer systems and make predictions about their response to hydrological changes. A conceptual model for evaluating responses to environmental changes is presented, considering the hydrogeologic framework, flow processes, aquifer hydraulic properties, boundary conditions, and sources and sinks of the groundwater system. Based on this conceptual model, a quasi-three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was designed using MODFLOW to simulate the groundwater system of Mahanadi River delta, eastern India. The model was constructed in the context of an upper unconfined aquifer and lower confined aquifer, separated by an aquitard. Hydraulic heads of 13 shallow wells and 11 deep wells were used to calibrate transient groundwater conditions during 1997-2006, followed by validation (2007-2011). The aquifer and aquitard hydraulic properties were obtained by pumping tests and were calibrated along with the rainfall recharge. The statistical and graphical performance indicators suggested a reasonably good simulation of groundwater flow over the study area. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater level is most sensitive to the hydraulic conductivities of both the aquifers, followed by vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining layer. The calibrated model was then employed to explore groundwater-flow dynamics in response to changes in pumping and recharge conditions. The simulation results indicate that pumping has a substantial effect on the confined aquifer flow regime as compared to the unconfined aquifer. The results and insights from this study have important implications for other regional groundwater modeling studies, especially in multi-layered aquifer systems.

  1. Diffuse pollution (pesticides and nitrate) at catchment scale on two constrasted sites: mass balances and characterization of the temporal variability of groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, N.; Gutierrez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Enhanced monitoring of groundwater quality over several years has revealed a nitrate and /or pesticide contamination of aquifers in North America and Europe (Gilliom et al., 2006; Ifen, 2004). In many countries (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, Switzerland), drinking water is partly or dominantly supplied by groundwater. Assessing the extent of nitrate or pesticide contamination in aquifer and understanding the transport of the solutes to groundwater is, therefore, of major importance for the management of groundwater resources. Besides, the objective set by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD - 2000/60/EC, OJEC 2000) is for "all groundwater bodies to achieve the good quantitative and chemical status … at the latest by 2015". The Directive demands that European Union Member States not only characterize their levels of groundwater contamination, but also that they study the evolutionary trends of their pollutant concentrations. Monitoring groundwater quality for nitrate and pesticide is thus particularly relevant as well as the characterization of the transfer of solutes to and in groundwater is essential for effective water resource management. Several countries have approached the stage of characterization of their groundwater bodies either by using data derived from various measurement networks, as in France or by establishing specific sampling and analysis protocols (NAQUA network in Switzerland; NAWQA network in the United States). Pesticide monitoring networks, where they exist, are often less than 10 years old with a fairly low measurement frequency (1 to 4 analyses per year). Chemical status and trend interpretations are thus difficult and limited. Characterizing an entire groundwater body from observations limited in time and space remains a challenge. Little published data exists concerning intensive monitoring over several years, whether at the catchment outlet or at observation points spread over a basin, that would allow these

  2. Potential contribution of groundwater to dry-season ET in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Fan, Ying

    2010-05-01

    Climate and land ecosystem models simulate vegetation stress in the Amazon forest in the dry season, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies indicating an adequate water supply. The question is: how does the vegetation obtain sufficient water, and what is missing in the models? Shallow model soil and rooting depth is a factor; the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution) may be another, but another cause may lie in the buffering effect of the groundwater found in nature but absent in models. We present observational and modeling evidence that the vast groundwater store, consequence of high annual rainfall combined with poor drainage in the Amazon, may provide a stable source for dry-season photosynthesis. The water table beneath the Amazon is sufficiently shallow (38% area 2mm/day to dry-season evapotranspiration, a non-negligible portion of tower-observed flux of 3-4mm/day, the latter including canopy-interception loss and open-water evaporation. This may have important implications to our understanding of Amazonia ecosystem response and feedback to climate change. Current models, lacking groundwater, predict a significant reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under current climate and large-scale dieback under projected future climate converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a net source and accelerating warming. If groundwater is considered in the models, the magnitude of the responses and feedbacks may be reduced.

  3. Deep groundwater and potential subsurface habitats beneath an Antarctic dry valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikucki, J. A.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of groundwater in Antarctica, particularly in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins is poorly understood. Here we use an airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) sensor to produce extensive imagery of resistivity beneath Taylor Valley. Regional-scale zones of low subsu...

  4. Application of a GIS-/remote sensing-based approach for predicting groundwater potential zones using a multi-criteria data mining methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San

    2017-07-01

    This study integrates the application of Dempster-Shafer-driven evidential belief function (DS-EBF) methodology with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to analyze surface and subsurface data sets for the spatial prediction of groundwater potential in Perak Province, Malaysia. The study used additional data obtained from the records of the groundwater yield rate of approximately 28 bore well locations. The processed surface and subsurface data produced sets of groundwater potential conditioning factors (GPCFs) from which multiple surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic parameter thematic maps were generated. The bore well location inventories were partitioned randomly into a ratio of 70% (19 wells) for model training to 30% (9 wells) for model testing. Application results of the DS-EBF relationship model algorithms of the surface- and subsurface-based GPCF thematic maps and the bore well locations produced two groundwater potential prediction (GPP) maps based on surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics which established that more than 60% of the study area falling within the moderate-high groundwater potential zones and less than 35% falling within the low potential zones. The estimated uncertainty values within the range of 0 to 17% for the predicted potential zones were quantified using the uncertainty algorithm of the model. The validation results of the GPP maps using relative operating characteristic curve method yielded 80 and 68% success rates and 89 and 53% prediction rates for the subsurface hydrogeologic factor (SUHF)- and surface hydrologic factor (SHF)-based GPP maps, respectively. The study results revealed that the SUHF-based GPP map accurately delineated groundwater potential zones better than the SHF-based GPP map. However, significant information on the low degree of uncertainty of the predicted potential zones established the suitability of the two GPP maps for future development of

  5. Energy saving potential of natural ventilation in China: The impact of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zheming; Chen, Yujiao; Malkawi, Ali; Liu, Zhu; Freeman, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural ventilation potential is affected largely by ambient air pollution in China. • NV hours of 76 Chinese cities based on weather and ambient air quality are estimated. • Cooling energy savings and carbon reductions of 35 major Chinese cities are estimated. • 8–78% of the cooling energy usage can be potentially reduced by NV. • Our findings provide guidelines to improve energy policies in China. - Abstract: Natural ventilation (NV) is a key sustainable solution for reducing the energy use in buildings, improving thermal comfort, and maintaining a healthy indoor environment. However, the energy savings and environmental benefits are affected greatly by ambient air pollution in China. Here we estimate the NV potential of all major Chinese cities based on weather, ambient air quality, building configuration, and newly constructed square footage of office buildings in the year of 2015. In general, little NV potential is observed in northern China during the winter and southern China during the summer. Kunming located in the Southwest China is the most weather-favorable city for natural ventilation, and reveals almost no loss due to air pollution. Building Energy Simulation (BES) is conducted to estimate the energy savings of natural ventilation in which ambient air pollution and total square footage at each city must be taken into account. Beijing, the capital city, displays limited per-square-meter saving potential due to the unfavorable weather and air quality for natural ventilation, but its largest total square footage of office buildings makes it become the city with the greatest energy saving opportunity in China. Our analysis shows that the aggregated energy savings potential of office buildings at 35 major Chinese cities is 112 GWh in 2015, even after allowing for a 43 GWh loss due to China’s serious air pollution issue especially in North China. 8–78% of the cooling energy consumption can be potentially reduced by natural

  6. Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expr...

  7. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F; Dabrowski, JM; Forbes, PBC

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information sy...

  8. Evaluation and proposed study of potential ground-water supplies, Gallup area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, William L.

    1975-01-01

    The ground-water potential of 5 areas in central-western New Mexico within 85 miles (135 km) of Gallup, N. Mex. was evaluated by reviewing the published literature, inspecting aerial and space photographs, and interviewing ranchers and personnel employed by well-drilling and mineral-exploration companies by telephone. The San Andres Limestone and underlying Glorieta Sandstone of Permian age are the oldest aquifers capable of yielding water of a quality suitable for municipal use. Extreme local variations in hydraulic conductivity and water quality reflect a karstic topography developed on the San Andres Limestone prior to burial by Upper Triassic sediments. The San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone form an important aquifer in the Grants-Bluewater area where yields of as much as 2,200 gallons per minute (140 l/s) have been obtained. Yields from wells completed in the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer on the Chaco slope and in the Gallup sag-Mogollon slope on the northeast and southeast flanks, respectively, of the Zuni uplift will be much less than those prevailing in the Grants-Bluewater area. Water quality in the San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone deteriorates with distance away from the axis of the Zuni uplift. Sandstones of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age are potential aquifers wherever they are present. Yields to wells tapping these aquifers are generally less than 200 gallons per minute (13 l/s) due to the relatively low hydraulic conductivity. Wells tapping alluvium of Late Cenozoic age along the Rio San Jose and Puerco River and interbedded volcanics and alluvium elsewhere in the area generally yield less than 100 gallons per minute (6 l/s) of water. Tributaries ,of the Rio San Jose that have eroded canyons into Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks east of the Continental Divide and south of the eastern part of the Zuni uplift have been repeatedly displaced and (or) covered by Quaternary volcanic rocks. The exact location, extent, and depth of

  9. Leaching of the potentially toxic pollutants from composites based on waste raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills were applied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick without any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements and the chemical composition investigation is included. Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods. Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in construction materials production.

  10. Groundwater flow and potential effects on evaporite dissolution in the Paradox Basin, SE Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, N.; Ge, S.; Mueller, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    A hydrogeologic study was conducted in the portion of the Paradox Basin south of the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Geology of the study area comprises fractured and faulted Paleozoic sandstone, limestone, and shale, which are underlain by evaporite cycles of the Paradox Formation. The evaporite deposits deform and dissolve when they come in contact with groundwater, generating land subsidence, saline groundwater, and salt input to the Colorado River. Active faults in the region slip at a rate of approximately 2 mm/year, likely due to evaporite dissolution. The objective of this study is to better understand groundwater flow and solute transport dynamics and to help determine the rate and timing of subsurface salt dissolution, which is an important control on the salt tectonics in the region. Study methods include hydrologic fieldwork, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. No groundwater wells exist in the study area. Water samples from springs and seeps were collected throughout the study area. Analysis of total dissolved solids (TDS), stable oxygen (δ18O) and deuterium (δD) isotopes, spring and seep locations, and prior data are used to gain a preliminary understanding of the shallow groundwater flow in the region. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (18O/16O) and deuterium (D/H) are used to constrain the source of spring water. Measured δ values are compared to predicted δ values for precipitation from WaterIsotopes.org for each sample site. Measured isotopic values range from -14.9 ‰ to -10.7 ‰ for δ18O and -108 ‰ to -78 ‰ for δD. The majority of samples from above 2000 m match predicted isotopic values for precipitation. Most samples taken below 2000 m are lighter than predicted isotopic values for precipitation. The TDS of spring samples measured in the lab show they range from 184 mg/L to 1552 mg/L with the majority of samples between 220 - 430 mg/L. TDS shows a weak correlation (R2 = 0.54) with altitude, where lower TDS

  11. Inverse Modeling of Water-Rock-CO2 Batch Experiments: Potential Impacts on Groundwater Resources at Carbon Sequestration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Dai, Zhenxue; Romanak, Katherine D; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a multicomponent geochemical model to interpret responses of water chemistry to introduction of CO2 into six water-rock batches with sedimentary samples collected from representative potable aquifers in the Gulf Coast area. The model simulated CO2 dissolution in groundwater, aqueous complexation, mineral reactions (dissolution/precipitation), and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. An inverse method was used to estimate mineral surface area, the key parameter for describing kinetic mineral reactions. Modeling results suggested that reductions in groundwater pH were more significant in the carbonate-poor aquifers than in the carbonate-rich aquifers, resulting in potential groundwater acidification. Modeled concentrations of major ions showed overall increasing trends, depending on mineralogy of the sediments, especially carbonate content. The geochemical model confirmed that mobilization of trace metals was caused likely by mineral dissolution and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. Although dissolved inorganic carbon and pH may be used as indicative parameters in potable aquifers, selection of geochemical parameters for CO2 leakage detection is site-specific and a stepwise procedure may be followed. A combined study of the geochemical models with the laboratory batch experiments improves our understanding of the mechanisms that dominate responses of water chemistry to CO2 leakage and also provides a frame of reference for designing monitoring strategy in potable aquifers.

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater supplies to the Doñana wetland, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christopher R.; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on natural recharge and groundwater-wetland dynamics were investigated for the Almonte-Marismas aquifer, Spain, which supports the internationally important Doñana wetland. Simulations were carried out using outputs from 13 global climate models to assess the impacts of climate change. Reductions in flow from the aquifer to streams and springs flooding the wetland, induced by changes in recharge according to different climate projections, were modelled. The results proj...

  13. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  14. Groundwater Modeling of Mercury Pollution at a Former Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Facility in Pavlodar City, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near the city of Pavlodar from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water is severely contaminated with mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the industrial activity of this ch...

  15. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is

  16. GIS-based groundwater potential analysis using novel ensemble weights-of-evidence with logistic regression and functional tree models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Hou, Enke; Wang, Shengquan; Wang, Guirong; Panahi, Mahdi; Li, Tao; Peng, Tao; Guo, Chen; Niu, Chao; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Jiale; Xie, Xiaoshen; Ahmad, Baharin Bin

    2018-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to produce groundwater spring potential maps using novel ensemble weights-of-evidence (WoE) with logistic regression (LR) and functional tree (FT) models. First, a total of 66 springs were identified by field surveys, out of which 70% of the spring locations were used for training the models and 30% of the spring locations were employed for the validation process. Second, a total of 14 affecting factors including aspect, altitude, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transport index (STI), lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use, soil, distance to roads, and distance to streams was used to analyze the spatial relationship between these affecting factors and spring occurrences. Multicollinearity analysis and feature selection of the correlation attribute evaluation (CAE) method were employed to optimize the affecting factors. Subsequently, the novel ensembles of the WoE, LR, and FT models were constructed using the training dataset. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, standard error, confidence interval (CI) at 95%, and significance level P were employed to validate and compare the performance of three models. Overall, all three models performed well for groundwater spring potential evaluation. The prediction capability of the FT model, with the highest AUC values, the smallest standard errors, the narrowest CIs, and the smallest P values for the training and validation datasets, is better compared to those of other models. The groundwater spring potential maps can be adopted for the management of water resources and land use by planners and engineers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  18. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  19. Submarine groundwater discharge at Kahana Bay, Oahu, 1997-2001: in situ CTD and water chemistry tracer data (NODC Accession 0011399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is neither well understood nor commonly investigated in Hawaii, but it is recognized as a potential pollution source to coastal...

  20. Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Ariel C.; Watanabe, Atsushi; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Motooka, Shunsuke; Herrera, Eugene C.; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We characterized SGD in a fringing coral reef using radon tracing. → End-member Rn and gas transfer rate significantly affect flux estimation accuracy. → Reef SGD is strongly influenced by tidal pumping and hydraulic gradient. → SGD elevated nitrate concentrations, which drastically increased nearshore Chl-a. → SGD significantly induced the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas. - Abstract: Radon ( 222 Rn) measurements were conducted in Shiraho Reef (Okinawa, Japan) to investigate nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD nearshore ) dynamics. Estimated average groundwater flux was 2-3 cm/h (maximum 7-8 cm/h). End-member radon concentration and gas transfer coefficient were identified as major factors influencing flux estimation accuracy. For the 7-km long reef, SGD nearshore was 0.39-0.58 m 3 /s, less than 30% of Todoroki River's baseflow discharge. SGD nearshore was spatially and temporally variable, reflecting the strong influence of subsurface geology, tidal pumping, groundwater recharge, and hydraulic gradient. SGD nearshore elevated nearshore nitrate concentrations (0.8-2.2 mg/l) to half of Todoroki River's baseflow NO 3 - N (2-4 mg/L). This increased nearshore Chl-a from 0.5-2 μg/l compared to the typically low Chl-a (<0.1-0.4 μg/l) in the moat. Diatoms and cyanobacteria concentrations exhibited an increasing trend. However, the percentage contributions of diatoms and cyanobacteria significantly decreased and increased, respectively. SGD may significantly induce the proliferation of cyanobacteria in nearshore reef areas.

  1. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd total ) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd total in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd total in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd total in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd total in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd total in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on shallow groundwater quality

  2. Cd isotopes as a potential source tracer of metal pollution in river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Haidong; Liang, Xirong; Tu, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the sources of heavy metals in water environment is key important for our understanding of their pollution behavior. In this present study, Cd concentrations and Cd isotopic compositions in sediments were determined to effectively identify possible Cd sources. Results showed that elevated concentrations and high enrichment factor for Cd were found in all sediments, suggesting anthropogenic Cd origin. Cd isotopic compositions in sediments yielded relative variations ranged from −0.35‰ to 0.07‰ in term of δ 114/110 Cd (the mean: −0.08‰). Large fractionated Cd was found in sediments collected from a smelter and an E-waste town. Cd isotopic compositions and Cd concentrations measured in sediments allowed the identification of three main origins (dust from metal refining (δ 114/110 Cd 114/110 Cd > 0), and those δ 114/110 Cd = 0, such as background and mining activity). According to the actual precision obtained, Cd isotopes could be a potential tool for tracing metal pollution sources in water environment. -- The information and application of Cd isotopic compositions will provide a new direction in tracing metal pollution in water environment

  3. Metabolic diversity of the heterotrophic microorganisms and potential link to pollution of the Rouge River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiquia, S.M., E-mail: smtiquia@umd.umich.ed [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan, 115F Science Building, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The heterotrophic microbial communities of the Rouge River were tracked using Biolog Ecoplates to understand the metabolic diversity at different temporal and spatial scales, and potential link to river pollution. Site less impacted by anthrophogenic sources (site 1), showed markedly lower metabolic diversity. The only substrates that were utilized in the water samples were carbohydrates. Sites more impacted by anthrophogenic sources (sites 8 and 9) showed higher metabolic diversity. Higher functional diversity was linked to the physico-chemical and biological properties of the water samples (i.e. higher concentrations of DO, DOC, chlorophyll, and bacterial density). Biolog analysis was found to be useful in differentiating metabolic diversity between microbial communities; in determining factors that most influence the separation of communities; and in identifying which substrates were most utilized by the communities. It can also be used as an effective ecological indicator of changes in river function attributable to urbanization and pollution. - BIOLOG differentiated metabolic diversity between microbial communities and can be used as ecological indicator of river function attributable to urbanization and pollution.

  4. Metabolic diversity of the heterotrophic microorganisms and potential link to pollution of the Rouge River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiquia, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The heterotrophic microbial communities of the Rouge River were tracked using Biolog Ecoplates to understand the metabolic diversity at different temporal and spatial scales, and potential link to river pollution. Site less impacted by anthrophogenic sources (site 1), showed markedly lower metabolic diversity. The only substrates that were utilized in the water samples were carbohydrates. Sites more impacted by anthrophogenic sources (sites 8 and 9) showed higher metabolic diversity. Higher functional diversity was linked to the physico-chemical and biological properties of the water samples (i.e. higher concentrations of DO, DOC, chlorophyll, and bacterial density). Biolog analysis was found to be useful in differentiating metabolic diversity between microbial communities; in determining factors that most influence the separation of communities; and in identifying which substrates were most utilized by the communities. It can also be used as an effective ecological indicator of changes in river function attributable to urbanization and pollution. - BIOLOG differentiated metabolic diversity between microbial communities and can be used as ecological indicator of river function attributable to urbanization and pollution.

  5. Functional genes reveal the intrinsic PAH biodegradation potential in creosote-contaminated groundwater following in situ biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Kapanen, Anu; Piskonen, Reetta; Lukkari, Tuomas; Itävaara, Merja

    2009-08-01

    A small-scale functional gene array containing 15 functional gene probes targeting aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways was used to investigate the effect of a pilot-scale air sparging and nutrient infiltration treatment on hydrocarbon biodegradation in creosote-contaminated groundwater. Genes involved in the different phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation were detected with the functional gene array in the contaminant plume, thus indicating the presence of intrinsic biodegradation potential. However, the low aerobic fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes closely similar to sulphate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria and the negligible decrease in contaminant concentrations showed that aerobic PAH biodegradation was limited in the anoxic groundwater. Increased abundance of PAH biodegradation genes was detected by functional gene array in the monitoring well located at the rear end of the biostimulated area, which indicated that air sparging and nutrient infiltration enhanced the intrinsic, aerobic PAH biodegradation. Furthermore, ten times higher naphthalene dioxygenase gene copy numbers were detected by real-time PCR in the biostimulated area, which was in good agreement with the functional gene array data. As a result, functional gene array analysis was demonstrated to provide a potential tool for evaluating the efficiency of the bioremediation treatment for enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation in field-scale applications.

  6. Abundance and diversity of methanogens: potential role in high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y H; Li, P; Dai, X Y; Zhang, R; Jiang, Z; Jiang, D W; Wang, Y X

    2015-05-15

    To investigate the community diversity and abundance of methanogens and their potential role in high arsenic groundwater, 17 groundwater samples from Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia were investigated with an integrated method including 16S rRNA gene clone library, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and geochemistry analyses. Total arsenic (AsTot) concentrations were 82.7-1088.7 μg/L and arsenite (AsIII) mostly dominated in these samples with percentages of 0.04-0.79. CH₄ concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 292 μg/L and distinctly elevated only when AsTot were relatively high and SO₄(2-) were distinctly low. Principal component analysis indicated that these samples were divided into three groups according to the variations of AsTot, CH₄ and SO₄(2-). AsTot concentrations were distinctly high in the group with high CH₄ and low SO₄(2-) comparing to the other two groups (one with high CH₄ and high SO₄(2-), the other with low CH₄ and SO₄(2-)). The mcrA gene (methyl coenzyme-M reductase gene) based phylogenetic analysis of methanogens population showed that methanogenic archaea was diverse but mainly composed of Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteria and unidentified groups, with Methanomicrobiales being distinctly dominant (50.6%). The mcrA gene abundance in high arsenic groundwater ranged from 3.01 × 10(3) to 3.80 × 10(6)copies/L and accounted for 0-30.2% of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The abundance of mcrA genes was positively correlated with the concentrations of AsTot (R=0.59), AsIII (R=0.57) and FeII (R=0.79), while it was negatively correlated with oxidation-reduction potential (R=-0.66) and SO₄(2-) concentration (R=-0.64). These results implied that methanogenic archaea might accelerate As release in groundwater aquifers in Hetao Plain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Tourists’ Perception of Haze Pollution and the Potential Impacts on Travel: Reshaping the Features of Tourism Seasonality in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Haze pollution has worsened and has received close attention by news agencies in the past two years. This type of environmental pollution might have a great effect on tourism image and the entire tourism industry of a destination. This study aimed to reveal the potential impacts of haze pollution on the tourism industry. Based on a case study in Beijing using questionnaires for potential tourists, awareness of haze pollution, impacts of haze pollution on travel and attitudes toward the impacts were discussed. The results indicated that haze pollution has a considerable potential impact on travel, and there are distinct differences among travel elements and tourism market segments. Due to its impacts, haze pollution could be taken into account in tourists’ decision-making processes, causing a portion of potential tourists to cancel tourism plans. As a result, tourist arrivals to similar destinations could decrease by a small margin, but the most significant impact could be on the temporal distribution of tourist arrivals, namely tourism seasonality, due to tourists’ “avoiding” psychology.

  8. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  9. Evaluation of Cr in ophiolite and groundwater and its potential to contaminate the environment in SE of Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khaledi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cr(VI in groundwater resources is governed by pH and Eh of water and its compounds are generally soluble and have more toxicicity and mobility in oxidizing environments. In this article, the Cr concentration in ophiolite units, in sediments, and in groundwater resources, and also its potential to contaminate the environment have been investigated in southeast of Birjand. During sampling, 17 water samples (2 rain water samples and 15 groundwater samples, and 8 sediment samples were collected. The concentrations of cations (major cations and Cr and anions in water samples were measured at Ottawa University, Canada using IC and ICP-AES methods, respectively. Cr concentrations of sediments were measured using XRF, and concentrations of Cr in collected Selective Sequential Extraction (SSE fractions were measured using Atomic Absorption (AA at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The average Cr concentrations in sediments and water resources are 627 and 0.026 ppm, respectively. According to the pH of sediments and Eh-pH of water samples, the Cr in water resources is as Cr(VI. Furthermore, the results of SSE show that the majority of Cr was found with residual matter, attached to the iron and manganese oxides, bound to carbonates, organic matter, and the soluble fractions, respectively. The hydrogeochemical properties of water resources show that the average values of EC, TDS and pH are 509 mg/l, 1045 µs/cm and 8.1, respectively, and the concentrations of Cl-, Na+, Mg2+ and SO42- ions are higher than the levels of WHO and Iran National Standard (1053. According to the WQI classification, while 20 percent of the water resources have excellent quality, 53 percent show good quality and 20 percent of water resources are poor in quality.

  10. Degradation of ground ice in a changing climate: the potential impact of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grandpré, I.; Fortier, D.; Stephani, E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate changes affecting the North West portion of Canada alter the thermal state of the permafrost and promote ground ice degradation. Melting of ground ice leads to greater water flow into the ground and to significant hydraulic changes (i.e. drainage of peatland and lakes, triggering of thermokarst and new groundwater flow patterns). Road infrastructures built on permafrost are particularly sensitive to permafrost degradation. Road construction and maintenance induce heat flux into the ground by the increase of solar radiation absorption (comparing to natural ground), the increase of snow cover on side slopes, the infiltration of water in embankment material and the migration of surface water in the active layer. The permafrost under the roads is therefore submitted to a warmer environment than in natural ground and his behavior reflects how the permafrost will act in the future with the global warming trend. The permafrost degradation dynamic under a road was studied at the Beaver Creek (Yukon) experimental site located on the Alaska Highway. Permafrost was characterized as near-zero Celcius and highly susceptible to differential thaw-settlement due to the ground ice spatial distribution. Ice-rich cryostructures typical of syngenetic permafrost (e.g. microlenticular) were abundant in the upper and lower cryostratigraphic units of fine-grained soils (Units 1, 2A, and 2C). The middle ice-poor silt layer (Unit 2B) characterized by porous cryostructure comprised the top of a buried ice-wedge network extending several meters in the underlying layers and susceptible to degradation by thermo-erosion. These particular features of the permafrost at the study site facilitated the formation of taliks (unfrozen zones) under the road which leaded to a greater water flow. We believe that water flow is promoting an acceleration of permafrost degradation by advective heat transfer. This process remains poorly studied and quantified in permafrost environment. Field data on

  11. Historical and potential groundwater drawdown in the Bruneau area, Owyhee County, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal seeps and springs in the Bruneau area in southwestern Idaho provide a vital but disappearing habitat for the Bruneau hot springsnail (Pyrgulopsis bruneauensis). In order to aid in conservation efforts, a two-part study was conducted (1) to determine trends in groundwater levels over time and (2) to simulate drawdown in aquifers that contribute to the geothermal seeps and springs along the Bruneau River. Seasonal and Regional Kendall tests for trends were used to determine water-level trends over a 20-year monitoring (1990–2010) period. Seasonal Kendall tests were used to calculate trends in groundwater-levels in 22 monitoring wells and indicated statistically significant changes in water level with trends ranging from 0.21 to 1.0 feet per year. Regional Kendall tests were used to calculate drawdown in categories of wells based on five criteria (well depth, distance from Indian Bathtub Spring, geologic unit, regional topographic valley, and temperature). Results from Regional Kendall tests indicate that slope of the trend (in feet per year) increased as a function of well depth; trends in water level as a function of other categories did not exhibit an obvious pattern based on distance from Indian Bathtub Spring, geologic unit, topographic valley, or temperature. Analytical solutions were used to simulate drawdown and recovery in wells using the Theis equation and a range of hydraulic parameters. Drawdown effects were determined by changing the storativity, transmissivity, and flow values over a hypothetical timeline. For example, estimates projected that after 20 years of pumping (at an assumed storativity of 0.002, a transmissivity of 980,000 feet squared per day, and a flow of 100 acre-feet per year), 1 foot of drawdown in the volcanic-rock aquifers would not be detected; however, other estimates using the same time frame but different hydraulic parameters (storativity of 0.001, transmissivity of 13,000 feet squared per day, and 610 acre-feet per

  12. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies).

  13. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation - Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated

  14. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  15. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Butachlor Toxin Polluted Water Using Ozonation, A Case Study of Groundwater Resources in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mirmoslem Hashemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important staple food in most parts of the world. The water resources in Guilan Province are receiving large quantities of herbicides (butachlor due to the vast rice fields in the province and the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers for increased harvest. The present study investigates the effects of ozone used for removing the remaining butachlor from groundwater. Samples were collected from 20 wells during four seasons and their physicochemical parameters were analyzed using gas chromatography and liquid extraction after their fixation. Quantitative measurements were performed using the standard enhancement method and removal methods were evaluated using an ozone generator. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software. The results showed that the residual concentration of butachlor in the samples was not above the recommended international limits. The effects of temperature, hardness, and pH were investigated to determine the efficiency of the removal method used and it was found that the butachlor removal efficiency of ozonation was higher in waters with an alkaline pH and high temperatures, while it decreased with increasing hardness. The pseudo-first order kinetic model was used to investigate the rate of ozone to butachlor contact to find that the product of ozone concentration by contact time had a linear and indirect relationship with the logarithm of the butachlor content.

  17. Considering the potential effect of faulting on regional-scale groundwater flow: an illustrative example from Australia's Great Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Turnadge, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydraulic head measurements in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, began in the early 20th century, and despite subsequent decades of data collection, a well-accepted smoothed potentiometric surface has continually assumed a contiguous aquifer system. Numerical modeling was used to produce alternative potentiometric surfaces for the Cadna-owie-Hooray aquifers with and without the effect of major faults. Where a fault created a vertical offset between the aquifers and was juxtaposed with an aquitard, it was assumed to act as a lateral barrier to flow. Results demonstrate notable differences in the central portion of the study area between potentiometric surfaces including faults and those without faults. Explicitly considering faults results in a 25-50 m difference where faults are perpendicular to the regional flow path, compared to disregarding faults. These potential barriers create semi-isolated compartments where lateral groundwater flow may be diminished or absent. Groundwater management in the GAB relies on maintaining certain hydraulic head conditions and, hence, a potentiometric surface. The presence of faulting has two implications for management: (1) a change in the inferred hydraulic heads (and associated fluxes) at the boundaries of regulatory jurisdictions; and (2) assessment of large-scale extractions occurring at different locations within the GAB.

  18. Compilation of data to estimate groundwater migration potential for constituents in active liquid discharges at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, L.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1991-03-01

    A preliminary characterization of the constituents present in the 33 liquid waste streams at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has been completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford has summarized the soil characteristics based on drill logs collected at each site that receives these liquid wastes. Literature searches were conducted and available Hanford-specific data were tabulated and reviewed. General literature on organic chemicals present in the liquid waste streams was also reviewed. Using all of this information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a best estimate of the transport characteristics (water solubility and soil adsorption properties) for those radionuclides and inorganic and organic chemicals identified in the various waste streams. We assume that the potential for transport is qualified through the four geochemical parameters: solubility, distribution coefficient, persistence (radiogenic or biochemical half-life), and volatility. Summary tables of these parameters are presented for more than 50 inorganic and radioactive species and more than 50 organic compounds identified in the liquid waste streams. Brief descriptions of the chemical characteristics of Hanford sediments, solubility, and adsorption processes, and of how geochemical parameters are used to estimate migration in groundwater-sediment environments are also presented. Groundwater monitoring data are tabulated for wells neighboring the facilities that receive the liquid wastes. 91 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Hydrogeophysical investigation of groundwater potential and aquifer vulnerability prediction in basement complex terrain - A case study from Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinade, Opeyemi J.; Adesina, Rasheed B.

    2016-06-01

    This study provides a model for the prediction of groundwater potential and vulnerability of basement aquifers in parts of Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. Hydrogeophysical surveys involving very-low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) profiling and electrical resistivity (ER) sounding, as well as evaluation of hydraulic gradient using three-point method, were carried out. Ten VLF-EM reconnaissance survey traverses, with lengths ranging from 55 m to 75 m, at 10 m station separation, and 12 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were occupied. Two-dimensional map of the filtered real component reveals areas of high conductivity, indicative of linear features that can serve as a reservoir or conduit for fluid flow. Interpretation of the VES results delineates three to four geoelectric units. Two aquifer zones were identified, with resistivity values in the ranges of 20 Ωm to 310 Ωm and 100 Ωm to 3,000 Ω m, respectively. Transverse resistance, longitudinal conductance, coefficient of anisotropy and hydraulic gradient have values ranging from 318.2 Ωm2 to 1,041.8 Ωm2, 0.11 mhos to 0.39 mhos, 1.04 to 1.74 and 0.017 to 0.05, respectively. The results of this study identified two prospective borehole locations and the optimum position to site the proposed septic system, based on the aquifer's protective capacity and groundwater flow properties.

  20. Compilation of data to estimate groundwater migration potential for constituents in active liquid discharges at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.; Serne, R.J.

    1991-03-01

    A preliminary characterization of the constituents present in the 33 liquid waste streams at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has been completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford has summarized the soil characteristics based on drill logs collected at each site that receives these liquid wastes. Literature searches were conducted and available Hanford-specific data were tabulated and reviewed. General literature on organic chemicals present in the liquid waste streams was also reviewed. Using all of this information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a best estimate of the transport characteristics (water solubility and soil adsorption properties) for those radionuclides and inorganic and organic chemicals identified in the various waste streams. We assume that the potential for transport is qualified through the four geochemical parameters: solubility, distribution coefficient, persistence (radiogenic or biochemical half-life), and volatility. Summary tables of these parameters are presented for more than 50 inorganic and radioactive species and more than 50 organic compounds identified in the liquid waste streams. Brief descriptions of the chemical characteristics of Hanford sediments, solubility, and adsorption processes, and of how geochemical parameters are used to estimate migration in groundwater-sediment environments are also presented. Groundwater monitoring data are tabulated for wells neighboring the facilities that receive the liquid wastes. 91 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs

  1. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-02-15

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cdtotal) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cdtotal in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cdtotal in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cdtotal in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Karst groundwater vulnerability mapping to the pollution: Case of Dir springs located between EL KSIBA and Ouaoumana (High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alili, L.; Boukdir, A.; Maslouhi, M. R.; Ikhmerdi, H.

    2018-05-01

    The study area is located in the north of the province of Beni Mellal, it covers the Piedmont of the high Atlas between El Ksiba and Ouaoumana. It is characterized by a poorly developed hydrographic network and the presence of very important karstic forms. These forms condition the rapid infiltration to the karstic springs are the subject of this study. In this work we presented a method of mapping the vulnerability to pollution of Karstic springs located between El Ksiba and Ouaoumana. To do this, we have introduced a vulnerability index called F which takes into account four parameters (EPIK): Development of the Epikarst, importance of the protective cover, infiltration conditions and development of the Karst network. The overlay of the thematic maps of these parameters through a GIS software (ArcGIS) gave us a map of the vulnerability to contamination on the whole hydrogeological basin of the springs.

  3. An index for estimating the potential impact on the environment of the pollutant content in aquatic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called "Concentration factor" (C.F. should express a direct positive relationship between the concentration of a pollutant (e.g. metals, radioisotopes in an organism and the concentration of the same pollutant in the water. While this index is very useful in some cases, it cannot give any information on the influence of the biota on its environment, an important topic in research on biogeochemical cycles. A new index (the Influence index has consequently been developed to quantify the potential influence of the pollutant content in the population biomass on the habitat in which the population lives. The value of this index is calculated as the ratio between the pollutant content in the population biomass per sediment surface unit (e.g. m2 and the concentration of the same pollutant in the water, and is expressed as water volume with the same pollutant concentration as in the water of the population habitat. The value increases with the increase of the pollutant content in the population biomass and the decrease of the pollutant concentration in the water. As an example, some applications of the index to heavy metal contaminations of a freshwater mussel (Unio pictorum mancus population are described.

  4. Linking chloride mass balance infiltration rates with chlorofluorocarbon and SF6 groundwater dating in semi-arid settings: potential and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Susanne; Osenbruck, Karsten; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus H M; Schwiede, Martin; Bottcher, Jurgen

    2010-09-01

    In the framework of the investigation of enrichment processes of nitrate in groundwater of the Kalahari of Botswana near Serowe, recharge processes were investigated. The thick unsaturated zone extending to up to 100 m of mostly unconsolidated sediments and very low recharge rates pose a serious challenge to study solute transport related to infiltration and recharge processes, as this extends past the conventional depths of soil scientific investigations and is difficult to describe using evidence from the groundwater due to the limitations imposed by available tracers. To determine the link between nitrate in the vadose zone and in the uppermost groundwater, sediment from the vadose zone was sampled up to a depth of 15-20 m (in one case also to 65 m) on several sites with natural vegetation in the research area. Among other parameters, sediment and water were analysed to determine chloride and nitrate concentration depth profiles. Using the chloride mass balance method, an estimation of groundwater infiltration rates produced values of 0.2-4 mm a(-1). The uncertainty of these values is, however, high. Because of the extreme thickness of the vadose zone, the travel time in the unsaturated zone might reach extreme values of up to 500 years and more. For investigations using groundwater, we applied the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-113, CFC-12, sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and tritium to identify potential recharge, and found indications for some advective transport of the CFCs and SF(6), which we accounted for as constituting potential active localised recharge. In our contribution, we show the potential and limitations of the applied methods to determine groundwater recharge and coupled solute transport in semi-arid settings, and compare travel time ranges derived from soil science and groundwater investigations.

  5. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification and common parameters, such as the antecedent dry weather period, total event volume per impervious hectare and both the mean and maximum hydraulic flow for each event, was also studied. Moreover, the dynamics of flow and turbidity signals were compared at the event scale. No simple relation between turbidity responses, hydraulic flow dynamics and the chosen parameters was derived from this effort. Knowledge of turbidity dynamics could therefore potentially improve wet weather management, especially when using pollution-based real-time control (P-RTC) since turbidity contains information not included in hydraulic flow dynamics and not readily predictable from such dynamics.

  6. Equilibrium sampling to determine the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants from sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wickström, Håkan; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-10-07

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites.

  7. The Energy-Water Nexus: Spatially-Resolved Analysis of the Potential for Desalinating Brackish Groundwater by Use of Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B. Kjellsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy. Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in Texas. This research uses Texas as a testbed for spatially-resolved analysis techniques while considering depth to brackish groundwater, water quality, and solar radiation across Texas to determine the locations with the best potential for integrating solar energy with brackish groundwater desalination. The framework presented herein can be useful for policymakers, regional planners, and project developers as they consider where to site desalination facilities coupled with solar photovoltaics. Results suggest that the northwestern region of Texas—with abundant sunshine and groundwater at relatively shallow depths and low salinity in areas with freshwater scarcity—has the highest potential for solar powered desalination. The range in capacity for solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis desalination was found to be 1.56 × 10—6 to 2.93 × 10—5 cubic meters of water per second per square meter of solar panel (m3/s/m2.

  8. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  9. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  10. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended

  11. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area

  12. Potential Groundwater Recharge from the Infiltration of Surface Runoff in Cold and Dry Creeks, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.

    2005-12-13

    Runoff from Cold and Dry Creeks may provide an important source of groundwater recharge on the Hanford Site. This report presents estimates of total volume and distribution of such recharge from extreme precipitation events. Estimates were derived using a simple approach that combined the Soil Conservation Service curve number runoff method and an exponential-decay channel infiltration model. Fifteen-minute streamflow data from four gaging stations, and hourly precipitation data from one climate station, were used to compute curve numbers and calibrate the infiltration model. All data were from several storms occurring during January 1995. Design storm precipitation depths ranging from 1.6 to 2.7 inches were applied with computed curve numbers to produce total runoff/recharge of 7,700 to 15,900 ac-ft, or approximately 10 times the average annual rate from this recharge source as determined in a previous study. Approximately two-thirds of the simulated recharge occurred in the lower stream reaches contained in the broad alluvial valley that parallels State Highway 240 near the Hanford 200 Area.

  13. Identification and characterization of potential discharge areas for radionuclide transport by groundwater from a nuclear waste repository in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Sassner, Mona

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes solute transport modeling carried out as a part of an assessment of the long-term radiological safety of a planned deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden. Specifically, it presents transport modeling performed to locate and describe discharge areas for groundwater potentially carrying radionuclides from the repository to the surface where man and the environment could be affected by the contamination. The modeling results show that topography to large extent determines the discharge locations. Present and future lake and wetland objects are central for the radionuclide transport and dose calculations in the safety assessment. Results of detailed transport modeling focusing on the regolith and the upper part of the rock indicate that the identification of discharge areas and objects considered in the safety assessment is robust in the sense that it does not change when a more detailed model representation is used.

  14. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sourc