WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater pollution potential

  1. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  2. Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

  3. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  4. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  5. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  6. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution Nitrogen Fertilizer Using Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Ta-oun, Mongkon; Daud, Mohamed; Bardaie, Mohd Zohadie

    2017-01-01

    An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia to identify potential groundwater quality problems. The expert system could predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and exiting environments. Four categories of groundwater pollution potential were identified base on an N-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index. A groundwater pol...

  7. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  8. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  9. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  10. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potential of soils amended with raw swine manure, dry and wet pyrolyzed swine biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solid and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture of...

  11. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  12. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory, spatial analysis and remote sensing for groundwater potentiality and nitrate pollution analysis in the semi-arid region of Khuzestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Omid; Melesse, Assefa M

    2016-10-15

    Effective management and sustainable development of groundwater resources of arid and semi-arid environments require monitoring of groundwater quality and quantity. The aim of this paper is to develop a reasonable methodological framework for producing the suitability map for drinking water through the geographic information system, remote sensing and field surveys of the Andimeshk-Dezful, Khozestan province, Iran as a semi-arid region. This study investigated the delineation of groundwater potential zone based on Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence and evaluate its applicability for groundwater potentiality mapping. The study also analyzed the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentration; and produced the suitability map for drinking water. The study has been carried out with the following steps: i) creation of maps of groundwater conditioning factors; ii) assessment of groundwater occurrence characteristics; iii) creation of groundwater potentiality map (GPM) and model validation; iv) collection and chemical analysis of water samples; v) assessment of groundwater nitrate pollution; and vi) creation of groundwater potentiality and quality map. The performance of the DS was also evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method and pumping test data to ensure its generalization ability, which eventually, the GPM showed 87.76% accuracy. The detailed analysis of groundwater potentiality and quality revealed that the 'non acceptable' areas covers an area of about 1479km(2) (60%). The study will provide significant information for groundwater management and exploitation in areas where groundwater is a major source of water and its exploration is critical to support drinking water need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available . In the literature, divergent approaches have identified various sets of pollutants and pollution indicators. This paper discusses international and local trends in groundwater monitoring for baseline studies and on-going pollution detection monitoring for a variety...

  14. [Groundwater organic pollution source identification technology system research and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wei, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Neng; Liu, Pei-Bin; Ji, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-02-01

    Groundwater organic pollutions are found in large amount of locations, and the pollutions are widely spread once onset; which is hard to identify and control. The key process to control and govern groundwater pollution is how to control the sources of pollution and reduce the danger to groundwater. This paper introduced typical contaminated sites as an example; then carried out the source identification studies and established groundwater organic pollution source identification system, finally applied the system to the identification of typical contaminated sites. First, grasp the basis of the contaminated sites of geological and hydrogeological conditions; determine the contaminated sites characteristics of pollutants as carbon tetrachloride, from the large numbers of groundwater analysis and test data; then find the solute transport model of contaminated sites and compound-specific isotope techniques. At last, through groundwater solute transport model and compound-specific isotope technology, determine the distribution of the typical site of organic sources of pollution and pollution status; invest identified potential sources of pollution and sample the soil to analysis. It turns out that the results of two identified historical pollution sources and pollutant concentration distribution are reliable. The results provided the basis for treatment of groundwater pollution.

  15. Detection and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle and is also widely used as sources of drinking water. With the increasing de?velopment of groundwater exploitation, the pollution is becoming more and more serious. This paper talks about the main research direc?tions of groundwater pollution, the detection, the remediation and some conclusions.

  16. A study of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater of Malwa Region of Punjab, India: Current Status, Pollution and its Potential Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in India. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In this present study, the AAS method is used to determine the various heavy metal concentrations for 240 samples of Groundwater distributed in eight districts in Malwa Region of Punjab. The concentration values were compared with Standard Values given by BIS. The results showed that the maximum percentage of groundwater samples of Malwa region is beyond the permissible limits and that’s why not fit for drinking purposes and other domestic activities due to the presence of various heavy metals . The overall groundwater quality of Punjab for Arsenic, lead, Iron, Cobalt, Chromium, zinc and Mercury can also be detected and compared with BIS standards. The aim of this particular study was to investigate the distribution of Heavy metals in groundwater of Malwa Region of Punjab and its greater risks to public health. The results were compared with the recommended standards for drinking water of BIS to know the existing status and trend. Overall, water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes in all the samples

  17. Groundwater contamination and pollution in micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detay, M.; Alessandrello, E.; Come, P.; Groom, I.

    1989-12-01

    This paper is an overview of groundwater contamination and pollution in th e main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Belau (Palau). A strategy for the comprehensive protection of groundwater resources in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is proposed.

  18. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely ... quality is a specialised task for a hydrogeologist and a water quality monitoring expert. Although general prescriptions for waste management facilities exist these ... approaches have identified various sets of pollutants and pollution indicators.

  19. Modelling Urban diffuse pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jato, Musa; Smith, Martin; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse urban pollution of surface and ground waters is a growing concern in many cities and towns. Traffic-derived pollutants such as salts, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may wash off road surfaces in soluble or particulate forms which later drain through soils and drainage systems into surface waters and groundwater. In Brighton, about 90% of drinking water supply comes from groundwater (derived from the Brighton Chalk block). In common with many groundwater sources the Chalk aquifer has been relatively extensively monitored and assessed for diffuse rural contaminants such as nitrate, but knowledge on the extent of contamination from road run-off is currently lacking. This project examines the transfer of traffic-derived contaminants from the road surface to the Chalk aquifer, via urban drainage systems. A transect of five boreholes have been sampled on a monthly basis and groundwater samples analysed to examine the concentrations of key, mainly road run-off derived, hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminants in groundwater across the Brighton area. Trace concentrations of heavy metals and phenols have been observed in groundwater. Electrical conductivity changes in groundwater have also been used to assess local changes in ionic strength which may be associated with road-derived contaminants. This has been supplemented by systematic water and sediment sampling from urban gully pots, with further sampling planned from drainage and settlement ponds adjacent to major roads, to examine initial road to drainage system transport of major contaminants.

  20. Evaluating pollution potential of leachate from landfill site, from the Tangier city and its impact on groundwater (Tangier - Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bader1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from municipalities’ landfills represents a potential health risk to ecosystems in generally and human populations in particularly. This study which was taken during year from 2010 to 2011was focused to study the physicochemical evaluation of the leachate from the landfill of the Tangier city (north of Morocco. The analyses of the sampled leachate revealed strong content of biodegradable organic matter (BOD =166.78 mg/l, COD=2397.25 mg/l and BOD/COD=0.069 and of SM (SM = 577.97 mg/l. Contents in nitrate (NO3=199.77 mg/l were also revealed. The discharge of the Tangier city is characterized by an old leachate. The long-term monitoring of the evaluation of physicochemical parameters in polluted leachate, on how environmental conditions change over time, could then lead to models useful in the prediction of natural attenuation in aquifers. Therefore, an adaptable and efficient treatment process must be used to eliminate the wide range of pollutants present in leachate.

  1. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  2. Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

    1982-01-01

    The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

  3. Integrating the Sciences to Investigate Groundwater Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Julie R.; Madden, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations that integrate concepts from geological sciences with biology and chemistry are rare. The authors present an investigation that introduces high school students to microbe-mineral interactions by tying together anaerobic respiration, reduction reactions, metal ion solubility, and groundwater pollution. During the investigation,…

  4. Integrating the Sciences to Investigate Groundwater Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Julie R.; Madden, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations that integrate concepts from geological sciences with biology and chemistry are rare. The authors present an investigation that introduces high school students to microbe-mineral interactions by tying together anaerobic respiration, reduction reactions, metal ion solubility, and groundwater pollution. During the investigation,…

  5. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  6. Review of emerging organic pollutants in groundwater in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Koroša

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging organic compounds EOC are substances which have been only recently determined as pollutants,and substances which have been newly developed or discovered in the environment. EOC in groundwater cancause adverse effects on the environment and human health. They enter into the natural environment as a resultof various anthropogenic activities. The article provides an overview of emerging organic pollutants that occur ingroundwater. These compounds are drug residues, substances originating from personal care products, pesticides,veterinary products, food additives, nanomaterials, industrial and other compounds found in wastewater. Thearticle describes the main sources and the presence of EOC in groundwater, pathways and potential impacts(risks. An overview of EOC detection research in the world is presented. Within the review of Slovenian studiesthe investigations dealing with the determination of wide spectrum of EOC presence in groundwater, with drugresidues in groundwater and waste water, or with the development of analytical methods for these substanceswere analyzed. From the entire analysis we inferred that we must be aware of the possible presence of EOC riskin groundwatereven in small concentrations. To reduce the yet extent unknown risks, it is necessary to determineEOC threshold values in groundwater and their impact. In the future it will be necessary to identify new pollutants,to develop new analytical methods to determine their sources and routes, and in particular, to establishmonitoring for these substances.

  7. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... ditch and a southerly leach to the secondary aquifer were taking place. To evaluate the proportion of leachate discharging to the drainage ditch, piezometers were installed in the shallow leachate-affected aquifer. On the basis of several soundings, the groundwater surface was mapped and the expected...

  8. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... groundwater divides were located. These measurements indicated that approximately 50% of the leachate from the mixed waste discharged to the drainage ditch. This was supported by directly measuring the flux of leachate (as kilograms chloride per year) carried out by continuous gauging of water flow...

  9. Reliability Analyses of Groundwater Pollutant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Panagiotis

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops a probabilistic finite element model for the analysis of groundwater pollution problems. Two computer codes were developed, (1) one using finite element technique to solve the two-dimensional steady state equations of groundwater flow and pollution transport, and (2) a first order reliability method code that can do a probabilistic analysis of any given analytical or numerical equation. The two codes were connected into one model, PAGAP (Probability Analysis of Groundwater And Pollution). PAGAP can be used to obtain (1) the probability that the concentration at a given point at a given time will exceed a specified value, (2) the probability that the maximum concentration at a given point will exceed a specified value and (3) the probability that the residence time at a given point will exceed a specified period. PAGAP could be used as a tool for assessment purposes and risk analyses, for instance the assessment of the efficiency of a proposed remediation technique or to study the effects of parameter distribution for a given problem (sensitivity study). The model has been applied to study the greatest self sustained, precipitation controlled aquifer in North Europe, which underlies Oslo`s new major airport. 92 refs., 187 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. The Mechanism of Nitrate Pollution in Soil and Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志敏; 诸葛敏; 杨玉峥

    2013-01-01

    Soil and groundwater which are important natural resources are closely related with human health.It will be hard to recover,if it is polluted.Nitrate has become one of the most serious harmful substances contaminated in soil and groundwater.A large number of studies have shown that high fertilizer and irrigation was the main reason of soil and groundwater pollution.Pollution is mainly concentrated in agricultural developed area.

  11. [Study on the risk assessment method of regional groundwater pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zong-Qing; Li, Ding-Long; Sun, Hong-Wei

    2013-02-01

    Based on the boundary elements of system risk assessment, the regional groundwater pollution risk assessment index system was preliminarily established, which included: regional groundwater specific vulnerability assessment, the regional pollution sources characteristics assessment and the health risk assessment of regional featured pollutants. The three sub-evaluation systems were coupled with the multi-index comprehensive method, the risk was characterized with the Spatial Analysis of ArcMap, and a new method to evaluate regional groundwater pollution risk that suitable for different parts of natural conditions, different types of pollution was established. Take Changzhou as an example, the risk of shallow groundwater pollution was studied with the new method, and found that the vulnerability index of groundwater in Changzhou is high and distributes unevenly; The distribution of pollution sources is concentrated and has a great impact on groundwater pollution risks; Influenced by the pollutants and pollution sources, the values of health risks are high in the urban area of Changzhou. The pollution risk of shallow groundwater is high and distributes unevenly, and distributes in the north of the line of Anjia-Xuejia-Zhenglu, the center of the city and the southeast, where the human activities are more intense and the pollution sources are intensive.

  12. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to diffus

  13. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  14. Establishment of Groundwater Arsenic Potential Distribution and Discrimination in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo Sheng; Chen, Yu Ying; Chung Liu, Chih; Lin, Chien Wen

    2016-04-01

    According to the last 10 years groundwater monitoring data in Taiwan, Arsenic concentration increase rapidly in some areas, similar to Bengal and India, the main source of Arsenic-polluted groundwater is geological sediments, through reducing reactions. There are many researches indicate that high concentration of Arsenic in groundwater poses the risk to water safety, for example, the farm lands irrigation water contains Arsenic cause the concentration of Arsenic increase in soil and crops. Based on the management of water usage instead of remediation in the situation of insufficient water. Taiwan EPA has been developed the procedures of Arsenic contamination potential area establishment and source discriminated process. Taiwan EPA use the procedures to determine the management of using groundwater, and the proposing usage of Arsenic groundwater accordance with different objects. Agencies could cooperate with the water quality standard or water needs, studying appropriate water purification methods and the groundwater depth, water consumption, thus achieve the goal of water safety and environmental protection, as a reference of policy to control total Arsenic concentration in groundwater. Keywords: Arsenic; Distribution; Discrimination; Pollution potential area of Arsenic; Origin evaluation of groundwater Arsenic

  15. Petroleum Pollution of Groundwater in Zibo and Its Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建芳; 武强; 李铎

    2003-01-01

    The source of ground water supply in Dawu is an extremely huge one in Shandong province. Now it is faced with serious pollution of petroleum in Hougao area. Aiming at this problem, the petroleum pollution in aeration zone and in groundwater was analyzed. The result shows that the contaminant of groundwater comes from the leaching of petroleum in the soil horizon of aeration zone through precipitation, and the quick flow of groundwater makes the convection dominate themigration of contaminant. So movement of groundwater controls the distribution of petroleum contaminant, which is consistent with the direction of ground flow. Building a groundwater closure zone in Hougao is an effective method to stop the contaminated groundwater flowing toward the water supply source of Dawu. The petroleum contaminant can be effectively reduced through using the aeration, biological and oxidation technologies.

  16. Development of a decision support system for groundwater pollution assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukuric, N.

    1999-01-01

    Computers have become the main tooi used in groundwater management. Computer software has been developed for storage, processing and presentation of information on groundwater pollution problems. Continuing demands for more efficiënt handling of information have resulted in increasing integration of

  17. LINEAR MODELS FOR MANAGING SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Gustafson, Sven-Ake; ,

    1984-01-01

    Mathematical models for the problem of maintaining a specified groundwater quality while permitting solute waste disposal at various facilities distributed over space are discussed. The pollutants are assumed to be chemically inert and their concentrations in the groundwater are governed by linear equations for advection and diffusion. The aim is to determine a disposal policy which maximises the total amount of pollutants released during a fixed time T while meeting the condition that the concentration everywhere is below prescribed levels.

  18. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  19. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  20. An almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm for groundwater pollution source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Simin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Pei; Zheng, Maohui

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characterization of unknown sources of groundwater pollution is frequently encountered in environmental problems. This study adopts a simulation-optimization approach that combines a contaminant transport simulation model with a heuristic harmony search algorithm to identify unknown pollution sources. In the proposed methodology, an almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm is developed. The performance of this methodology is evaluated on an illustrative groundwater pollution source identification problem, and the identified results indicate that the proposed almost-parameter-free harmony search algorithm-based optimization model can give satisfactory estimations, even when the irregular geometry, erroneous monitoring data, and prior information shortage of potential locations are considered.

  1. [Pollution of the groundwater in the city of Niamey, Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Houssier, S; Gross, P; Bouvier, C; Brissaud, F

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a study on chemical and bacteriological groundwater pollution in Niamey, a Sahelian city of some 700,000 inhabitants. A total of 22 wells and 24 bore-holes were selected on a geological and socio-economic basis. The superficial aquifers, located on each bank of the River Niger and connected to the wells, presented high levels of oxidizable nitrogen and bacteriological pollution (coliform and faecal Streptococcus) which make the water unfit for human consumption. The deep aquifer, which supplies pumps, was also polluted but to a lesser degree. Faecal pollution increased after the rainy season. The lack of sanitation in Niamey and the seepage of polluted matters from the superficial layers could explain this pollution. Eventually, the use of the groundwater could increase and constitute a major health risk for the majority of the inhabitants of Niamey.

  2. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Mas-Pla, Josep; Otero, Neus; Regàs, Oriol; Boy-Roura, Mercè; Puig, Roger; Bach, Joan; Domènech, Cristina; Zamorano, Manel; Brusi, David; Folch, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Contamination from agricultural sources and, in particular, nitrate pollution, is one of the main concerns in groundwater management. However, this type of pollution entails the entrance of other substances into the aquifer, as well as it may promote other processes. In this study, we deal with hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater samples from four distinct zones in Catalonia (NE Spain), which include 5 different aquifer types, to investigate the influence of fertilization on the overall hydrochemical composition of groundwater. Results indicate that intense fertilizer application, causing high nitrate pollution in aquifers, also homogenize the contents of the major dissolved ions (i.e.; Cl(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+)). Thus, when groundwater in igneous and sedimentary aquifers is compared, significant differences are observed under natural conditions for Cl(-), Na(+) and Ca(2+) (with p-values ranging from groundwater hydrochemistry (with R(2) values of 0.490, 0.609 and 0.470, for SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and Cl(-), respectively). Nevertheless, the increasing concentration of specific ions is not only attributed to agricultural pollution, but to their enhancing effect upon the biogeochemical processes that control water-rock interactions. Such results raise awareness that these processes should be evaluated in advance in order to assess an adequate groundwater resources management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trace metals pollution in seawater and groundwater in the ship breaking area of Sitakund Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Asma Binta; Kabir, Sohail; Selim Reza, A H M; Zaman, Mohammad Nazim; Ahsan, Mohammad Aminul; Akbor, Mohammad Ahedul; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunur

    2013-06-15

    This study reveals potential accumulation of trace metals in the sea and groundwater due to ship breaking activities which take place along the Bay of Bengal in Sitakund Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. When compared with WHO and Bangladesh domestic standards for water quality, it is revealed that seawater was strongly polluted by Fe and Hg, moderately by Mn and Al, and slightly by Pb and Cd. Groundwater was strongly polluted by Fe, Pb and Hg, moderately by Mn and Al, and slightly by As. Trace element concentrations of all seawater samples exceeded the average concentration of elements in the Earth's seawater. The application of Principal Components Analysis identified two sources of pollution-marine and ship breaking. The mechanism of groundwater pollution inferred that if seawater is polluted, nearby groundwater is also polluted with trace metals due to the influence of seawater intrusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Amano, Hiroki; Takao, Yuji; Hosono, Takahiro; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable for developing effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Known major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizers, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. In general, scatter diagrams of δ18O and δ15N from NO3- can be used to identify these pollution sources. However, this method can be difficult to use for chemical fertilizers and livestock waste sources due to the overlap of δ18O and δ15N ranges. In this study, we propose to use coprostanol as an indicator for the source of pollution. Coprostanol can be used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is a major fecal sterol formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to investigate NO3- pollution sources for groundwater in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Groundwater samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2013 to November 2015. These data were used to quantify relationships between NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and coprostanol. The results show that coprostanol has a potential for source identification of nitrate pollution. For lower coprostanol concentrations (polluted group, fertilizer is likely to be the predominant source of NO3-. However, higher concentration coprostanol samples in the nitrate-polluted group can be related to pollution from livestock waste. Thus, when conventional diagrams of isotopic ratios cannot distinguish pollution sources, coprostanol may be a useful tool.

  5. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    OpenAIRE

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh; Zahra Sajadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality...

  6. [Quantitative method of representative contaminants in groundwater pollution risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-03-01

    In the light of the problem that stress vulnerability assessment in groundwater pollution risk assessment is lack of an effective quantitative system, a new system was proposed based on representative contaminants and corresponding emission quantities through the analysis of groundwater pollution sources. And quantitative method of the representative contaminants in this system was established by analyzing the three properties of representative contaminants and determining the research emphasis using analytic hierarchy process. The method had been applied to the assessment of Beijing groundwater pollution risk. The results demonstrated that the representative contaminants hazards greatly depended on different research emphasizes. There were also differences between the sequence of three representative contaminants hazards and their corresponding properties. It suggested that subjective tendency of the research emphasis had a decisive impact on calculation results. In addition, by the means of sequence to normalize the three properties and to unify the quantified properties results would zoom in or out of the relative properties characteristic of different representative contaminants.

  7. A model for managing sources of groundwater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The waste disposal capacity of a groundwater system can be maximized while maintaining water quality at specified locations by using a groundwater pollutant source management model that is based upon linear programing and numerical simulation. The decision variables of the management model are solute waste disposal rates at various facilities distributed over space. A concentration response matrix is used in the management model to describe transient solute transport and is developed using the US Geological Survey solute transport simulation model. The management model was applied to a complex hypothetical groundwater system. -from Author

  8. A molecular topology approach to predicting pesticide pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall , Fred

    2001-01-01

    Various models have proposed methods for the discrimination of polluting and nonpolluting compounds on the basis of simple parameters, typically adsorption and degradation constants. However, such attempts are prone to site variability and measurement error to the extent that compounds cannot be reliably classified nor the chemistry of pollution extrapolated from them. Using observations of pesticide occurrence in U.S. groundwater it is possible to show that polluting from nonpolluting compounds can be distinguished purely on the basis of molecular topology. Topological parameters can be derived without measurement error or site-specific variability. A logistic regression model has been developed which explains 97% of the variation in the data, with 86% of the variation being explained by the rule that a compound will be found in groundwater if 6 pollution at the molecular level and their application to agrochemical development and risk assessment is discussed.

  9. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  10. Nitrate pollution of groundwater; all right…, but nothing else?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menció, Anna, E-mail: anna.mencio@udg.edu [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Mas-Pla, Josep, E-mail: jmas@icra.cat [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA) (Spain); Otero, Neus, E-mail: notero@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Geoquímica de Fluids, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C/ Martí i Franquès, s/n – 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Regàs, Oriol [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAiA), Centre de Recerca en Geologia i Cartografia Ambiental (Geocamb), Deptartament de Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Ciències, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Boy-Roura, Mercè [Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA) (Spain); and others

    2016-01-01

    Contamination from agricultural sources and, in particular, nitrate pollution, is one of the main concerns in groundwater management. However, this type of pollution entails the entrance of other substances into the aquifer, as well as it may promote other processes. In this study, we deal with hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater samples from four distinct zones in Catalonia (NE Spain), which include 5 different aquifer types, to investigate the influence of fertilization on the overall hydrochemical composition of groundwater. Results indicate that intense fertilizer application, causing high nitrate pollution in aquifers, also homogenize the contents of the major dissolved ions (i.e.; Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Mg{sup 2+}). Thus, when groundwater in igneous and sedimentary aquifers is compared, significant differences are observed under natural conditions for Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} (with p-values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.038), and when high nitrate concentrations occur, these differences are reduced (most p-values ranged between 0.054 and 0.978). Moreover, positive linear relationships between nitrate and some ions are found indicating the magnitude of the fertilization impact on groundwater hydrochemistry (with R{sup 2} values of 0.490, 0.609 and 0.470, for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+} and Cl{sup -}, respectively). Nevertheless, the increasing concentration of specific ions is not only attributed to agricultural pollution, but to their enhancing effect upon the biogeochemical processes that control water-rock interactions. Such results raise awareness that these processes should be evaluated in advance in order to assess an adequate groundwater resources management. - Highlights: • The effects of nitrate pollution have been evaluated in five different aquifer types • Statistical and multivariate analyses are used to identify groundwater changes • Agricultural pollution modifies

  11. Feasibility of phyto remediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    his report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose was applied...

  12. Feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clause, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose...

  13. Vadose Zone Monitoring as a Key to Groundwater Protection from Pollution Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    Minimization subsurface pollution is much dependent on the capability to provide real-time information on the chemical and hydrological properties of the percolating water. Today, most monitoring programs are based on observation wells that enable data acquisitions from the saturated part of the subsurface. Unfortunately, identification of pollutants in well water is clear evidence that the contaminants already crossed the entire vadose-zone and accumulated in the aquifer water to detectable concentration. Therefore, effective monitoring programs that aim at protecting groundwater from pollution hazard should include vadose zone monitoring technologies that are capable to provide real-time information on the chemical composition of the percolating water. Obviously, identification of pollution process in the vadose zone may provide an early warning on potential risk to groundwater quality, long before contaminates reach the water-table and accumulate in the aquifers. Since productive agriculture must inherently include down leaching of excess lower quality water, understanding the mechanisms controlling transport and degradation of pollutants in the unsaturated is crucial for water resources management. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS), which was specially developed to enable continuous measurements of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water, was used to assess the impact of various agricultural setups on groundwater quality, including: (a) intensive organic and conventional greenhouses, (b) citrus orchard and open field crops , and (c) dairy farms. In these applications frequent sampling of vadose zone water for chemical and isotopic analysis along with continuous measurement of water content was used to assess the link between agricultural setups and groundwater pollution potential. Transient data on variation in water content along with solute breakthrough at multiple depths were used to calibrate flow and transport models. These models

  14. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality, especially in terms of nitrate, sulfate, chloride sodium, spatial and temporal variations and the origin of them in the groundwater of Borazjan plain, are studied. Groundwater samples from 12 wells were collected in April and August 2012 and assessed to determine the parameters of hydrochemistry and pollution. Results: Based on these results, severe nitrate contamination of groundwater, especially in the southern part of the plain, by agricultural activities, cesspool wells, domestic sewage and livestock and poultry wastewater the influence of the effluent from the aviculture, were occurred. Also, the quality of groundwater resources showed that concentration of Cl- , Na+, SO42- , and NO3- are more than standard limit and only in some areas of plain, concentration of ions such as NO3- and Na+ is less than the standard limit. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using chemical fertilizers in terms of time period and amount of consumption should be properly managed. Furthermore, domestic wastewater, livestock and poultry wastewater should be controlled and the monitoring system for measuring the exact quantity and quality of groundwater resources must be completed.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2017-09-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  16. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2016-06-01

    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  17. Long-Term Oil Pollution and In Situ Microbial Response of Groundwater in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Sidan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Ding, Aizhong; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Potential threats exist where groundwater is polluted by high concentrations of oil compounds (980.20 mg L(-1) the highest TPHs). An abandoned petrochemical plant in Lanzhou City, where long-term petrochemical products leakage contaminated the groundwater, was used as a field site in this study. To determine the extent of pollution and find an effective solution, chemical techniques combined with molecular biological techniques were used to survey the migration and decomposition of pollutants. Moreover, Illumina Sequencing was employed to reveal the microbial changes of different sites. Light-chain alkanes (mostly C6-C9), most benzene compounds, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene) mainly polluted the source. C29 to C36 and chlorobenzenes (hexachlorocyclohexane) polluted the secondary polluted sites. Moreover, chloralkane (trichloroethane and dichloroethane), benzene derivatives (trimethylbenzene and butylbenzene), and PAHs (fluorene and phenanthrene) were present in the other longtime-contaminated water. The bacterial genera are closely related with the chemical matters, and different groups of microorganisms gather in the sample sites that are polluted with different kinds of oil. The biodiversity and abundance of observed species change with pollution conditions. The dominant phyla (81%) of the bacterial community structure are Proteobacteria (62.2% of the total microbes), Bacteroidetes (8.85%), Actinobacteria (6.70%), and Choloroflexi (3.03%). Pseudomonadaceae is significant in the oil-polluted source and Comamonadaceae is significant in the secondary polluted (migrated oil) sample; these two genera are natural decomposers of refractory matters. Amycolatopsis, Rhodocyclaceae, Sulfurimonas, and Sulfuricurvum are the dominant genera in the long-migrated oil-polluted samples. Bioavailability of the oil-contaminated place differs with levels of pollution and cleaning the worse-polluted sites by microbes is more difficult.

  18. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  19. ~(15)N Isotope Used for Study of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution in Shijiazhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shijiazhuang City is the capital of Hebei province, China. Groundwater is the major water supply source for living and industry need of the city. Due to a rapid increase of population and development of industry and agriculture, a series of groundwater environmental problems are created. In the paper, the situation of groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is reported. Based on the groundwater chemical data and ~(15)N measurement results both on groundwater and soils, the reason of groundwater nitra...

  20. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  1. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  2. Biogeochemical dynamics of pollutants in Insitu groundwater remediation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Millot, R.; Rose, J.; Négrel, P.; Battaglia-Brunnet, F.; Diels, L.

    2010-12-01

    Insitu (bio) remediation of groundwater contaminants has been area of potential research interest in last few decades as the nature of contaminant encountered has also changed drastically. This gives tough challenge to researchers in finding a common solution for all contaminants together in one plume. Redox processes play significant role in pollutant dynamics and mobility in such systems. Arsenic particularly in reduced environments can get transformed into its reduced form (As3+), which is apparently more mobile and highly toxic. Also parallel sulfate reduction can lead to sulfide production and formation of thioarsenic species. On the other hand heavy metals (Zn, Fe, and Cd) in similar conditions will favour more stable metal sulfide precipitation. In the present work, we tested Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) in handling such issues and found promising results. Although it has been well known for contaminants like arsenic and chlorinated compounds but not much explored for heavy metals. Its high available surface area supports precipitation and co -precipitation of contaminants and its highly oxidizing nature and water born hydrogen production helps in stimulation of microbial activities in sediment and groundwater. These sulfate and Iron reducing bacteria can further fix heavy metals as stable metal sulfides by using hydrogen as potential electron donor. In the present study flow through columns (biotic and control) were set up in laboratory to understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments, also the impact of microbiology on performance of ZVI was studied. These glass columns (30 x 4cm) with intermediate sampling points were monitored over constant temperature (20°C) and continuous groundwater (up)flow at ~1ml/hr throughout the experiment. Simulated groundwater was prepared in laboratory containing sulfate, metals (Zn,Cd) and arsenic (AsV). While chemical and microbial parameters were followed regularly over time, solid phase has been

  3. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and risk to pollution in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Semkuyu, Dickson John; Pandey, Vishnu P

    2016-06-15

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment is a useful tool for groundwater pollution prevention and control. In this study, GIS based DRASTIC model have been used to assess intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to pollution whereas Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) was used to assess the risk to groundwater pollution in the groundwater basin of Kathmandu Valley. Seven hydrogeological factors were used in DRASTIC model to produce DRASTIC Index (DI) map which represent intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the area. The seven hydrogeological factors used were depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of aquifer. GIS based GRAM was used to produce likelihood of release of hazards, likelihood of detection of hazards, consequence of hazards and residual risk of groundwater contamination in terms of nitrate in the groundwater basin. It was found that more than 50% of the groundwater basin area in the valley is susceptible to groundwater pollution and these areas are mostly in Northern groundwater district Low and very low vulnerable areas account for only 13% and are located in Central and Southern groundwater districts. However after taking into account the barriers to groundwater pollution and likelihood of hazards release and detection, it was observed that most areas i.e. about 87% of the groundwater basin are at moderate residual risk to groundwater pollution. The resultant groundwater vulnerability and risk map provides a basis for policy makers and planner's ability to use information effectively for decision making at protecting the groundwater from pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking.

  5. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. State of nitrate pollution in groundwater in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maherry, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available source of drinking water; and 4. Identify areas for priority research and nitrate remediation. As is customary in South Africa, all nitrate and nitrite concentrations in this paper are expressed as an equivalent quantity of nitrogen (N) except where...: Groundwater Pollution in Africa, edited by Y. Xu and B. Usher, Taylor and Francis plc, London, UK. Van den Berg, E.C., Plarre, C., Van den Berg, H.M. and Thompson, M.W. 2008. The South African National Land Cover 2000. Agricultural Research Council...

  7. Groundwater pollution with heavy metals in the Ibar alluvium near Raška (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the operation of an ore flotation facility at Donja Rudnica near Raška, Serbia, during the period from 1972 to 2002, flotation tailings and wastewater of highly complex chemical compositions were deposited in the alluvial plain of the Ibar River. Due to the excellent groundwater flow characteristics of the alluvial formations underlying the tailings dump, the groundwater and soil over an extended area were continually polluted. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe = 7.38 mg/L. Zn = 4.04 mg/L, Pb = 2.17 mg/L in the soil and concentrations of sulfate as high as 3709 mg/L, and pH levels of 4.2 in the groundwater have been recorded at some locations. This paper draws attention to the potential risk this site poses for the conservation of biodiversity over the extended area.

  8. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  9. ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF PERSISTANCE POLLUTANTS IN GROUNDWATER AND SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrochemical Degradation (ECD) utilizes redox potential at the anode and the cathode to oxidize and/or reduce organic contaminants. ECD of environmentally persistence pollutants such chlorinate solvents, PCBs, and PAHs, although theoretically possible, has not been experimenta...

  10. Investigations of air and groundwater pollution of the rural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerenyi, Attila; Csorba, Peter (Institute of Applied Landscape Geography, Kossuth L. University, Debrecen (Hungary))

    1993-12-01

    Within the framework of landscape investigations in the environment of Cserepfalu-Bogacs, air and groundwater pollution was regularly monitored. Automatic instruments were used to measure SO[sub 2] content of the air for one day, and NO[sub x] content for the following day. Characteristic periods of the year were selected for air pollution, so that several weeks of continuous measurements in each season were obtained. The air pollution data measured in Cserepfalu are nearly always characteristic of the wider environment (background values). In the centre of Bogacs, SO[sub 2] pollution as a result of winter heating can be well observed; the amount of NO[sub x] is mostly determined by the increased traffic in summer. During a windless and very cold November, SO[sub 2] contamination in Bogacs greatly exceeded the permissible level. Groundwater examinations were carried out in the village of Cserepfalu between 1989 and 1990. The first measurements in Cserepfalu, between May and September 1988, showed little contamination, and the nitrate content was practically constant at 30 mg dm[sup -3] in the four main wells. In June 1989 the nitrate content of the water in these wells rose 4-7-fold by the end of the month. The characteristic nitrate concentration was found to be 80-150 mg dm[sup -3] and 150-250 mg dm[sup -3], but there were some places with values above 400 mg dm[sup -3]. These high values were found on the outskirts of the village, in an intensively cultivated agricultural area; thus the agricultural origin of the contamination is probable

  11. Mapping organic contaminant plumes in groundwater using spontaneous potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Sarah

    Increased water demands have raised awareness of its importance. One of the challenges facing water resource management is dealing with contaminated groundwater; delineating, characterizing and remediating it. In the last decade, spontaneous potentials have been proposed as a method for delineating degrading organic contaminant plumes in groundwater. A hypothesis proposed that the redox potential gradient due to degradation of contaminants generated an electrical potential gradient that could be measured at the ground surface. This research was undertaken to better understand this phenomenon and find under what conditions it occurs. Spontaneous potentials are electrical potentials generated by three sources that act simultaneously: electrokinetic, thermoelectric and electrochemical sources. Over contaminant plumes electrochemical sources are those of interest. Thermoelectric sources are negligible unless in geothermal areas, but we hypothesized that electrokinetic potentials could be impacted by contaminants altering sediment surface properties. We built and calibrated a laboratory apparatus to make measurements that allowed us to calculate streaming current coupling coefficients. We tested sediment from hydrocarbon impacted sites with clean and hydrocarbon polluted groundwater and found a measurable though inconsistent effect. Moreover, numerical modelling was used to demonstrate that the impact of these changes on field measurements was negligible. Spontaneous potential surveys were conducted on two field sites with well characterized degrading hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater. We did not find a correlation between redox conditions and spontaneous potential, even after the electrical measurements were corrected for anthropogenic noise. In order to determine why the expected signal was not seen, we undertook numerical modelling based on coupled fluxes using two hypothesized types of current: redox and diffusion currents. The only scenarios that produced

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution with Heavy Metals at the Oblogo No.1 Dumpsite in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the groundwater pollution risks from heavy metal contaminants near the de-commissioned Oblogo No.1 dumpsite using a combination of USEPA leachate estimation and migration models. The Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP model was used to determine leachate volumes from the base of the dumpsite whereas the Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM was used to determine contaminant concentrations at groundwater wells located at various distances from the dumpsite. It was observed that there is a wide variation in the concentration of the contaminants measured at different sampling periods between 2004 and 2011. Pollution risks from chromium, lead, manganese, cobalt and zinc were determined to be very low since the simulated contaminant concentrations in the wells were less than the reference ground water concentrations. However, the concentrations of cadmium, copper and arsenic were determined to be high enough to constitute a potential risk to groundwater wells which are down-gradient of the dumpsite. It was also determined that the minimum buffer distance of 360 m specified in the Ghana Landfill Guidelines may not ensure adequate protection for groundwater wells located down-gradient of the Oblogo No.1 dumpsite.

  13. [Research of early-warning method for regional groundwater pollution based on risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Ping; Wang, Ye-Yao; Guo, Yong-Li; Zhou, You-Ya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in China, and China's overall situation of groundwater pollution is not optimistic at present. Groundwater pollution risk evaluation and early-warning are the effective measures to prevent groundwater pollution. At present, research of groundwater early-warning method at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and the sophisticated technology has not been developed for reference. This paper briefly described the data and technological demand of the early-warning method in different scales, and the main factors influencing the early-warning results of groundwater pollution were classified as protection performance of geological medium, characteristics of pollution sources, groundwater dynamics and groundwater value. Then the main early-warning indexes of groundwater pollution were screened to establish the early-warning model of regional or watershed scale by the index overlay method. At last, the established early-warning model was used in Baotou plain, and the different early-warning grades were zoned by the model. The research results could provide scientific support for the local management department to protect the groundwater resources.

  14. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution. Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. The water table can potentially sustain a capillary flux of >2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  15. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Mining Zones of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienta, M. A.; Rodriguez, R.; Villasennor, G.; Romero, F.; Talavera, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A.; Cruz, O.

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards have been measured in groundwater of various areas of Mexico. This is a relevant public health problem since groundwater supplies most drinking water of the country. Although a natural source has been proposed as the cause of water contamination at most sites, the specific processes releasing As have only been identified in a few aquifers. The geological characteristics of Mexico including volcanic, geothermal, and highly mineralized zones constitute favorable environments for As occurrence. Furthermore, As-abundance in bedrock has lead Mexico to be one of the major world As-producers. As-bearing minerals like arsenopyrite, scorodite, mimetite, adamite, tennantite and nickeline can be found in several zones. Besides, arsenic may be a minor component of Fe, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Au ores. While thousands of people have been chronically exposed to As, arsenic-related health effects have been documented only for residents at some Mexican locations, like Comarca Lagunera, Zimapan, and Acambaro. Water-rock interactions may release As to water in mining areas, but ore extraction and processing produce surface wastes that can also release As to groundwater. Investigations developed in two historical mining zones revealed different As contents in groundwater. At Zimapan, a semi-arid area about 250 km NE of Mexico City, abundant arsenopyrite and hydrogeological conditions produced high As concentrations in deep wells exploited for drinking water supply. Oxidation and dissolution of As-bearing minerals mainly arsenopyrite, scorodite and tennantite released As to the fractured deep limestone aquifer. In addition, mining operations polluted shallow wells. In contrast, low levels of As were detected in wells near mine tailings in the warm sub-humid zone of Taxco, Guerrero. To explain those differences, the mineralogy and the geochemical processes occurring in tailings at both areas were studied. Results showed that besides

  17. The Effect of Flow on Pollution and Remediation in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moiwo J. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Flow, solute transport and pollution remediation through attenuation in unconsolidated porous media were investigated in this study. The variables used in the investigation include soil texture, porosity, topography and hydraulic conductivity. The study revealed that hydraulic conductivity is highly dependent on soil texture, porosity and topography.Hydraulic conductivity was noted to have a controlling influence on groundwater flow and residence time, and the degree of natural attenuation in hydrogeologic systems. Contaminant transport simulated with the MODFLOW Model revealed dominance of advective transport of contaminants in unconsolidated porous media. However, attenuation through sorption (linear isotherm equilibrium controlled) and reaction (first-order irreversible decay) also retarded contaminant plume migration. Thus natural attenuation was found to be highly feasible in clay formations due to low hydraulic conductivity and long groundwater residence times. Though natural attenuation processes including dispersion, diffusion, dilution, mixing, volatilization and biodegradation were not investigated for in this paper, it is shown to be a sound remediation technique of contaminated ground water due to its capacity to destroy or transform contaminants or at least retard their flow.

  18. Potential corrosivity of untreated groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2016-07-12

    Corrosive groundwater, if untreated, can dissolve lead and other metals from pipes and other components in water distribution systems. Two indicators of potential corrosivity—the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and the Potential to Promote Galvanic Corrosion (PPGC)—were used to identify which areas in the United States might be more susceptible to elevated concentrations of metals in household drinking water and which areas might be less susceptible. On the basis of the LSI, about one-third of the samples collected from about 21,000 groundwater sites are classified as potentially corrosive. On the basis of the PPGC, about two-thirds of the samples collected from about 27,000 groundwater sites are classified as moderate PPGC, and about one-tenth as high PPGC. Potentially corrosive groundwater occurs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.National maps have been prepared to identify the occurrence of potentially corrosive groundwater in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Eleven states and the District of Columbia were classified as having a very high prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, 14 states as having a high prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, 19 states as having a moderate prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater, and 6 states as having a low prevalence of potentially corrosive groundwater. These findings have the greatest implication for people dependent on untreated groundwater for drinking water, such as the 44 million people that are self-supplied and depend on domestic wells or springs for their water supply.

  19. ASPECTS CONCERNING NITRATE AND NITRITE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UNGUREANU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects concerning nitrate and nitrite pollution of groundwaters. Water is a basic natural resource for the good functioning of all thebiological processes in nature. It is very important for life and for the developmentof human activities. The quality of the ground water has begun to degrade moreand more, as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological changes.Nitrogen compounds pollution of the underground has increased lately. This hasbeen caused by the excessive and irrational use of nitrogen derived fertilizers, bythe wrong storage of the dejections resulted from zootechnical processes and byother chemical substances discharged into water. Samples were collected fromdifferent wells in order to check whether the well water was drinkable. The resultof the test revealed the existence of high concentrations of nitrates as well asvalues exceeding normal microbiological parameters. The value recorded in thetown of Segarcea, the county of Dolj, showed extremely high concentrations ofnitrates of the drinking water in the wells. Thus, Segarcea is the town with thegreatest number of contaminated wells in the country.

  20. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  1. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  2. Assessment of groundwater pollution in Tokyo using PPCPs as sewage markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Muramatsu, Yuki; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2012-02-07

    While the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in groundwater has typically been reported in bank filtration sites, irrigated fields, septic tanks, and sewage disposal practices, fewer studies have been conducted in highly urbanized areas, where infiltration of treated or untreated sewage is not supposed to be a source of groundwater recharge. Furthermore, little is known about the occurrence of various kinds of PPCPs in relation to microbial indicators in groundwater from different types of aquifers. Thus, we examined the city-wide occurrence of selected PPCPs (diethyltoluamide, crotamiton, ethenzamide, propyphenazone, carbamazepine, and caffeine) and E. coli in 50 groundwaters from unconfined aquifers (groundwater contamination could take place due to decrepit sewer networks. PPCPs were detected in unconfined aquifers and springs (23/34 samples, 68%), and in confined aquifers (7/16 samples, 44%). Compared with published results for sewage influents, concentrations of PPCPs, excluding caffeine, were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower, while in some samples concentrations were quite comparable. The high occurrence rate of PPCPs, even in confined aquifers, indicated that such aquifers are not always protected from pollution by sewage near the land surface. Among the PPCPs analyzed, carbamazepine and crotamiton were most frequently detected, which would appear to be owing to their high persistence, combined with the high concentration of crotamiton in sewage. Crotamiton was detected in all four E. coli-positive groundwaters, and thus may potentially serve as a precautionary indicator of E. coli contamination. Using carbamazepine as a sewage marker, we estimated that 0.8%-1.7% of the dry-weather flow of sewage was leaking out into the unconfined aquifers.

  3. Chromium speciation in groundwater of a tannery polluted area of Chennai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A Ramesh; Riyazuddin, P

    2010-01-01

    Chromium speciation in groundwater of a tannery polluted area was investigated for the distribution of chromium species and the influence of redox couples such as Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II). Speciation analysis was carried out by ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC)-methylisobutylketone (MIBK) procedure. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III)-organic complexes. The APDC could not extract the Cr(III)-organic complexes, but HNO3 digestion of the groundwater samples released the Cr(III)-organic complexes. The groundwater of the area is relatively oxidizing with redox potential (Eh) and dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged between 65 and 299 mV and 0.25 and 4.65 mg L(-1), respectively. The Fe(II) reduction of Cr(VI) was observed in some wells, but several wells that had Fe(II)/Cr(VI) concentrations more than the stoichiometric ratio (3:1) of the reduction reaction also had appreciable concentration of Cr(VI). This could partly be due to the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) by DO. It appears that the occurrence of Mn more than the Fe(II) concentration was also responsible for the presence of Cr(VI). Other reasons could be the Fe(II) complexation by organic ligands and the loss of reducing capacity of Fe(II) due to aquifer materials, but could not be established in this study.

  4. A STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTANTS AND CAUSES OF FORMATION IN MANZHOULI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Studying the evolution of groundwater pollutants and the causes of formation in Manzhouli is important and necessitous as the present water source of the production and living in Manzhouli is just groundwater and the water crisis is staring Manzhouli people in the face. The evolution of pollutants in groundwater in Manzhouli was derived based on the continuously monitoring between 1989 and 1999. In total, the quality of groundwater in Manzhouli is good except that the content of F is exceeding the standard. The quality of groundwater varies seasonally. The content of pollutants in high water is higher than in the low water except pH and As. The yearly evolution shows the regime like the damp surge. The evolution of pH is inverse to NO3-N and F after 1999. The courses of formation of the evolution of the content of the pollutants in groundwater in Manzhouli are the supply of runoff, the feature of rock, the time the water being stayed in the layers and the chemical field. Being affected by the supply of ground surface and hydrogeology condition, the contents of pollutant are higher in the May than in September and the yearly evolution is undulance. In total, the pollutants in the deeper layers are less than in the upper layers. Explosion water in the deeper layers, using the techniques of cutting F and minifying the pollutants caused by human being are the sound countermeasures in Manzhouli.

  5. Assessing the hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater pollution in arid areas using an integration of geochemical equilibrium and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed; Lashin, Aref; Abdalla, Fathy; Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz

    2017-10-01

    Rapid economic expansion poses serious problems for groundwater resources in arid areas, which typically have high rates of groundwater depletion. In this study, integration of hydrochemical investigations involving chemical and statistical analyses are conducted to assess the factors controlling hydrochemistry and potential pollution in an arid region. Fifty-four groundwater samples were collected from the Dhurma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and twenty-one physicochemical variables were examined for each sample. Spatial patterns of salinity and nitrate were mapped using fitted variograms. The nitrate spatial distribution shows that nitrate pollution is a persistent problem affecting a wide area of the aquifer. The hydrochemical investigations and cluster analysis reveal four significant clusters of groundwater zones. Five main factors were extracted, which explain >77% of the total data variance. These factors indicated that the chemical characteristics of the groundwater were influenced by rock-water interactions and anthropogenic factors. The identified clusters and factors were validated with hydrochemical investigations. The geogenic factors include the dissolution of various minerals (calcite, aragonite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and fluorite) and ion exchange processes. The anthropogenic factors include the impact of irrigation return flows and the application of potassium, nitrate, and phosphate fertilizers. Over time, these anthropogenic factors will most likely contribute to further declines in groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in groundwater from Beijing and Tianjin, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater contamination in China has become a growing public concern because of the country's rapid economic development and dramatically increasing fresh water demand. However, there is little information available on groundwater quality, particularly with respect to trace organic micro-pollutants contamination. This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of 1300 pollutants at 27 groundwater sites in Beijing and Tianjin, North China. Seventy-eight chemicals (6% of the targeted compounds) were detected in at least one sampling point; observed chemicals included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, plasticizers, antioxidants, pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds. Chemicals with a frequency of detection over 70% were 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (median concentration 152 ng L(-1)), benzyl alcohol (582 ng L(-1)), 2-phenoxy-ethanol (129 ng L(-1)), acetophenone (74 ng L(-1)), pentamethylbenzene (51 ng L(-1)), nitrobenzene (40 ng L(-1)) and dimethyl phthalate (64 ng L(-1)). Pesticides with concentrations exceeding the EU maximum residual limits (MRL) of 0.1 μg L(-1) were 1,4-dichlorobenzene, oxadixyl, diflubenzuron, carbendazim, diuron, and the E and Z isomers of dimethomorph. Naphthalene and its 7 alkylated derivatives were widely observed at maximum concentration up to 30 μg L(-1), which, although high, is still below the Australian drinking water guidelines of 70 μg L(-1). The risk assessment indicated there is no human health risk through the oral consumption from most wells, although there were four wells in which total seven compounds were found at the concentrations with a potential adverse health effects. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in groundwater in North China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Optimising a monitoring network for groundwater pollution using stochastic simulation and a cost model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2002-01-01

    The goal is to detect pollution at industrial sites at some distance from the site's boundary so that it can be cleaned up or hydrologically contained before contaminating groundwater outside the site

  8. Solubility enhancement effect of cyclodexin on groundwater pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Heng; Blanford, William J; Gao, Aifang

    2013-03-01

    Cyclodextrin (CD) molecules are polycyclic glucose oligomers that have a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic cavity. This structure provides CD the characteristic of enhancing the solubility of groundwater pollutants. The degree to which CD increases the apparent aqueous solubility of certain chemicals has been defined as the solubility enhancement factor (SEF). In this study, a novel and experimentally simple method has been developed to determine the SEF, which can be mathematically obtained by ratio of apparent and traditional Henry's law constants. The effects of temperature and CD concentration on the SEFs and CD cavity occupation have been investigated. Our results show that SEF values are inversely related to temperature for most examined chemicals, which is consistent with the assertion that the CD-chemical complexes are less stable at higher temperatures. The exception is toluene that shows the least SEF fluctuation within the temperature range studied (5 to 65 °C). This may indicate that the toluene-CD complex is particularly stable. As the definition of SEF predicted, linear relationships were found between the SEFs and CD concentrations for all the subject chemicals. The CD cavity occupation fraction at 5 °C were 3.14, 2.55, 2.04, 1.60, and 1.67 times greater than the values at 65 °C for of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, bezene, ethylbenze, and o-xylene, respectively. The fraction of CD cavities occupied was found to be inversely related to the CD concentration for all tested chemicals when pollutant mass are held constant. This study provides important information to accurately evaluate the performance of CD when used for aquifer remediation.

  9. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... variations in leachate composition are very important for locating the main source of the groundwater pollution and for selection of cost-effective remedial action activities....... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  10. Changes of Groundwater Quality in the Sorrounding Pollution Sources Due to Earthquake Dissaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main domestic water supply of the population of the Yogyakarta Special Region, both in the urban and as well as in the rural area due to its quantity and quality advantages. The rapid population growth has caused an increase of groundwater demand, consequently it is facing some problems to the sustainability of groundwater supply. Lowering of groundwater level has been observed in some places, as well as the degradation of groundwater quality. Earthquake which stroke Yogyakarta on 27 May 2006, damaged buildings and other infrastructures in the area, including roads and bridges. It might also damage the underground structures such as septic tanks, and pipes underneath the earth surface. It might cause cracking of the geologic structures. Furthermore, the damage of underneath infrastructures might create groundwater quality changes in the area. Some complains of local community on lowering and increasing groundwater level and groundwater quality changes were noted. Field observation and investigation were conducted, including collection of groundwater samples close to (the pollution sources. Laboratory analyses indicated that some parameters increased to exceed the drinking water quality standards. The high content of Coli form bacteria possibly was caused by contamination of nearby septic tanks or other pollution sources to the observed groundwater in the dug well.

  11. Delineation of groundwater potential zone: An AHP/ANP approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Etishree Agarwal; Rajat Agarwal; R D Garg; P K Garg

    2013-06-01

    The sustainable development and management of groundwater resource requires precise quantitative assessment based on scientific principle and modern techniques. In the present study, groundwater potential zone are delineated using remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh. The analytical network process (ANP) is a method that makes it possible for one to deal systematically, and includes the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a special case. The AHP and ANP are used to determine the weights of various themes and their classes for identifying the groundwater potential zone. These weights are applied in a linear combination to obtain five different groundwater potential zone in the study area, namely ‘very poor’, ‘poor’, ‘moderate’, ‘good’ and ‘very good’. It has been concluded that about 153.39 km2 area has very good groundwater potential which is only 3.37% of the total study area. However, the area having very poor groundwater potential is about 850 km2 which is about 19.63% of the study area. The area having good, moderate and poor groundwater potential is about 540.25, 1135.5, 1868.6 km2, respectively. The groundwater potential zone map was finally verified using the well yield data of 37 pumping wells, and the result was found satisfactory.

  12. Explaining nitrate pollution pressure on the groundwater resource in Kinshasa using a multivariate statistical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2013-04-01

    Drinking water in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is provided by extracting groundwater from the local aquifer, particularly in peripheral areas. The exploited groundwater body is mainly unconfined and located within a continuous detrital aquifer, primarily composed of sedimentary formations. However, the aquifer is subjected to an increasing threat of anthropogenic pollution pressure. Understanding the detailed origin of this pollution pressure is important for sustainable drinking water management in Kinshasa. The present study aims to explain the observed nitrate pollution problem, nitrate being considered as a good tracer for other pollution threats. The analysis is made in terms of physical attributes that are readily available using a statistical modelling approach. For the nitrate data, use was made of a historical groundwater quality assessment study, for which the data were re-analysed. The physical attributes are related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology of the region. Prior to the statistical modelling, intrinsic and specific vulnerability for nitrate pollution was assessed. This vulnerability assessment showed that the alluvium area in the northern part of the region is the most vulnerable area. This area consists of urban land use with poor sanitation. Re-analysis of the nitrate pollution data demonstrated that the spatial variability of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater body is high, and coherent with the fragmented land use of the region and the intrinsic and specific vulnerability maps. For the statistical modeling use was made of multiple regression and regression tree analysis. The results demonstrated the significant impact of land use variables on the Kinshasa groundwater nitrate pollution and the need for a detailed delineation of groundwater capture zones around the monitoring stations. Key words: Groundwater , Isotopic, Kinshasa, Modelling, Pollution, Physico-chemical.

  13. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  14. Endosulfan leaching from Typic Argiudolls in soybean tillage areas and groundwater pollution implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondona, Sebastián I; Gonzalez, Mariana; Martínez, Daniel E; Massone, Héctor E; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-06-15

    Endosulfan has been recently added to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) list and due to its extensive and massive use and environmental persistence constitutes a potential hazard to groundwater resources. Undisturbed soil columns were used to evaluate endosulfan leaching in two series of Typic Argiudolls considering natural and agricultural land use. Columns were spiked with 10μgL(-1) of technical endosulfan and eluted under saturated flow with five pore volumes of distilled water. Alfa and beta isomer residues were detected in the upper soil level, with decreasing values through the profile, being influenced by soil texture and land use. The endosulfan sulfate metabolite was mainly found in the upper level linked to high dehydrogenase activity. Results from leachates (total endosulfan 27-87ngL(-1)) showed higher α-isomer mobility, and suggest alkaline hydrolysis of both endosulfan isomers. The agricultural use modified the physico-chemical properties and structure of soils leading to vertical migration of endosulfan isomers under saturated conditions. Intact column test provided information close to field data showing its utility for the assessment of groundwater pollution by endosulfan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect...... the DOM facilitated transport of pollutants....

  16. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  17. Bacterial communities in tetrachloroethene-polluted groundwaters: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, Michael; Davidová, Anna; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2013-06-01

    The compositions of bacterial groundwater communities of three sites contaminated with chlorinated ethenes were analyzed by pyrosequencing their 16S rRNA genes. For each location, the entire and the active bacterial populations were characterized by independent molecular analysis of the community DNA and RNA. The sites were selected to cover a broad range of different environmental conditions and contamination levels, with tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) being the primary contaminants. Before sampling the biomass, a long-term monitoring of the polluted locations revealed high concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), which are toxic by-products of the incomplete bacterial degradation of PCE and TCE. The applied pyrosequencing technique enabled known dechlorinators to be identified at a very low detection level (study revealed that only a few species dominated the bacterial communities, with Albidiferax ferrireducens being the only highly prominent member found at all three sites. Only a limited number of OTUs with abundances of up to 1% and high sequence identities to known dechlorinating microorganisms were retrieved from the RNA pools of the two highly contaminated sites. The dechlorinating consortium was likely to be comprised of cDCE-assimilating bacteria (Polaromonas spp.), anaerobic organohalide respirers (mainly Geobacter spp.), and Burkholderia spp. involved in cometabolic dechlorination processes, together with methylotrophs (Methylobacter spp.). The deep sequencing results suggest that the indigenous dechlorinating consortia present at the investigated sites can be used as a starting point for future bioremediation activities by stimulating their anaerobic and aerobic chloroethene degradation capacities (i.e. reductive dechlorination, and metabolic and cometabolic oxidation).

  18. Hydrologic Influences on the Potential Benefits of Basinwide Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of basinwide groundwater management in agricultural areas are analyzed with an optimization model. The model incorporates functions to compute spatial and temporal groundwater responses to hydraulic stresses, net agricultural revenues as a function of water use, and groundwater recharge from individual stream reaches. Stream recharge is computed on the basis of both groundwater elevations and the amount of streamflow. The model can be run either to maximize basinwide net revenue over a planning period or to simulate private optimization by individual agricultural sectors. The effects of several hydrologic factors on the benefits of basinwide groundwater management are estimated by comparing model results for conditions in the Salinas Valley in California prior to reservoir construction with a number of other hydrologic scenarios. Results indicate that basinwide groundwater management and reservoir operation may be close substitutes for each other under certain conditions, that an interesting relationship appears to exist between the potential benefits of groundwater management and the annual amount of streamflow available for recharge, and that consideration of stochastic variations in streamflow is unnecessary in the analysis of systems relying primarily on groundwater. A framework is also presented for identifying strategies that meet environmental constraints while minimizing the revenue losses to current water users. For all scenarios considered, basinwide groundwater management generates larger revenues than private optimization while using considerably less water.

  19. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rügge, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    The migration of leachate from an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) was investigated by intensive mapping of groundwater potentials and groundwater quality at the downstream borders of the landfill and beneath the landfill. A groundwater mound controlling the migration of the leachate...

  20. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Creosote-contaminated groundwater contains a complex mixture of phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-, sulphur- or oxygen-containing heterocyclic, aromatic compounds. One of the most important factors that limits the spreading of these contaminants in groundwater aquifers is degradation by...

  1. An extension to the DRASTIC model to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution: application to the Haouz aquifer of Marrakech (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinan, Mohamed; Razack, Moumtaz

    2009-03-01

    An extension to the DRASTIC model is proposed in order to assess aquifer vulnerability to pollution. In contrast to the DRASTIC model, which considers the unsaturated and saturated zones together and computes a global intrinsic vulnerability index, the suggested approach discriminates between the aquifer vertical vulnerability (a concept related to the pollutant percolation) and the groundwater susceptibility (a concept that depends on the behaviour and uses of the groundwater). This approach is applied to the Haouz aquifer (Morocco) that supplies water to the Marrakech area. This aquifer is widely overexploited and there is evidence that the groundwater quality is threatened by various sources of pollution. Evaluation of the vertical vulnerability indicates that the aquifer mainly presents a moderate-to-weak vertical vulnerability. The zones potentially most favourable to pollutant percolation are mainly located in Central Haouz, along or near the surface wadis. The aquifer susceptibility is high in places located near the N’Fis, Baaja and Issil wadis. Everywhere else, low-to-moderate susceptibility is observed. This new approach therefore enables areas of vertical vulnerability and areas of susceptibility to be delineated separately. As a result, it constitutes a valuable decision-making tool for optimising the management of aquifer water resources and land-use planning.

  2. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  3. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  4. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  5. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  6. Forecasting the effects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, R.; Kreins, P.; Tetzlaff, B.; Wendland, F.

    2009-04-01

    be expected to be reduced only by about 10 kg N ha-1 a-1 on average for the whole Weser basin. However, for the agriculturally intensive used regions the expected N surpluses reduction may be much higher and can amount 40 kg N ha-1 a-1 or more. The REGLUD model system is used to quantify the potential effects of these projected N surpluses on the intakes into the groundwater the nitrogen pollution of surface waters. A comparison to the present situation shows that the potential nitrate concentration in the leachate will decrease in almost all regions of the Weser basin, mostly by about 10 mg NO3/L. In the agriculturally intensive used regions much higher reductions in the order of 40 mg NO3/L may be expected. Consequently, reduced nitrogen outflows to surface waters via the different pathways are obtained. Using environmental target values for groundwater and surface waters, e.g. a concentration of 50 mg NO3/L in the leachate as a target for groundwater protection, the model results can be used directly to identify those regions where additional agri-environmental reduction measures are required. Additionally, a backward calculation by the REGFLUD allows the quantification of maximal permissible nitrogen surplus levels, which can be used as a reference for the derivation of additional regionally adapted and hence effective nitrogen reduction measures. The research work presented here is carried out in the framework of the still ongoing AGRUM Weser project which is funded on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer protection (BMELV) and the River Basin Commission Weser (FGG).

  7. Distribution and potential health risk of groundwater uranium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woosik; Oh, Jungsun; Choung, Sungwook; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Yun, Uk; Woo, Nam-Chil; Kim, Hyun Koo

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure even to extremely low specific radioactivity of natural uranium in groundwater results in kidney problems and potential toxicity in bones. This study was conducted to assess the potential health risk via intake of the groundwater containing uranium, based on the determination of the uranium occurrence in groundwater. The groundwater was investigated from a total of 4140 wells in Korea. Most of the groundwater samples showed neutral pH and (sub-)oxic condition that was influenced by the mixing with shallow groundwater due to long-screened (open) wells. High uranium contents exceeding the WHO guideline level of 30 μg L(-1) were observed in the 160 wells located mainly in the plutonic bedrock regions. The statistical analysis suggested that the uranium component was present in groundwater by desorption and re-dissolution processes. Predominant uranium phases were estimated to uranyl carbonates under the Korean groundwater circumstances. These mobile forms of uranium and oxic condition facilitate the increase of potential health risk downgradient. In particular, long-term intake of groundwater containing >200 μg U L(-1) may induce internal exposure to radiation as well as the effects of chemical toxicity. These high uranium concentrations were found in twenty four sampling wells of rural areas in this study, and they were mainly used for drinking. Therefore, the high-level uranium wells and neighboring areas must be properly managed and monitored to reduce the exposure risk for the residents by drinking groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    changwen, ye

    2014-05-01

    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  9. On the scope and management of pesticide pollution of Swedish groundwater resources: The Scanian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Maria; Sparrenbom, Charlotte J; Dahlqvist, Peter; Fraser, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-three south-Swedish public supply wells were studied to assess pesticide pollution of regional groundwater resources. Relations between pesticide occurrence, hydrogeology, and land use were analyzed using Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps approach. Pesticides are demonstrated to be substantially present in regional groundwater, with detections in 18 wells. Concentrations above the drinking water threshold are confirmed for nine wells. Observations indicate considerable urban influence, and lagged effects of past, less restricted use. Modern, oxic waters from shallow, unconfined, unconsolidated or fracture-type bedrock aquifers appear particularly vulnerable. Least affected waters appear primarily associated with deeper wells, anoxic conditions, and more confined sediment aquifers lacking urban influence. Comprehensive, standardized monitoring of pesticides in groundwater need to be implemented nationwide to enable sound assessments of pollution status and trends, and to develop sound groundwater management plans in accordance with the Water Framework Directive. Further, existing water protection areas and associated regulations need to be reassessed.

  10. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  11. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10(-6). To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10(-6). The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Pollution with Heavy Metals at the Oblogo No.1 Dumpsite in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research study was to evaluate the groundwater pollution risks from heavy metal contaminants near the de-commissioned Oblogo No.1 dumpsite using a combination of USEPA leachate estimation and migration models. The Hydraulic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model was used to determine leachate volumes from the base of the dumpsite whereas the Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM) was used to determine contaminant concentrations at groundwater wells locat...

  13. Are Agricultural Measures for Groundwater Protection Beneficial When Compared to Purification of Polluted Groundwater?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, Berit; Lundhede, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater resource, the drinking water areas and the surface water quality can be protected by measures, e.g. by reductions of pesticide and nutrient applications, conversion of arable land to grasslands or forests etc. The objective of the paper is to estimate the benefits of groundwater protection by the valuation method choice experiments. This method allows for separate estimation and comparison of the different attributes connected to groundwater protection i.e. the effects on drin...

  14. Groundwater quality assessment and pollution source apportionment in an intensely exploited region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Huiwei; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Mingnan; Zhu, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Deterioration in groundwater quality has attracted wide social interest in China. In this study, groundwater quality was monitored during December 2014 at 115 sites in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan region of northern China. Results showed that 21.7% of NO3(-) and 51.3% of total hardness samples exceeded grade III of the national quality standards for Chinese groundwater. In addition, results of gray relationship analysis (GRA) show that 64.3, 10.4, 21.7, and 3.6% of samples were within the I, II, IV, and V grades of groundwater in the Hutuo River region, respectively. The poor water quality in the study region is due to intense anthropogenic activities as well as aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major factors: (1) domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff pollution (anthropogenic activities), (2) water-rock interactions (natural processes), and (3) industrial wastewater pollution (anthropogenic activities). Using PCA and absolute principal component scores-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), results show that domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are the main sources of groundwater pollution in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan area. Thus, the most appropriate methods to prevent groundwater quality degradation are to improve capacities for wastewater treatment and to optimize fertilization strategies.

  15. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    barriers of the sanitary landfill, and the potential risk of contamination of the groundwater were evaluated. The migration of contaminants through the zone of aeration and the engineering barriers are modeled with 2D models, and their potential distribution in groundwater - with 3D models. The models simulate the behavior of highly mobile and less mobile contaminants by the example of chloride and ammonium ions (Cl-and NH4 +).The mechanism of mass transfer is set in its full form: convective transport, accompanied by reversible elimination (sorption), mechanical dispersion (longitudinal and transverse), molecular diffusion and dilution. The concentration of the infiltrating under the bottom of the dump unit pollutants is set to exponentially decreasing function, determined by data from the monitoring. Two-dimensional models are developed using the computer program VS2DTI - v.1.3, and three-dimensional models by Modflow and MT3D-MS.dimensional models by Modflow and MT3D-MS.

  16. Fertilizer standards for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture: El Salobral-Los Llanos case study, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryAlthough the legislation on groundwater quality targets pollutant concentration, the effects of measures on non-point source pollution control are often evaluated in terms of their emission reduction potential at the source, not on their capacity of reducing the pollutant concentration in groundwater. This paper applies a hydro-economic modelling framework to an aquifer, El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Mancha Oriental, Spain), where nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive are locally found due to the intense fertilizer use in irrigated crops. The approach allows defining the economically optimal allocation of spatially variable fertilizer standards in agricultural basins using a hydro-economic model that links the fertilizer application with groundwater nitrate concentration at different control sites while maximizing net economic benefits. The methodology incorporates results from agronomic simulations, groundwater flow and transport into a management framework that yields the fertilizer allocation that maximizes benefits in agriculture while meeting the environmental standards. The cost of applying fertilizer standards was estimated as the difference between the private net revenues from actual application and the scenarios generated considering the application of the standards. Furthermore, the cost of applying fertilizer standards was compared with the cost of taxing nitrogen fertilizers in order to reduce the fertilizer use to a level that the nitrate concentration in groundwater was below the limit. The results show the required reduction of fertilizer application in the different crop areas depending on its location with regards to the control sites, crop types and soil-plant conditions, groundwater flow and transport processes, time horizon for meeting the standards, and the cost of implementing such a policy (as forgone benefits). According to the results, a high fertilizer price

  17. Inorganic contaminants from diffuse pollution in shallow groundwater of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy). Implications for geochemical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, E; Darrah, T H; Buono, G; Verrengia, G; De Francesco, S; Eymold, W K; Tedesco, D

    2015-02-01

    The Campanian Plain (CP) shallow aquifer (Southern Italy) represents a natural laboratory to validate geochemical methods for differentiating diffuse anthropogenic pollution from natural water-rock interaction processes. The CP is an appropriate study area because of numerous potential anthropogenic pollution vectors including agriculture, animal husbandry, septic/drainage sewage systems, and industry. In order to evaluate the potential for geochemical methods to differentiate various contamination vectors, 538 groundwater wells from the shallow aquifer in Campanian Plain (CP) were sampled. The dataset includes both major and trace elements. Natural water-rock interactions, which primarily depend on local lithology, control the majority of geochemical parameters, including most of the major and trace elements. Using prospective statistical methods in combination with the traditional geochemical techniques, we determined the chemical variables that are enriched by anthropogenic contamination (i.e. NO3, SO4 and U) by using NO3 as the diagnostic variable for detecting polluted groundwater. Synthetic agricultural fertilizers are responsible for the majority of SO4 and U pollution throughout the CP area. Both SO4 and U are present in the groundmass of synthetic fertilizers; the uranium concentration is specifically applicable as a tracer for non-point source agricultural fertilizer contamination. The recognition of non-geological (anthropogenic) inputs of these elements has to be considered in the geochemical investigations of contaminated aquifers.

  18. Quantifying effects of soil heterogeneity on groundwater pollution at four sites in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saskia Vuurens; Frank Stagnitti; Gerrit de Rooij; Jan Boll; LI Ling; Marc LeBlanc; Daniel lerodiaconou; Vince Versace; Scott Salzman

    2005-01-01

    Four sites located in the north-eastern region of the United States of America have been chosen to investigate the impacts of soil heterogeneity in the transport of solutes (bromide and chloride) through the vadose zone (the zone in the soil that lies below the root zone and above the permanent saturated groundwater). A recently proposed mathematical model based on the cumulative beta distribution has been deployed to compare and contrast the regions' heterogeneity from multiple sample percolation experiments. Significant differences in patterns of solute leaching were observed even over a small spatial scale, indicating that traditional sampling methods for solute transport, for example the gravity pan or suction lysimeters, or more recent inventions such as the multiple sample percolation systems may not be effective in estimating solute fluxes in soils when a significant degree of soil heterogeneity is present. Consequently, ignoring soil heterogeneity in solute transport studies will likely result in under- or overprediction of leached fluxes and potentially lead to serious pollution of soils and/or groundwater.The cumulative beta distribution technique is found to be a versatile and simple technique of gaining valuable information regarding soil heterogeneity effects on solute transport. It is also an excellent tool for guiding future decisions of experimental designs particularly in regard to the number of samples within one site and the number of sampling locations between sites required to obtain a representative estimate of field solute or drainage flux.

  19. Extract relevant features from DEM for groundwater potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Yan, H.; Zhai, L.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method has been applied much in groundwater potential mapping researches. But when to data scarce areas, it will encounter lots of problems due to limited data. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the digital representations of the topography, and has many applications in various fields. Former researches had been approved that much information concerned to groundwater potential mapping (such as geological features, terrain features, hydrology features, etc.) can be extracted from DEM data. This made using DEM data for groundwater potential mapping is feasible. In this research, one of the most widely used and also easy to access data in GIS, DEM data was used to extract information for groundwater potential mapping in batter river basin in Alberta, Canada. First five determining factors for potential ground water mapping were put forward based on previous studies (lineaments and lineament density, drainage networks and its density, topographic wetness index (TWI), relief and convergence Index (CI)). Extraction methods of the five determining factors from DEM were put forward and thematic maps were produced accordingly. Cumulative effects matrix was used for weight assignment, a multi-criteria evaluation process was carried out by ArcGIS software to delineate the potential groundwater map. The final groundwater potential map was divided into five categories, viz., non-potential, poor, moderate, good, and excellent zones. Eventually, the success rate curve was drawn and the area under curve (AUC) was figured out for validation. Validation result showed that the success rate of the model was 79% and approved the method's feasibility. The method afforded a new way for researches on groundwater management in areas suffers from data scarcity, and also broaden the application area of DEM data.

  20. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-06-03

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Groundwater nitrate pollution: High-resolution approach of calculating the nitrogen balance surplus for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz; Häußermann, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive determined that 26.3% of Germany's groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. As of late October 2016, the European Commission has filed a lawsuit against Germany for not taking appropriate measures against high nitrate levels in water bodies and thus failing to comply with the EU Nitrate Directive. Due to over-fertilization and high-density animal production, Agriculture was identified as the main source of nitrate pollution. One way to characterize the potential impact of reactive nitrogen on water bodies is the soil surface nitrogen balance where all agricultural nitrogen inputs within an area are contrasted with the output, i.e. the harvest. The surplus nitrogen (given in kg N per ha arable land and year) can potentially leach into the groundwater and thus can be used as a risk indicator. In order to develop and advocate appropriate measures to mitigate the agricultural nitrogen surplus with spatial precision, high-resolution data for the nitrogen surplus is needed. In Germany, not all nitrogen input data is available with the required spatial resolution, especially the use of mineral fertilizers is only given statewide. Therefore, some elements of the nitrogen balance need to be estimated based on agricultural statistics. Hitherto, statistics from the Federal Statistical Office and the statistical offices of the 16 federal states of Germany were used to calculate the soil surface balance annually for the spatial resolution of the 402 districts of Germany (mean size 890 km2). In contrast, this study presents an approach to estimate the nitrogen surplus at a much higher spatial resolution by using the comprehensive Agricultural census data collected in 2010 providing data for 326000 agricultural holdings. This resulted in a nitrogen surplus map with a 5 km x 5 km grid which was subsequently used to calculate the nitrogen concentration of percolation water. This provides a

  2. Groundwater Pollution Arising From The Disposal Of Creosote Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Flyvbjerg, J.

    1992-01-01

    by subsurface micro-organisms. This paper gives an overview of the present knowledge about microbial degradation of creosote contaminants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, various techniques for biological remediation of creosote-contaminated groundwater are outlined. These techniques include...

  3. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  5. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  6. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Groundwater pathway formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sato, C. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical formulations used for contaminant fate and transport in the groundwater pathway of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). It is one in a series of reports that collectively describe the components of MEPAS. The groundwater component of the MEPAS methodology models solute transport through the groundwater environment (i.e., partially saturated and saturated zones). Specifically, this component provides estimates of groundwater contaminant fluxes at various transporting medium interfaces (e.g., water table or aquifer/river interface) and contaminant concentrations at withdrawal wells. Contaminant fluxes at transporting medium interfaces represent boundary conditions for the next medium in which contaminant migration and fate is to be simulated (e.g., groundwater contamination entering a surface-water environment). Contaminant concentrations at withdrawal wells provide contaminant levels for the exposure assessment component of MEPAS. A schematic diagram illustrating the groundwater environment is presented. The migration and fate of contaminants through the groundwater environment are described by the three-dimensional, advective-dispersive equation for solute transport. The results are based on semianalytical solutions (i.e., solutions that require numerical integration) that are well established in the scientific literature. To increase computational efficiency, limits of integration are also identified.

  8. Saline water pollution in groundwater: issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It´s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion.. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  9. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Groundwater of the Northern Develi Closed Basin, Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Yücel, Çiğdem; Çallı, Süleyman Selim; Çelik, Mehmet

    2017-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution in the northern Develi Closed Basin by using the heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Samples from 10 wells and 5 springs were collected in dry and wet seasons and concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, As and B were determined. In both seasons, for more than half of the samples, As, B and Fe concentrations exceeded the Turkish drinking water guideline values. Due to the occurrence of these metals in high concentrations in some samples HPI values are up to 1740. The source of these metals is geogenic and attributed to the interaction of these waters with highly altered volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. The overall HPI for wet and dry periods are reported as 360 and 440, respectively. Accordingly, the pollution level in the groundwater of this area is unacceptable.

  10. The palaeosol model of arsenic pollution of groundwater tested along a 32 km traverse across West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of As-pollution in groundwater of the deltaic aquifers of south-eastern Asia may be controlled by the subsurface distribution of palaeo-channel sediments (As-polluted groundwaters) and palaeo-interfluvial sediments (As-free groundwaters). To test this idea, termed the palaeosol model of As-pollution, we drilled 10 sites, analysed groundwater from 249 shallow wells (screened pollution in a further 531 wells. Our work was conducted along a 32-km traverse running W to E across southern West Bengal, India. At seven drill sites we logged a palaeo-interfluvial sequence, which occurs as three distinct units that together occupy 20 km of the traverse. These palaeo-interfluvial sequences yield As-free groundwaters from brown sands at depthpolluted groundwater in grey sands. Our findings confirm the predictions of the palaeosol model of As-pollution. We show again that well-colour can be used both to successfully predict the degree of As-pollution in groundwater, and to locate regions of buried palaeo-interfluve that will yield As-free groundwater for the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brackish groundwater and its potential to augment freshwater supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Dennehy, Kevin F.

    2017-07-18

    Secure, reliable, and sustainable water resources are fundamental to the Nation’s food production, energy independence, and ecological and human health and well-being. Indications are that at any given time, water resources are under stress in selected parts of the country. The large-scale development of groundwater resources has caused declines in the amount of groundwater in storage and declines in discharges to surface water bodies (Reilly and others, 2008). Water supply in some regions, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought intensifies the stresses affecting water resources (National Drought Mitigation Center, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, 2015). If these drought conditions continue, water shortages could adversely affect the human condition and threaten environmental flows necessary to maintain ecosystem health.In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to provide updated information about brackish groundwater as a potential resource to augment or replace freshwater supplies (Stanton and others, 2017). Study objectives were to consolidate available data into a comprehensive database of brackish groundwater resources in the United States and to produce a summary report highlighting the distribution, physical and chemical characteristics, and use of brackish groundwater resources. This assessment was authorized by section 9507 of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (42 U.S.C. 10367), passed by Congress in March 2009. Before this assessment, the last national brackish groundwater compilation was completed in the mid-1960s (Feth, 1965). Since that time, substantially more hydrologic and geochemical data have been collected and now can be used to improve the understanding of the Nation’s brackish groundwater resources.

  12. Assessing the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Ireland based on the COST-620 Pan-European approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Michail; Cummins, Enda

    2014-01-15

    The aim of the analysis was to assess the intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater to pollution from pesticides in Ireland at the national scale. A methodology to incorporate the effect of groundwater recharge in vulnerability assessment is described which can be particularly useful for the evaluation of dilution of groundwater pollutants. A sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulation revealed that the most important parameters of the model were subsoil (ρ = 0.79) and topsoil (ρ = 0.72), which is in agreement with the current knowledge of the parameters that have a significant effect on groundwater vulnerability in Ireland. The intrinsic vulnerability assessment was verified using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in groundwater, a novel approach for the validation of groundwater vulnerability methods at regional scales. A statistical analysis showed that TOC concentration was significantly different (p groundwater vulnerability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does the groundwater nitrate pollution in China pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Lei, Yan; Wu, Jin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhao, Xiaobing; Pan, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially in developing countries such as China. Based on the available groundwater nitrate data sets in China (2000-2015), the groundwater pollution levels at the provincial scale are evaluated which contains 33 provinces (units) except for Macau because of lacking data. Then, the potential risks posed to human health in national scale are quantified. In order to make the results more precise and systematical, both drinking and dermal contact exposure pathways are considered, and the influenced crowd are more finely divided into four groups to study the impacts of age and gender on the outcome, which include infants (0-6 months), children (7 months-17 years old), adult males (18 years old-), and adult females (18 years old-). Results indicate that there are seven units whose groundwater nitrate concentrations exceed the standard value with Shaanxi being a seriously poor condition. Facing the same level of nitrate, the health risk level changes in the order of infants > children > adult males > adult females. That is to say, minors and males are more vulnerable compared with adults and females, respectively. There is no adverse effect on adult females of the whole country, while gender really impacts on the health risk assessment result. Adult males, children, and infants face various degrees of health risk respectively in Shaanxi and Shandong, which are needed to pay more attention to.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater pollution risk (GPR) from agricultural activities using DRASTIC model and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ariffin, Sabrina; Zawawi, Mohamed Azwan Mohamed; Che Man, Hasfalina

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater Pollution risk (GPR) map which utilized groundwater quality is important in order to prevent the groundwater contaminant concentration due to the agricultural activities. DRASTIC model and GIS application are two important tools that had been used for accessing and predicting the quality of groundwater. These supplementary tools are calculating, visualizing, and presenting the GPR by using DRASTIC index for each hydrogeologic factor through ArcGIS software. This study was covered approximately Selangor basin area where the GPR has been defined. There are four categories of agricultural activities in the Selangor basin which are animal husbandary areas, horticultural lands, short term crops and tree, palm and other permanent crops. The map showed that the “low” zones of GPR occupied 56% of the east side of the Selangor basin, 34% of the west side of the Selangor basin exposed to “medium” zones of GPR and the “high” zones of GPR covered 10% at the north side and the south to the west side of the Selangor basin. As a particular, for agricultural activities which is 52% of Selangor basin area, the “low”, ‘’medium” and “high” zones of GPR was occupied as 42%, 43% and 15% respectively. Based on four categories of agricultural landuse, GPR map validated by nitrate distribution map, shows that the 99% of the variation in nitrate distribution zones are explained by GPR zones. In conclusion, groundwater pollution risk was affected by agricultural activities.

  15. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: A comparison to agricultural and assessment of hazard and vulnerability with respect to groundwater pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Since biocides are designed to be toxic to particular organisms, their accidental or deliberate release into the environment has become a growing topic of concern, especially with regards to fracking. The objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in fracking, could be a threat to English groundwater based on past groundwater monitoring data. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study showed that of the 110 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014. The total number of detections was 2234 out of 1475000 observations of 95 compounds, and 38 were compounds that were not applied during the period of record. The detection of these 38 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period implying very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer, then they will be a persistent problem. The study was able to develop binomial regression models of the probability of detecting pesticide in groundwater based upon molecular and application variables; and solely upon molecular properties. The solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard than for most agricultural biocides, but molecular modelling implied that one compound could be safer than others.

  16. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers in groundwater in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Roy, James W.; Brown, Susan J.; Bickerton, Greg

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThere is little information available on the prevalence of artificial sweeteners in groundwater, though these compounds may prove to be useful tracers of human wastewater, especially in urban settings with complex hydrology. In this study, the artificial sweetener acesulfame was detected in groundwater at all eight urban sites investigated (from five different urban areas in Canada), often at high concentrations (i.e., μg/L-scale). In a municipal wastewater plume at Jasper, Alberta, acesulfame was strongly correlated with chloride and was positively correlated with other wastewater-related contaminants indicating that this sweetener has potential to be a good tracer of young wastewater (artificial sweeteners were detected in urban groundwater: saccharin at six of the sites, sucralose at three sites, and cyclamate at five of seven sites where it was analyzed. The occurrence of sucralose may have been affected by its detection limit, which was much higher than for the other sweeteners. These results, and those of a parallel study, are the first reported detections of saccharin and cyclamate in groundwater, and suggest that these sweeteners may be more common than previously anticipated. In general, fewer samples from each site contained these other three sweeteners compared to acesulfame. At Barrie, Ontario, adjacent to an old landfill, the concentration of saccharin was higher than acesulfame in many samples. These results suggest that analyses of multiple sweeteners, rather than just acesulfame, may provide useful information on contaminant sources and groundwater conditions in urban settings. Further work is needed to address this potential use.

  17. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  18. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  19. The Impact of Some Economic Factors Affecting Groundwater Pollution in Both Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of economic factors in pollution and environmental degradation is one of the major Issues in economic and environmental studies that many researchers have addressed in their studies. One of the issues in the field of environment to which less attention has been paid is the effect of economic factors such as the openness of the economy on water resource pollution. In this paper we investigate the relation between water pollution and economic factors such as economic size, capital to labor ratio and economic openness in two groups of developed and developing countries with paned data method. In fact we investigate the two hypothesis of Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens in two groups of countries. To prevent the pollution of groundwater resources in the process of economic growth, policies must be coordinated by responsible organizations. Changing crop patterns and moving toward the production of organic products to reduce the use of polluting substances in the production of agricultural products is one of these solutions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, using panel data methods, the correlation between some independent economic factors such as per capita GDP, Squared per capita GDP that both indicate Scale effect and capital to labor index with Squared capital to labor index both indicating comparative advantage effect and openness of trade and some composite indices on dependent variables, groundwater pollution, in the two groups of countries both developed and developing countries has been investigated. For this purpose, using the biological oxygen demand index (BOD as an indicator of pollution of groundwater resources and sum of exports and imports divided by GDP as an indicator of economic openness and GDP per capita as an indicator of the economy in the period of 1995 to 2006, the Environmental Kuznets curve and pollution havens hypothesis have been tested. Results Discussion: The issue of

  20. [Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Nitrate Pollution in Shallow Groundwater of Liujiang Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Gu, Hong-biao; Chi, Bao-ming; Li, Hai-jun; Jiang, Hai-ning

    2016-05-15

    Taking the nitrate in shallow groundwater of Liujiang basin as the research object, a total of 215 groups of shallow groundwater samples were collected during the wet period in July 2014 and the drought period in April 2015 on the basis of groundwater pollution investigation. The characteristics of spatial and temporal variability and the account of nitrate pollution were analyzed based on the model of semivariogram, the geostatistics of ArcGIS and factor analysis, respectively. The results showed that the study region in the southeast was the main nitrate-polluted area, with concentrations of up to 30-120 mg · L⁻¹, in both wet and drought periods, while the nitrate-contaminated area in drought period was about 1. 4 times higher than that in wet period. The spatial distribution of nitrate was primarily influenced by human activities and the geological conditions, and secondarily by Eh, DO, pH and landform conditions. The nitrate concentration was less than 20 mg · L⁻¹ in north. Pollution in local middle area was rather serious, due to human activities and the loss of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural cultivation; the area to the south, which was confined by impervious boundary, was seriously contaminated, as indicated by the nitrate accumulation effects.

  1. Groundwater Resources Pollution Risk: Application of the Holman Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Maio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to make an attempt to assess, through the application of the Holman Method, the effects that a careless management of human induced activities could have on aquifers and in particular on tapping wells used for human supply. Approach: The study had been applied to two different territories, as far as both the geomorphological and human induced aspects are concerned: the city of Aosta, the capital city of the Autonomous Aosta Valley region and three municipalities located in the centre of the Veneto region. Results: Thanks to the first results that had been obtained from the application of this method and other ones, it is hoped that a strategic territorial management approach will be adopted in the future so that the Groundwater Resources (GWR can coexist with the economic and urban developments. Conclusion: All the analysis had been implemented utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS.

  2. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  3. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yemen one of the developing country suffering from water pollution. Landfill is one of the source of water pollution. There are several boreholes located close to Ibb landfill used for drinking water. A study of composition of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution was conducted at Ibb landfill, which is located at Al-Sahool area, north of Ibb City, Yemen. Approach: The leachate was sampled at three different locations of the landfill, at the landfill itself and 15 and 20 m downstream of this landfill. Groundwater samples collected from 5 boreholes to study possible impact of leachate percolation into groundwater. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected during dry season only, due to the excessive generation of leachate during this season. Objective of this study was significant to assess degree of groundwater pollution due to Ibb landfill leachate at Al-Sahool area. The leachate and groundwater were physically and chemically characterized by using spectrophotometer HACH, BOD Trak HACH, flame photometer (PFP 7 and Inductively Coupled Plasma of Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES model Vista MPX. Parameters measured were pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Fluoride (F, Chloride (Cl, Sulphate (SO4, Nitrites (NO2, Nitrates (NO3, ammonia-N (NH3-N, heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu, major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe and biological parameters (COD, BOD5 and coliform group bacteria. Results: The results showed that, leachate at landfill most likely in methanogenic phase, based on the alkaline pH value recorded (pH = 8.46. The results also showed that 4 out of 5 boreholes were contaminated, where concentration of physico-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's ministry of water and environment and by word standard. Conclusion: Therefore, landfill is dangerous for environment so

  5. Multiobjective optimization for Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Control. Application to El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Peña-Haro, S.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Molina, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality management is complex due to the inter-relations between socio-political, environmental and economic constraints and objectives. In order to choose an appropriate policy to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater it is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict. In this paper, a hydro-economic modeling framework, based on a non-linear optimization(CONOPT) technique, which embeds simulation of groundwater mass transport through concentration response matrices, is used to study optimal policies for groundwater nitrate pollution control under different objectives and constraints. Three objectives were considered: recovery time (for meeting the environmental standards, as required by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive), maximum nitrate concentration in groundwater, and net benefits in agriculture. Another criterion was added: the reliability of meeting the nitrate concentration standards. The approach allows deriving the trade-offs between the reliability of meeting the standard, the net benefits from agricultural production and the recovery time. Two different policies were considered: spatially distributed fertilizer standards or quotas (obtained through multi-objective optimization) and fertilizer prices. The multi-objective analysis allows to compare the achievement of the different policies, Pareto fronts (or efficiency frontiers) and tradeoffs for the set of mutually conflicting objectives. The constraint method is applied to generate the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-objective framework can be used to design groundwater management policies taking into consideration different stakeholders' interests (e.g., policy makers, agricultures or environmental groups). The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer in Spain. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has

  6. Waste-water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K; Hoque, M A; Ghosal, U

    2012-10-15

    Across West Bengal and Bangladesh, concentrations of Cl in much groundwater exceed the natural, upper limit of 10 mg/L. The Cl/Br mass ratios in groundwaters range up to 2500 and scatter along mixing lines between waste-water and dilute groundwater, with many falling near the mean end-member value for waste-water of 1561 at 126 mg/L Cl. Values of Cl/Br exceed the seawater ratio of 288 in uncommon NO(3)-bearing groundwaters, and in those containing measurable amounts of salt-corrected SO(4) (SO(4) corrected for marine salt). The data show that shallow groundwater tapped by tube-wells in the Bengal Basin has been widely contaminated by waste-water derived from pit latrines, septic tanks, and other methods of sanitary disposal, although reducing conditions in the aquifers have removed most evidence of NO(3) additions from these sources, and much evidence of their additions of SO(4). In groundwaters from wells in palaeo-channel settings, end-member modelling shows that >25% of wells yield water that comprises ≥10% of waste-water. In palaeo-interfluvial settings, only wells at the margins of the palaeo-interfluvial sequence contain detectable waste water. Settings are identifiable by well-colour survey, owner information, water composition, and drilling. Values of Cl/Br and faecal coliform counts are both inversely related to concentrations of pollutant As in groundwater, suggesting that waste-water contributions to groundwater in the near-field of septic-tanks and pit-latrines (within 30 m) suppress the mechanism of As-pollution and lessen the prevalence and severity of As pollution. In the far-field of such sources, organic matter in waste-water may increase groundwater pollution by As. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after...

  8. Research on mechanism of groundwater pollution from mine water in abandoned mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lai-gui; LI Xi-lin; LIU Ling; HAN Liang

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism and regularity of the groundwater contamination from mine water of abandoned mines, experiments were conducted on an abandoned coal mine in Fuxin, a representative city with lots of mine water in northeast China. The groundwater pollution from different contaminants of coal-mining voids (total hardness, SO2-4, Cl and total Fe) and pollution factors transportation situation in the coal rock were simulated by soil column experiment under the conditions of mine water leaching and main water leaching (similar to rainwater leaching), and the water-rock interaction mechanism was discussed during mine water infiltration through saturated coal rock by application of principle of mass conservation, based on physical properties of coal rock, as well as monitored chemical composition. The results show that, compared with the clear water leaching process, trends of change in pollutant concentrations presented different characteristics in the mine water leaching process. Groundwater is contaminated by the water rock interactions such as migration & accumulation, adsorption & transformation,dissolution & desorption and ion exchange during the mine water permeation. The experiments also suggest that at first dissolution rate of some kinds of dissoluble salts is high,but it decreases with leaching time, even to zero during both the mine water leaching and main water leaching.

  9. Water Quality Pollution Indices to Assess the Heavy Metal Contamination, Case Study: Groundwater Resources of Asadabad Plain In 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, tow documented methods: the Heavy metal potential index (HPI and the Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI were evaluated for their suitability for contamination monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu contamination in groundwater resources of Asadabad Plain during spring and summer in 2012. Materials & Methods: In this analytical observational study, concentrations of heavy metals have been evaluated at 30 important groundwater sampling stations. For this purpose, collect samples in pre-cleaned, acid-soaked polyethylene bottles. Add 2 mL conc HNO3/L sample and mix well. Cap tightly and store in refrigerator until ready for analysis. Metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Results: The results showed that mean concentrations of As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in groundwater samples in spring season were 52.53±13.62, 15.51±23.45, 10.10±2.80, 4.48±1.80 and 8.63±10.87 μg l−1, respectively and in summer season were 57.60±16.90, 14.99±17.66, 9.28±2.46, 4.57±1.73 and 10.45±10.30 μg l−1, respectively. Therefore the mean values of indices in samples from spring and summer seasons were 25.61 and 27.28 respectively for HPI and were 9.29 and 8.88 respectively for HEI, and indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusions: Despite of the heavy metal pollution of the groundwater resources in Asadabad Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but the irregular and long-term usage of agricultural inputs, use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, over use of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries can threaten the groundwater resources of this

  10. Integrated techniques to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a highly industrialized terrain, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasamoorthy, Krishnaraj; Vijayaraghavan, K; Vasanthavigar, Murugesan; Rajivgandhi, R; Sarma, V S

    2011-11-01

    Investigation has been made to identify groundwater vulnerability to pollution by using geoelectric and hydrochemical investigations in an important industrial town Mettur located in Tamilnadu state of India. Schlumberger vertical electric soundings were carried out in 23 locations and groundwater samples collected from bore wells in the same locations. The resistivity value with groundwater in areas influenced by sewages from industries, domestic and agricultural practices in the central and southern part of the study area. The calculated specific conductance was noted higher than EC in central and southern part of the study area with low resistivity indicating the contaminated nature of groundwater. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg and K along with Cl, HCO(3), SO(4) and NO(3) were higher in certain locations when compared with WHO and ISI standards. The facies concept demarcated four groups based on the nature of groundwater contamination. The trace elements Fe and Pb were higher in locations confined to industrial zones and Zn and Cu were within the prescribed limit in all the samples.

  11. Evaluation of the relation between groundwater pollution and the pollutant load on surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Roest, C.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the relation between groundwater and surface water is demonstrated by the impact of water quality standards on permissible nitrogen losses at farm level. The effects of the intended fertilization reduction measures on agricultural production justify a thorough examination of the

  12. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  13. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  14. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  15. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the Kherici’s method in the Talezza plain, Collo region (NE Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attoui Badra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater aquifers refers to their sensitivity to all contamination coming from soil surface irrespective of the nature of the polluting. In order to improve the protection of groundwater, there must be a reduction in the infiltration of contaminants towards the reservoir through the impacting factors determination of this phenomenon by means of research. There are collected models that include particular number of factors which allow the determination of a sign of groundwater vulnerability of all superficial pollutions.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of geostatistical approach to recover pollution source release history in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y. Q.; Cui, T. T.; Li, W.; Yang, Z. P.; Gai, Y. W.

    2017-08-01

    The geostatistical approach has been studied for many year to identify the pollution source re-lease history in groundwater. We focus on the influence of observation error and hydraulic parameters on the groundwater pollution identification (PSI) result in the paper. Numerical experiment and sensitivity analysis are carried out to find the influence of observation point configuration, error and hydraulic parameters on the PSI result in a 1D homogeneous aquifer. It has been found out that if concentration observation data could accurately describe the characteristics of the real concentration plume at the observed time point, a nice identification of the pollution release process could be obtained. If the calculated pollution discharge process has good similarity with the real discharge process, the order of the observation error fell within 10-6 and 10-3.5, the dispersion coefficient varies fells within -10% and 5%, and the actual mean velocity fell within ±2%. The actual mean velocity is the most sensitive parameter of the geostatistical approach in this case.

  17. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Derivation of Threshold Values for Groundwater in Romania, in order to distinguish Point & Diffuse pollution from natural background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, P.N.M.; Radu, E.; Vliegenthart, F.; Balaet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Romania aims to adopt and implement the European Union's legislation, also including that for the field of water management. Like other countries, groundwater in Romania is locally polluted from point sources, such as leaking landfills, as well as from diffuse pollution sources, include fertilizers,

  19. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  20. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. - On Investigating Pollution of Groundwater from Atenda Abattoir Wastes, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewoye, Abosede Olufunmilayo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of waterborne diseases arising from pollution of shallow wells in abattoir environment has been on the increase in Ogbomoso community. This project work was carried out in order to examine the geochemical constituents of water samples taken from selected wells in Atenda abattoir environment, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The effect of abattoir wastes on the groundwater samples and geotechnical analyses of soil samples taken from two points around the abattoir waste dump, and another sample from a control point free from pollution and far away from where the first two samples were taken, were also carried out. Geophysical investigation of the Atenda area was carried out using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES of Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT, and also, Very Low Frequency (VLF electromagnetic method. The geophysical investigation was carried out to determine the lithology of the study area, track the contaminant plume view and compute the depth to bedrock in the study area. It was observed that a strong correlation exist between leachates from the Atenda abattoir location and sampled wells in the immediate environment. A groundwater monitoring programme to determine groundwater quality status of wells in the neighbourhood of abattoirs is recommended for implementation to safeguard the health of innocent residents in the vicinity.

  2. Intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central Spain: the risk of nitrate pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastida, Juan J.; Arauzo, Mercedes; Valladolid, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater in the Comunidad de Madrid (central Spain) was evaluated using the DRASTIC and GOD indexes. Groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution was also assessed using the composite DRASTIC (CD) and nitrate vulnerability (NV) indexes. The utility of these methods was tested by analyzing the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations in the different aquifers located in the study area: the Tertiary Detrital Aquifer, the Moor Limestone Aquifer, the Cretaceous Limestone Aquifer and the Quaternary Aquifer. Vulnerability maps based on these four indexes showed very similar results, identifying the Quaternary Aquifer and the lower sub-unit of the Moor Limestone Aquifer as deposits subjected to a high risk of nitrate pollution due to intensive agriculture. As far as the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations is concerned, the NV index showed the greatest statistical significance ( p real impact of each type of land use. The results of this study provide a basis on which to guide the designation of nitrate vulnerable zones in the Comunidad de Madrid, in line with European Union Directive 91/676/EEC.

  3. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland, Norway and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Kvitsand, Hanne Margrethe Lund; Pitkänen, Tarja; Gunnarsdottir, Maria J.; Gaut, Sylvi; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M.; Rossi, Pekka M.; Miettinen, Ilkka

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater.

  4. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland, Norway and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløve, Bjørn; Kvitsand, Hanne Margrethe Lund; Pitkänen, Tarja; Gunnarsdottir, Maria J.; Gaut, Sylvi; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M.; Rossi, Pekka M.; Miettinen, Ilkka

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of groundwater systems and groundwater contamination in Finland, Norway and Iceland are presented, as they relate to outbreaks of disease. Disparities among the Nordic countries in the approach to providing safe drinking water from groundwater are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future. Groundwater recharge is typically high in autumn or winter months or after snowmelt in the coldest regions. Most inland aquifers are unconfined and therefore vulnerable to pollution, but they are often without much anthropogenic influence and the water quality is good. In coastal zones, previously emplaced marine sediments may confine and protect aquifers to some extent. However, the water quality in these aquifers is highly variable, as the coastal regions are also most influenced by agriculture, sea-water intrusion and urban settlements resulting in challenging conditions for water abstraction and supply. Groundwater is typically extracted from Quaternary deposits for small and medium municipalities, from bedrock for single households, and from surface water for the largest cities, except for Iceland, which relies almost entirely on groundwater for public supply. Managed aquifer recharge, with or without prior water treatment, is widely used in Finland to extend present groundwater resources. Especially at small utilities, groundwater is often supplied without treatment. Despite generally good water quality, microbial contamination has occurred, principally by norovirus and Campylobacter, with larger outbreaks resulting from sewage contamination, cross-connections into drinking water supplies, heavy rainfall events, and ingress of polluted surface water to groundwater.

  5. Groundwater nitrate pollution and human health risk assessment by using HHRA model in an agricultural area, NE China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Zhao, Xiaobing; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junjun; Wu, Jin; Zuo, Rui

    2017-03-01

    In order to learn the pollution circumstance of groundwater nitrate detailedly in Songnen Plain of Northeast China and estimate its potential risk to human health of local residents, a total of 389 groundwater samples were collected in 2014 and studied from residential areas and public water supply wells in 11 cities and counties in southeastern of Songnen Plain. The analysis results showed that the spatial distributions of main chemical components in groundwater had great variations with statistical concentrations in the order of TDS> HCO3> Ca> NO3> Cl> Na> SO4> Mg> K> NH4> NO2. As for NO3, it ranged from less than 0.02mg/L to 497mg/L with an average value of 39.46mg/L indicating an obviously anthropogenic pollution. Even more than 32% of the samples exceeded the Grade III threshold (20mg/L of N) according to China's standard. The results obtained from principal component analysis showed that high NO3 concentration could be attributed to human activities, especially the excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture. Further, a human health risk assessment (HHRA) model derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was applied to estimate the potential health risk of groundwater nitrate considering both drinking water and dermal contact pathways. The results indicated that potential health risks of adult males and females within about 60% of the area were at the acceptable level, while those within about 40% were beyond the acceptable level. The area at the acceptable level for children covered 49% of the total area while the same value for infants was 37%. The NO3 concentration in southeast and northeast of the study area was the highest so that residents in these regions were at the highest health risk. In conclusion, risk levels for different crowds in the study area varied obviously, generally in the order of infants> children> adult females> adult males, and the potential health risks of residents, especially minors and rural residents

  6. Scoping Calculations for Potential Groundwater Impacts from Operation of the APT Facility at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, J.J.

    1999-10-07

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential travel times and paths of the postulated activated groundwater beneath the facility and to examine the fate and transport of this activated groundwater.

  7. Endosulfan sulfate mobility in soil columns and pesticide pollution of groundwater in Northwest Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Ouassini, Abdelhamid; Morillo Aguado, José; Usero García, José

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from agricultural practices is a serious environmental and health problem. In this work, stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) detection were used to determine phytosanitary products in groundwater samples from the Loukkos perimeter in Northwest Morocco. Some pesticides--in particular, endosulfan and its metabolites--were found in water destined for human consumption. Analyses of soil samples were also carried out, and the results showed endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan ether in abundance. Endosulfan sulfate leaching was also performed in undisturbed soil columns to obtain more information on the vertical migration of pesticides used in the perimeter. The kinetic study showed a high recovery rate (73%) after 10 days of experimental work.

  8. Predictive modeling of groundwater nitrate pollution using Random Forest and multisource variables related to intrinsic and specific vulnerability: a case study in an agricultural setting (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Mendes, Maria Paula; Garcia-Soldado, Maria Jose; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Watershed management decisions need robust methods, which allow an accurate predictive modeling of pollutant occurrences. Random Forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning data driven method that is rarely used in water resources studies, and thus has not been evaluated thoroughly in this field, when compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques key advantages of RF include: its non-parametric nature; high predictive accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. This last characteristic can be used to better understand the individual role and the combined effect of explanatory variables in both protecting and exposing groundwater from and to a pollutant. In this paper, the performance of the RF regression for predictive modeling of nitrate pollution is explored, based on intrinsic and specific vulnerability assessment of the Vega de Granada aquifer. The applicability of this new machine learning technique is demonstrated in an agriculture-dominated area where nitrate concentrations in groundwater can exceed the trigger value of 50 mg/L, at many locations. A comprehensive GIS database of twenty-four parameters related to intrinsic hydrogeologic proprieties, driving forces, remotely sensed variables and physical-chemical variables measured in "situ", were used as inputs to build different predictive models of nitrate pollution. RF measures of importance were also used to define the most significant predictors of nitrate pollution in groundwater, allowing the establishment of the pollution sources (pressures). The potential of RF for generating a vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is assessed considering multiple criteria related to variations in the algorithm parameters and the accuracy of the maps. The performance of the RF is also evaluated in comparison to the logistic regression (LR) method using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of RF to build accurate models

  9. Evaluation of Some Organic Pollutants Transport into the Shallow Groundwater and Surface Water of Jiaxing Landfill Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Keita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hangjiahu regions belong to the Yangtze River Delta region in Zhejiang Province in China. The vast majority of this region is flat, so surface and groundwater both have a low flow rate. With the rapid economic development of the area, a large number of industrial and domestic garbage are generated. These landfill or garbage are exposed and stacked. Because of mismanagement of environment, the atmosphere under the leaching rainfall, results in harmful gases and leachate. A serious pollution of the atmosphere surrounding the dump, soil, surface water and groundwater occurred. By studying the area under different hydro geological conditions this groundwater pollution due to the landfill can be stopped and prevented. This research can also provide a scientific basis. Approach: Some samples were taken to some specific sampling points in order to do chemical analysis. A hydro geological investigation was done on the study area. By using all these data, groundwater pollution was evaluated and predicted through numerical simulation software: Groundwater Modeling System (GMS, from 2006-2007. Results: A total of six main organic pollutants were found in the entire study area including: toluene, dichloropropane, benzene, dichloroethane, chloroform and dichloromethane. There concentration increased form 2006 to 2007 and is higher in surface water than groundwater. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experimental and simulation results were compared and showed that close agreement between these two values were obtained. The application of ecological methods to remove harmful substances such as the cultivation of suitable plants is also necessary.

  10. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  11. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  12. Preliminary development of a GIS-tool to assess threats to shallow groundwater quality from soil pollutants in Glasgow, UK (GRASP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Fordyce, F. M.; Ander, E. L.; Bonsor, H. C.

    2009-04-01

    The protection of groundwater and related surface water quality is a key aspect of the European Union Water Framework Directive and environmental legislation in many countries worldwide. Globally, the protection of urban groundwater resources and related ecosystem services is of growing concern as urbanisation increases. Although urban areas are often where groundwater resources are most in need of protection, there is frequently a lack of information about threats to groundwater quality. Most studies of soil and groundwater contamination, although detailed, are site-specific, and city-wide overviews are generally lacking. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is currently undertaking the Clyde Urban Super-Project (CUSP), delivering multi-disciplinary geoscience products for the Glasgow conurbation. Under this project, a GIS-based prioritisation tool known as GRASP (GRoundwater And Soil Pollutants) has been trialled to aid urban planning and sustainable development by providing a broad-scale assessment of threats to groundwater quality across the conurbation. GRASP identifies areas where shallow groundwater quality is at greatest threat from the leaching and downward movement of potentially harmful metals in the soil. Metal contamination is a known problem in many urban centres including Glasgow, which has a long industrial heritage and associated contamination legacy, notably with respect to Cr. GRASP is based primarily upon an existing British Standard - International Standards Organisation methodology to determine the leaching potential of metals from soils, which has been validated for 11 metals: Al, Fe, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn (BS-ISO 15175:2004). However, the GRASP tool is innovative as it combines assessments of soil leaching potential with soil metal content data to highlight threats to shallow groundwater quality. The input parameters required for GRASP (soil pH, clay, organic matter, sesquioxide and metal content) are based upon a systematic

  13. Risk-based prioritization methodology for the classification of groundwater pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Giubilato, Elisa; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-02-15

    Water management is one of the EU environmental priorities and it is one of the most serious challenges that today's major cities are facing. The main European regulation for the protection of water resources is represented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) which require the identification, risk-based ranking and management of sources of pollution and the identification of those contamination sources that threaten the achievement of groundwater's good quality status. The aim of this paper is to present a new risk-based prioritization methodology to support the determination of a management strategy for the achievement of the good quality status of groundwater. The proposed methodology encompasses the following steps: 1) hazard analysis, 2) pathway analysis, 3) receptor vulnerability analysis and 4) relative risk estimation. Moreover, by integrating GIS functionalities and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques, it allows to: i) deal with several sources and multiple impacted receptors within the area of concern; ii) identify different receptors' vulnerability levels according to specific groundwater uses; iii) assess the risks posed by all contamination sources in the area; and iv) provide a risk-based ranking of the contamination sources that can threaten the achievement of the groundwater good quality status. The application of the proposed framework to a well-known industrialized area located in the surroundings of Milan (Italy) is illustrated in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in supporting the identification of intervention priorities. Among the 32 sources analyzed in the case study, three sources received the highest relevance score, due to the medium-high relative risks estimated for Chromium (VI) and Perchloroethylene. The case study application showed that the developed methodology is flexible and easy to adapt to different contexts, thanks to the possibility to

  14. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: CSIR Groundwater research into mine closure strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available (i.e. post-life-of-mine). The potential social, financial and environmental benefits of this shift are significant, these extending to the community, mining houses, and regulatory authorities, alike. The CSIR Groundwater team is currently working...

  15. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  16. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  17. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  18. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.;

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  19. Using Groundwater physiochemical properties for assessing potential earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Reuveni, Yuval; Anker, Yaakov; Guttman, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide studies reports pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic reaction of groundwater to earthquakes. The unique hydrological and geological situation in Israel resulted in relatively deep water wells which are located close to seismically active tectonic plate boundary. Moreover, the Israeli experience show that anomalies may occurs 60-90 minutes prior to the seismic event (Guttman et al., 2005; Anker et al., 2016). Here, we try to assess the possible connection between changes in physiochemical parameters of groundwater and earthquakes along the Dead Sea Transform (DST) region. A designated network of monitoring stations was installed in MEKOROT abandoned deep water wells, continuously measuring water table, conductivity and temperature at a sampling rate of 1 minute. Preliminary analysis compares changes in the measured parameters with rain events, tidal effects and earthquake occurrences of all measured magnitudes (>2.5Md) at monitoring area surroundings. The acquired data set over one year recorded simultaneous abrupt changes in several wells which seems disconnected from standard hydrological occurrences such as precipitation, abstraction or tidal effects. At this stage, our research aims to determine and rationalize a baseline for "normal response" of the measured parameters to external occurrences while isolating those cases in which "deviations" from that base line is recorded. We apply several analysis techniques both in time and frequency domain with the measured signal as well as statistical analysis of several measured earthquake parameters, which indicate potential correlations between earthquakes occurrences and the measured signal. We show that at least in one seismic event (5.1 Md) a potential precursor may have been recorded. Reference: Anker, Y., N. Inbar, A. Y. Dror, Y. Reuveni, J. Guttman, A. Flexer, (2016). Groundwater response to ground movements, as a tool for earthquakes monitoring and a possible precursor. 8th International Conference

  20. A GIS-based methodology to delineate potential areas for groundwater development: a case study from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishnu P.; Shrestha, Sangam; Kazama, Futaba

    2013-06-01

    For an effective planning of activities aimed at recovering aquifer depletion and maintaining health of groundwater ecosystem, estimates of spatial distribution in groundwater storage volume would be useful. The estimated volume, if analyzed together with other hydrogeologic characteristics, may help delineate potential areas for groundwater development. This study proposes a GIS-based ARC model to delineate potential areas for groundwater development; where `A' stands for groundwater availability, `R' for groundwater release potential of soil matrix, and `C' for cost for groundwater development. The model is illustrated with a case of the Kathmandu Valley in Central Nepal, where active discussions are going on to develop and implement groundwater management strategies. The study results show that shallow aquifers have high groundwater storage potential (compared to the deep) and favorable areas for groundwater development are concentrated at some particular areas in shallow and deep aquifers. The distribution of groundwater storage and potential areas for groundwater development are then mapped using GIS.

  1. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  2. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  3. Pollution indicators in groundwater of two agricultural catchments in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Lidia; Modelska, Magdalena; Staśko, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the content and source of mineral nitrogen compounds in groundwater, based on the data collected in two river catchments in two series (spring and autumn 2014). The study area comprises two catchments located in Lower Silesia, Poland - Cicha Woda and Sąsiecznica. Both catchments are characterised agricultural character of development. In the both researched areas, the points of State Environmental Monitoring (SEM) are located but only the Cicha Woda area is classified as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). To analyse and compare the contamination of Quaternary and Neogene aquifers, the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and potassium ions was measured primarily. Results showed the exceedance of nitrogen mineral forms of shallow groundwater Quaternary aquifer in both basins. The concentration of nitrates range from 0.08 to 142.12 mgNO3 -/dm3 (Cicha Woda) and from 2.6 to 137.65 mg NO3 -/dm3 (Sąsiecznica). The major source of pollution is probably the intensive agriculture activity. It causes a degradation of the shallow groundwater because of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, phosphates and ammonium contents. There was no observed contamination of anthropogenic origin in the deeper Neogene aquifer of Cicha Woda catchment.

  4. A data parsimonious model for capturing snapshots of groundwater pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Jyoti; Kashyap, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    Presented herein is a data parsimonious model for identification of regional and local groundwater pollution sources at a reference time employing corresponding fields of head, concentration and its time derivative. The regional source flux, assumed to be uniformly distributed, is viewed as the causative factor for the widely prevalent background concentration. The localized concentration-excesses are attributed to flux from local sources distributed around the respective centroids. The groundwater pollution is parameterized by flux from regional and local sources, and distribution parameters of the latter. These parameters are estimated by minimizing the sum of squares of differences between the observed and simulated concentration fields. The concentration field is simulated by a numerical solution of the transient solute transport equation. The equation is solved assuming the temporal derivative term to be known a priori and merging it with the sink term. This strategy circumvents the requirement of dynamic concentration data. The head field is generated using discrete point head data employing a specially devised interpolator that controls the numerical-differentiation errors and simultaneously ensures micro-level mass balance. This measure eliminates the requirement of flow modeling without compromising the sanctity of head field. The model after due verification has been illustrated employing available and simulated data from an area lying between two rivers Yamuna and Krishni in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Groundwater Global Pollution Risk: Relationships with Territorial Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Maio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The protection and enhancing of Groundwater Resources (GWR at an international level have been studied extensively, but they have very rarely been considered in Territorial Planning and Urban Planning. Now more than in the past, thanks to the technologies and know-how acquired over the years, ignoring responsibilities with regards to the close link between these themes is no longer possible, therefore a new research field has been introduced that will lead to a strategic approach, in such a way that GWR and economic and urban planning development will be able to co-exist. Approach: This study, through the application of the Holman and Groundwater Global Pollution Risk methods, is an attempt to link these two topics. Results: The study was conducted in Aosta, a town in the north-west of Italy, in an attempt to assess the effects that a careless management of the setting up of polluting activities could have on the aquifers. Conclusion: The analysis was carried out using a Geographical Information System (GIS.

  6. A data parsimonious model for capturing snapshots of groundwater pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Jyoti; Kashyap, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    Presented herein is a data parsimonious model for identification of regional and local groundwater pollution sources at a reference time employing corresponding fields of head, concentration and its time derivative. The regional source flux, assumed to be uniformly distributed, is viewed as the causative factor for the widely prevalent background concentration. The localized concentration-excesses are attributed to flux from local sources distributed around the respective centroids. The groundwater pollution is parameterized by flux from regional and local sources, and distribution parameters of the latter. These parameters are estimated by minimizing the sum of squares of differences between the observed and simulated concentration fields. The concentration field is simulated by a numerical solution of the transient solute transport equation. The equation is solved assuming the temporal derivative term to be known a priori and merging it with the sink term. This strategy circumvents the requirement of dynamic concentration data. The head field is generated using discrete point head data employing a specially devised interpolator that controls the numerical-differentiation errors and simultaneously ensures micro-level mass balance. This measure eliminates the requirement of flow modeling without compromising the sanctity of head field. The model after due verification has been illustrated employing available and simulated data from an area lying between two rivers Yamuna and Krishni in India.

  7. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  8. Remediation of Groundwater Polluted by Aromatic Compounds by Means of Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Canzano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental and modeling analysis of the adsorption of four aromatic compounds (i.e., toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene onto a commercial activated carbon is carried out. The aim is to assess the suitability of the adsorption process for the treatment of polluted groundwater, also when a multiple contamination is detected. Batch adsorption tests from simulated polluted groundwater are performed in single-compound systems and in two binary systems (i.e., toluene + naphthalene and o-xylene + ethylbenzene, at constant temperature (20 °C and pH (7. Experimental results in single-compound systems reveal that all of the analytes are significantly adsorbed on the tested activated carbon. In particular, toluene and naphthalene adsorption capacities are the highest and of similar value, while for o-xylene and ethylbenzene, the performances are lower. The adsorption of these compounds seems to be influenced by a combined effect of several parameters, such as hydrophobicity, molecule size, structure of the molecule, etc. Experimental results in binary systems show a different behavior of the two systems, which confirms their complexity and explains the interest in these complex adsorption systems. In particular, toluene and naphthalene are mutually competitive, while in the case of o-xylene + ethylbenzene, only the former undergoes competitive effects. The analysis of the entire experimental data set is integrated with a dedicated modeling analysis using the extended Langmuir model. For both single-compound and binary systems, this model provides acceptable results, in particular for low equilibrium concentrations, like those more commonly found in groundwater, and for the compounds involved in adsorptive competitive effects.

  9. Morphophysical pedotransfer functions for groundwater pollution by nitrate leaching in Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fuentes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate leaching (NL is a major concern in agriculture due to its impact on human health and ecosystems. Solute movement through soil is governed by various hydraulic and physical properties that determine water flow. To study such relationships, a pedotransfer function of groundwater pollution was developed in two alluvial irrigated soils under long-term pig slurry applications. Two basins of central Chile, San Pedro (Typic Xerochrepts and Pichidegua (Mollic Xerofluvents were selected, where maize (Zea mays L. was grown in spring-summer, while during autumn-winter period a ryegrass-barley-oat mixed crop was established in San Pedro and a fallow management applied in Pichidegua. Soils in cultivated and control sites were characterized in physical and hydraulic terms. Nitrogen and water budgets were determined measuring periodically (biweekly N concentration (N-NO3- and N-NH4+ and monitoring water contents in soil profiles, respectively. Dye tracer tests were performed with brilliant blue (BB dye and the staining patterns analyzed. To contrast the effect of slurry additions over soil physical properties and over NL, t-Student tests were performed. Some accurate pollution groundwater NL pedotransfer functions were obtained calculated through least square fit models and artificial neural networks. Textural porosity, mean diameter variation, slow drainage porosity, air conductivity at 33 kPa water tension and N-NO3- concentrations were directly related to NL. In terms of preferential flow analysis, stained path width > 200 mm was inversely associated to NL. Finally, dye tracer tests provided a better understanding of the characteristics and pattern of water/solute movement through soil to groundwater.

  10. Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, D.; Tost, H.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Major population centers (MPCs) or mega-cities represent the largest of growing urban agglomerations with major societal and environmental implications. In terms of air quality they are seen as localized but strong emission sources of aerosols and trace gases which in turn affect air pollution levels in the city or in downwind regions. In the state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC, generic aerosol and gas phase tracers with equal emission source strengths at 46 ...

  11. Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kunkel; Tost, H; Lawrence, M G

    2013-01-01

    Major population centers (MPCs), or megacities, represent the largest of growing urban agglomerations with major societal and environmental implications. In terms of air quality, they are seen as localized but strong emission sources of aerosols and trace gases which in turn affect air pollution levels in the city or in downwind regions. In the state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC, generic aerosol and gas-phase tracers with equal emission source strengths at 4...

  12. Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

    2008-09-01

    A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 Ω m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

  13. Molecular analysis of microbial community in a groundwater sample polluted by landfill leachate and seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yang-jie; YANG Hong; WU Xiu-juan; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Seashore landfill aquifers are environments of special physicochemical conditions (high organic load and high salinity), and microbes in leachate-polluted aquifers play a significant role for intrinsic bioremediation. In order to characterize microbial diversity and look for clues on the relationship between microbial community structure and hydrochemistry, a culture-independent examination of a typical groundwater sample obtained from a seashore landfill was conducted by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA clone library. Two sets of universal 16S rDNA primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from the groundwater so that problems arising from primer efficiency and specificity could be reduced. Of 74 clones randomly selected from the libraries, 30 contained unique sequences whose analysis showed that the majority of them belonged to bacteria (95.9%), with Proteobacteria (63.5%) being the dominant division. One archaeal sequence and one eukaryotic sequence were found as well. Bacterial sequences belonging to the following phylogenic groups were identified: Bacteroidetes (20.3%), β, γ, δ and ε-subdivisions of Proteobacteria (47.3%, 9.5%, 5.4% and 1.3%, respectively), Firmicutes (1.4%), Actinobacteria (2.7%), Cyanobacteria (2.7%). The percentages of Proteobacteria and Bacteroides in seawater were greater than those in the groundwater from a non-seashore landfill, indicating a possible influence of seawater. Quite a few sequences had close relatives in marine or hypersaline environments. Many sequences showed affiliations with microbes involved in anaerobic fermentation. The remarkable abundance of sequences related to (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (C1RB) in the groundwater was significant and worthy of further study.

  14. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    continuous tide on the coastal side. The integrated surface water-groundwater numerical model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009, Spanoudaki, 2010) was also used in the study, with the numerical model predictions being compared with experimental results, which provide a valuable database for model calibration and validation. IRENE couples the 3D, non-steady state Navier-Stokes equations, after Reynolds averaging and with the assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution, to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. The model uses the finite volume method with a cell-centered structured grid providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection-diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. References Ebrahimi, K., Falconer, R.A. and Lin B. (2007). Flow and solute fluxes in integrated wetland and coastal systems. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22 (9), 1337-1348. Hughes, S.A. (1995). Physical Modelling and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Kuan, W.K., Jin, G., Xin, P., Robinson, C. Gibbes, B. and Li. L. (2012). Tidal influence on seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research, 48 (2), doi:10.1029/2011WR010678. Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek

  15. Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kunkel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Major population centers (MPCs, or megacities, represent the largest of growing urban agglomerations with major societal and environmental implications. In terms of air quality, they are seen as localized but strong emission sources of aerosols and trace gases which in turn affect air pollution levels in the city or in downwind regions. In the state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC, generic aerosol and gas-phase tracers with equal emission source strengths at 46 MPC locations are used to study the balance between local pollution build-up and pollution export, either vertically into the upper troposphere or horizontally in the lower troposphere. The insoluble gas-phase tracers with fixed lifetimes are transported with the atmospheric circulation, while the aerosol tracers also undergo gravitational sedimentation as well as dry and wet deposition processes. The strength of low-level tracer export depends on the location of the emission source and prevailing meteorology, in particular on atmospheric stability and the height of the boundary layer and the mixing out of this layer. In contrast, vertical transport of tracer mass depends on the tracer's solubility: the more soluble a tracer is, the less mass reaches altitudes above five kilometers. Hence, the mass of insoluble gas-phase tracer above five kilometers can be up to ten times higher than the hydrophilic aerosol mass from the same source. In the case of aerosol tracers, pollution build-up around the source is determined by meteorological factors which have only indirect effects on tracer lifetime, like surface wind, boundary layer height, and turbulent mixing, as well as those which affect the lifetime of the tracers such as precipitation. The longer a tracer stays in the atmosphere, the lower is the relative importance of the location of the source to the atmospheric mass, and thus the lower is the relative local pollution build-up. We further use aerosol

  16. Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kunkel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Major population centers (MPCs or mega-cities represent the largest of growing urban agglomerations with major societal and environmental implications. In terms of air quality they are seen as localized but strong emission sources of aerosols and trace gases which in turn affect air pollution levels in the city or in downwind regions. In the state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC, generic aerosol and gas phase tracers with equal emission source strengths at 46 MPC locations are used to study the balance between local pollution build up and pollution export, either vertically into the upper troposphere or horizontally, but remaining in the lower atmosphere. The insoluble gas phase tracers with fixed lifetimes are transported with the atmospheric circulation, while the aerosol tracers also undergo gravitational sedimentation as well as dry and wet deposition processes. The strength of low-level tracer export depends on the location of the emission source and prevailing meteorology, in particular on atmospheric stability and the height of the boundary layer and the mixing out of this layer. In contrast, vertical transport of tracer mass depends on the tracer's solubility: the more soluble a tracer is the less mass reaches altitudes above five kilometers. Hence, the mass of insoluble gas phase tracer above five kilometers can be up to ten times higher than the hydrophilic aerosol mass from the same source. In the case of aerosol tracers, pollution build up around the source is determined by meteorological factors which have only indirect effects on tracer lifetime, like surface wind, boundary layer height, and turbulent mixing as well as those which affect the lifetime of the tracers such as precipitation. The longer a tracer stays in the atmosphere, the lower is the relative importance of the location of the source to the atmospheric mass and thus the lower is the relative local pollution build up. We further use

  17. Categorical Indicator Kriging for assessing the risk of groundwater nitrate pollution: the case of Vega de Granada aquifer (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chica-Olmo, Mario; Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution associated with agricultural activity is an important environmental problem in the management of this natural resource, as acknowledged by the European Water Framework Directive. Therefore, specific measures aimed to control the risk of water pollution by nitrates must be implemented to minimise its impact on the environment and potential risk to human health. The spatial probability distribution of nitrate contents exceeding a threshold or limit value, established within the quality standard, will be helpful to managers and decision-makers. A methodology based on non-parametric and non-linear methods of Indicator Kriging was used in the elaboration of a nitrate pollution categorical map for the aquifer of Vega de Granada (SE Spain). The map has been obtained from the local estimation of the probability that a nitrate content in an unsampled location belongs to one of the three categories established by the European Water Framework Directive: CL. 1 good quality [Min - 37.5 ppm], CL. 2 intermediate quality [37.5-50 ppm] and CL. 3 poor quality [50 ppm - Max]. The obtained results show that the areas exceeding nitrate concentrations of 50 ppm, poor quality waters, occupy more than 50% of the aquifer area. A great proportion of the area's municipalities are located in these poor quality water areas. The intermediate quality and good quality areas correspond to 21% and 28%, respectively, but with the highest population density. These results are coherent with the experimental data, which show an average nitrate concentration value of 72 ppm, significantly higher than the quality standard limit of 50 ppm. Consequently, the results suggest the importance of planning actions in order to control and monitor aquifer nitrate pollution. © 2013.

  18. Integrated methodology for assessing the HCH groundwater pollution at the multi-source contaminated mega-site Bitterfeld/Wolfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycisk, Peter; Stollberg, Reiner; Neumann, Christian; Gossel, Wolfgang; Weiss, Holger; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    A large-scale groundwater contamination characterises the Pleistocene groundwater system of the former industrial and abandoned mining region Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Eastern Germany. For more than a century, local chemical production and extensive lignite mining caused a complex contaminant release from local production areas and related dump sites. Today, organic pollutants (mainly organochlorines) are present in all compartments of the environment at high concentration levels. An integrated methodology for characterising the current situation of pollution as well as the future fate development of hazardous substances is highly required to decide on further management and remediation strategies. Data analyses have been performed on regional groundwater monitoring data from about 10 years, containing approximately 3,500 samples, and up to 180 individual organic parameters from almost 250 observation wells. Run-off measurements as well as water samples were taken biweekly from local creeks during a period of 18 months. A kriging interpolation procedure was applied on groundwater analytics to generate continuous distribution patterns of the nodal contaminant samples. High-resolution geological 3-D modelling serves as a database for a regional 3-D groundwater flow model. Simulation results support the future fate assessment of contaminants. A first conceptual model of the contamination has been developed to characterise the contamination in regional surface waters and groundwater. A reliable explanation of the variant hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) occurrence within the two local aquifer systems has been derived from the regionalised distribution patterns. Simulation results from groundwater flow modelling provide a better understanding of the future pollutant migration paths and support the overall site characterisation. The presented case study indicates that an integrated assessment of large-scale groundwater contaminations often needs more data than only from local

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of drywells as tools for stormwater management and aquifer recharge and their groundwater contamination potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Emily C.; Harter, Thomas; Fogg, Graham E.; Washburn, Barbara; Hamad, Hamad

    2016-08-01

    Drywells are gravity-fed, excavated pits with perforated casings used to facilitate stormwater infiltration and groundwater recharge in areas where drainage and diversion of storm flows is problematic. Historically, drywells have predominantly been used as a form of stormwater management in locations that receive high volumes of precipitation; however the use of drywells is increasingly being evaluated as a method to supplement groundwater recharge, especially in areas facing severe drought. Studies have shown that drywells can be an effective means to increase recharge to aquifers; however, the potential for groundwater contamination caused by polluted stormwater runoff bypassing transport through surface soil and near surface sediment has prevented more widespread use of drywells as a recharge mechanism. Numerous studies have shown that groundwater and drinking water contamination from drywells can be avoided if drywells are used in appropriate locations and properly maintained. The effectiveness of drywells for aquifer recharge depends on the hydrogeologic setting and land use surrounding a site, as well as influent stormwater quantity and quality. These parameters may be informed for a specific drywell site through geologic and hydrologic characterization and adequate monitoring of stormwater and groundwater quality.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. Case description The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongoli...

  1. Use of geoelectrical methods in groundwater pollution surveys in a coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, R.K.; Urish, D.W.; Fuller, J.; O'Reilly, M.

    1994-01-01

    Ghyben-Herzberg relation appears to be disturbed in the area of aquifer pollution. This rise in the conductivity boundary is caused by the highly mineralized bottom of the contaminant plume that submerges into the saltwater saturated zone. In the area of high freshwater pollution the groundwater can be subdivided into three layers that show a decrease in resistivity with depth. The formation factor, F, defined as the ratio of bulk aquifer resistivity to pore water resistivity, shows unusually high values between 10 and 12. These high values are unexpected for an unconsolidated sand. Pollution residues are suspected to clog the pores and thus to increase the resistivity. It is possible that iron-oxidizing bacteria and the precipitation of dissolved iron or organic pollutants are the cause of the high values of F. If proven correct, these interesting possibilities could lead to future new applications of the geoelectrical resistivity method in contaminant hydroloy.

  2. Use of geoelectrical methods in groundwater pollution surveys in a coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Reinhard K.; Urish, Daniel W.; Fuller, James; O'Reilly, Mary

    1994-08-01

    Ghyben-Herzberg relation appears to be disturbed in the area of aquifer pollution. This rise in the conductivity boundary is caused by the highly mineralized bottom of the contaminant plume that submerges into the saltwater saturated zone. In the area of high freshwater pollution the groundwater can be subdivided into three layers that show a decrease in resistivity with depth. The formation factor, F, defined as the ratio of bulk aquifer resistivity to pore water resistivity, shows unusually high values between 10 and 12. These high values are unexpected for an unconsolidated sand. Pollution residues are suspected to clog the pores and thus to increase the resistivity. It is possible that iron-oxidizing bacteria and the precipitation of dissolved iron or organic pollutants are the cause of the high values of F. If proven correct, these interesting possibilities could lead to future new applications of the geoelectrical resistivity method in contaminant hydroloy.

  3. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  4. Leaf water relations and sapflow in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees planted for phytoremediation of a groundwater pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Gregory J. Harvey; Barton D. Clinton; Christine Sobek

    2000-01-01

    Plants that remediate groundwater pollutants may offer a feasible alternative to the traditional and more expensive practices. Because its success depends on water use, this approach requires a complete understanding of species-specific transpiration patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify tree and stand-level transpiration in two age classes (whips...

  5. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  6. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  7. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  8. [Groundwater quality in an arid area of Morocco: impact of pollution on the biodiversity and relationships between crustaceans and bacteria of health interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, F; Yacoubi-Khebiza, M; Oufdou, K; Boulanouar, M

    2008-11-01

    In the north of Marrakesh (Morocco), the high anthropogenic activity and the permeable nature of the geological ground makes the water of Jbilet vulnerable to contamination. The results of physico-chemical analyses conducted in 2006 showed that two groups of wells could be distinguished. Groundwater of wells located on the right bank of the Tensift River, which are far from any source of pollution, is of fairly good quality, well oxygenated, at neutral pH and with rather weak levels of organic compounds. In contrast, in the other wells in the area of the landfill of the city of Marrakesh and those in the peri-urban area demonstrate deteriorated water quality. The nutriment and organic matter content is quite high. Results of bacteriological analyses of water showed a fairly high faecal contamination. In this area the soil is highly permeable and promotes infiltration of organic pollutants and minerals as well as of pathogen and opportunistic bacteria into groundwater. After their penetration, these microorganisms form films around grain particles. The movements of the stygofauna in the interstices allow bacteria to settle on their exoskeleton and seep into their gut, thus being a potential source of groundwater contamination. An analysis of bacterial flora showed that the rate of bacteria is high in the digestive tract of two crustacean species of the stygobites Typhlocirolana haouzensis and Metacrangonyx spinicaudatus, and that it depends on the species and the bacteria. Bacteria may be one of the potential nutritional resources for stygobites.

  9. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface...... and the sub-surface infiltration system seemed to be equally good at retaining pollution. This indicates that the runoff sludge found in such infiltration systems plays an important role both as a source and a sorbent for stormwater contaminants. The study does not point at a considerable risk for groundwater...

  10. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian

    1998-01-01

    Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...... for about 60% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 1800 Da. The hydrophilic fraction constituted about 30% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 2100 Da, and the humic acid fraction made up about 10% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent...... molecular weight of about 2600 Da. The elemental compositions of the humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were in the ranges typical for humic substances from other origins. The O/C ratios for humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were similar in the leachate...

  11. Study of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using the DRASTIC method coupled with a geographic information system (GIS): application to groundwater Beni Amir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouz, Najat; Boudhar, Abdelghani; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Fresh water is the condition of all life on Earth for its vital role in the survival of living beings and in the social, economic and technological development. The Groundwater, as the surface water, is increasingly threatened by agricultural and industrial pollution. In this respect, the groundwater vulnerability assessment to pollution is a very valuable tool for resource protection, management of its quality and uses it in a sustainable way. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of the study area, Beni Amir, located in the first irrigated perimeter of Morocco, Tadla, using the DRASTIC method (depth to water, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of Vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity), and assessing the impact of each parameter on the DRASTIC vulnerability index by a sensitivity analysis. This study also highlights the role of geographic information systems (GIS) in assessing vulnerability. The Vulnerability index is calculated as the sum of product of ratings and weights assigned to each of the parameter DRASTIC. The results revealed four vulnerability classes, 7% of the study area has a high vulnerability, 31% are moderately vulnerable, 57% have a low vulnerability and 5% are of very low vulnerability.

  12. Characterization and pollution potential assessment of Tunceli, Turkey municipal solid waste open dumping site leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Deniz; Öztüfekçi Önal, Ayten; Demir, Veysel; Uslu, Gulsad; Arslanoglu-Isık, Hilal

    2013-11-01

    Environmental monitoring of leachate quality from an open municipal solid waste dumping site in Tunceli, Turkey was studied in this research. The most commonly examined pollution parameters were determined on a seasonal basis. The annual average 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD₅) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values of station points were measured as 70 and 425 mg/L, respectively, and also the average BOD₅/COD ratio (a measure of biodegradability) was calculated as 0.20. The low ratio of biodegradability and slightly alkaline pH values in the leachate samples indicated that the site was characterized by methanogenic conditions. The mean ammonium-nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) and corresponding phosphate (orthophosphate) values were assayed as 70 and 11 mg/L, respectively. The average solids content in the leachates was measured as 4,681 mg/L (total solids) and 144 mg/L (suspended solids). Very low concentrations of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the leachate samples were found and the concentration of cadmium was measured below detection limits. Excessive amount of nutrients and high organic and inorganic pollutant content in the leachates pose serious pollution potential to the environment. Since no drainage system or bio treatment exists in this open dumping site, high permeability of natural soil at the site and in the surrounding area and very fractured and crackled rocks under natural soil are indicators of high groundwater pollution potential in this site.

  13. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Abidjan like numerous African cities is experiencing a significant and uncontrolled population growth. The annual growth rate is estimated at 3.99% by the National Institute of Statistics. This rapid population growth also generates growing needs in general and especially for drinking water and economic activities. In the District of Abidjan, groundwater comes from the Mio-Pliocene age aquifer called "Continental Terminal". This unconfined aquifer is the main source of water supply. Its lithology consists of four levels. Actually only the two upper levels outcrop and constitute the main part of the Continental Terminal aquifer. Some recent studies report a potential overexploitation and pollution of Abidjan groundwater (Jourda, 1986, Kouame 2007, Deh, 2013). This deterioration in water quality could be due to the release of domestic and industrial waste water, pesticide and fertilizer from crops and toxic waste sites containing high doses of organochlorines, of hydrogen sulfide and sulfides. This risk is also linked to the economic activities such as car workshops, gas stations and the sand exploitation in the lagoon. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface and we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and transport with FEFLOW software. The model is composed of a sandy layer where two constant hydraulic heads of 55 m and 0.2 m are imposed on the north and the south respectively. We carried out grain size analysis of some samples (E2, E3, E4, E5, and E6) which shows particle size ranging between 0.0001 mm and 8 mm. This grain size analysis performed by sieving underwater and laser indicates that these five soils are: loamy sand with traces of clay and gravel for E2 and E5; Sandy loam with traces of clay for E3; Sand with traces of clay and gravel for E4 and Sand with traces of silt and clay for E6. Their porosity and average values of permeability coefficient K measured in the laboratory range from 0.2 to 0

  14. GROUNDWATER RADIOIODINE: PREVALENCE, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, AND POTENTIAL REMEDIAL APPROACHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-09-23

    Iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) has not received as much attention in basic and applied research as other contaminants associated with DOE plumes. These other contaminants, such as uranium, plutonium, strontium, and technetium are more widespread and exist at more DOE facilities. Yet, at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site {sup 129}I occurs in groundwater at concentrations significantly above the primary drinking water standard and there is no accepted method for treating it, other than pump-and-treat systems. With the potential arrival of a 'Nuclear Renaissance', new nuclear power facilities will be creating additional {sup 129}I waste at a rate of 1 Ci/gigawatts energy produced. If all 22 proposed nuclear power facilities in the U.S. get approved, they will produce more {sup 129}I waste in seven years than presently exists at the two facilities containing the largest {sup 129}I inventories, ({approx}146 Ci {sup 129}I at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site). Hence, there is an important need to fully understand {sup 129}I behavior in the environment to clean up existing plumes and to support the expected future expansion of nuclear power production. {sup 129}I is among the key risk drivers at all DOE nuclear disposal facilities where {sup 129}I is buried, because of its long half-life (16 million years), high toxicity (90% of the body's iodine accumulates in the thyroid), high inventory, and perceived high mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that {sup 129}I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define {sup 129}I mass balance and flux at sites, but can not accurately predict its response to changes in the environment. This uncertainty is in part responsible for the low drinking water standard, 1 pCi/L {sup 129}I, and the low permissible inventory limits (Ci) at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the

  15. Cross-species toxicogenomic analyses and phenotypic anchoring in response to groundwater low-level pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Immacolata; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Gentilcore, Daniela; Carchia, Emanuele; Amoresano, Angela; Affuso, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Michele; De Luca, Pasquale; Esposito, Libera; Guadagno, Francesco M; Mallardo, Massimo; Nardone, Antonio; Maccarone, Sergio; Pane, Francesca; Scarfò, Marzia; Sordino, Paolo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2014-12-05

    Comparison of toxicogenomic data facilitates the identification of deregulated gene patterns and maximizes health risk prediction in human. Here, we performed phenotypic anchoring on the effects of acute exposure to low-grade polluted groundwater using mouse and zebrafish. Also, we evaluated two windows of chronic exposure in mouse, starting in utero and at the end of lactation. Bioinformatic analysis of livers microarray data showed that the number of deregulated biofunctions and pathways is higher after acute exposure, compared to the chronic one. It also revealed specific profiles of altered gene expression in all treatments, pointing to stress response/mitochondrial pathways as major players of environmental toxicity. Of note, dysfunction of steroid hormones was also predicted by bioinformatic analysis and verified in both models by traditional approaches, serum estrogens measurement and vitellogenin mRNA determination in mice and zebrafish, respectively. In our report, phenotypic anchoring in two vertebrate model organisms highlights the toxicity of low-grade pollution, with varying susceptibility based on exposure window. The overlay of zebrafish and mice deregulated pathways, more than single genes, is useful in risk identification from chemicals implicated in the observed effects.

  16. Evaluation of the risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land use as background for allocation of effective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnovský Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land is perceived as a result of the interaction of groundwater vulnerability (determined by the characteristics of the environment overlying groundwater in relation to water transport or soil solution and loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. Index of groundwater vulnerability was assessed on the basis of four parameters, namely, the amount of effective rainfall in the period from October to March, the capacity of soil to accumulate water, the average depth of the groundwater table and the permeability of the rock environment. Assessment of the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen was based on two parameters, namely, nitrogen balance and crop cover on agricultural land in the winter half on districts level in 2012, which corresponds with current state of the load. The resulting risk of groundwater pollution by nitrogen was expressed by the formula counting with the transformed values of groundwater vulnerability index and the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. From practical point of view, the above mentioned indexes, as well as the subsequent risk of diffuse groundwater pollution, were spatially expressed via three associated categories. Based on the evaluation of relevant parameters, 5.18% of agricultural land falls into the category of very high and high risk, 42.20% in the medium risk category and 52.62% in the category of low and very low risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen from agricultural land.

  17. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  18. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the Musi basin using remote sensing data and GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapuram, Sreedhar; Vijaya Kumar, G.T.; Murali Krishna, I.V.; Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, M. Cüneyd

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the groundwater availability for agriculture in the Musi basin. Remote sensing data and geographic information system were used to locate potential zones for groundwater in the Musi basin. Various maps (i.e., base, hydrogeomorphological, geological, structur

  19. [Comparative analysis of two different methods for risk assessment of groundwater pollution: a case study in Beijing plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-na; He, Jiang-tao; Ma, Wen-jie; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment has important meaning to groundwater contamination prevention planning and groundwater exploitation potentiality. Recently, UN assessment system and WP assessment system have become the focuses of international research. In both systems, the assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: intrinsic vulnerability, aquifer storage, groundwater quality, groundwater resource protection zone and contamination load. But, the five factors were built up in different ways. In order to expound the difference between the UN and WP assessment systems, and explain the main reasons, the UN and WP assessment systems were applied to Beijing Plain, China. The maps constructed from the UN and WP risk assessment systems were compared. The results showed that both kinds of groundwater contamination risk assessment maps were in accordance with the actual conditions and were similar in spatial distribution trends. However, there was quite significant different in the coverage area at the same level. It also revealed that during the system construction process, the structural hierarchy, relevant overlaying principles and classification method might have effects on the groundwater contamination risk assessment map. UN assessment system and WP assessment system were both suitable for groundwater contamination risk assessment of the plain, however, their emphasis was different.

  20. Long-time risk of groundwater/drinking water pollution with sulphuric compounds beneath burned peatlands in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, V C

    2007-01-01

    Smoke-haze episodes caused by vegetation and peat fires affect parts of Indonesia every year with significant impacts on human health and climate. The forest fires 1997/1998 were by far the largest in Indonesian history, burning between 5 and 8 million hectares before they were stopped by the monsoon rains in December 1997. Fires sprang up again in 1998 on Kalimantan when monsoon rain paused. Peat forests and peatlands are in particular severely affected. In the 1997/1998 haze event, 2.1-2.5 million hectare of peat swamp forest burnt in Indonesia. The remaining ash contains high concentrations of sulphur and sulphuric compounds which eventually leach into the groundwater, thus polluting groundwater and drinking water. The thicker the peat layer is and the higher the number of fires in the respective area the more sulphuric compounds will leach into the groundwater. Risk areas for the sulphur loads of the ash are identified.

  1. Decision-tree-model identification of nitrate pollution activities in groundwater: A combination of a dual isotope approach and chemical ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongmei; Pang, Fengmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Wenliang

    2015-09-01

    To develop management practices for agricultural crops to protect against NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, dominant pollution activities require reliable classification. In this study, we (1) classified potential NO3(-) pollution activities via an unsupervised learning algorithm based on δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-) and physico-chemical properties of groundwater at 55 sampling locations; and (2) determined which water quality parameters could be used to identify the sources of NO3(-) contamination via a decision tree model. When a combination of δ(15)N-, δ(18)O-NO3(-) and physico-chemical properties of groundwater was used as an input for the k-means clustering algorithm, it allowed for a reliable clustering of the 55 sampling locations into 4 corresponding agricultural activities: well irrigated agriculture (28 sampling locations), sewage irrigated agriculture (16 sampling locations), a combination of sewage irrigated agriculture, farm and industry (5 sampling locations) and a combination of well irrigated agriculture and farm (6 sampling locations). A decision tree model with 97.5% classification success was developed based on SO4(2-) and Cl(-) variables. The NO3(-) and the δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-) variables demonstrated limitation in developing a decision tree model as multiple N sources and fractionation processes both resulted in difficulties of discriminating NO3(-) concentrations and isotopic values. Although only the SO4(2-) and Cl(-) were selected as important discriminating variables, concentration data alone could not identify the specific NO3(-) sources responsible for groundwater contamination. This is a result of comprehensive analysis. To further reduce NO3(-) contamination, an integrated approach should be set-up by combining N and O isotopes of NO3(-) with land-uses and physico-chemical properties, especially in areas with complex agricultural activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF SEEPAGE FACE OBLIQUITY ON DISCHARGE OF GROUNDWATER AND ITS POLLUTANT INTO LAKE FROM A TYPICAL UNCONFINED AQUIFER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lab experiment and mathematical simulation Modular three dimensional finite difference groundwater (MODFLOW) were performed in a soil tank to simulate the hydrogeochemical interaction between lake and typical unconfined aquifer. Results show that the velocity decreases exponentially with the transect distance on seepage face. The maximal velocity occurs at the top point of seepage face. The obliquity of seepage face has a great influence on the maximum and distribution of seepage velocity. With the increase of the obliquity of seepage face, the maximal velocity decreases quickly and the velocity distribution becomes much more even. Most of groundwater flow and pollutant flux discharges through a narrow portion near the top of seepage face. The flow and mass concentrated in the narrow portion increase with the decrease of the obliquity of seepage face. These will benefit to design a reasonable and economical scenario to manage lakeshore and to control the pollution of lake water near lakeshore.

  3. Screening for exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from sub-tropical polluted groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FUSCONI

    Full Text Available A selection of exopolysaccharide (EPS -- producing bacterial strains was conducted in groundwater adjacent to an old controlled landfill in the City of São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil. The strains were isolated in P and E media under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions at 25ºC. A total of 26 strains were isolated and based on the mucoid mode of the colonies, 6 were selected and their morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects were characterized. All strains presented pigmentation, ranging from yellow to orange and from pink to salmon, with a shiny glistening aspect in all tested media. Strains Lb, Lc and Lg, which excelled the others with regard to the mucoid mode of the colonies, were selected to be cultured in E medium with alternate sucrose and glucose as carbon sources in anaerobiosis at 25ºC to analyze the production of EPS. Strains Lc and Lg were classified as being of order Actinomycelates, suborder Corynebacterineae. Lg strain was identified as Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Lc strain did not correspond to a known description and therefore a more detailed study is under preparation. Considering all ecological aspects and the metabolic potential associated with the microorganisms of the environment studied, as well as the capacity to produce pigment and EPS, and the presence of G. polyisoprenivorans, a rubber degrader bacterium, the potential of the groundwater analyzed is evident as a source of microorganisms to be utilized in studies related to environmental remediation.

  4. [Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

    2007-11-01

    The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance.

  5. Groundwater pollution with particular reference to the Italian situation; Inquinamento delle acque sotterranee con riferimento particolare alla situazione italiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volterra, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    2000-01-01

    Italian groundwaters recharged under karstic soils, alluvional plains and volcanic areas are highly vulnerable. Microbial and biological contamination generally afflict mountain waters. Fertilisers and pesticides are typical pollutants of aquifers located under intensively cultivated soils. Hydrocarbons and solvent may pollute groundwaters situated under urban settlements, industrialised areas and highways. Many Italian groundwaters are naturally enriched with Radon. This will represent the emergent problem for Italian groundwaters destined to human consumption. [Italian] Le acque sotterranee italiane che si formano sotto suoli calcarei, pianure alluvionali e territori vulcanici fessurati sono assai vulnerabili. L'inquinamento microbiologico e biologico interessa per lo piu' le acque che scaturiscono in zone montane. L'inquinamento da fertilizzanti e pesticidi e' tipico degli acquiferi che si caricano sotto suoli intensivamente sfruttati sotto il profilo agricolo. Idrocarburi e solventi sono i contaminanti che si possono trovare in falde di aree densamente popolate e con alta intensita' di traffico. In futuro il problema emergente sara' il Radon di cui sono naturalmente arricchite molte delle acque sotterranee italiane.

  6. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... as previously they never did. This study analyzes the changes in the groundwater potential between 1936 and 2006 in two stream catchments in central Zealand (Elverdam and Langvad) to assess how groundwater abstraction has affected the regional aquifers potential for contribution to base-flow in the streams......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  7. Decision support model for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing groundwater resources management in the wet Pampa plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2013-06-01

    This paper gives an account of the implementation of a decision support system for assessing aquifer pollution hazard and prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management in the southeastern Pampa plain of Argentina. The use of this system is demonstrated with an example from Dulce Stream Basin (1,000 km(2) encompassing 27 subwatersheds), which has high level of agricultural activities and extensive available data regarding aquifer geology. In the logic model, aquifer pollution hazard is assessed as a function of two primary topics: groundwater and soil conditions. This logic model shows the state of each evaluated landscape with respect to aquifer pollution hazard based mainly on the parameters of the DRASTIC and GOD models. The decision model allows prioritizing subwatersheds for groundwater resources management according to three main criteria including farming activities, agrochemical application, and irrigation use. Stakeholder participation, through interviews, in combination with expert judgment was used to select and weight each criterion. The resulting subwatershed priority map, by combining the logic and decision models, allowed identifying five subwatersheds in the upper and middle basin as the main aquifer protection areas. The results reasonably fit the natural conditions of the basin, identifying those subwatersheds with shallow water depth, loam-loam silt texture soil media and pasture land cover in the middle basin, and others with intensive agricultural activity, coinciding with the natural recharge area to the aquifer system. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this methodology in real-world situations are discussed.

  8. GEO STATISTICAL MODELLING FOR GROUNDWATER POLLUTION IN SALEM, TAMILNADU- A GIS BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prabaharan,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the essential natural resources for the existence and development of life on the earth. The demand for water has increased over the years, and has led to a water scarcity. Ground waters are themajor resources to meet out the entire requirements. Pollution of air, water and land has an effect on the quality of the ground waters. The chemical characteristics of groundwater in Salem taluk of Salem district have been studied using Geostatistical modeling to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation and domestic uses. The 32 water samples from PWD wells taken during the years 1999 to 2009 for post monsson and pre monsoon were tested for various chemical parameters like pH and TDS .The Geostatistical analyst of ArcGIS was used to generate voronoi maps like mean, mode, standard deviation, cluster & simple to study the spatial pattern of contamination movement for the years 1999 to 2009. Trend analysis was performed to identify trends in the input dataset. The concentrations of physical and chemical constituents in the water samples were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO standard to know the suitability of water for drinking.

  9. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is the pyrolysis product of biomass, preferably from agricultural and forestry residues and waste materials. Characterized by a polyaromatic structure rich in carbon, it offers a microporous structure with a high specific surface area and active functional groups as binding sites. Because of the high sorption capacity for organic and inorganic soil pollutants biochar is an interesting tool for in-situ soil remediation. Especially if the reduction of contaminant bioavailability and the protection of groundwater from pollutants in the vadose zone are the most relevant issues for remediating a polluted site without excavation and removal of the soil, an in-situ application of biochar may offer a promising remediation strategy. The resulting interest of deploying biochar as sorbent for soil contaminants has stimulated a wealth of studies to develop successful applications for environmental technology. However, the existing studies do not always agree on the efficacy for different pollutants and on the most relevant char and soil characteristics that determine the rate of success when using biochar as sorbent. This makes it necessary to apply advanced literature assessment techniques to allow for the recognition of the extent and the significance of the efficacy of a given pollutant treatment technique. A meta-analysis is a study assessment technique that allows extracting a harmonized answer to a specific research question that has been studied more often than one time, even if the results are partially conflicting. Such a technique also allows getting an overview about the degree of consensus or contradiction in the answers to the question if biochar can be applied successfully for immobilizing certain soil contaminants. The meta-analysis results can also be used to quantify the average extent of effects of a certain treatment, depending on the characteristics of the sorbent and on the application rate. By checking 104 published papers in the peer

  10. [Pollution characteristics and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in groundwater at Xiaodian Sewage Irrigation Area, Taiyuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-le; Zhang, Cai-xiang; Wang, Yan-xin; Liao, Xiao-ping; Yao, Lin-lin; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sewage irrigation has been widely used in areas of water shortage in northern China, and it may introduce organic contaminants into groundwater. To characterize the organic contaminants in groundwater in sewage irrigation area, the Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Shanxi Province was chosen as the case study area. A total of 16 groundwater samples (13 from shallow aquifer, 3 from deep aquifer) were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were ainalyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentrations of PAHs ranged from 13.98 to 505.89 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 115.67 ng x (L)(-1). The 2 and 3 ring-PAHs were the main components, while naphthalene and phenanthrene were most frequently detected. The concentrations of OCPs were in the range of 13.91-103.23 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 40.99 ng x L(-1), while alpha-HCH, delta-HCH, o,p'-DDD, Aldrin, Endosulfan-sulfate and HCB were most frequently detected. Overall, shallow aquifers appeared more contaminated with these pollutants than deep aquifers. In the area, the order of the organic contaminants concentration in groundwater was: East Main Channel groundwater was influenced by the sewage irrigation.

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION ON GROUNDWATER AND SOIL QUALITY IN AN AGRICULTURAL FARM (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

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    S. Fetouani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure sustainable food security, Morocco gives priority to agricultural and rural development by promoting investment in agricultural sector and use of intensification factors to improve incomes in rural areas. The Triffa irrigated perimeter is one of the oldest and the most productive in the country thanks to the Mohammed the V dam activity and the beginning of agricultural development intensification. Although this intensification has a positive effect on agricultural yields, it has negative impacts on soil and generatesgroundwater quality degradation. Indeed, recent studies performed in this area by us and Bendra (Fetouani et al., 2008; Bendra et al, 2012 have mentioned the existence of salinity problems, nitric groundwater pollution and soils salinization. This degradation is caused essentially by intensive use of agrochemicals, including nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, and non-control of irrigation and cultivated plots drainage. However, a degradation of groundwater and soil quality is not without risk to Human health. Having a global vision about situation of groundwater and soil quality in the Triffa plain we have decided to deepen this theme to a local scale and to study in details the impact of intensive agriculture on groundwater and soil quality in a farm, located in the centre of the Triffa plain.To sum up the results of this study the state of soil quality in the farm is not alarming. However, the groundwater quality is mainly dramatic, because it is a receptacle of all the nutrients applied on the surface, especially nitrates.

  12. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Jiin-Shuh Jean; Chieh-Hou Yang; Ming-Jer Lee; Ming-Kuo Lee; Ming-Hung Chien

    2008-01-01

    Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks). More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surfac...

  13. Is it worth protecting groundwater from diffuse pollution with agri-environmental schemes? A hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge

    2013-10-15

    In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing biosynthetic potential of agricultural groundwater through metagenomic sequencing: A diverse anammox community dominates nitrate-rich groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Olin; Li, Xunde; Kliegman, Joseph I.; Langelier, Charles; Atwill, Edward R.; Harter, Thomas; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate change produces extremes in both temperature and precipitation causing increased drought severity and increased reliance on groundwater resources. Agricultural practices, which rely on groundwater, are sensitive to but also sources of contaminants, including nitrate. How agricultural contamination drives groundwater geochemistry through microbial metabolism is poorly understood. Methods On an active cow dairy in the Central Valley of California, we sampled groundwater from three wells at depths of 4.3 m (two wells) and 100 m (one well) below ground surface (bgs) as well as an effluent surface water lagoon that fertilizes surrounding corn fields. We analyzed the samples for concentrations of solutes, heavy metals, and USDA pathogenic bacteria of the Escherichia coli and Enterococcus groups as part of a long term groundwater monitoring study. Whole metagenome shotgun sequencing and assembly revealed taxonomic composition and metabolic potential of the community. Results Elevated nitrate and dissolved organic carbon occurred at 4.3m but not at 100m bgs. Metagenomics confirmed chemical observations and revealed several Planctomycete genomes, including a new Brocadiaceae lineage and a likely Planctomycetes OM190, as well novel diversity and high abundance of nano-prokaryotes from the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR), the Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, Nanohaloarchaea (DPANN) and the Thaumarchaeota, Aigarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota (TACK) superphyla. Pathway analysis suggests community interactions based on complimentary primary metabolic pathways and abundant secondary metabolite operons encoding antimicrobials and quorum sensing systems. Conclusions The metagenomes show strong resemblance to activated sludge communities from a nitrogen removal reactor at a wastewater treatment plant, suggesting that natural bioremediation occurs through microbial metabolism. Elevated nitrate and rich secondary metabolite

  15. Wellbore and groundwater temperature distribution eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: Implications for groundwater flow and geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLing, Travis L.; Smith, Richard P.; Smith, Robert W.; Blackwell, David D.; Roback, Robert C.; Sondrup, Andrus J.

    2016-06-01

    A map of groundwater temperatures from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) regional aquifer can be used to identify and interpret important features of the aquifer, including aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. The ESRP is an area of high heat flow, yet most of this thermal energy fails to reach the surface, due to the heat being swept downgradient by the aquifer to the major spring complexes near Thousand Springs, ID, a distance of 300 km. Nine deep boreholes that fully penetrate the regional aquifer display three common features: (1) high thermal gradients beneath the aquifer, corresponding to high conductive heat flow in low-permeability hydrothermally-altered rocks; (2) isothermal temperature profiles within the aquifer, characteristic of an actively flowing groundwater; and (3) moderate thermal gradients in the vadose zone with values that indicate that over half of the geothermal heat flow is removed by advective transport in the regional aquifer system. This study utilized temperature data from 250 ESRP aquifer wells to evaluate regional aquifer flow direction, aquifer thickness, and potential geothermal anomalies. Because the thermal gradients are typically low in the aquifer, any measurement of groundwater temperature is a reasonable estimate of temperature throughout the aquifer thickness, allowing the construction of a regional aquifer temperature map for the ESRP. Mapped temperatures are used to identify cold thermal plumes associated with recharge from tributary valleys and adjacent uplands, and warm zones associated with geothermal input to the aquifer. Warm zones in the aquifer can have various causes, including local circulation of groundwater through the deep conductively dominated region, slow groundwater movement in low-permeability regions, or localized heat flow from deeper thermal features.

  16. Groundwater methane in a potential coal seam gas extraction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L. Atkins

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Methane was found in all geological units ranging between 0.26 and 4427 μg L−1 (median 10.68 μg L−1. Median methane concentrations were highest in chloride-type groundwater (13.26 μg L−1, n = 58 while bicarbonate-type groundwater had lower concentrations (3.71 μg L−1. Groundwater from alluvial sediments had significantly higher median methane concentrations (91.46 μg L−1 than groundwater from both the basalt aquifers (0.7 μg L−1 and bedrock aquifers (4.63 μg L−1; indicating geology was a major driver of methane distribution. Methane carbon stable isotope ratios ranged from –90.9‰ to –29.5‰, suggesting a biogenic origin with some methane oxidation. No significant correlations were observed between methane concentrations and redox indicators (nitrate, manganese, iron and sulphate except between iron and methane in the Lismore Basalt (r2 = 0.66, p < 0.001, implying redox conditions were not the main predictor of methane distribution.

  17. Assessing Potential Land Suitability for Surface Irrigation using Groundwater in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worqlul, A. W.; Jeong, J.; Osorio, J.; Gerik, T.; Yihun, D.; Srinivan, R.; Clark, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although Ethiopia has large land areas that can potentially be developed for surface irrigation, only a fraction of the potential available land has been utilized. This paper presents evaluation of the potential lands in Ethiopia that are suitable for irrigation using groundwater. The suitable land was identified using GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques applying a GIS model. The factors used were identified from literature and from experts in the region. Factors considered includes physical land features (land use, soil and slope), climate characteristics (rainfall and evapotranspiration), and market access (proximity to roads and access to market). Factors were weighted using a pair-wise comparison matrix, reclassified, and overlaid to identify the suitable areas for groundwater irrigation at 1 km grid. Groundwater data from the British Geological Survey were used to estimate potential groundwater availability and analyze the irrigation potential for dominant crops. Simulated output from SWAT could be used in areas where data is not available. Result indicates that approximately 6.0 million ha of land in Ethiopia is suitable for surface irrigation. A large portion of this suitable land is located in the Abbay, Rift Valley, Omo Ghibe, and Awash River basins, which all also have shallow groundwater access (< 20 m from the surface). The comparison between available groundwater and total crop water requirements indicated that current groundwater resources in the basins are not capable of irrigating all suitable land independently, but groundwater resources are a good option for supplementing current surface water resources in many regions. The study indicated that only 8 % of the suitable land could be irrigated with the groundwater within the grid.

  18. In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

    1992-04-01

    Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in

  19. Groundwater potential zoning of a peri-urban wetland of south Bengal Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, Pradip K

    2011-03-01

    Demand for groundwater for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid increase in population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the groundwater potential of different areas, especially in a fragile wetland ecosystem to select appropriate sites for developing well fields to minimize adverse environmental impacts of groundwater development. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW)--a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. The subsurface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades, and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to scouring action of past channels. The groundwater in the study area is being over-extracted at the rate of 65 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Overlay analysis in Geographic Information System platform using multiple criteria such as water quality index, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity, and depth to piezometric surface reveals that in and around ECW, there are five groundwater potential zones. About 74% of the aquifer of this area shows very poor to medium groundwater potential. Management options such as minimization of groundwater abstraction by introducing the treated surface water supply system and the implementation of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in high-rise buildings and industries are suggested for different potential zones.

  20. Mapping irrigation potential from renewable groundwater in Africa - a quantitative hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altchenko, Y.; Villholth, K. G.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater provides an important buffer to climate variability in Africa. Yet, groundwater irrigation contributes only a relatively small share of cultivated land, approximately 1% (about 2 × 106 hectares) as compared to 14% in Asia. While groundwater is over-exploited for irrigation in many parts in Asia, previous assessments indicate an underutilized potential in parts of Africa. As opposed to previous country-based estimates, this paper derives a continent-wide, distributed (0.5° spatial resolution) map of groundwater irrigation potential, indicated in terms of fractions of cropland potentially irrigable with renewable groundwater. The method builds on an annual groundwater balance approach using 41 years of hydrological data, allocating only that fraction of groundwater recharge that is in excess after satisfying other present human needs and environmental requirements, while disregarding socio-economic and physical constraints in access to the resource. Due to high uncertainty of groundwater environmental needs, three scenarios, leaving 30, 50 and 70% of recharge for the environment, were implemented. Current dominating crops and cropping rotations and associated irrigation requirements in a zonal approach were applied in order to convert recharge excess to potential irrigated cropland. Results show an inhomogeneously distributed groundwater irrigation potential across the continent, even within individual countries, mainly reflecting recharge patterns and presence or absence of cultivated cropland. Results further show that average annual renewable groundwater availability for irrigation ranges from 692 to 1644 km3 depending on scenario. The total area of cropland irrigable with renewable groundwater ranges from 44.6 to 105.3 × 106 ha, corresponding to 20.5 to 48.6% of the cropland over the continent. In particular, significant potential exists in the semi-arid Sahel and eastern African regions which could support poverty alleviation if developed

  1. Potential of groundwater contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a sensitive bedrock aquifer (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Jana; Novakowski, Kent; Reiner, Eric J.; Kolic, Terry

    2012-03-01

    It is necessary to understand the presence, movement, and persistence of contaminants in aquifers to develop adequate groundwater protection plans. Fractured bedrock aquifers with thin overburden cover are very sensitive to contamination, and little is known about transport processes from the ground surface to depth in this setting. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are flame retardants, in a natural fractured bedrock aquifer in Canada proven to be sensitive to contamination. PBDEs, which had not been previously measured in groundwater in detail, were detected in the study aquifer at concentrations greater than those observed in surface-water bodies. Potential sources include manure, septic tanks, and the atmosphere. From this scoping study, it is evident that additional surveys of PBDE concentrations in groundwater are warranted, especially in settings with high potential source concentrations coupled with sensitive aquifers.

  2. The potential for phosphorus pollution remediation by calcite precipitation in UK freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the potential for calcium carbonate to reduce phosphate pollution in freshwaters by co-precipitation, a process known as a "self cleansing mechanism". Calcium carbonate saturation levels and phosphate concentrations (SRP - soluble reactive phosphate across the major eastern UK river basins are examined to test for solubility controls. The study shows that calcite saturation varies for each catchment as a function of flow and biological activity rather than by direct regulation by SRP. Indeed, there is no evidence, for any of the rivers studied, that calcite solubility controls hold. However, for groundwater and groundwater-fed springs in the Chalk of the Thames basin, calcite saturation is observed with associated low SRP levels. A self-cleansing mechanism may well be operative within the Chalk due to two factors. Firstly, there is a high potential for nucleation on the calcite micro-crystals in the aquifer. Secondly, there are within aquifer reactions that remove the calcite nucleating inhibitors (SRP and dissolved organic carbon, DOC to levels lower than those occurring within the rivers do. These inhibitors enter the catchment at very high concentrations in association with agricultural pollution (fertilizer application and animal slurry and household contamination (e.g. sewage sources from septic tanks. Under low flow conditions, when the saturation index for calcite is at its highest, so too is the concentration of the nucleation inhibitor SRP. Companion work shows that calcite precipitation can occur at the water-sediment interface of the river and this may involve SRP removal. The data, as a whole, define an apparent bound for calcite solubility control where in the presence of nucleating centres, SRP must be less than 4 mM-P l-1 and DOC must be less than 150 mM-C l-1: a condition that does not seem to pertain within most UK rivers. Keywords: calcite, calcium carbonate, phosphate, soluble reactive phosphate, dissolved

  3. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  4. Velocity Potential in Engineering Hydraulics versus Force Potential in Groundwater Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, K.

    2013-12-01

    Within engineering practice, the calculation of subsurface flow is dominated by the mathematical pseudo-physics of the engineer's adaptation of continuum methods to mechanics. Continuum mechanics rose to prominence in the 19th century in an successful attempt to solve practical engineering problems. To that end were put in place quite a number of simplifications in geometry and the properties of water and other fluids, as well as simplifications of Darcy's equation, in order to find reasonable answers to practical problems by making use of analytical equations. The proof of the correctness of the approach and its usefulness was in the practicability of results obtained. In the 1930s, a diametrically-opposed duality developed in the theoretical derivation of the laws of subsurface fluid flow between Muskat's (1937) velocity potential (engineering hydraulics) and Hubbert's (1940) force potential. The conflict between these authors lasted a lifetime. In the end Hubbert stated on one occasion that Muskat formulates a refined mathematics but does not know what it means in physical terms. In this author's opinion that can still be said about the application of continuum mechanics by engineers to date, as for example to CO2 sequestration, regional groundwater flow, oil sands work, and geothermal studies. To date, engineering hydraulics is best represented by Bear (1972) and de Marsily (1986). In their well-known textbooks, both authors refer to Hubbert's work as the proper way to deal with the physics of compressible fluids. Water is a compressible fluid. The authors then ignore, however, their own insights (de Marsily states so explicitly, Bear does not) and proceed to deal with water as an incompressible fluid. At places both authors assume the pressure gradients to be the main driving force for flow of fluids in the subsurface. That is not, however, the case. Instead the pressure potential forces are caused by compression initiated by unused gravitational energy not

  5. Isotope techniques for the research of groundwater in the potential site of China’s high-level waste repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永海; 刘淑芬; 杨天笑; 姜桂林

    2001-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the groundwater origin, evolution and circulation in the potential site of China’s high-level waste repository are studied. The results indicate that both shallow groundwaters and deep groundwaters in the site area are of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwaters are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwaters are originated from regional precipitation at higher elevation, or may be from the precipitation during the geological history period with lower temperature. Through the study we can also understand that the deep underground is a very low-permeability system where the groundwater flow-rates are very low.

  6. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  7. Forecasting the air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milford

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch Urban Research Meteorology and Environment programme (GURME, a system for forecasting air pollution episode potential in the Canary Islands has been developed. Meteorological parameters relevant to air quality (synoptic wind speed, wind direction, boundary layer height and temperature at 91 vertical levels are obtained from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF once a day for up to four days ahead. In addition, a model based on the analogue method utilising six years of historical meteorological and air quality data predicts the probability of SO2 concentration exceeding certain thresholds for a measurement station located in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Meteorological forecasts are also provided from a high resolution (2 km local area model (MM5 implemented for the Canary Islands domain. This simple system is able to forecast meteorological conditions which are favourable to the occurrence of pollution episodes for the forthcoming days.

  8. Adsorptive properties of alluvial soil for arsenic(V) and its potential for protection of the shallow groundwater among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Mei, Jinhua; Luo, Yueping; Qiu, Anni; Wang, Huan

    2017-02-01

    The study area is among Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan cities, which was under agricultural use and natural conditions about 10 years ago and now is becoming part of the metropolis because of the urban expansion. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms and capabilities of the local alluvial soil layer for protecting the local shallow groundwater from arsenic pollution by field surveys and batch experiments. The field surveys showed that there was an acidic tendency of the groundwater, and phosphate, nitrate, and arsenic in the groundwater significantly increased comparing to their reference values. It indicates that the disturbance of the former agricultural land due to the change of land use may be responsible for these changes. From the experimental results, the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil for As(V) was as low as 0.334 mg/g, and lower As(V) adsorption capacities were obtained at higher As(V) concentration, higher pH, and lower temperature. The presence of H2PO4(-) and SiO3(2-) posed negative, while HCO3(-) slight positive, and SO4(2-), NO3(-) and Cl(-) negligible influences on the As(V) adsorption. The surface-derived organic matter played a negative role in the adsorption process, and low specific surface area influenced adsorption capacity of the soil. The study reveals that the local soil layer shows poor potential for protection of the local shallow groundwater from As(V) pollution, and the change trends of the groundwater environments due to more intensive anthropogenic activities will further weaken this potential and increase the risk of the groundwater contamination.

  9. Identification of potential artificial groundwater recharge zones in Northwestern Saudi Arabia using GIS and Boolean logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Nazzal, Yousef; Ahmed, Izrar; Naeem, Muhammad; Jafri, Muhammad Kamran

    2015-11-01

    Identifying potential groundwater recharge zones is a pre-requisite for any artificial recharge project. The present study focuses on identifying the potential zones of Artificial Groundwater Recharge (AGR) in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Parameters including slope, soil texture, vadose zone thickness, groundwater quality (TDS) and type of water bearing formation were integrated in a GIS environment using Boolean logic. The results showed that 17.90% of the total studied area is suitable for AGR. The identified zones were integrated with the land use/land cover map to avoid agricultural and inhabited lands which reduced the total potential area to 14.24%. Geomorphologically the wadi beds are the most suitable sites for recharge. On the basis of the potential AGR zones closeness to the available recharge water supply (rain water, desalinated sea water and treated waste water) the potential zones were classified as Category A (high priority) and Category B (low priority).

  10. Anomalous fluoride concentration in groundwater - is it natural or pollution? A stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula Casagrande; Knöller, Kay; Roisenberg, Ari

    2007-06-01

    Fluoride anomalies (up to 11 mg/l) have been detected in groundwater of the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, in an area where fluorosis is endemic. Two hypotheses are investigated concerning the fluoride origin: lithochemical affiliation from regional rock or contamination by fertilisers application. These hypotheses are discussed based on the stable isotope data of water, nitrate, and sulphate, which indicates that the local precipitation is the main groundwater recharge source. The isotopic composition of groundwater sulphate is similar to that of fertiliser sulphate. However, a conclusive assignment of groundwater sulphate to fertiliser origin is not indicated because further possible sulphate sources fall into the same isotopic range. In contrast, the isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate suggests that there is no direct relationship to the use of NPK fertilisers. Hence, an origin of the high fluoride content in groundwater related to long-term rock-water interactions seems likely.

  11. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be <380 m/day at Yimin open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  12. Spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a century-old nonferrous metal mining and smelting area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xing; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-12-01

    This study first presents the spatial distribution, temporal variation, and sources of heavy metal pollution in groundwater of a nonferrous metal mine area in China. Unconfined groundwater was polluted by Pb, Zn, As, and Cu, in order, while confined karst water in the mines showed pollution in the following sequence: Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, and As. Pollution by Pb was widespread, while Zn, As, Cu, and Cd were found to be high in the north-central industrial region and to decrease gradually with distance from smelters and tailings. Vertically, more Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have accumulated in shallow Quaternary groundwater, while more As have migrated into the deeper fracture groundwater in the local discharge area. Zn, Cd, and Cu concentrations in groundwater along the riverside diminished owing to reduced wastewater drainage since 1977, while samples in the confluence area were found to have increasing contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cu, and Cd since industrialization began in the 1990s. Sources of heavy metals in groundwater were of anthropogenic origin except for Cr. Pb originated primarily from airborne volatile particulates, wastewater, and waste residues and deposited continuously, while Zn, Cd, and Cu were derived from the wastewater of smelters and leakage of tailings, which corresponded to the related soil and surface residue researches. Elevated As values around factories might be the result of chemical reactions. Flow patterns in different hydrogeological units and adsorption capability of from Quaternary sediments restricted their cross-border diffusion.

  13. USE OF FLUORESCENT POLYCYLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROBES IN STUDYING THE IMPACT OF COLLOIDS ON POLLUTANT TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fluorescence-quenching method was developed to assess the hydrophobic organic pollutant binding potential of organic colloids (OC) in unaltered natural waters. This method allows (1) direct assessment of the importance of OC-enhanced pollutant transport for environmental sam- p...

  14. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  15. Coal is a potential source of naphthenic acids in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela C; Whittal, Randy M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2009-03-15

    Naphthenic acids, with the general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2), are found in conventional petroleums and oil sands ores. These acids are toxic to aquatic life, so their discharge from petroleum processing into receiving waters must be avoided. In a previous study, naphthenic acids were putatively identified in groundwaters from two domestic wells that were distant from petroleum sources. However, coal deposits were near these wells. In this study, waters from the two wells were extracted and analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to unequivocally confirm the presence of naphthenic acids and other organic acids. In addition, distilled water was percolated through three crushed coal samples and the leachates were shown to contain a variety of organic acids, including naphthenic acids. These results clearly demonstrate that coal is a source of naphthenic acids and that the naphthenic acids can leach into groundwaters. Thus, the presence of naphthenic acids in waters cannot be solely attributed to petroleum or petroleum industry activities.

  16. Groundwater Infiltration Potential (GWIP) as an aid to determining the cause of dilution of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirckx, Geert; Van Daele, Sofie; Hellinck, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater infiltration through leaking sewers represents a considerable fraction of the total amount of wastewater dilution. In search for an easy-to-determine yet acceptably accurate estimation of the likelihood of groundwater infiltration into leaking sewers, the parameter 'groundwater infiltration potential' or shortly GWIP was defined. GWIP expresses the extent to which groundwater infiltration could - in contrast to the inflow of surface water - be a cause of dilution of sewage. The GWIP is determined by a comparison between the elevation of the groundwater table with the position of the sewer conduits per geo-spatial aggregation level (GAL). This first order analysis compares sets of three representative figures of the groundwater table's elevation, i.e. the minimum, the maximum and the average level with sets of two representative values of the pipes' positions, i.e. average invert and soffit levels. A GWIP map can be set-up indicating per GAL a GWIP score that represents a generic evaluation of the common (i.e. most occurring or representative) situation regarding the presence of the groundwater table versus the elevations of the sewer system. In this way the GWIP map can assist in the determination of the overall most likely origin - either surface water or groundwater - of dilution per GAL. Eventually this facilitates strategic decisions regarding the search for particular locations of dilution, and subsequently for the selection of specific remediation measures. The methodology is developed on a local scale of Flanders, Belgium but is generic and therefore applicable to any other region provided that information on the elevation of the sewer system and groundwater table is available.

  17. Antarctic subglacial groundwater: measurement concept and potential influence on ice flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, Bernd; Siegert, Martin; Bougamont, Marion; Christoffersen, Poul; Key, Kerry; Andersen, Kristoffer; Booth, Adam; Smith, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Is groundwater abundant in Antarctica and does it modulate ice flow? Answering this question matters because ice streams flow by gliding over a wet substrate of till. Water fed to ice-stream beds thus influences ice-sheet dynamics and, potentially, sea-level rise. It is recognised that both till and the sedimentary basins from which it originates are porous and could host a reservoir of mobile groundwater that interacts with the subglacial interfacial system. According to recent numerical modelling up to half of all water available for basal lubrication, and time lags between hydrological forcing and ice-sheet response as long as millennia, may have been overlooked in models of ice flow. Here, we review evidence in support of Antarctic groundwater and propose how it can be measured to ascertain the extent to which it modulates ice flow. We present new seismoelectric soundings of subglacial till, and new magnetotelluric and transient electromagnetic forward models of subglacial groundwater reservoirs. We demonstrate that multi-facetted and integrated geophysical datasets can detect, delineate and quantify the groundwater contents of subglacial sedimentary basins and, potentially, monitor groundwater exchange rates between subglacial till layers. We thus describe a new area of glaciological investigation and how it should progress in future.

  18. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  19. Nitrate reduction over a Pd-Cu/MWCNT catalyst: application to a polluted groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Olivia Salomé G P; Orfão, José J M; Gallegos-Suarez, Esteban; Castillejos, Eva; Rodríguez-Ramos, Inmaculada; Pereira, Manuel Fernando R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the presence of inorganic and organic matter during the catalytic reduction of nitrate in a local groundwater over a Pd-Cu catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes was investigated. It was observed that the catalyst performance was affected by the groundwater composition. The nitrate conversion attained was higher in the experiment using only deionized water as solvent than in the case of simulated or real groundwater. With exception of sulphate ions, all the other solutes evaluated (chloride and phosphate ions and natural organic matter) had a negative influence on the catalytic activity and selectivity to nitrogen.

  20. Removal of Organic Pollutants in Municipal Wastewater for Artificial Groundwater Recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to construct a demonstration artificial groundwater recharge system for wastewater reuse in China, three years of laboratory work has been conducted on advanced treatment technologies in combination with soil aquifer treatment of secondary effluent from sewage treatment plants. An effective and inexpensive process was selected, which uses DGB adsorption, PAC coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozone disinfection, and soil aquifer treatment. The effluent meets the recommended water quality criteria for groundwater recharge. Ozonation is effective for disinfection as well as for water quality improvement. Results showed that the total N in the SAT system remained constant thus the secondary effluent must have a low NH3-N concentration for groundwater recharge.

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Potential Based on Multicriteria Decision Making Model and Decision Tree Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajie Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater plays an important role in global climate change and satisfying human needs. In the study, RS (remote sensing and GIS (geographic information system were utilized to generate five thematic layers, lithology, lineament density, topology, slope, and river density considered as factors influencing the groundwater potential. Then, the multicriteria decision model (MCDM was integrated with C5.0 and CART, respectively, to generate the decision tree with 80 surveyed tube wells divided into four classes on the basis of the yield. To test the precision of the decision tree algorithms, the 10-fold cross validation and kappa coefficient were adopted and the average kappa coefficient for C5.0 and CART was 90.45% and 85.09%, respectively. After applying the decision tree to the whole study area, four classes of groundwater potential zones were demarcated. According to the classification result, the four grades of groundwater potential zones, “very good,” “good,” “moderate,” and “poor,” occupy 4.61%, 8.58%, 26.59%, and 60.23%, respectively, with C5.0 algorithm, while occupying the percentages of 4.68%, 10.09%, 26.10%, and 59.13%, respectively, with CART algorithm. Therefore, we can draw the conclusion that C5.0 algorithm is more appropriate than CART for the groundwater potential zone prediction.

  2. Groundwater nitrate pollution in Souss-Massa basin (south-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    impacted groundwater supply and quality. ... the junction of these two mountain chains and to the West by the .... Center of Energy, Sciences and Nuclear Techniques of Morocco. .... dismisses manuring, agricultural waste and soil's natural.

  3. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  4. Nitrate pollution in groundwater in some rural areas of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K; Rajesh, R; Murugan, R; Elango, L

    2012-01-01

    Intake of water with high concentration of nitrate is a major problem in many countries as it affects health of humans. The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the causes for higher nitrate concentration in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from 46 representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to January 2009. The nitrate concentration was analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration recorded during the sampling period was 879.65 mg/L and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. Taking into consideration 45 mg/L of nitrate as the maximum permissible limit for drinking water set by BIS, it was found that 13.78% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond the limit. Overall, wells present in agricultural fields had nitrate levels within permissible limits when compared to those groundwater samples from wells present in settlements which are used for domestic purpose. This indicates that the high nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area is due to poor sanitation facilities and leaching from indiscriminate dumping of animal waste.

  5. Groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment of porous aquifers to nitrate: Modifying the DRASTIC method using quantitative parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the DRASTIC method was modified to estimate vulnerability and pollution risk of porous aquifers to nitrate. The qualitative parameters of aquifer type, soil and impact of the vadose zone were replaced with the quantitative parameters of aquifer thickness, nitrogen losses from soil and hydraulic resistance. Nitrogen losses from soil were estimated based on climatic, soil and topographic data using indices produced by the GLEAMS model. Additionally, the class range of each parameter and the final index were modified using nitrate concentration correlation with four grading methods (natural breaks, equal interval, quantile and geometrical intervals). For this reason, seventy-seven (77) groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Land uses were added to estimate the pollution risk to nitrates. The two new methods, DRASTIC-PA and DRASTIC-PAN, were then applied in the porous aquifer of Anthemountas basin together with the initial versions of DRASTIC and the LOSN-PN index. The two modified methods displayed the highest correlations with nitrate concentrations. The two new methods provided higher discretisation of the vulnerability and pollution risk, whereas the high variance of the (ANOVA) F statistic confirmed the increase of the average concentrations of NO3-, increasing from low to high between the vulnerability and pollution risk classes. The importance of the parameters of hydraulic resistance of the vadose zone, aquifer thickness and land use was confirmed by single-parameter sensitivity analysis.

  6. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse...... herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon–Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one......-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-d-lactose, d,l-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, l-threonine and glycyl-l-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater...

  7. Assessing Groundwater Depletion and Dynamics Using GRACE and InSAR: Potential and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Galloway, Devin L; Longuevergne, Laurent; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing of the temporal variation of ground level and gravity has improved our understanding of groundwater dynamics and storage. Mass changes are measured by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, whereas ground deformation is measured by processing synthetic aperture radar satellites data using the InSAR (Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques. Both methods are complementary and offer different sensitivities to aquifer system processes. GRACE is sensitive to mass changes over large spatial scales (more than 100,000 km(2) ). As such, it fails in providing groundwater storage change estimates at local or regional scales relevant to most aquifer systems, and at which most groundwater management schemes are applied. However, InSAR measures ground displacement due to aquifer response to fluid-pressure changes. InSAR applications to groundwater depletion assessments are limited to aquifer systems susceptible to measurable deformation. Furthermore, the inversion of InSAR-derived displacement maps into volume of depleted groundwater storage (both reversible and largely irreversible) is confounded by vertical and horizontal variability of sediment compressibility. During the last decade, both techniques have shown increasing interest in the scientific community to complement available in situ observations where they are insufficient. In this review, we present the theoretical and conceptual bases of each method, and present idealized scenarios to highlight the potential benefits and challenges of combining these techniques to remotely assess groundwater storage changes and other aspects of the dynamics of aquifer systems.

  8. Assessing groundwater depletion and dynamics using GRACE and InSAR: Potential and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Galloway, Devin L.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing of the temporal variation of ground level and gravity has improved our understanding of groundwater dynamics and storage. Mass changes are measured by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites, whereas ground deformation is measured by processing synthetic aperture radar satellites data using the InSAR (Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques. Both methods are complementary and offer different sensitivities to aquifer system processes. GRACE is sensitive to mass changes over large spatial scales (more than 100,000 km2). As such, it fails in providing groundwater storage change estimates at local or regional scales relevant to most aquifer systems, and at which most groundwater management schemes are applied. However, InSAR measures ground displacement due to aquifer response to fluid-pressure changes. InSAR applications to groundwater depletion assessments are limited to aquifer systems susceptible to measurable deformation. Furthermore, the inversion of InSAR-derived displacement maps into volume of depleted groundwater storage (both reversible and largely irreversible) is confounded by vertical and horizontal variability of sediment compressibility. During the last decade, both techniques have shown increasing interest in the scientific community to complement available in situ observations where they are insufficient. In this review, we present the theoretical and conceptual bases of each method, and present idealized scenarios to highlight the potential benefits and challenges of combining these techniques to remotely assess groundwater storage changes and other aspects of the dynamics of aquifer systems.

  9. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  10. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  11. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  12. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  13. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  14. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro......The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms...

  15. Assessment of qualitative potential of groundwater using AHP and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Baniasadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the groundwater quality status in Babak city (ShahreBabak plain, the quality parameters were studied simultaneously in all extent of the aquifers. According to the simultaneous study of all factors affecting water quality, The Geographic Information System (GIS can be used to analyze spatial data and raster maps can be made for changes in quality parameters and composition of these layers. In this study, after making variation maps for any qualitative parameter and classification of each map in GIS, by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, in addition to determining the weight of each parameter, the weight of each class also was determined. The results show that according to Schoeller diagram drinking water is classified into four groups: good (1. 93 per cent, suitable (6.7 per cent, Unsuitable (71. 5 percent and bad (19. 87 percent and according to Wilcox diagram, agriculture water is classified into three groups: good (12. 3 percent, moderate (78. 9 percent and Unsuitable (8.8 percent.

  16. Potential uses of pumped urban groundwater: a case study in Sant Adrià del Besòs (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao

    2017-09-01

    Urban groundwater has often been over-exploited for industrial uses. Now, this usage tends to be reduced or the resource abandoned due to pollution and/or changes in land use. The use and the subsequent disuse of groundwater has resulted in rising water tables that damage underground structures (e.g., building basements and underground car parks and tunnels), leading to the need for additional pumping in urban areas. In the case of the underground parking lot of Sant Adrià del Besòs (Barcelona, NE Spain), large amounts of urban groundwater are pumped to avoid seepage problems. Can this pumped groundwater be used for other purposes (e.g., drinking water and urban irrigation) instead of wasting this valuable resource? To answer this question, it was necessary to quantify the groundwater recharge and to assess the evolution of groundwater quality. The limiting factor at this study site is the groundwater quality because ammonium and some metals (iron and manganese) are present at high concentrations. Hence, further treatment would be needed to meet drinking water requirements. The pumped groundwater could also be used for supplementing river flow for ecological benefit and/or for mitigating seawater intrusion problems. Currently, only a small amount of this urban groundwater is used for cleaning public areas and watering public gardens. This situation highlighted the urgent need to manage this resource in a responsible and more efficient manner, especially in moments of high water demand such as drought periods.

  17. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water requirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Hambantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, lithology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49% of Ambalantota area.

  18. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.P. Senanayake; D.M.D.O.K. Dissanayake; B.B. Mayadunna; W.L. Weerasekera

    2016-01-01

    The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water re-quirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Ham-bantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, li-thology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49%of Ambalantota area.

  19. Deterministic modelling of the cumulative impacts of underground structures on urban groundwater flow and the definition of a potential state of urban groundwater flow: example of Lyon, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Cuvillier, Loann; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Underground structures have been shown to have a great influence on subsoil resources in urban aquifers. A methodology to assess the actual and the potential state of the groundwater flow in an urban area is proposed. The study develops a three-dimensional modeling approach to understand the cumulative impacts of underground infrastructures on urban groundwater flow, using a case in the city of Lyon (France). All known underground structures were integrated in the numerical model. Several simulations were run: the actual state of groundwater flow, the potential state of groundwater flow (without underground structures), an intermediate state (without impervious structures), and a transient simulation of the actual state of groundwater flow. The results show that underground structures fragment groundwater flow systems leading to a modification of the aquifer regime. For the case studied, the flow systems are shown to be stable over time with a transient simulation. Structures with drainage systems are shown to have a major impact on flow systems. The barrier effect of impervious structures was negligible because of the small hydraulic gradient of the area. The study demonstrates that the definition of a potential urban groundwater flow and the depiction of urban flow systems, which involves understanding the impact of underground structures, are important issues with respect to urban underground planning.

  20. Plant a Tree, Save a Lake: Urban trees reduce groundwater nutrient pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzgorski, D. A.; Hobbie, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Background/Questions/Methods Urban trees are known to enhance human well-being in many ways, from improving air quality to reducing crime rates, but less is understood about how urban trees can affect the water quality of local lakes and streams. Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. The expansion and turnover of urban forests present a large-scale opportunity for homeowners, city foresters, and other land managers to select species that reduce nutrient pollution and improve the water quality and ecosystem service provisioning of local waterways. In this study, we examine how common urban tree species affect N and P leaching to groundwater. We sampled thirty-three trees of fourteen species, and seven open grassy areas, across three city parks in Saint Paul, Minnesota. We installed lysimeters at 60cm depth to collect soil water and measure nutrient concentrations approximately biweekly. We collected soil samples from 0-10cm, 10-20cm, 20-40cm, and 40-60cm as well as leaf, root, and leaf-litter samples, for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus analyses. Results/Conclusions A prolonged drought in 2011-2012 prevented lysimeter sampling during autumn litterfall and snowmelt to date. Nevertheless, data from July-August 2011, April-June 2012, and May-June 2013 showed significant differences in total N and P concentrations in lysimeter water among grass, conifer, and hardwood sites, with trees reducing concentrations relative to turfgrass and hardwoods reducing them relative to conifers (TN mg/L×se: grass=8.3×1.3, conifer = 7.3×1.0, hardwood=5.0×0.7; p=0.0002; TP μg/L×se: grass=153.2×21.4, conifer=82.5×14.0, hardwood=46.0×4.0; p=0.0001). Total P concentrations in lysimeter water were significantly higher than expected for most soils, with a grand mean of 78μg/L, higher than the lake-eutrophication standard of

  1. GROUNDWATER OF OREL REGION AND FORECAST OF THEIR POLLUTION IN AREAS OF LIVESTOCK COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seleznev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In areas with intense economic activity showed a significant variety of forms of man-made ecological imbalance in the geological environment, as well as a manifestation of the natural geological environment of negative processes caused by groundwater. They give rise to environmental changes, both global and local scales. The degree of risk is determined to a large extent the processes taking place en masse in the geological environment, as a rule, have an inertial character and hidden from direct observation. For the first time for groundwater of Orel region is set by a previously unknown contaminant natural character due to the advancement of strontium in the groundwater complex, and is composed geofiltration model that allows to carry out prediction of the front of strontium in 27 years. Developed a model of the radial pull of nitrate intake group to establish the pathways of contaminant in water wells.

  2. Monitoring of Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution in Mnasra, Morocco Soil and Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, Bouchra; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Dousset, Sylvie; El Hajjaji, Souad

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the levels of nitrates and pesticides occurring in groundwater and agricultural soil in the Mnasra, Morocco area, a zone with intensive agricultural activity. A set of 108 water samples and 68 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results can be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analysed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples. This situation could be explained by the probable partial or total transformation of the molecules in soil.

  3. Assessment of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater from Amik Plain, southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Necat; Karanlık, Sema; Ödemiş, Berkant

    2014-09-01

    Amik Plain is one of the most important agricultural areas of Turkey. Because the groundwater resources have been used not only for irrigation but also for drinking purpose, groundwater resources play a vital role in this area. However, there exist no or a very limited number of studies on groundwater quality and its physicochemical and heavy metal composition for Amik Plain. This study aimed to assess groundwater of Amik Plain in terms of human health and suitability for irrigation based on physicochemical variables, heavy metals, and their spatial distribution. A total of 92 groundwater samples were collected from wells and were analyzed for temperature (T), salt content (SC), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and phosphorus (P) and such heavy metals as cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The temperature, SC, DO, NH4(+), and NO3(-) parameters were measured in situ immediately with YSI Professional plus instrument (Pro Plus). Water depth was taken from owner of the wells. Heavy metal analyses were carried out in triplicate using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The ICP-AES was calibrated for all the metals by running different concentrations of standard solutions. Descriptive statistical analyses were calculated to characterize distribution of physicochemical properties and heavy metal contents of groundwater. Correlation analysis was used to assess the possible relationships among heavy metals and physicochemical properties of the groundwater. Spatial variability in groundwater parameters were determined by geostatistical methods. Result shows that the highest and lowest coefficient of variation occurred for NO3(-) and T, respectively. Mean water table depth was 92.1 m, and only 12 of all the samples exceeded the desirable limit of 50 mg/L for NO3(-) content. The metal concentrations showed a dominance in the order of Fe >

  4. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Jensen, S. D.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solidphase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2...

  5. Deciphering groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geospatial technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran A; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas A

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. This paper mainly deals with the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain. Digitized vector maps pertaining to chosen parameters, viz. geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, lineament, relief, and drainage, were converted to raster data using 23 m×23 m grid cell size. Moreover, curvature of the study area was also considered while manipulating the spatial data. The raster maps of these parameters were assigned to their respective theme weight and class weights. The individual theme weight was multiplied by its respective class weight and then all the raster thematic layers were aggregated in a linear combination equation in Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module. Moreover, the weighted layers were statistically modeled to get the areal extent of groundwater prospects with respect to each thematic layer. The final result depicts the favorable prospective zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources especially in hard rock terrains.

  6. Groundwater exploration by self-potential method; Shizen den`iho ni yoru chikasui tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onaru, I.; Irie, S.; Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes results measured from the field experiments and data analysis of the groundwater exploration by self-potential method. The field survey was conducted in the vicinity of spring water source in the suburbs of Fukuoka City. For the field experiments, potential differences from the standard potential electrode set at the distance about 200 m were measured at multi-points, simultaneously. For the laboratory experiments, assuming that the groundwater flows in a permeable layer, streaming potential change was observed against the changes of flow rate and electrical conductivity. Thus, the generation of streaming potential was investigated. For the experiment using specimens obtained at the spring water source, the potential changed to negative and was stabilized in around -80 mV after 15 minutes. Numerical simulation was conducted by means of the three-dimensional finite difference method using parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments. From these results, the groundwater flow image could be obtained. It was also confirmed that the self-potential observed in the spring water source area was caused by the streaming potential. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Integrated hydrochemical and geophysical studies for assessment of groundwater pollution in basaltic settings in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; SuriNaidu, L; Vaijnath, V U; Kachawe, Bhusan; Gurunadha Rao, V V S; Labhasetwar, P K

    2012-05-01

    The Pithampur Industrial sectors I, II, and III, located approximately, 45 km from Indore in Central India have emerged as one of the largest industrial clusters in the region. Various types of industries ranging from automobiles to chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been set up in the region since 1990. Most of the industries have effluent treatment plants (ETP) for treating wastewater before its disposal on land and/or in water body. The present study is an attempt to assess the groundwater quality in the watersheds surrounding these industrial sectors to develop the baseline groundwater quality in order to enable the policy makers to facilitate decisions on the development of industries in this region. The industries are located in two sub-watersheds, namely, Gambhir river sub-watershed and Chambal river sub-watershed. Geologically, the study area is located in the Deccan traps of Cretaceous to Paleocene age. The different basaltic flow units underlie clayey soils varying in thickness from 2-3 m. The aquifer is mostly of unconfined nature. Samples have been collected from a network of observation wells set up in the watersheds. The water quality analysis of the groundwater samples has been carried out six times during three hydrological cycles of 2004, 2005, and 2006. The results indicate that a few observation wells in the vicinity of the industrial clusters have very high TDS concentration and exceed the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) guideline for TDS concentration. The contamination of groundwater has been more severe in the Gambhir watershed as compared to the Chambal watershed. The presence of the impermeable clay layers has resulted in a slow migration of contaminants from the sources. The findings reveal that there is no significant groundwater contamination in the Pithampur industrial sectors except in the vicinity of the industrial clusters, which indicates that there is good environmental space available for the expansion of industrial units in

  8. Potential Mineralization of Various Organic Pollutants During Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. HOUOT; C. VERGE-LEVIEL; M. POITRENAUD

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the potential mineralization of various organic pollutants that are likely found in compostable materials during compoating,and to evaluate the participation of the microflora of the thermophilic and maturation composting phases in pollutant mineralization. Four composts were used: a biowaste compost (BloW),a municipal solid waste compost (MSW),a green waste compost (GW) and a co-compost of green waste and sludge (GW+S).In each composting plant,two samples were withdrawn:one in the thermophilic phase (fresh compost) and one in the maturation phase (mature compost) to have the microflora of thermophilic and maturation phases active,respectively.The mineralization of 5 organic pollutants,3 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e.,phenanthrene,fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene),1 herbicide (dicamba) and 1 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB,congener 52),was measured in a laboratory setting during incubations at 60 ℃ in fresh composts and at 28 ℃ in mature composts.All molecules were 14C-labeled,which allowed the mineralization of the molecules to be measured by trapping of produced 14CO2 in NaOH.Their volatilization was also measured by trapping molecules on glass wool impregnated with paraffin oil.Mineralization of the organic molecules was only observed when the maturation microflora was present in the mature composts or when it was inoculated into the fresh compost.Phenanthrene mineralization of up to 60% in the fresh GW+S compost was the only exception.Mineralization of PAH decreased when the complexity of the PAH molecules increased.Mineralization of phenanthrene and fluoranthene reached 50%-70% in all mature composts.Benzo(a)pyrene was mineralized (30%) only in the MSW mature compost.Dicamba was moderately mineralized (30%-40%).Finally,no PCB mineralization was detected,but 20% of the PCB had volatilized after 12 d at 60 ℃.No clear difference was observed in the degrading capacity of the different

  9. The effect of pH on the complexation of Cd, Ni and Zn by dissolved organic carbon from leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J. B.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Complexation of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in leachate-polluted groundwater was measured using a resin equilibrium method. Metal-DOC complexation was measured at di€erent DOC concentrations over a range of pH values . The results were compared...

  10. Carbon tetrachloride pollution pathway of groundwater a typical contaminated site in the east of the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P.; Ma, Z. M.; Yu, W. W.; Wen, M.

    2017-08-01

    Determine 40 sampling points basing on a comprehensive monitoring. Determine the spatial distribution characteristics of the carbon tetrachloride by using the software of ArcGIS. Determine the location of the pollution sources by using MT3DMS program and Hook-Jeeves arithmetic to simulate, and connecting with the actual situation of carbon tetrachloride to analyze pollution causes. The results show that the source of carbon tetrachloride is located in the northeast near a chemical plant in the study area, whose pollutant concentration is diminishing from northeast to southwest. The main reasons to the pollution are that factories discharge waste water at random, leakage of open channel and culvert, sewage irrigation and the vulnerability of geological conditions in this area.

  11. Impact of Trade Liberalization and Exchange Rate Policy on Industrial Water Pollution and Groundwater Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Environmentalists and economists alike have assumed that greater economic openness will lead to increased industrial pollution in developing countries. This paper argues that trade liberalization does not necessarily result in more pollution intensive industrial development using the case of two economic centers in the Philippines. The study links changes in trade and exchange rate policy to the environment by identifying the environmental damage likely to be aggravated by the policy change t...

  12. The potential for groundwater contamination along basin margins in the arid west: Alluvial fans and lake features

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Calvin G.; Oaks, Robert Q.; Peter T. Kolesar; Fisk, Edward P.

    1981-01-01

    Many towns of the arid west were built upon alluvial fans and upon sites underlain by Pleistocene lake deposits. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of these activities of man upon groundwater quality within these geological features. Emphasis was placed on shallow groundwater quality after it was determined that deep groundwater is rarely contaminated at such sites. A reconnaissance of...

  13. Environmental pollutions impacts on the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of suburban and rural groundwater supplies in Marrakesh area (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamrani Alaoui, H; Oufdou, K; Mezrioui, N

    2008-10-01

    This study scrutinized bacteriological and chemical quality of groundwater supplies of Marrakesh (Morocco) within a year. It assessed the influence of some chemical factors on fecal and opportunistic pathogenic bacterial communities. The annual average densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were respectively: 1891 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL, 1246 CFU/100 mL and 206 CFU/100 mL. The total occurrence of these bacteria during the period of study was 94%. Detectable non-O1 Vibrio cholerae was present in 81% of samples and the mean abundances ranged from 0 to 11100 MPN/100 mL. Significant correlations between fecal coliforms and streptococci and between fecal coliforms and non-O1 V. cholerae (p pollution to acceptable levels.

  14. The Effect of Oil Pollution on LathyrusSativus and Lens Culinaris with Potential of Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R . Noori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution is a worldwide threat to the environment. The remediation of oil contaminated soils, sediments and water is a major challenge for environment. Phytoremediation is an emerging green technology that uses plants to remediate soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater in environment which contaminated with toxic metal, organics, and radionuclide. In this study, some species of Fabaceae family were chosen and planted in different concentrations of oil pollution in soil, to identify the tolerant species. It was done in period of 40 days in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The results showed the highest level of light crude contamination, which the plant is able to grow,is 8% with 3.3 cm for lathyrussativus species and 6% with 7cm for Lens culinaris. So among the studied species Lathyrussativus and Lens culinaris were tolerant species that could grow in high concentrations of oil pollution. These species can be suggested to phytoremediation of oil-polluted soils.

  15. Exploratory assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Abi, southeastern Nigeria, using geophysical and geological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E; Ebong, Ebong D; Emeka, Chimezie N

    2015-04-01

    The geophysical-based integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) and the groundwater hydraulic confinement-overlying strata-depth to water table (GOD) techniques were used to assess vulnerability levels of aquifers and the extent of aquifer protection in Abi, Nigeria. The IEC indices was generated from constrained one dimensional (1D) inversion of vertical electrical sounding (VES) and two dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data, acquired randomly in the area. The GOD indices were sourced from existing geologic data within the area. Results showed that IEC values vary from 2.0 S in the strongly protected areas. The GOD indices vary from groundwater resources in the area need to be properly managed for sustainability and such management practices have been suggested.

  16. The impact of point source pollution on shallow groundwater used for human consumption in a threshold country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutiérrez; Gil, José F; Gamboni, Oscar; Vicente, María Soledad; Wuertz, Stefan; Gonzo, Elio; Rajal, Verónica B

    2012-09-01

    Many developing and threshold countries rely on shallow groundwater wells for their water supply whilst pit latrines are used for sanitation. We employed a unified strategy involving satellite images and environmental monitoring of 16 physico-chemical and microbiological water quality parameters to identify significant land uses that can lead to unacceptable deterioration of source water, in a region with a subtropical climate and seasonally restricted torrential rainfall in Northern Argentina. Agricultural and non-agricultural sources of nitrate were illustrated in satellite images and used to assess the organic load discharged. The estimated human organic load per year was 28.5 BOD(5) tons and the N load was 7.5 tons, while for poultry farms it was 9940-BOD(5) tons and 1037-N tons, respectively. Concentrations of nitrates and organics were significantly different between seasons in well water (p values of 0.026 and 0.039, respectively). The onset of the wet season had an extraordinarily negative impact on well water due in part to the high permeability of soils made up of fine gravels and coarse sand. Discriminant analysis showed that land uses had a pronounced seasonal influence on nitrates and introduced additional microbial contamination, causing nitrification and denitrification in shallow groundwater. P-well was highly impacted by a poultry farm while S-well was affected by anthropogenic pollution and background load, as revealed by Principal Component Analysis. The application of microbial source tracking techniques is recommended to corroborate local sources of human versus animal origin.

  17. Polar Organic Pollutants in Groundwater: Experimental Approaches to Biodegradation During Subsoil Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Knepper

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of polar organic compounds was investigated for their biodegradation on a laboratory scale fixed-bed bioreactor and the decline of the parent compounds besides the formation of metabolites was monitored. Of particular interest was the investigation into the degradation of pesticides, especially isoproturon (IPU, surfactants and industrial by-products of chemical synthesis. The results from the laboratory degradation experiments are compared to findings in groundwater.

  18. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  19. Fingerprinting groundwater pollution in catchments with contrasting contaminant sources using microorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne E; Lapworth, Dan J; Thomas, Jenny; Edwards, Laura

    2014-01-15

    Evaluating the occurrence of microorganics helps to understand sources and processes which may be controlling the transport and fate of emerging contaminants (ECs). A study was carried out at the contrasting instrumented environmental observatory sites at Oxford, on the peri-urban floodplain gravel aquifer of the River Thames and Boxford, in the rural valley of the River Lambourn on the chalk aquifer, in Southern England to explore the use of ECs to fingerprint contaminant sources and flow pathways in groundwater. At Oxford compounds were typical of a local waste tip plume (not only plasticisers and solvents but also barbiturates and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)) and of the urban area (plasticisers and mood-enhancing drugs such as carbamazepine). At Boxford the results were different with widespread occurrence of agricultural pesticides, their metabolites and the solvent trichloroethene, as well as plasticisers, caffeine, butylated food additives, DEET, parabens and trace polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of compounds used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products of different provenance in the environment could be distinguished, i) historical household and medical waste, ii) long-term household usage persistent in groundwater and iii) current usage and contamination from surface water. Co-contaminant and degradation products can also indicate the likely source of contaminants. A cocktail of contaminants can be used as tracers to provide information on catchment pathways and groundwater/surface water interactions. A prominent feature in this study is the attenuation of many EC compounds in the hyporheic zone. © 2013.

  20. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability and sensitivity to pollution in Berrechid plain, using drastic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aboulouafa*1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Groundwater protection and management is vital for human evolution, socio-economic development and ecological diversity, because it is one of the most valuable natural resources. Agricultural and industrial activities, more and more intensive and significant population growth, have contributed to the degradation of Berrechid Groundwater quality. The present study aimed to assess the vulnerability of Berrechid aquifer using the DRASTIC models. The application of the methodology developed has needed the establishment of a Geographical Information System synthesizing a considerable mass of data (geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, etc., constitutes a real tool to aid in the decision for the managers of water resources in the region of Chaouia. The results show that three classes of vulnerability are observed in the study area: the higher drastic indices appear at the areas with low groundwater table depth and the areas which are not protected by the clays, and the areas less vulnerable are located in areas where the water is deeper and the clays recovery is important.

  1. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M.; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p

  2. Geochemical tracing of As pollution in the Orbiel Valley (southern France): 87Sr/86Sr as a tracer of the anthropogenic arsenic in surface and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick; Boutin, René

    2014-05-01

    results from redox potential (Eh) measurements in both surface and groundwater. Hence, 87Sr/86Sr appears as an excellent tracer of the origin of pollution associated with CaO treatment widely used in many water treatment processes.

  3. Seasonal variation of redox species and redox potentials in shallow groundwater: A comparison of measured and calculated redox potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, A.; Riyazuddin, P.

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe seasonal variation of redox potential (Eh) and redox species such as As(V)/As(III), Cr(VI)/Cr(III), Fe(III)/Fe(II), NO3-/NO2-, and Se(VI)/Se(IV) were studied in a shallow groundwater for a period of three years (May, 2004-January, 2007). The study area was Chrompet area of Chennai city, India. Groundwater samples from 65 wells were monitored for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and major ions during pre-(May) and post-monsoon (January) seasons. The objective of the study was to gain insight into the temporal variation of the redox species due to groundwater recharge and to identify the redox reactions controlling the measured Eh of the groundwater. The study revealed that the shallow groundwater was "oxic" with DO ranging between 0.25 and 5.00 mg L-1, and between 0.38 and 5.05 mg L-1 during pre-(May, 2004) and post-monsoon (January, 2005) seasons, respectively. The measured Eh (with respect to standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) ranged between 65 and 322 mV, and between 110 and 330 mV during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. During post-monsoon seasons, DO and Eh increased in most of the wells due to groundwater recharge. The calculated Eh using the redox couples As(V)/As(III), NO3-/NO2-, O2/H2O and Se(VI)/Se(IV) neither agreed among themselves nor with the measured Eh during all the seasons. It shows that in the shallow groundwater, the various redox couples are in disequilibrium among themselves and with the Pt electrode. However, 41% (n = 122) of the Eh values calculated from Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple agreed with the measured Eh within ±30 mV, the uncertainty of Pt-electrode measurement. The post-monsoon seasons showed higher values of As(V)/As(III) and Se(VI)/Se(IV) compared to the pre-monsoon seasons, whereas Fe(III)/Fe(II) behaved in the opposite manner. This pattern of variation is consistent with the increased oxidizing nature, as shown by the higher DO and Eh values observed during post-monsoon seasons. The results

  4. Evaluation of soil temperature effect on herbicide leaching potential into groundwater in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Cerdeira, Antonio Luiz; da Silva, Enio Fraga; Martins, João Souza; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz da Costa

    2003-12-01

    The effect of annual variations in the daily average soil temperatures, at different depths, on the calculation of pesticide leaching potential indices is presented. This index can be applied to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by a pesticide. It considers the effects of water table depth, daily recharge net rate, pesticide sorption coefficient, and degradation rate of the pesticide in the soil. The leaching potential index is frequently used as a screening indicator in pesticide groundwater contamination studies, and the temperature effect involved in its calculation is usually not considered. It is well known that soil temperature affects pesticide degradation rates, air-water partition coefficient, and water-soil partition coefficient. These three parameters are components of the attenuation and retardation factors, as well as the leaching potential index, and contribute to determine pesticide behavior in the environment. The Arrhenius, van't Hoff, and Clausius-Clapeyron equations were used in this work to estimate the soil temperature effect on pesticide degradation rate, air-water partition coefficient, and water-soil partition coefficient, respectively. The relationship between leaching potential index and soil temperature at different depths is presented and aids in the understanding of how potential pesticide groundwater contamination varies on different climatic conditions. Numerical results will be presented for 31 herbicides known to be used in corn and soybean crops grown on the municipality of São Gabriel do Oeste, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants & obesity: potential mechanisms for breast cancer promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Denise K.; Ginsburg, Erika; Bang, John J.; Fleming, Jodie M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary ingestion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) correlates with developing obesity. Obesity alters metabolism, induces an inflammatory tissue microenvironment, and is also linked with diabetes and breast cancer risk/promotion of the disease. However, no direct evidence exists exploring the correlation among all three of these factors (POPs, obesity, and breast cancer). Herein, we present current correlative studies suggesting a causal link between POPs exposure through diet and their bioaccumulation in adipose that promotes the development of obesity and ultimately influences breast cancer development and/or progression. Furthermore, as endocrine disruptors, POPs can potentially interfere with hormonally responsive tissue functions causing dysregulation in hormone signaling and cell function. This review highlights the critical need for advanced in vitro and in vivo model systems to understand the complex relationship between obesity, POPs, breast cancer, and, more importantly, to delineate their multifaceted molecular, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies directly testing the observed correlations as well as detailing their molecular mechanisms are vital to cancer research and, ultimately, public health. PMID:25624167

  6. Analysis on Groundwater Polluted by Oil Sewage in Tiebutie Pool%贴不贴泡石油污水对地下水的污染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯雯

    2012-01-01

    The petroleum pollution has become a serious environmental problem.Tiebutie pool,which takes wastewater discharge from a petrochemical plant in Daqing,plays the role of wide oxidation pond.In order to investigate the groundwater pollution around the pool,groundwater samples were collected from around the pool.The results show that the groundwater near the pool was slightly polluted by petroleum.The petroleum pollutants are restricted in the lake,which is basically restricted in the diving level in the section plane distribution,reaching the top of weak permeable bed partially.The petroleum pollutant moves slowly,especially in horizontal move,which prevents the groundwater from serious pollution in nearly 30 years.%贴不贴泡是大庆某石油化工总厂生产废水排放场地,其作用相当于一个水面较大的氧化塘。本文对大庆市贴不贴泡周边地下水采集样品,以研究其对周边地下水的污染状况。结果显示:纳污泡附近地下水受到不同程度石油类污染,石油类污染物还仅限于湖泡区内,在剖面上的分布基本限于潜水层内,局部达到弱透水层顶部附近。石油类污染物在其中的迁移速度很低,特别是水平迁移速度更小,才使污染近30年的场地地下水受到的石油烃污染不是十分严重。

  7. Paleosols in central Illinois as potential sources of ammonium in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, J.J.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Glacially buried paleosols of pre-Holocene age were evaluated as potential sources for anomalously large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in East Central Illinois. Ammonium has been detected at concentrations that are problematic to water treatment facilities (greater than 2.0 mg/L) in this region. Paleosols characterized for this study were of Quaternary age, specifically Robein Silt samples. Paleosol samples displayed significant capacity to both store and release ammonium through experiments measuring processes of sorption, ion exchange, and weathering. Bacteria and fungi within paleosols may significantly facilitate the leaching of ammonium into groundwater by the processes of assimilation and mineralization. Bacterial genetic material (DNA) was successfully extracted from the Robein Silt, purified, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to produce 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community analyses. The Robein Silt was found to have established diverse and viable bacterial communities. 16S rRNA TRFLP comparisons to well-known bacterial species yielded possible matches with facultative chemolithotrophs, cellulose consumers, nitrate reducers, and actinomycetes. It was concluded that the Robein Silt is both a source and reservoir for groundwater ammonium. Therefore, the occurrence of relatively large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater monitoring data may not necessarily be an indication of only anthropogenic contamination. The results of this study, however, need to be placed in a hydrological context to better understand whether paleosols can be a significant source of ammonium to drinking water supplies. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  8. Potential approaches to the management of third-party impacts from groundwater transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurray, James H.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater extraction can have varied and diffuse effects. Negative external effects may include costs imposed on other groundwater users and on surrounding ecosystems. Environmental damages are commonly not reflected in market transactions. Groundwater transfers have the potential to cause spatial redistribution, concentration, and qualitative transformation of the impacts from pumping. An economically and environmentally sound groundwater transfer scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, accounting for all third-party impacts, including those of a non-monetary nature as well as delayed effects. This paper proposes a menu of possible management strategies that would help preclude unacceptable impacts by restricting transfers with certain attributes, ideally ensuring that permitted transfers are at least welfare-neutral. Management tools would require that transfers limit or reduce environmental impacts, and provide for the compensation of financial impacts. Three management tools are described. While these tools can limit impacts from a given level of extraction, they cannot substitute for sustainable overall withdrawal limits. Careful implementation of transfer limits and exchange rates, and the strategic use of management area boundaries, may enable a transfer system to restrict negative externalities mainly to monetary costs. Provision for compensation of these costs could be built into the system.

  9. The use of δ15N and δ18O tracers with an understanding of groundwater flow dynamics for evaluating the origins and attenuation mechanisms of nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Nakata, Haruhiko; Orishikida, Takanori; Lin, In-Tian; Shimada, Jun

    2013-05-15

    During early 2000, a new analytical procedure for nitrate isotopic measurement, termed the "denitrifier method", was established. With the development of the nitrate isotope tracer method, much research has been reported detailing sources of groundwater nitrate and denitrification mechanisms. However, a shortcoming of these tracer studies has been indicated owing to some overlapping of isotope compositions among different source materials and denitrification trends. In order to reduce these uncertainties, we examined nitrate isotope ratios within a frame of "regional groundwater flow dynamics" to eliminate unnecessary uncertainties in elucidating nitrate sources and behaviors. A total of 361 samples were collected from the Kumamoto area: the circulated groundwater system with a scale of 10(3) km(2) in southern Japan. Subsequently, the nitrate pollution was examined within the above-mentioned framework. As a result, a reasonable identification of the sources and attenuation behaviors (both denitrification and dilution) of groundwater nitrate pollution was obtained over the study area. This study demonstrates that the use of nitrate isotope tracers efficiently improves with a comprehensive understanding of groundwater flow dynamics. The approach emphasized in this study is important and should be applicable in other areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The patterns of bacterial community and relationships between sulfate-reducing bacteria and hydrochemistry in sulfate-polluted groundwater of Baogang rare earth tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xinli; Baker, Paul; Li, Hu; Su, Jianqiang; Yu, Changping; Cai, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Microorganisms are the primary agents responsible for the modification, degradation, and/or detoxification of pollutants, and thus, they play a major role in their natural attenuation; yet, little is known about the structure and diversity of the subsurface community and relationships between microbial community and groundwater hydrochemistry. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) allowed a comparative microbial community analysis of sulfate-contaminated groundwater samples from nine different wells in the region of Baogang rare earth tailings. Using real-time PCR, the abundance of total bacteria and the sulfate-reducing genes of aprA and dsrB were quantified. Statistical analyses showed a clear distinction of the microbial community diversity between the contaminated and uncontaminated samples, with Proteobacteria being the most dominant members of the microbial community. SO4(2-) concentrations exerted a significant effect on the variation of the bacterial community (P groundwater. The uncontaminated groundwater with low sulfate concentration harbored higher abundance of SRB than that in the polluted samples, while no significant correlation was observed between sulfate concentrations and SRB abundances in this study, suggesting other environmental factors possibly contributed to different distributions and abundances of SRB in the different sites. The results should facilitate expanded studies to identify robust microbe-environment interactions and provide a strong foundation for qualitative exploration of the bacterial diversity in rare earth tailings groundwater that might ultimately be incorporated into the remediation of environmental contamination.

  11. Geothermal energy plants. Technologies and risk of soil and groundwater pollution; Jordvarmeanlaeg. Teknologier og risiko for jord- og grundvandsforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villumsen, B. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    Ground source heat systems utilise the natural heat in the ground to heat houses and domestic hot water. The technology is energy-saving and can therefore contribute to the targets of reducing Denmark's CO{sub 2} emissions. All else being equal, a ground source heat system containing chemicals poses a potential contamination risk to soil and groundwater. Therefore a permit is required when installing a ground source heat system, and the general regulations for implementing the system etc. combined with the municipality's administrative procedures for the area must ensure sufficient protection of the groundwater. This project only deals with the heat exchanging system, which is the part of the ground source heat system which involves risk of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of the project is to procure an overall updated knowledge base about the different types of ground source heat systems and the contamination risk associated with them. The project also reviews how disadvantages can be managed or minimized. (au)

  12. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  13. Identification and description of potential ground-water quality monitoring wells in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, P.R.; Thagard, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey of existing wells in Florida that meet the following criteria are presented: (1) well location is known , (2) principal aquifer is known, (3) depth of well is known, (4) well casing depth is known, (5) well water had been analyzed between 1970 and 1982, and (6) well data are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) computer files. Information for more than 20,000 wells in Florida were stored in the USGS Master Water Data Index of the National Water Data Exchange and in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System 's Groundwater Site Inventory computerized files in 1982. Wells in these computer files that had been sampled for groundwater quality before November 1982 in Florida number 13,739; 1,846 of these wells met the above criteria and are the potential (or candidate) groundwater quality monitoring wells included in this report. The distribution by principal aquifer of the 1,846 wells identified as potential groundwater quality monitoring wells is as follows: 1,022 tap the Floridan aquifer system, 114 tap the intermediate aquifers, 232 tap the surficial aquifers, 246 tap the Biscayne aquifer, and 232 tap the sand-and-gravel aquifer. These wells are located in 59 of Florida 's 67 counties. This report presents the station descriptions, which include location , site characteristics, period of record, and the type and frequency of chemical water quality data collected for each well. The 1,846 well locations are plotted on 14 USGS 1:250,000 scale, 1 degree by 2 degree, quadrangle maps. This relatively large number of potential (or candidate) monitoring wells, geographically and geohydrologically dispersed, provides a basis for a future groundwater quality monitoring network and computerized data base for Florida. There is a large variety of water quality determinations available from these wells, both areally and temporally. Future sampling of these wells would permit analyses of time and areal trends for selected water quality

  14. Potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on water levels and natural groundwater discharge in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-04-14

    Several U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) agencies are concerned about the cumulative effects of groundwater development on groundwater resources managed by, and other groundwater resources of interest to, these agencies in Snake Valley and surrounding areas. The new water uses that potentially concern the DOI agencies include 12 water-right applications filed in 2005, totaling approximately 8,864 acre-feet per year. To date, only one of these applications has been approved and partially developed. In addition, the DOI agencies are interested in the potential effects of three new water-right applications (UT 18-756, UT 18-758, and UT 18-759) and one water-right change application (UT a40687), which were the subject of a water-right hearing on April 19, 2016.This report presents a hydrogeologic analysis of areas in and around Snake Valley to assess potential effects of existing and future groundwater development on groundwater resources, specifically groundwater discharge sites, of interest to the DOI agencies. A previously developed steady-state numerical groundwater-flow model was modified to transient conditions with respect to well withdrawals and used to quantify drawdown and capture (withdrawals that result in depletion) of natural discharge from existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals. The original steady-state model simulates and was calibrated to 2009 conditions. To investigate the potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on the groundwater resources of interest to the DOI agencies, 10 withdrawal scenarios were simulated. All scenarios were simulated for periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, 55, and 105 years from the start of 2010; additionally, all scenarios were simulated to a new steady state to determine the ultimate long-term effects of the withdrawals. Capture maps were also constructed as part of this analysis. The simulations used to develop the capture maps test the response of the system, specifically the reduction of natural

  15. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-07-13

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr(6+) in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr(6+) and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr(6 +) and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr(6+) was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.

  16. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  17. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  18. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  19. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values 4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of solid Cr(III) in the soil was estimated at 6600 and 500 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. At the same time, the pool size of dissolved Cr(VI) was estimated at 50 and 1.2 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. It follows that, at both sites, less than 1 % of the entire Cr that had leaked into the aquifer an a liquid form remained in the

  20. Estimation of groundwater vulnerability to pollution based on DRASTIC in the Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai Etosha Basin, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.; Voigt, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Surface water is a scarce resource in Namibia with about sixty percent of Namibia's population dependent on groundwater for drinking purposes. With increasing population, the country faces water challenges and thus groundwater resources need to be managed properly. One important aspect of Integrated Water Resources Management is the protection of water resources, including protection of groundwater from contamination and over-exploitation. This study explores vulnerability mapping as a basic tool for protecting groundwater resources from pollution. It estimates groundwater vulnerability to pollution in the upper Niipele sub-basin of the Cuvelai-Etosha in Northern Namibia using the DRASTIC index. The DRASTIC index uses GIS to estimate groundwater vulnerability by overlaying different spatially referenced hydrogeological parameters that affect groundwater contamination. The study assesses the discontinuous perched aquifer (KDP) and the Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1 (KOH-1). For perched aquifers, point data was regionalized by a hydrotope approach whereas for KOH-1 aquifer, inverse distance weighting was used. The hydrotope approach categorized different parts of the hydrogeological system with similar properties into five hydrotopes. The result suggests that the discontinuous perched aquifers are more vulnerable than Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1. This implies that vulnerability increases with decreasing depth to water table because contaminants have short travel time to reach the aquifer when they are introduced on land surface. The nitrate concentration ranges between 2 and 288 mg/l in perched aquifers while in Ohangwena multi-layered aquifer 1, it ranges between 1 and 133 mg/l. It was observed that perched aquifers have high nitrate concentrations than Ohangwena 1 aquifer, which correlates well with the vulnerability results.

  1. Geological and geophysical evaluation of the Ajana area’s groundwater potential, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M Ajibade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acombined geological and geophysical evaluation was madeof the groundwater potential of the Ajana, RemoNorth area in south-western Nigeria; the geology and other structural features of the rocks there strongly influenced and correlated the aquifers' storability and transmissivity. Geological mapping revealed that the area was made up of granite, quartzite and varieties of gneiss, some of which have good secondary porosity and permeability. Ten vertical electric soundings (VES stations were established using a Schlumberger electrode array. Five geoelectric layers consisting of topsoil, sand,
    clayey-sandy, fractured / weathered basement and fresh bedrock were delineated. The aquifer layers were the 38.3m thick 283 ?m resistivity sand/sandy clay and 55 - 518 ?m resistivity fractured/weathered basement. Other geoelectric parameters used in evaluating the area's hydrogeological potential included curve type, anisotropy coefficient and reflection coefficient - The QH curve type was predominant in the area. The anisotropy Coefficients suggested VES stations having high groundwater potential ranging from 1.4 - 1.56; while the reflection coefficients for the area ranged from 0.21 - 0.99. The overall results showed that VES stations 8, 9 and 10 could be possible groundwater sources having high expected yield.

  2. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  3. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  4. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  6. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  7. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  8. Modeling Potential Surface and Shallow Groundwater Storage Provided by Beaver Ponds Across Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, K.; Wheaton, J. M.; Macfarlane, W.

    2016-12-01

    Damming of streams by North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) has been shown to provide a host of potentially desirable hydraulic and hydrologic impacts. Notably, increases in surface water storage and groundwater storage may alter the timing and delivery of water around individual dams and dam complexes. Anecdotal evidence suggests these changes may be important for increasing and maintaining baseflow and even helping some intermittent streams flow perennially. In the arid west, these impacts could be particularly salient in the face of climate change. However, few studies have examined the hydrologic impacts of beaver dams at scales large enough to provide insight for water management, in part because understanding or modeling these impacts at large spatial scales has been precluded by uncertainty concerning the number of beaver dams a drainage network can support. Using the recently developed Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (BRAT) to identify possible densities and spatial configurations of beaver dams, we developed a model that predicts the area and volume of surface water storage associated with dams of various sizes, and applied this model at different dam densities across multiple watersheds (HUC12) in northern Utah. We then used model results as inputs to the MODFLOW groundwater model to identify the subsequent changes to shallow groundwater storage. The spatially explicit water storage estimates produced by our approach will be useful in evaluating potential beaver restoration and conservation, and will also provide necessary information for developing hydrologic models to specifically identify the effects beaver dams may have on water delivery and timing.

  9. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  10. Geomatics for Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in Northern Part of the United Arab Emiratis - Sharjah City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruzouq, R.; Shanableh, A.; Merabtene, T.

    2015-04-01

    In United Arab Emirates (UAE) domestic water consumption has increased rapidly over the last decade. The increased demand for high-quality water, create an urgent need to evaluate the groundwater production of aquifers. The development of a reasonable model for groundwater potential is therefore crucial for future systematic developments, efficient management, and sustainable use of groundwater resources. The objective of this study is to map the groundwater potential zones in northern part of UAE and assess the contributing factors for exploration of potential groundwater resources. Remote sensing data and geographic information system will be used to locate potential zones for groundwater. Various maps (i.e., base, soil, geological, Hydro-geological, Geomorphologic Map, structural, drainage, slope, land use/land cover and average annual rainfall map) will be prepared based on geospatial techniques. The groundwater availability of the basin will qualitatively classified into different classes based on its hydro-geo-morphological conditions. The land use/land cover map will be also prepared for the different seasons using a digital classification technique with a ground truth based on field investigation.

  11. Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

    2013-11-01

    The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity.

  12. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwarth, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...... dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial...... cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials...

  13. 尾矿库地下水污染风险评价体系研究%Improved system of the pollution risk assessment for the contamination caused by the groundwater logs in mining tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仔颖; 吴超

    2011-01-01

    This paper is inclined to introduce an improved method known as the pollution risk assessment system of mining tailing groundwater logs in hoping to improve the efficiency of assessment work. As is well-known, it is necessary to take a lot of engineering data, environmental data as well as the statistical data of the past accidents as the starting basis for successful evaluation of the pollution risk in a particular situation. That is to say, first of all, it is necessary to prepare enough information and data of such materials so as to identify the main hazardous substances and confirm the potentially hazardous process. And, secondly, the grade of evaluation can then be determined by the risk substances likely to cause the accidents, the likely consequences of the major hazardous sources, as well as the sensitivity of environment. The evaluation range mainly depends on the various sewage emissions. Therefore, based on the evaluation of the beyond-standard concentration risk, this paper reveals directly the maximum credible risk, which represents the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability, its qualitative and quantitative pollution degree, the contamination load and hazards of the tailings logs so as to make all the information and data sufficient to make a qualified assessment scientifically and engineeringly credible assessment for disaster and accident prevention. Generally speaking, our improved risk assessment system embodies the improvement and amelioration of the existing qualitative methods, which is based on the optimal selection of the three assessment indexes (the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability index , its qualitative and quantitative pollution index, and the accident probability risk index), and then classifies and evaluates each index to form a set of index systems. The risk levels of the groundwater pollution are then divided into five classes, which help to make qualitative and quantitative risk assessment realistic. And, finally, the improved

  14. Potential for localized groundwater contamination in a porous pavement parking lot setting in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boving, Thomas B.; Stolt, Mark H.; Augenstern, Janelle; Brosnan, Brian

    2008-08-01

    The control of polluted surface runoff and the assessment of possible impacts on groundwater is a concern at the local and regional scale. On this background, a study investigates possible impacts of organic and inorganic pollutants (including bacteria) originating from a permeable asphalt parking lot on the water quality immediately beneath it. The functioning of the permeable pavement, including clogging and restricted vertical percolation, was also evaluated. Four nested sample ports (shallow and deep) were installed below low- and high-traffic areas, including one port outside the parking lot. At least initially there was a good hydraulic connection between the parking surface and the shallow sample ports. The presence of a geotextile layer at the base of the parking lot structure, however, was identified in lab tests as one factor restricting vertical percolation to the deeper ports. Clogging of the permeable surface was most pronounced in heavy traffic areas and below snow pile storage areas. Corroborated by high electric conductivity and chloride measurements, sand brought in by cars during winter was the principal cause for clogging. No bacteria or BOD were found in percolating water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were present at concentrations near minimum detection limit. Nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were being leached into the ground via the permeable parking lot surface at annual flux rates of 0.45 0.84 g/m2/year. A multi-species tracer test demonstrated a retention capacity of the permeable parking lot structure of >90% for metals and 27% for nutrients, respectively.

  15. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using index-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Tanko, Adamu Idris; Zaudi, Muhammad Amar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the DRASTIC and GALDIT models were employed to determine the groundwater vulnerability to contamination from anthropogenic activities and seawater intrusion in Kapas Island. In addition, the work also utilized sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of each individual parameter used in developing the final models. Based on these effects and variation indices of the said parameters, new effective weights were determined and were used to create modified DRASTIC and GALDIT models. The final DRASTIC model classified the island into five vulnerability classes: no risk (110-140), low (140-160), moderate (160-180), high (180-200), and very high (>200), covering 4, 26, 59, 4, and 7 % of the island, respectively. Likewise, for seawater intrusion, the modified GALDIT model delineates the island into four vulnerability classes: very low (130) covering 39, 33, 18, and 9 % of the island, respectively. Both models show that the areas that are likely to be affected by anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion are within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island. Pearson correlation was used to verify the reliability of the two models in predicting their respective contaminants. The correlation matrix showed a good relationship between DRASTIC model and nitrate (r = 0.58). In a similar development, the correlation also reveals a very strong negative relationship between GALDIT model and seawater contaminant indicator (resistivity Ωm) values (r = -0.86) suggesting that the model predicts more than 86 % of seawater intrusion. In order to facilitate management strategy, suitable areas for artificial recharge were identified through modeling. The result suggested some areas within the alluvial deposit at the western part of the island as suitable for artificial recharge. This work can serve as a guide for a full vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic pollution and seawater intrusion in small islands and will help policy maker and

  16. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  17. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulating stable carbon and chlorine isotope ratios in dissolved chlorinated groundwater pollutants with BIOCHLOR-ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    BIOCHLOR is a well-known simple tool for evaluating the transport of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater, ideal for rapid screening and teaching. This work extends the BIOCHLOR model for the calculation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and chlorine isotopes in chloroethenes. An exact solution for the three-dimensional reactive transport of a chain of degrading compounds including sorption is provided in a spreadsheet and applied for modeling the transport of individual isotopes 12C, 13C, 35Cl, 37Cl from a constant source. The model can consider secondary isotope effects that can occur in the breaking of Csbnd Cl bonds. The model is correctly reproducing results for δ13C and δ37Cl modeled by a previously published 1-D numerical model without secondary isotope effects, and is also reproducing results from a microcosm experiment with secondary chlorine isotope effects. Two applications of the model using field data from literature are further given and discussed. The new BIOCHLOR-ISO model is distributed as a spreadsheet (MS EXCEL) along with this publication.

  19. A modified SINTACS method for groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment in highly anthropized regions based on NO3(-) and SO4(2)(-) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Voudouris, Konstantinos; Tedesco, Dario

    2017-12-31

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment are worldwide tools in supporting groundwater protection and land planning. In this study, we used three of these different methodologies applied to the Campanian Plain located in southern Italy: SINTACS, AVI and LOS. However, their capability to describe the observed chemical pollution of the area has resulted quite poor. For such a reason, a modified SINTACS method has been then implemented in the area in order to get a more reliable view of groundwater vulnerability. NO3(-) and SO4(2-) from more than 400 monitoring wells were used for specific vulnerability assessment. Land use was chosen as key parameter to infer the risk of groundwater pollution in our area. The new methodology seems to show a higher correlation with observed NO3(-) concentrations and a more reliable identification of aquifer's pollution hot spots. The main sources of NO3(-) were found in sub-urban areas, where vulnerability and risk are higher than in other areas. Otherwise due to reducing conditions triggered by the presence of elevated sedimentary organic matter and peat, concentrations below agricultural areas were lower than in sub-urban areas. The SO4(2-) specific vulnerability map showed a positive correlation with observed concentrations, due to geogenic and anthropogenic SO4(2-) sources present in the area. The combination of both NO3(-) and SO4(2-) derived risk maps becomes essential to improve the conceptual model of aquifer pollution in this severely anthropized area. The application of this new and original approach shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of each of the described previous methods and clearly showed how anthropogenic activities have to be taken into account in the assessment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of a wetland watershed : the case study of the Oualidia-Sidi Moussa wetland, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility of wetlands to continental pollution is closely related to the vulnerability of their surface and sub-surface watersheds. Therefore, to help manage wetlands, especially those fed by groundwater, it can be useful to assess the vulnerability of their aquifers. This approach is illustrated by the case study of the wetland of Oualidia-Sidi Moussa. Firstly, the hydrogeological basin of the wetland was identified. Vulnerability mapping was then performed using the specific Suscep...

  1. In-situ degradation of pollutants like MTBE, VC and PAh in groundwater using iSOC trademark; In situ Abbau von Schadstoffen wie MTBE, VC und PAK mittels iSOC trademark im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, J. [Cornelsen Umwelttechnologie GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The iSOC system (in situ Submerged Oxygen Curtain) is a tool for stimulating biological sanitation of groundwater. This is achieved by introducing oxygen into the groundwater, which may be highly efficient in removing pollutants like BTEX, MTBE, VC, and PAH. (orig.)

  2. Subsurface Transport Behavior of Micro-Nano Bubbles and Potential Applications for Groundwater Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengzhen Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano bubbles (MNBs are tiny bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers and nanometers, showing great potential in environmental remediation. However, the application is only in the beginning stages and remains to be intensively studied. In order to explore the possible use of MNBs in groundwater contaminant removal, this study focuses on the transport of MNBs in porous media and dissolution processes. The bubble diameter distribution was obtained under different conditions by a laser particle analyzer. The permeability of MNB water through sand was compared with that of air-free water. Moreover, the mass transfer features of dissolved oxygen in water with MNBs were studied. The results show that the bubble diameter distribution is influenced by the surfactant concentration in the water. The existence of MNBs in pore water has no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of sand. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO in water is greatly increased by the MNBs, which will predictably improve the aerobic bioremediation of groundwater. The results are meaningful and instructive in the further study of MNB research and applications in groundwater bioremediation.

  3. A case-study of complex gas-water-rock-pollutants interactions in shallow groundwater: Šalek Valley (Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Salvatore; Justin, Barbara; Speh, Natalija; Veder, Marta

    2009-03-01

    The complex geochemical interactions in the groundwater of the industrial area of Šalek Valley (Slovenia) between natural and anthropogenic fluids were studied by means of major (Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3 -, Cl- and SO4 2-) and trace elements’ (As , Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, Se and V) abundances, geochemical classification and statistical analysis of data. Cation abundances indicate mixing between a dolomitic end-member and an evaporitic or geothermal end-member. Anion abundances indicate mixing between bicarbonate waters and either sulphate-enriched waters (suggesting hydrothermalism) or chlorine-rich waters. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the extraction of seven factors, which describe, respectively: water-rock interaction mainly on dolomitic rocks; redox conditions of water; Cd-Zn enrichment in chlorine-rich waters (probably from industrial wastes); hydrothermal conditions in waters close to major faults; Pb and Cu pollution; V and K enrichments, indicating their common organic source; the role of partial pressure of CO2 dissolved in water, which is highest in three wells with bubbling gases. Average underground discharge rates of solutes from the Valley range between 0.09 t/a (V) and 1.8 × 104 t/a (HCO3 -) and indicate how natural fluids can significantly contribute to the levels of elements in the environment, in addition to the amount of elements released by human activities.

  4. Experimental plant for the physical-chemical treatment of groundwater polluted by Municipal Solid Waste (MSW leachate, with ammonia recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents the results of the experimental treatment of groundwater (flow rate: 300 m3 h-1 polluted by the leachate of an old MSW landfill (7 million tonnes in northern Italy. The process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, and subsequent ammonia stripping, after heating the water to 35-38 °C by means of the biogas produced by the landfill. The stripped ammonia was recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate, which was reused as a base fertilizer. In addition, the paper reports important operational aspects related to the scaling of the stripping tower’s packing and its effect on pH and temperature profiles inside the towers caused by the closed loop, which recirculates the stripping air coming from the ammonia absorption towers with sulfuric acid. The average removal efficiency of ammonia reached 95.4% with an inlet mean concentration of 199.0 mg L-1.

  5. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  6. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution assessment of groundwater in Jammu Siwaliks, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romshoo, Shakil A; Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Rashid, Irfan; Dar, Farooq A

    2017-03-01

    Physico-chemical groundwater (GW) parameters were evaluated to understand the hydrogeochemical processes in the Siwalik plains of Jammu and Kashmir, India. During the 2012-2013 post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons, GW samples (n = 207) from deep bore wells and shallow open wells were chemically analysed. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and Fe(2+)) and anions (HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and F(-)) showed a wide spatio-temporal variation. Results suggest that weathering and dissolution of carbonates and silicate rocks is the main source of water mineralization. The major hydrochemical facies is characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 during the PRM and POM seasons respectively. The presence of sulphate-bearing water in a large number of the samples indicates a significant role of gypsum dissolution and anthropogenic contamination of the GW. Factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that the variability of hydrochemistry is mainly related to rock-water interaction, dissolution of carbonates and other lithological units as well as the influence of anthropogenic activities in the area. Overall, it was found that the GW quality is within the limits of human consumption. The higher concentration of a few chemicals indicates an increasing trend of industrial contamination of the GW. For sustainable development of the portable GW in Siwaliks, it is necessary to minimize the adverse impacts of the anthropogenic and industrial contamination on the GW resources through best management practices and prevent its further contamination to a level that could make GW unsuitable for human uses.

  7. Associations between lifestyle and air pollution exposure: Potential for confounding in large administrative data cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strak, Maciej; Janssen, Nicole; Beelen, Rob; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek; Houthuijs, Danny; van den Brink, Carolien; Dijst, Martin; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-07-01

    Cohorts based on administrative data have size advantages over individual cohorts in investigating air pollution risks, but often lack in-depth information on individual risk factors related to lifestyle. If there is a correlation between lifestyle and air pollution, omitted lifestyle variables may result in biased air pollution risk estimates. Correlations between lifestyle and air pollution can be induced by socio-economic status affecting both lifestyle and air pollution exposure. Our overall aim was to assess potential confounding by missing lifestyle factors on air pollution mortality risk estimates. The first aim was to assess associations between long-term exposure to several air pollutants and lifestyle factors. The second aim was to assess whether these associations were sensitive to adjustment for individual and area-level socioeconomic status (SES), and whether they differed between subgroups of the population. Using the obtained air pollution-lifestyle associations and indirect adjustment methods, our third aim was to investigate the potential bias due to missing lifestyle information on air pollution mortality risk estimates in administrative cohorts. We used a recent Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults to investigate the associations of PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 absorbance, OP(DTT,) OP(ESR) and NO2 annual average concentrations at the residential address from land use regression models with individual smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity and body mass index. We assessed the associations with and without adjustment for neighborhood and individual SES characteristics typically available in administrative data cohorts. We illustrated the effect of including lifestyle information on the air pollution mortality risk estimates in administrative cohort studies using a published indirect adjustment method. Current smoking and alcohol consumption were generally positively associated with air pollution. Physical activity and

  8. Investigation of Eh, pH and corrosion potential of steel in anoxic groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, R.; Brabon, S.; Fennell, P.A.H.; Rance, A.P.; Smart, N.R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    SKB intend to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel produced by Sweden's eleven nuclear reactors by encapsulating it in corrosion-resistant copper canisters containing a cast iron or carbon steel insert. After encapsulation, the fuel will be transported to a geological repository, where the containers will be deposited at a depth of 500 to 700 m in granitic rock and surrounded by a bentonite clay backfill material. If, or when the copper corrosion shield fails, the iron insert will be in contact with oxygen-free water and hydrogen-producing, anaerobic corrosion will start. SKB have carried out modelling calculations of the oxidising power (Eh) of groundwater and wished to confirm the results by carrying out experimental measurements. The objective of the work described in this report was to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring Eh, pH and corrosion potential in a cell where anaerobic corrosion of steel in artificial groundwater was occurring. To this end, gas cells similar to those used previously for anaerobic corrosion rate measurements were used as the basis for the design of an electrochemical cell. The cell incorporated electrodes to provide an in situ measurement of the redox potential, Eh, the pH and the corrosion potential of carbon steel. The main stages of the work were: Design of the electrochemical cell; Preparation of silver-silver chloride and calomel reference electrodes; Calibration of the reference electrodes and commercial glass pH electrodes against a standard hydrogen electrode; Assembly of the test cell under anoxic conditions; Monitoring the cell before and after the addition of steel wires to the test solution. Details of the design of the test cell and the experimental procedures used are described. Two cells were set up. The first employed a silver-silver chloride reference electrode, which was failed after approximately 400 hours, and the second cell therefore used a calomel reference electrode. The results of the electrode

  9. Apportionmentof Pollution Source of Shallow Groundwater System in Jiaozuo%焦作地区浅层地下水系统污染源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒芸芸; 马振民; 侯玉松; 王希; 李玲玲

    2013-01-01

    Together 88 sampling points and 8 main water pollution indexes including nitrate nitrogen, chloride, sulfate and hardness and so on were selected to analyze shallow groundwater in Jiaozuo area based on comprehensive monitoring.The source apportionment of shallow groundwater pollution was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with multivariate statistical analysis method.The results show that there are mainly three kinds of pollution characteristic sources including chemical industry sources, mechanical processing sources and agricultural sources.Their contribution rates to shallow groundwater pollution of the whole area are 53.81%, 30.34% and 15.85% respectively.The main characteristic pollution sources are clustered in northwest industrial zone of Jiaozuo.%通过对焦作地区浅层地下水全面监测与分析,确定88个采样点,选取硝酸盐氮、氯化物、硫酸盐、硬度等8个典型污染指标,使用多元统计分析方法对浅层地下水污染源进行定性和定量分析.结果表明,研究区主要存在3种污染特征源,分别为化工源、机械加工源和农业源,其对整个区域浅层地下水的污染贡献率分别为53.81%、30.34%和15.85%,主要污染特征源集中分布于焦作西北工业区.

  10. Nitrate pollution and its transfer in surface water and groundwater in irrigated areas: a case study of the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation projects have diverted water from the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China for more than 50 years and are unique in the world. This study investigated the effect of irrigation practices on the transfer and regional migration mechanisms of nitrate (NO3(-)) in surface water and groundwater in a Yellow River alluvial fan. Hydrochemical indices (EC, pH, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and HCO(3-)) and stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) were determined for samples. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the sources of water constituents. Kriging was employed to simulate the spatial diffusion of NO3(-) and stable isotopes. Our results demonstrated that the groundwater exhibited more complex saline conditions than the surface water, likely resulting from alkaline conditions and lixiviation. NO3(-) was detected in all samples, 87.0% of which were influenced by anthropogenic activity. The NO3(-) pollution in groundwater was more serious than the common groundwater irrigation areas in the North China Plain (NCP), and was also slightly higher than that in surface water in the study area, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, the groundwater sites with higher NO3(-) concentrations did not overlap with the spatial distribution of fertilizer consumption, especially in the central and western parts of the study area. NO3(-) distributions along the hydrogeological cross-sections were related to the groundwater flow system. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidences indicate that surface water-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of NO3(-) in the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains.

  11. Delineating Groundwater Contaminant Plums Using Self-Potential Surveying Method In Perth Area Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Evans Onojasun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-potential survey was carried out in Kalamunda area of Perth Western Australia with aim of delineating groundwater contaminant plums leakages. Two self-potential electrode configuration the roving dipole where one electrode is left in a base position while the other electrode scouts each survey position and the leapfrogging approach were potential differences are measured between consecutive sample stations along the line were employed to collect data. Results obtained from the experiments shows numerous small circular potential anomalies which could be interpreted as sources of leakages due to geothermal activity but the only trends that could be correlated across all surveys were the linear E-W trend which shows the location and the direction of the pipe underground to a depth of perhaps 2m. Other anomalies on the map show variations which could be as a result of trees interference on the observed data.

  12. Tracing fecal pollution sources in karst groundwater by Bacteroidales genetic biomarkers, bacterial indicators, and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Kelly, Walton R; Panno, Samuel V; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-08-15

    Fecal contamination in Midwestern karst regions was evaluated by simultaneously measuring traditional bacterial indicators (coliforms and Escherichia coli), Bacteroidales-based biomarkers, and environmental variables. Water samples from springs and wells were collected from karst regions in Illinois (IL), Wisconsin (WI), Kentucky (KY), and Missouri (MO). Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with seven primer sets targeting different members of Bacteroidales was used to determine the origin of fecal contamination (i.e., from human waste, livestock waste, or both). Most samples were contaminated by both human and animal waste, with a few samples showing pollution solely by one or the other. Spring water tended to have higher levels of contamination than well water, and higher concentrations of fecal biomarkers were detected in urban springs compared to rural spring systems. However, there were discrepancies on contamination profile determined by Bacteroidales-based biomarkers and by traditional bacterial indicators. Among all the environmental parameters examined, E. coli, sulfate, total dissolved solids (TDS), and silicon were significantly correlated (pgroundwater systems in Midwestern regions, and the inclusion of traditional bacterial indicators, environmental variables, and Bacteroidales-based MST is an effective approach for identifying fecal contamination in karst regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tourists’ Perception of Haze Pollution and the Potential Impacts on Travel: Reshaping the Features of Tourism Seasonality in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Aiping Zhang; Linsheng Zhong; Yong Xu; Hui Wang; Lijuan Dang

    2015-01-01

    Haze pollution has worsened and has received close attention by news agencies in the past two years. This type of environmental pollution might have a great effect on tourism image and the entire tourism industry of a destination. This study aimed to reveal the potential impacts of haze pollution on the tourism industry. Based on a case study in Beijing using questionnaires for potential tourists, awareness of haze pollution, impacts of haze pollution on travel and attitudes toward the impact...

  14. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  15. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  16. Comprehensive monitoring of organic micro-pollutants in surface and groundwater in the surrounding of a solid-waste treatment plant of Castellón, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Elena; Cervera, María Inés; Portolés, Tania; Ibáñez, María; Barreda, Mercedes; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Morell, Ignacio; López, Francisco; Albarrán, Fernando; Hernández, Félix

    2016-04-01

    The solid-waste treatment plant of RECIPLASA is located in the municipality of Onda (Castellón province), which is an important agricultural area of Spain, with predominance of citrus crops. In this plant, all urban solid wastes from the town of Castellón (around 200,000 inhabitants) and other smaller towns as Almassora, Benicàssim, Betxí, Borriana, L'Alcora, Onda and Vila-Real are treated. In order to evaluate the potential impact of this plant on the surrounding water, both surface and groundwater, a comprehensive monitoring of organic pollutants has been carried out along 2011, 2012 and 2013. To this aim, an advanced analytical strategy was applied for wide-scope screening, consisting on the complementary use of liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) with quadrupole (Q)-time of flight analyser (TOF). A generic solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges was applied prior to the chromatographic analysis. The screening included more than 1500 organic pollutants as target compounds, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, veterinary drugs, drugs of abuse, UV-filters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), among others. Pesticides, mainly herbicides, were the compounds more frequently detected. Other compounds as antioxidants, cosmetics, drugs of abuse, PAHs, pharmaceuticals and UV filters, were also identified in the screening though at much lower frequency. Once the screening was made, quantitative analysis focused on the compounds more frequently detected was subsequently applied using LC coupled to tandem MS with triple quadrupole analyser. In this way, up to 24 pesticides and transformation products (TPs), 7 pharmaceuticals, one drug of abuse and its metabolite could be quantified at sub-ppb concentrations. Along the three years of study, ten compounds were found at concentrations higher than 0.1μg/L. Most of them were pesticides

  17. Exploring the potential of DOC fluorescence as proxy for groundwater contamination by pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, Julien; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Pittois, Denis; Huck, viola

    2017-04-01

    Of the different water quality surrogates the fluorescence of dissolved organic content (FDOC) appears particularly promising due to its sensitivity and specificity. A complete spectrum of FDOC can be obtained using bench top instruments scanning a spectral space going from short wavelength UV to visible blue, yielding a so-called an excitation-emission matrix (EEM). The raw EEM can be either used directly for correlation analysis with the variable of interest, or first decomposed into underlying elements corresponding to different groups of organic compounds displaying similar properties using multiway techniques such as Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fluorescence spectroscopy has up to now only rarely been applied specifically to groundwater environments. The objective of the project was to explore systematically the possibilities offered by FDOC and PARAFAC for the assessment of groundwater contamination by pesticides, taking into account the transit time from the pesticide source to the groundwater outlet. Three sites corresponding to different transit times were sampled: -one spring regularly contaminated by surface water from a nearby stream (sub-daily to daily response to fast-flow generating storm events) -one spring displaying a weekly to monthly response to interflow -sampling along a flowline consisting of a series of springs and an observation well situated upgradient with mean transit times difference of several years Preliminary results show that a three component PARAFAC model is sufficient to decompose the raw EEMs, which is less than the seven or eight component models often encountered in surface water studies. For the first site, one component in the protein-like region 275(excitation)/310 (emission) nm measured in the stream samples was filtrered completely by the aquifer and did not appear in the spring samples. The other two components followed roughly the trend of the DOC and pesticide breakthrough. For the second site, soil sampling of

  18. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative assessment of GIS-based data mining models and a novel ensemble model in groundwater well potential mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moghaddam, Davood Davoodi; Kalantar, Bahareh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kisi, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, application of ensemble models has been increased tremendously in various types of natural hazard assessment such as landslides and floods. However, application of this kind of robust models in groundwater potential mapping is relatively new. This study applied four data mining algorithms including AdaBoost, Bagging, generalized additive model (GAM), and Naive Bayes (NB) models to map groundwater potential. Then, a novel frequency ratio data mining ensemble model (FREM) was introduced and evaluated. For this purpose, eleven groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), including altitude, slope aspect, slope angle, plan curvature, stream power index (SPI), river density, distance from rivers, topographic wetness index (TWI), land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology were mapped. About 281 well locations with high potential were selected. Wells were randomly partitioned into two classes for training the models (70% or 197) and validating them (30% or 84). AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB algorithms were employed to get groundwater potential maps (GPMs). The GPMs were categorized into potential classes using natural break method of classification scheme. In the next stage, frequency ratio (FR) value was calculated for the output of the four aforementioned models and were summed, and finally a GPM was produced using FREM. For validating the models, area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was calculated. The ROC curve for prediction dataset was 94.8, 93.5, 92.6, 92.0, and 84.4% for FREM, Bagging, AdaBoost, GAM, and NB models, respectively. The results indicated that FREM had the best performance among all the models. The better performance of the FREM model could be related to reduction of over fitting and possible errors. Other models such as AdaBoost, Bagging, GAM, and NB also produced acceptable performance in groundwater modelling. The GPMs produced in the current study may facilitate groundwater exploitation

  20. 焦作地区水文地质条件对浅层地下水污染的控制作用研究%Research on the Control of Hydrogeological Conditions under Shallow Groundwater Pollution in Jiaozuo Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉松; 马振民; 雒芸芸; 焦芳芳; 李玲玲

    2013-01-01

    Through on-the-spot surveys, water quality analysis and simulation of pollutants' diffusion and migration law, it is found that by the control of hydrogeological conditions, different areas of Jiaozuo has different groundwater pollution. Hydrogeological conditions also affect the distribution and migration of contaminants in groundwater systems. In the Piedmont inclined diluvial plain areas, the main mode of contamination is infiltration-runoff diffusion. Although the thickness in the vadose zone is greater than that in other regions, due to the permeability of the vadose zone is better, precipitation is relatively abundant, contaminants easily into the aquifer with the meteoric infiltration of surface water and precipitation, causing this area to be more sensitive to pollutioa After entering groundwater, contaminants diffuse from northwest to southeast under the control of groundwater runoff, in which the diffusion along the Dasha River line is the fastest. In the Piedmont handover depression, the height of capillary rise big, speed, and located in the groundwater flow's potential exchange place, so the dominant pollution effect is runoff-evaporation and concentration effect. The long-term evaporation concentration effect makes the total hardness overweight commonly. In the alluvial plain areas of the Huangqin River, underground runoff is weak ,the vertical alternation role is strong, so the rainfall infiltration and evaporation concentration is the main way of pollution. Under the influence of special hydrogeological conditions, although total fluoride content in the soil is at normal levels, but the fluorine pollution in the shallow groundwater is still serious.%通过现场调查、水质分析以及模拟污染物扩散迁移发现,受水文地质条件的控制,在焦作不同区域浅层地下水的主要污染方式不同.水文地质条件还影响着污染物在地下水系统中的分布、迁移.在山前倾斜冲洪积平原地区,主要污染方式

  1. A potential groundwater aquifer for palaeoclimate reconstruction: Turonian aquifer, Tadla basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Radouan; Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Marah, Hamid; Hakam, Oum Keltoum; Rinyu, László; Molnár, Mihály; Futó, István

    2017-08-01

    We undertook an environmental isotope investigation of groundwater from the Turonian Aquifer of Tadla Basin in Morocco in order to confirm that this aquifer could be a potential site for palaeoclimate reconstruction. The collected groundwater samples were examined for stable oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope ratio, as well as noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), 14C and 3H concentration. The measured stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope values show that the Turonian aquifer has two recharge areas, one with a heavier isotopic signature from the unconfined aquifer in the northern region (the area of Boujad), while the other is characterised by lighter isotopic composition in the north-eastern to the south-western part of the basin (to the North from Kasba Tadla). The calculated noble-gas solubility temperatures of the confined part of the aquifer are 2 °C higher than the recent mean annual air temperature (19 °C). Radiocarbon ages obtained from running different versions of Ingerson-Pearson models indicated that the recharge of this water occurred during the Holocene. We conclude that the Turonian aquifer might be a potential place for Late-Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstruction if the research area were extended in the direct of flow path towards the western part of the basin and towards the foothills of the Phosphates Plateau.

  2. Nanoporous networks as effective stabilisation matrices for nanoscale zero-valent iron and groundwater pollutant removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Byun, J.; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), with its reductive potentials and wide availability, offers degradative remediation of environmental contaminants. Rapid aggregation and deactivation hinder its application in real-life conditions. Here, we show that by caging nZVI into the micropores of porous...

  3. Inverse modeling and uncertainty analysis of potential groundwater recharge to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Markus; Houben, Georg; Lohe, Christoph; Quinger, Martin; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The identification of potential recharge areas and estimation of recharge rates to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) is crucial for its future sustainable use. The KOH-2 is located within the endorheic transboundary Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin (CEB), shared by Angola and Namibia. The main objective was the development of a strategy to tackle the problem of data scarcity, which is a well-known problem in semi-arid regions. In a first step, conceptual geological cross sections were created to illustrate the possible geological setting of the system. Furthermore, groundwater travel times were estimated by simple hydraulic calculations. A two-dimensional numerical groundwater model was set up to analyze flow patterns and potential recharge zones. The model was optimized against local observations of hydraulic heads and groundwater age. The sensitivity of the model against different boundary conditions and internal structures was tested. Parameter uncertainty and recharge rates were estimated. Results indicate that groundwater recharge to the KOH-2 mainly occurs from the Angolan Highlands in the northeastern part of the CEB. The sensitivity of the groundwater model to different internal structures is relatively small in comparison to changing boundary conditions in the form of influent or effluent streams. Uncertainty analysis underlined previous results, indicating groundwater recharge originating from the Angolan Highlands. The estimated recharge rates are less than 1% of mean yearly precipitation, which are reasonable for semi-arid regions.

  4. Integrated geophysical application to investigate groundwater potentiality of the shallow Nubian aquifer at northern Kharga, West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Abdellatif; Soliman, Mamdouh; Moussa, Salah; Massoud, Usama; ElNabi, Sami Abd; Attia, Magdy

    2016-06-01

    Continuous evaluation of groundwater aquifers in the basin of Kharga Oasis is very important. Groundwater in Kharga Oasis represents the major factor for the development plans of this area as it is the sole source for water supplies required for drinking and irrigation purposes. This study is concerned by analyzing the groundwater potentiality of the shallow aquifer at the northern part of Kharga basin by integrated application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Time domain Electromagnetic (TEM) techniques. The VES data were measured at 28 points arranged along a north-south trending line by applying Schlumberger array with a maximum current-electrode spacing (AB) of 1000 m. The TEM data were measured at 167 points arranged along 11 east-west trending lines by using a single square loop with 50 m loop-side length. The VES and TEM data have been individually inverted, where the VES models were used as initial models for TEM data inversion. The final models were used for construction of 17 geoelectrical sections and 5 contour maps describing subsurface water-bearing layers at the investigated area. Correlation of the obtained models with geologic, hydrogeologic and borehole information indicates that the shallow aquifer comprises two zones (A-up) and (B-down) separated by a highly conductive shale layer. The upper zone (A) is composed of fine to medium sand with thin clay intercalations. It exhibits low to moderate resistivities. This zone was detected at depth values ranging from 10 to 70 m below ground surface (bgs) and shows a thickness of 25-90 m. The lower zone (B) exhibits moderate to high resistivity values with expected good water quality. The upper surface of zone B was detected at 60-165 m depth.

  5. Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data around municipal landfill and paper factory and their potential influence on population’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čačić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the level of 15 groundwater quality parameters in groundwater samples collected around municipal landfill and paper factory in order to evaluate usefulness of the groundwater and its possible implication on the human health. Methods Obtained data have been analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA technique, in order to differentiate the groundwater samples on the basis of their compositional differences and origin. Results Wastes and effluents from municipal landfill did not contribute significantly to the pollution of the aquatic medium. Groundwater degradation caused by high contents of nitrate, mineral oils, organic and inorganic matters was particularly expressed in the narrow area of the city centre, near the paper factory and most likely it has occurred over a long period of time. The results have shown that the concentrations of the most measured parameters(NO3-N, NH4-N, oils, organic matter, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cr were above llowed limits for drinking and domestic purposes. onclusion This study has provided important information on cological status of the groundwater systems and for identification f groundwater quality parameters with concentrations above llowable limits for human consumption. The results generally evealed that groundwater assessed in this study mainly does not atisfy safe limits for drinking water and domestic use. As a consequence, ontaminated groundwater becomes a large hygienic nd toxicological problem, since it considerably impedes groundwater tilization. Even though, all of these contaminants havenot yet reached toxic levels, they still represent long term risk for ealth of the population.

  6. Risk mitigation by waste-based permeable reactive barriers for groundwater pollution control at e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Zhang, Weihua; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proved to be a promising passive treatment to control groundwater contamination and associated human health risks. This study explored the potential use of low-cost adsorbents as PRBs media and assessed their longevity and risk mitigation against leaching of acidic rainfall through an e-waste recycling site, of which Cu, Zn, and Pb were the major contaminants. Batch adsorption experiments suggested a higher adsorption capacity of inorganic industrial by-products [acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) and coal fly ash (CFA)] and carbonaceous recycled products [food waste compost (FWC) and wood-derived biochar] compared to natural inorganic minerals (limestone and apatite). Continuous leaching tests of sand columns with 10 wt% low-cost adsorbents were then conducted to mimic the field situation of acidic rainfall infiltration through e-waste-contaminated soils (collected from Qingyuan, China) by using synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) solution. In general, Zn leached out first, followed by Cu, and finally delayed breakthrough of Pb. In the worst-case scenario (e.g., at initial concentrations equal to 50-fold of average SPLP result), the columns with limestone, apatite, AMDS, or biochar were effective for a relatively short period of about 20-40 pore volumes of leaching, after which Cu breakthrough caused non-cancer risk concern and later-stage Pb leaching considerably increased both non-cancer and lifetime cancer risk associated with portable use of contaminated water. In contrast, the columns with CFA or FWC successfully mitigated overall risks to an acceptable level for a prolonged period of 100-200 pore volumes. Therefore, with proper selection of low-cost adsorbents (or their mixture), waste-based PRBs is a technically feasible and economically viable solution to mitigate human health risk due to contaminated groundwater at e-waste recycling sites.

  7. Establishment of Bacterial Herbicide Degraders in a Rapid Sand Filter for Bioremediation of Phenoxypropionate-Polluted Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Louise; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Aamand, Jens; Albers, Christian Nyrop

    2015-11-20

    In this study, we investigated the establishment of natural bacterial degraders in a sand filter treating groundwater contaminated with the phenoxypropionate herbicides (RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and (RS)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (DCPP) and the associated impurity/catabolite 4-chlorophenoxypropanoic acid (4-CPP). A pilot facility was set up in a contaminated landfill site. Anaerobic groundwater was pumped up and passed through an aeration basin and subsequently through a rapid sand filter, which is characterized by a short residence time of the water in the filter. For 3 months, the degradation of DCPP, MCPP, and 4-CPP in the sand filter increased to 15 to 30% of the inlet concentration. A significant selection for natural bacterial herbicide degraders also occurred in the sand filter. Using a most-probable-number (MPN) method, we found a steady increase in the number of culturable phenoxypropionate degraders, reaching approximately 5 × 10(5) degraders per g sand by the end of the study. Using a quantitative PCR targeting the two phenoxypropionate degradation genes, rdpA and sdpA, encoding stereospecific dioxygenases, a parallel increase was observed, but with the gene copy numbers being about 2 to 3 log units higher than the MPN. In general, the sdpA gene was more abundant than the rdpA gene, and the establishment of a significant population of bacteria harboring sdpA occurred faster than the establishment of an rdpA gene-carrying population. The identities of the specific herbicide degraders in the sand filter were assessed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from sand filter samples and from selected MPN plate wells. We propose a list of potential degrader bacteria involved in herbicide degradation, including representatives belonging to the Comamonadaceae and Sphingomonadales.

  8. Reactive nitrogen requirements to feed the world in 2050 and potential to mitigate nitrogen pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Popp, Alexander; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Rolinski, Susanne; Weindl, Isabelle; Schmitz, Christoph; Müller, Christoph; Bonsch, Markus; Humpenöder, Florian; Biewald, Anne; Stevanovic, Miodrag

    2014-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an indispensable nutrient for agricultural production and human alimentation. Simultaneously, agriculture is the largest contributor to Nr pollution, causing severe damages to human health and ecosystem services. The trade-off between food availability and Nr pollution can be attenuated by several key mitigation options, including Nr efficiency improvements in crop and animal production systems, food waste reduction in households and lower consumption of Nr-intensive animal products. However, their quantitative mitigation potential remains unclear, especially under the added pressure of population growth and changes in food consumption. Here we show by model simulations, that under baseline conditions, Nr pollution in 2050 can be expected to rise to 102-156% of the 2010 value. Only under ambitious mitigation, does pollution possibly decrease to 36-76% of the 2010 value. Air, water and atmospheric Nr pollution go far beyond critical environmental thresholds without mitigation actions. Even under ambitious mitigation, the risk remains that thresholds are exceeded.

  9. Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings--a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, Pawan K; Mahore, Piyush; Ganguly, A K

    2012-01-01

    On-site sanitation has emerged as a preferred mode of sanitation in cities experiencing rapid urbanization due to the high cost involved in off-site sanitation which requires conventional sewerages. However, this practice has put severe stress on groundwater especially its quality. Under the above backdrop, a study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on quality of groundwater sources in two mega cities namely Indore and Kolkata which are situated in two different geological settings. The parameters for the studies are distance of groundwater source from place of sanitation, effect of summer and monsoon seasons, local hydro-geological conditions, and physico-chemical parameters. NO(3) and fecal coliform concentrations are considered as main indexes of pollution in water. Out of many conclusions which can be made from this studies, one major conclusion is about the influence of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality is minimal in Kolkata, whereas it is significant in Indore. This difference is due to the difference in hydrogeological parameters of these two cities, Kolkata being on alluvium quaternary and Indore being on Deccan trap of Cretaceous to Paleogene age.

  10. A comparison between ten advanced and soft computing models for groundwater qanat potential assessment in Iran using R and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Abbaspour, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Considering the unstable condition of water resources in Iran and many other countries in arid and semi-arid regions, groundwater studies are very important. Therefore, the aim of this study is to model groundwater potential by qanat locations as indicators and ten advanced and soft computing models applied to the Beheshtabad Watershed, Iran. Qanat is a man-made underground construction which gathers groundwater from higher altitudes and transmits it to low land areas where it can be used for different purposes. For this purpose, at first, the location of the qanats was detected using extensive field surveys. These qanats were classified into two datasets including training (70%) and validation (30%). Then, 14 influence factors depicting the region's physical, morphological, lithological, and hydrological features were identified to model groundwater potential. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), flexible discriminant analysis (FDA), penalized discriminant analysis (PDA), boosted regression tree (BRT), random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector machine (SVM) models were applied in R scripts to produce groundwater potential maps. For evaluation of the performance accuracies of the developed models, ROC curve and kappa index were implemented. According to the results, RF had the best performance, followed by SVM and BRT models. Our results showed that qanat locations could be used as a good indicator for groundwater potential. Furthermore, altitude, slope, plan curvature, and profile curvature were found to be the most important influence factors. On the other hand, lithology, land use, and slope aspect were the least significant factors. The methodology in the current study could be used by land use and terrestrial planners and water resource managers to reduce the costs of groundwater resource discovery.

  11. Application of remote sensing and GIS analysis for identifying groundwater potential zone in parts of Kodaikanal Taluk, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyaraj, Murugesan; Ramkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Gurugnanam, Balasubramanian

    2013-03-01

    Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and charnockite dominated over others. The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope, drainage density, geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1:50000 and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area. Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters. For the various geomorphic units, weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water. This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified. The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good, good, moderate, low, and poor. This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.

  12. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  13. Nineteenth century air pollution variations in Paris inferred from Eiffel Tower potential gradient measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, R G

    2003-01-01

    Early surface measurements of atmospheric Potential Gradient were made in many European cities in the nineteenth century (C19th). The data was usually obtained at hourly resolution, and good accounts of the calibration of the instruments are also often available. The PG measurements made by Chauveau on the Eiffel Tower, soon after its completion in the 1890s, are particularly notable. Atmospheric electrical proxy techniques in combination with simple boundary layer meteorology are used to determine air pollution levels. The C19th PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies.

  14. Potential groundwater age tracer found: Halon-1301 (CF3Br), as previously identified as CFC-13 (CF3Cl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater dating using anthropogenic and natural tracer substances is a powerful tool for understanding groundwater dynamics for improved management of groundwater resources. Due to limitations in individual dating methods, often multiple tracers are used to reduce ambiguities. It is commonly accepted that there is a need for further complementary age tracers, in addition to current ones (e.g., tritium, SF6, and CFCs). We propose a potential new groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301 (CF3Br), which can easily be determined using gas chromatography with an attached electron capture detector (GC/ECD) developed by Busenberg and Plummer (2008). Its peak was noted by Busenberg and Plummer (2008), but they believed it to be CFC-13 (CF3Cl) at that time. We performed rigorous tests on gases containing or excluding Halon-1301 and CFC-13 and modern water samples and concluded that the two compounds have extremely similar retention times. Additionally, we found that the ECD response of CFC-13 is far too low to be detected in groundwater or air using standard volumes and sampling techniques. However, the peak areas and concentrations Busenberg and Plummer (2008) reported are in line with what would be expected for Halon-1301. Thus, we are confident that the peak formerly identified as CFC-13 is actually Halon-1301. Busenberg agrees with our findings. We further suggest that Halon-1301 has potential as a (complementary) age tracer, due to its established atmospheric history, and could hypothetically be used to date groundwater recharged in the 1970s or onward. We discuss known relevant properties, such as solubility and stability of Halon-1301 in the context of how these effect its potential application as a groundwater age tracer. Some open questions remain concerning how conservative Halon-1301 is—is it subject to degradation, retardation, and/or local contamination in groundwater. We are confident that Halon-1301 possesses important tracer relevant properties, but further

  15. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p groundwater investigations.

  16. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells.

  17. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  18. Groundwater potentiality mapping of hard-rock terrain in arid regions using geospatial modelling: example from Wadi Feiran basin, South Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Mohamed O.

    2016-09-01

    Identifying a good site for groundwater exploitation in hard-rock terrains is a challenging task. In Sinai, Egypt, groundwater is the only source of water for local inhabitants. Interpretation of satellite data for delineation of lithological units and weathered zones, and for mapping of lineament density and their trends, provides a valuable aid for the location of groundwater promising areas. Complex deformational histories of the wide range of lithological formations add to the difficulty. Groundwater prospect mapping is a systematic approach that considers the major controlling factors which influence the aquifer and quality of groundwater. The presented study aims to delineate, identify, model and map groundwater potential zones in arid South Sinai using remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) to prepare various hydromorphogeological thematic maps such as maps of slope, drainage density, lithology, landforms, structural lineaments, rainfall intensity and plan curvature. The controlling-factor thematic maps are each allocated a fixed score and weight, computed by using a linear equation approach. Furthermore, each weighted thematic map is statistically computed to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories (very poor, poor, moderate, good and very good) and were validated using the relation between the zone and the spatial distribution of productive wells and of previous geophysical investigations from a literature review. The results show the groundwater potential zones in the study area, and create awareness for better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  19. A Novel Method for Analyzing Chlorine Isotope Fractionation for Source and Fate Assessment of Organochlorine Soil and Groundwater Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Christoph; Wiegert, Charline; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2010-05-01

    We developed a simple and accurate analytical method for compound-specific determination of chlorine isotopic composition (δ37Cl) or organochlorines based on GC/MS analysis and standard isotope bracketing. Good accuracy (comparison with off-line thermal ionization mass spectrometry) and a precision comparable to other on-line δ37Cl-methods (0.6 permil vs SMOC) were achieved. We applied this method to assess biodegradation of polychlorinated phenols used for wood preservation at a former sawmill site in northern Sweden. To come up with a δ37Cl-based estimation of the importance of on-going aerobic microbial degradation, we analyzed 37Cl-enrichment during enzymatic dechlorination of polychlorinated phenols in laboratory experiments. We also investigated δ37Cl fingerprints of chloroperoxidase-mediated chlorinated phenols, which can be used for apportionment of natural and anthropogenic sources of chlorophenols in boreal soils. Furthermore, we investigated natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes in a contaminated aquifer in the Czech Republic. At this site, the extent of naturally occurring reductive tetrachloroethene (PCE) dechlorination was estimated based on PCE-δ37Cl. Overall, our laboratory and field studies demonstrate the potential of using compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis for assessing the source and fate of organochlorine groundwater and soil contaminants.

  20. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980 was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd > E(Pb > E(Cu > E(Cr > E(Zn have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  1. 淄博大武地下水源地污染风险评价%Pollution risk evaluation of Dawu groundwater source site in Zibo City, Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松霖; 魏江; 沈莹莹; 赵丰昌; 吴萌萌

    2013-01-01

    根据淄博大武地区的水文地质条件,对大武水源地北方型裂隙岩溶特点进行分析,结合欧洲方法和《地下水污染源清单:方法指南》并进行修改,制定了符合研究区实际情况的指标,利用ArcGIS叠加分析法对该地区的水源脆弱性、地下水资源污染风险和地下水水源污染风险进行了评价.结果表明,研究区南部石灰岩裸露区脆弱性高;北部平原区中段位于目标水源汇水区或过渡区,对目标水源的脆弱性影响较大,但凭借第四系沉积物的保护,其水源脆弱性为中等.南部和北部工业企业园区的地下水资源/水源污染风险均为高,极易被附近的工业企业污染,因此必须做好污染物处理和工业区地面防渗工作,以确保水源地的饮水安全.%In this paper, we would like to present our analysis results of the characteristic features of Dawu groundwater source in Zibo City, Shandong, based on the analysis of the local realistic hydro-geological conditions. Dawu Well Field is a scarcely found super-sized fracture-karst groundwater source in the north of China, which can be said of strategic significance and is expected to provide plenty of drinking water for the local people as well as an abundant water energy resource for the social and economic development of the city. However, since the water source suffers from some kind of complicated pollution, it tends to bring about harm and risk to the local public health. Thus, it has become one of the urgent tasks for the local government and people to harness the pollutants from the water source to guarantee the sustainable development of the city. For this purpose, we have done careful studies of the "Groundwater Contamination Inventory: a Methodological Guide" issued by the UNESCO in 2002 and properly accommodated it to the actual need of ours. While referring to the above said guide, it has become clear that the groundwater source of Zibo is good like gold, yet

  2. OPERATOR-SPLITTING GALERKIN METHOD FOR ONE KIND OF OIN REACTION MODEL FOR THE POLLUTION IN GROUNDWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The operator-splitting methods for the mathematic model of one kind of oin reactions for the problem of groundwater are considered. Optimal error estimates in L2 and H1 norm are obtained for the approximation solution.

  3. Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui; Lyu, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater quality which relates closely to human health has become as important as its quantity due to the demand for safe water. In the present study, an entropy-weighted fuzzy water quality index (WQI) has been proposed for performing groundwater quality assessment in and around an industrial park, northwest China, where domestic water requirements are solely met by groundwater. The human health risk was assessed with the model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the sources of major ions and main contaminants were also analyzed. The study shows that groundwater in the study area has been contaminated conjunctively by natural processes and industrial and agricultural activities. Nitrate, manganese (Mn), fluoride, total dissolved solids, total hardness and sulfate are major contaminants influencing groundwater quality. Nitrate and heavy metals such as Mn are mainly affected by human agricultural activities and industrial production, while other contaminants are mainly originated from mineral weathering and water-rock interactions. The results of water quality assessment suggest that half of the groundwater samples collected are of medium quality thus require pretreatment before human consumption. The mean health risk caused by the consumption of contaminated groundwater in the area is 8.42 × 10(-5) per year which surpasses the maximum acceptable level (5 × 10(-5) per year) recommended by the International Commission on Radiologic Protection. The entropy-weighted fuzzy WQI proposed in this study can not only assign proper weights to parameters but also treat uncertainties associated with water quality classification. This study will be of interest to international environmentalists and hydrogeologists. It will also be useful in regional groundwater management and protection.

  4. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-01-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated ...

  5. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  6. Monitoring the risk of nitrate and pesticides Pollution in Mnasra groundwater and soil under Field Condition-Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, abdelmalek

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural activities are probably the most significant anthropogenic sources of nitrate an pesticides contamination in groundwater and soil. Irrigation system is among the causes behind leaching of nitrate and pesticides from soil surface to groundwater. Gharb plain is the largest agriculture irrigated zone in northwest of Morocco, well known for its intensive agricultural activities. The excessive use of fertilizers and manure under gravity irrigation system, presents a huge risk to groundwater quality especially for sandy-loam soils similar to those of the area. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of the level of nitrate and pesticides contamination in groundwater and soil, and the attempt to relate it to the irrigation system adopted in Gharb area. A set of 108 water samples and 60 soil samples were collected from ten selected sites located in the area during agricultural seasons, from May 2010 to September 2012. The results reveal that 89.7% of water samples exceeded the standard limit of nitrate concentrations for groundwater (50 mg/L). These results could be explained by the prevailing sandy nature of the soil in the area, the frequency of fertilizer usage, and the shallow level of the water table, which favors the leaching of nitrate from field to groundwater. In contrast, the selected pesticide molecules were not detected in the analyzed soil and water samples; levels were below the quantification limit in all samples.). Attempts to focus on the main physical and chemical factors behind the magnitude of contamination are discussed

  7. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  8. Application of remote sensing and GIS analysis for identifying groundwater potential zone in parts of Kodaikanal Taluk,South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murugesan BAGYARAJ; Thirunavukkarasu RAMKUMAR; Senapathi VENKATRAMANAN; Balasubramanian GURUGNANAM

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater potential zones were demarcated with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques.The study area is composed rocks of Archaean age and chamockite dominated over others.The parameters considered for identifying the groundwater potential zone of geology slope,drainage density,geomorphic units and lineament density were generated using the resource sat (IRS P6 LISS IV MX) data and survey of India (SOI) toposheets of scale 1∶50000and integrated them with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) model based on GIS data to identify the groundwater potential of the study area.Suitable weightage factors were assigned for each category of these parameters.For the various geomorphic units,weightage factors were assigned based on their capability to store ground-water.This procedure was repeated for all the other layers and resultant layers were reclassified.The reclassified layers were then combined to demarcate zones as very good,good,moderate,low,and poor.This groundwater potentiality information could be used for effective identification of suitable locations for extraction of potable water for rural populations.

  9. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  10. Evaluation of Pollutant Leaching Potential of Coal Ashes for Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, H.; Yoon, H.; Chung, D.

    2011-12-01

    By 2009, coal ashes produced from coal-based power plants in Korea have been reused as cement supplement materials; however, the rest is mostly disposed in landfills inside the plant properties. Continuous production of coal ashes and limited landfill sites require more recycles of coal ashes as base materials, specifically in constructions of roads and of huge industrial complex. Previous researches showed that coal ashes could contain various metals such as arsenic(As), chromium(Cr), lead(Pb), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se), etc. In this study, we collected four types of bottom ashes and two of fly ashes from four coal-based power plants. These ash samples were tested with distilled water through the column leaching process in oxidized conditions. The column test results were compared with those of total digestion, sequential extraction processes and TCLP. Concentrations of metals in outflows from columns are generally greater in fly ashes than in bottom ashes, specifically for As, Se, B, Sr and SO4. Only one fly ash (J2-F) shows high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in leachate. Sequential extraction results indicate that these metals are in readily soluble forms, such as adsorbed, carbonated, and reducible forms. Results of TCLP analysis indicate no potential contaminants leached from the ashes. In conclusion, recycling of coal combustion ashes could be encouraged with proper tests such as sequential and leaching experiments.

  11. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  12. Enhancement on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and organic pollutants from groundwater by a three-dimensional bio-electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Wang, Wei; Chi, Meiling

    2009-10-01

    To improve denitrification performance and effective degradation of organic pollutants from micro-polluted groundwater simultaneously, a novel three-dimensional (3D) bio-electrochemical reactor was developed, which introduced activated carbon into a traditional two-dimensional (2D) reactor as the third electrode. The static and dynamic characteristics of the reactor were investigated with special attentions paid to the performance comparison of these two reactors. In the 3D reactor both TOC and nitrate removal efficiency were greatly improved, and the formation of nitrite byproduct is considerably reduced, comparing with that of the 2D reactor. The role of activated carbon biofilm was explored and possible remediation mechanisms for the 2D and 3D reactors were suggested. In such a 3D reactor, the denitrification rate improved greatly to 0.288 mg NO(3)-N/cm(2)/d and the current efficiency could reach as high as 285%. Further, it demonstrated good performance stably against variable conditions, indicating very promising in application for groundwater remediation.

  13. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  14. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Area Affected by Waterlogging and Saline Groundwater and Ecohydrology Management in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phayom Saraphirom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling approach was employed to predict potential impact of climate change on waterlogging and salinity distribution with the ecohydrology options for land management under the projected climate conditions in Huai Khamriam subwatershed in the northeastern region, Thailand. The prediction was simulated using the variable density groundwater model SEAWAT supported with recharge estimation model HELP3 under the projected weather data from PRECIS RCM scenario A2. As the result of the higher precipitation simulated by PRECIS RCM scenario A2, the predicted groundwater recharge was likely to be higher in the middle of this century onward. The areas affected by shallow saline groundwater were found to increase with the climate change scenario as well as for the base case. Based on scenario simulation, climate change did not have substantial impact on salinity distribution, but it was significant impact to the expansion of waterlogging areas. Management option using ecohydrology simulation approach was performed to reduce the recharge water to groundwater system, which consequently minimizes the impact of the higher precipitation in the future. The results indicated that establishment of the fast growing tree integrated with the shallow groundwater interception in the recharge areas could reduce the expansion of waterlogging and salinised areas under the climate change condition.

  15. Identification of nitrate sources in groundwater and potential impact on drinking water reservoir (Goczałkowice reservoir, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Joanna; Jakóbczyk-Karpierz, Sabina; Rubin, Hanna; Sitek, Sławomir; Witkowski, Andrzej J.

    2016-08-01

    Goczałkowice dammed reservoir (area - 26 km2) is a strategic object for flood control in the Upper Vistula River catchment and one of the most important source of drinking water in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Southern Poland). Main aims of the investigation were identification of sources of nitrate and assessment of their significance in potential risk to groundwater quality. In the catchment area monitoring network of 22 piezometers, included 14 nested, have been installed. The significant spatial and seasonal differences in chemical composition between northern and southern part of the catchment were indicated based on the groundwater sampling conducted twice - in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. Maximum observed concentrations of nitrate were identified in northern part of the study area 255 mg/L as a results of inappropriate sewage management and agriculture activity. Results, based on the combines multi-scale hydrogeological and hydrochemical field studies, groundwater flow and transport modelling, dual stable isotope approach and geochemical modelling indicate mainly agriculture and inappropriate sewage water management as a sources of NO3- contamination of groundwater which moreover is affected by geochemical processes. In general, contaminated groundwater does not impact surface water quality. However, due to high concentration of nitrate in northern part a continues measurements of nitrogen compounds should be continued and used for reducing uncertainty of the predictive scenarios of the mass transport modelling in the study area.

  16. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  17. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Forest models: their development and potential applications for air pollution effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, H.H.; McLaughlin, S.B.; West, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    As research tools for evaluating the effects of chronic air pollution stress, forest simulation models offer one means of integrating forest growth and development data with generalized indices of pollution stress. This approach permits consideration of both the competitive interactions of trees in the forest stand and the influences of the stage of stand development on sensitivity of component species. A review of forest growth models, including tree, stand, and gap models, is provided as a means of evaluating relative strengths, weaknesses, and limits of applicability of representative examples of each type. Data from recent simulations with a gap model of eastern deciduous forest responses to air pollution stress are presented to emphasize the potential importance of competition in modifying individual species' responses in a forest stand. Recent developments in dendroecology are discussed as a potential mechanism for model validation and extended application.

  19. New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-08-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `short-lived climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.

  20. Potential negative effects of groundwater dynamics on dry season convection in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-02-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.

  1. Potential Negative Effects of Groundwater Dynamics on Dry Season Convection in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation because the additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focused on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River Basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. In addition, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation resulting from downward transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, which have implications for precipitation changes during the dry season observed in most current climate models.

  2. Potential Air and Groundwater Pollution from Continuous High Land Application of Cheese Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed, using eighteen 280 cm deep soil columns with 20 cm inside diameter, to determine the relative amounts of nitrogenous compounds leached and volatilized from soils receiving high application rates of cheese whey during two seasons. Three soils (loamy sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam and two cheese whey application rates (560 and 840 kg-N haˉ1, that provided twice and three times the nitrogen requirement for corn crop, were investigated. The leaching and volatilization processes were monitored over a period of five months each season. The concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in the leachates obtained from three soils decreased with time and the soil type and whey application rate did not have any significant effect on the soil removal efficiency of these compounds. However, higher concentrations were observed in the second season of application. The decline in the ammonium nitrogen concentrations in the absence of plants and the initial increase in the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations indicated that the nitrification process had taken place. The organic nitrogen losses in the leachates were 3.02-4.14 kg hˉ1 (0.54-0.74 % of the initial total nitrogen. The total inorganic (NH4, NO2, NO3 nitrogen losses in the leachates were 59-76 mg which is higher than the initial concentration of 55 mg indicating that the mineralization process had taken place. Volatilization of NH3 was independent of soil type and whey application rate. About 3.41 gˉ1haˉ1 (0.59 % of the initial total nitrogen of nitrogen was lost to the atmosphere through volatilization Nitrite and nitrate are highly soluble and easily leach out of soil solution. Therefore, continuous application of cheese whey at higher rates may result in ground water contamination and eventually becomes a threat to human and animal health.

  3. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  4. Groundwater Seepage Vectors and the Potential for Hillslope Failure and Debris Flow Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Major, Jon J.

    1986-10-01

    Insight for understanding the effect of groundwater flow on the potential for hillslope failure and liquefaction is provided by a novel limit-equilibrium analysis of infinite slopes with steady, uniform Darcian seepage of arbitrary magnitude and direction. Normalization of the limit-equilibrium solution shows that three dimensionless parameters govern completely the Coulomb failure potential of saturated, cohesionless, infinite homogeneous hillslopes: (1) the ratio of seepage force magnitude to gravitational body force magnitude; (2) the angle θ - Φ, where θ is the surface slope angle and Φ is the angle of internal friction of the soil; and (3) the angle λ + Φ, where λ is the angle of the seepage vector measured with respect to an outward-directed surface-normal vector. An additional dimensionless parameter affects the solution if soil cohesion is included in the analysis. Representation of the normalized solution as a single family of curves shows that minimum slope stability universally occurs when the seepage direction is given by λ = 90° - Φ. It also shows that for some upward seepage conditions, slope stability is limited by static liquefaction rather than by Coulomb failure. Close association between these liquefaction conditions and certain Coulomb failure conditions indicates that slope failure in such instances could be responsible for nearly spontaneous mobilization of destructive flowing soil masses on hillslopes.

  5. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  8. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Matthew W; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Robertson, Dale M; Han, Seungbong; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km(2)) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale.

  9. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    Interpreting and predicting the evolution of water resources and soils at regional scale are continuing challenges for natural scientists. Examples include non-point source (NPS) pollution of soil and surface and subsurface water from agricultural chemicals and pathogens, as well as overexploitation of groundwater resources. The presence and build up of NPS pollutants may be harmful for both soil and groundwater resources. The accumulation of salts and trace elements in soils can significantly impact crop productivity, while loading of salts, nitrates, trace elements and pesticides into groundwater supplies can deteriorate a source of drinking and irrigation water. Consequently, predicting the spatial distribution and fate of NPS pollutants in soils at applicative scales is now considered crucial for maintaining the fragile balance between crop productivity and the negative environmental impacts of NPS pollutants, which is a basis of sustainable agriculture. Soil scientists and hydrologists are regularly asked to assist state agencies to understand these critical environmental issues. The most frequent inquiries are related to the development of mathematical models needed for analyzing the impacts of alternative land-use and best management use and management of soil and water resources. Different modelling solutions exist, mainly differing on the role of the vadose zone and its horizontal and vertical variability in the predictive models. The vadose zone (the region from the soil surface to the groundwater surface) is a complex physical, chemical and biological ecosystem that controls the passage of NPS pollutants from the soil surface where they have been deposited or accumulated due to agricultural activities, to groundwater. Physically based distributed hydrological models require the internal variability of the vadose zone be explored at a variety of scales. The equations describing fluxes and storage of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone used in these

  10. Remediation of actual groundwater polluted with nitrate by the catalytic reduction over copper-palladium supported on active carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Sakamoto, Yoshinori; Kamiya, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic reduction of nitrate (NO3-) in groundwater over a Cu-Pd catalyst supported on active carbon was investigated in a gas-liquid co-current flow system at 298 K. Although Cu-Pd/active carbon, in which the Cu/Pd molar ratio was more than 0.66, showed high activity, high selectivity for the formation of N2 and N2O (98%), and high durability for the reduction of 100 ppm NO3- in distilled water, the catalytic performance decreased during the reduction of NO3- in groundwater. The catalyst al...

  11. Erratum to "Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2009-04-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl- concentration and delta18O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3--N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  12. Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2008-10-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl(-) concentration and delta(18)O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3(-)-N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  13. Potential linkages between mineral magnetic measurements and urban roadside soil pollution (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C J; Fullen, M A; Booth, C A

    2014-03-01

    Use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual geochemical classes (i.e. Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd), are reported. χLF, χARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p soils in certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for monitoring techniques. The mineral magnetic technique offers a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable pollution proxy for soil contamination studies.

  14. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and recharge zones in Suki river basin, north Maharashtra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Gupta; S N Patil; S T Padmane; Vinit C Erram; S H Mahajan

    2015-10-01

    Suki river basin of Raver sub-division is located towards the northeastern part of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra State. The existing land use pattern of the region clearly shows that more than 60% of the area is utilized for agricultural sector. Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic purposes. To assess the overall water resources development of Raver area for better environment in future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 stations in the study area using Wenner configuration. The study was aimed at characterizing the aquifer in the area as well as assessing its potential risk to contaminant seepage in terms of protective capacity of the overburden rock materials using Dar-Z arrouk (D-Z) parameters, viz., the transverse resistance (), longitudinal conductance (), transverse resistivity (ρ) and longitudinal resistivity (ρ). These were computed to generate the resistivity regime of freshwater-bearing formations and its movement. The central-western part of the study area reflects very good to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance values. The low value of the protective capacity in the eastern part is making the aquifer system in the area highly vulnerable to surface contamination. This indicates that the ground water quality may have been deteriorated in the area and borehole water samples should be randomly sampled for contaminant loads based on this analysis.

  15. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sorption to soil of water-soluble metabolites from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The soil fungus Cunninghamella elegans was used to produce PAC metabolites from two un-substituted PACs (phenanthrene, pyrene), three alkyl-substituted PACs (2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching to surface- and groundwaters.

  16. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and recharge zones in Suki river basin, north Maharashtra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Patil, S. N.; Padmane, S. T.; Erram, Vinit C.; Mahajan, S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Suki river basin of Raver sub-division is located towards the northeastern part of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra State. The existing land use pattern of the region clearly shows that more than 60% of the area is utilized for agricultural sector. Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic purposes. To assess the overall water resources development of Raver area for better environment in future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 stations in the study area using Wenner configuration. The study was aimed at characterizing the aquifer in the area as well as assessing its potential risk to contaminant seepage in terms of protective capacity of the overburden rock materials using Dar- Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters, viz., the transverse resistance ( T), longitudinal conductance ( S), transverse resistivity ( ρ t ) and longitudinal resistivity ( ρ l ). These were computed to generate the resistivity regime of freshwater-bearing formations and its movement. The central-western part of the study area reflects very good to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance values. The low value of the protective capacity in the eastern part is making the aquifer system in the area highly vulnerable to surface contamination. This indicates that the ground water quality may have been deteriorated in the area and borehole water samples should be randomly sampled for contaminant loads based on this analysis.

  17. The Present Situation and Countermeasures of Groundwater Contamination in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shindo, Shizuo; Tang, Changyuan

    1997-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] Since 1982, thousands of groundwater pollution cases have been found in Japan. In order to improve the groundwater quality, Japan has developed strategies for protection of groundwater. In this paper, authors try to explain the present of groundwater use, groundwater pollution and remediation methods in Japan. From the results shown in this paper, it can be found that groundwater pollution problem has become very serious in Japan. Even many efforts have been made to improve the sit...

  18. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, Tommy; Thorling, L.

    2012-01-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have......, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average......, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate...

  19. Genetically Modified Vibrio harveyi Strains as Potential Bioindicators of Mutagenic Pollution of Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Agata; Jasiecki, Jacek; Bogdan, Adam; Szpilewska, Hanna; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2000-01-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. We found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, we developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. We constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, we consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments. PMID:10653723

  20. Epigenetics—a potential mediator between air pollution and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vania W.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Burris, Heather H.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a potential risk factor for adult chronic disease. With over 15 million infants born preterm worldwide each year, preterm birth poses a global health concern. There is a possible association between air pollution and preterm birth, though studies have been inconsistent, likely due to variation in study design. How air pollution induces health effects is uncertain; however, studies have repeatedly demonstrated the effects of air pollution on epigenetic modifications. More recent evidence suggests that epigenetics may, in turn, be linked to preterm birth. Discovery of environmentally modifiable epigenetic processes connected to preterm birth may help to identify women at risk of preterm birth, and ultimately lead to development of new preterm birth prevention measures. PMID:26900485

  1. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  2. Wet deposition of air pollution at southwest monsoon outbreak and its impact on groundwater resources of Greater Kochi region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, K.K.C.

    the industrial impact; the possibility of nutrient enriched rainwater peeping into groundwater seems to be a reality. The PO sub(4) and NH sub(4) levels remained high at refinery and fertilizer complex. The enriching effect of PO sub(4) by emissions declines...

  3. 运用GMS模型对某垃圾场地下水污染的研究%GMS Model for Assessment and Prediction of Groundwater Pollution of a Garbage Dumpling Site in Luoyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝晓霞; 宁立波; 董少刚

    2012-01-01

    通过对洛阳市某垃圾场的环境地质条件调查和地下水污染监测,用综合污染指数和内梅罗污染指数法,评价了垃圾场对地下水的污染情况;运用GMS模型选择垃圾场的特征污染物对垃圾场周围土壤及地下水的污染现状进行了影响评价;并通过数值模拟计算进行污染预测,为垃圾场水土污染的防治提供了基础资料和科学依据.%Based on surveying and monitoring of environmental and geological conditions of groundwater in a garbage dumpling site at Luoyang, Henan Province, integrating pollution index and Gianni Merlo pollution index were used to assess the influence of the site pollution on groundwater. GMS model was used to select the characteristics pollutants for the assessment of soil and groundwater pollution status around the dumpling site, as well as the prediction by numerical simulation, which would provide scientific basis for prevention and control of water and soil pollution of dumping site.

  4. A novel method of sensitivity analysis testing by applying the DRASTIC and fuzzy optimization methods to assess groundwater vulnerability to pollution: the case of the Senegal River basin in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymane, Keita; Zhonghua, Tang

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability to groundwater pollution in the Senegal River basin was studied by two different but complementary methods: the DRASTIC method (which evaluates the intrinsic vulnerability) and the fuzzy method (which assesses the specific vulnerability by taking into account the continuity of the parameters). The validation of this application has been tested by comparing the connection in groundwater and distribution of different established classes of vulnerabilities as well as the nitrate distribution in the study area. Three vulnerability classes (low, medium and high) have been identified by both the DRASTIC method and the fuzzy method (between which the normalized model was used). An integrated analysis reveals that high classes with 14.64 % (for the DRASTIC method), 21.68 % (for the normalized DRASTIC method) and 18.92 % (for the fuzzy method) are not the most dominant. In addition, a new method for sensitivity analysis was used to identify (and confirm) the main parameters which impact the vulnerability to pollution with fuzzy membership. The results showed that the vadose zone is the main parameter which impacts groundwater vulnerability to pollution while net recharge contributes least to pollution in the study area. It was also found that the fuzzy method better assesses the vulnerability to pollution with a coincidence rate of 81.13 % versus that of 77.35 % for the DRASTIC method. These results serve as a guide for policymakers to identify areas sensitive to pollution before such sites are used for socioeconomic infrastructures.

  5. Potential impacts of groundwater conservation measures on catchment-wide vegetation patterns in a future climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn A. M.; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip M.; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; van Bodegom, Peter M.

    In temperate Europe, warming, summer droughts, and increased winter precipitation are predicted to have profound effects on vegetation performance and composition. Especially groundwater dependent vegetation will be affected. These impacts within the landscape may negatively affect the connectivity

  6. [Uncertainty analysis of groundwater protection and control zoning in Beijing plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater pollution prevention mapping has important meaning to groundwater protection, pollution prevention and effective management. A mapping method was built through combining groundwater pollution risk assessment, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. To make the method more accurate, two series of uncertainty analysis were performed and discussed. One was performed by changing the weights of the toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants, and the other was by changing the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. The results showed that the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning were more sensitive than the weights of toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants.

  7. Evaluation of Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Perchlorate-Impacted Groundwater for Base Case 8-4 Cost Components for Extraction and Treatment of Perchlorate-Impacted Groundwater for Base Case 8-5...consumed, increasing the likelihood of perchlorate biodegradation in the natural environment (Coates and Jackson, 2009). Trace amounts of molybdenum are...chlorinated solvents (USEPA, 1998) have been in use for many years. These documents describe systematic steps for delineating contaminant plumes

  8. A Field Method For Determination of Groundwater and Groundwater-sediment Associated Potentials for Degradation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1992-01-01

    Determination of the degradation potentials for a mixture of eight organic trace contaminants (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, naphthalene, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene) has been made by specially developed in situ microcosms under aerobic and anaerobic...

  9. Potential of Using ROSA Centifolia to Remove Iron and Manganese in Groundwater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslina Abdul Kadir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is source for water supply because of its good natural quality. However, groundwater may be exposed toward to contamination by various anthropogenic activities such as agricultural, domestic and industrial. Groundwater quality problem are typically associated with high hardness, high salinity and elevated concentration of iron, manganese, ammonium, fluoride and occasionally nitrate and arsenic.  Therefore, groundwater should be treated to acceptable level before consumption. This study is carried out with the objectives to optimize the feasibility condition of contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH range in removing heavy metal by using Rosa Centifolia (R. Centifolia and also to determine the water quality of groundwater sources.  A dried Rosa Centifolia pretreated before being used as biosorbent. Experiment was done by varying contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH range to get the optimum value. The removal characteristic of Iron and Manganese by Rosa Centifolia was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The optimum condition is achieved at 240minutes, 0.05g/ml and pH 5 respectively. The optimum percentage removal of Iron and Manganese was found to be more than 70%. The finding indicated that Rosa Centifolia is a promising biosorbent in treating groundwater from RECESS UTHM well.

  10. GIS-based groundwater spring potential assessment and mapping in the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaghi, Zohre Sadat; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2014-05-01

    Three statistical models—frequency ratio (FR), weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression (LR)—produced groundwater-spring potential maps for the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran. In total, 304 springs were identified in a field survey and mapped in a geographic information system (GIS), out of which 212 spring locations were randomly selected to be modeled and the remaining 92 were used for the model evaluation. The effective factors—slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, lithology, land use, and distance to river, road, fault—were derived from the spatial database. Using these effective factors, groundwater spring potential was calculated using the three models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for spring potential maps and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. The final results indicated that the FR model (AUC = 79.38 %) performed better than the WofE (AUC = 75.69 %) and LR (AUC = 63.71 %) models. Sensitivity and factor analyses concluded that the bivariate statistical index model (i.e. FR) can be used as a simple tool in the assessment of groundwater spring potential when a sufficient number of data are obtained.

  11. Cyto- and genotoxic potential of water samples from polluted areas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alija, Avdulla J; Bajraktari, Ismet D; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bojaxhi, Ekramije; Krenn, Margit; Asllani, Fisnik; Eckl, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Reports on the state of the environment in Kosovo have emphasized that river and ground water quality is affected by pollution from untreated urban water as well as the waste water from the industry. One of the main contributors to this pollution is located in Obiliq (coal power plants). Prishtina-the capital city of Kosovo-is heavily influenced too. Furthermore, the pollutants combined together with those from heavy traffic are dissolved in Prishtina runoff water, which is discharged into the creek entering the river Sitnica together with urban waste water. The available data show the complex pollution with excessive quantities of nitrites, suspended materials, organic compounds, detergents, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water samples taken at these sites was tested in primary rat hepatocytes. The results obtained indicate that water samples collected in Prishtina and Obiliq had a significant cytotoxic potential in primary rat hepatocyte cultures even when diluted to 1 %. The increased cytotoxicity, however, was not accompanied by an increased genotoxicity as measured by the percentage of micronucleated cells. Further investigations addressing the chemical composition of the samples and the identification of the toxicants responsible for the cytotoxic effects found will be carried out in a next step.

  12. Diffuse pollution (pesticides and nitrate) at catchment scale on two constrasted sites: mass balances and characterization of the temporal variability of groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, N.; Gutierrez, A.

    2009-04-01

    Enhanced monitoring of groundwater quality over several years has revealed a nitrate and /or pesticide contamination of aquifers in North America and Europe (Gilliom et al., 2006; Ifen, 2004). In many countries (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, Switzerland), drinking water is partly or dominantly supplied by groundwater. Assessing the extent of nitrate or pesticide contamination in aquifer and understanding the transport of the solutes to groundwater is, therefore, of major importance for the management of groundwater resources. Besides, the objective set by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD - 2000/60/EC, OJEC 2000) is for "all groundwater bodies to achieve the good quantitative and chemical status … at the latest by 2015". The Directive demands that European Union Member States not only characterize their levels of groundwater contamination, but also that they study the evolutionary trends of their pollutant concentrations. Monitoring groundwater quality for nitrate and pesticide is thus particularly relevant as well as the characterization of the transfer of solutes to and in groundwater is essential for effective water resource management. Several countries have approached the stage of characterization of their groundwater bodies either by using data derived from various measurement networks, as in France or by establishing specific sampling and analysis protocols (NAQUA network in Switzerland; NAWQA network in the United States). Pesticide monitoring networks, where they exist, are often less than 10 years old with a fairly low measurement frequency (1 to 4 analyses per year). Chemical status and trend interpretations are thus difficult and limited. Characterizing an entire groundwater body from observations limited in time and space remains a challenge. Little published data exists concerning intensive monitoring over several years, whether at the catchment outlet or at observation points spread over a basin, that would allow these

  13. [Pesticide pollution of groundwater and drinking water by the processes of artificial groundwater enrichment or coastal filtration: underrated sources of contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, W

    1994-12-01

    The research objective of this study is to monitor the degree of pesticide pollution in public drinking waters and to characterise the pathways by which these substances get into potable waters. Public drinking waters, raw waters, ground waters, and surface waters in an area with intensive agriculture were analysed for pesticides and nitrate during the years 1987-1992. The monitoring reveals that only potable waters of water works using the process of artificial ground water recharge are polluted by pesticides. The very influence of surface water on the degree of pesticide contamination can be shown up to the wells. Wells that are influenced by bank filtration or infiltration contain significantly (P water wells. Most often triazines and phenylureas are analysed. Among the tested water works the artificial ground water recharge is the main factor for the input of pesticides into the aquifer and the drinking water. Percolation experiments, and parallel seasonal changes of pesticides and nitrate in raw and infiltration water document a high mobility during the subsoil passage and an easy vulnerability of the aquifer. There is no correlation between pesticides and nitrate. So nitrates are not suited as an indicator for pesticide pollution. Almost all tested surface waters, including channels, contain pesticides in highly varying concentrations during the whole year and are thus always a possible source for an input into the recharged ground water. In addition to agricultural runoffs a remarkable contamination of rivers with the herbicide diuron caused by municipal waste waters can be observed in the summer. Because of insufficient elimination of herbicides like triazines and phenylureas during bank filtration or infiltration and because of the high loads of surface waters with pesticides a minimisation of pesticide losses within the whole catchment area, especially of runoffs into surface waters, and the abstention from the use of slowly degradable herbicides in

  14. The environmental impact simulation and prediction of groundwater pollution%地下水污染环境影响模拟与预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宇; 谢世红; 李任政; 张浩

    2016-01-01

    At present, groundwater polution has been a serious environment problem in our country. The polution always runs slow, and is dififcult to detect and control. In order to further understand the environmental impact of groundwater polution, this paper take a sewage treatment plant as an example and considers the geological characteristics of the site. A water injection test is used to determine the soil permeability coefifcient, an established mathematical model used to simulate environmental impact, and to identify the known hydrogeological parameters in order to predict the scope of the environmental impact of pollutants. Results are compared under normal and abnormal conditions. The purpose of this research is to eventualy provide some technical support for the research and governance of groundwater polution.%地下水污染具有过程缓慢、不易发现和难以治理等特点,属重大环境问题。为进一步了解地下水污染的环境影响,以某污水处理厂为例,结合所在场区的地质特征,采用注水试验确定场地内土层的渗透系数;建立数学模型对环境影响进行模拟,并利用已知的各项水文地质参数,对正常工况排水条件下污染物的环境影响范围进行预测,为地下水污染的防治实践提供技术支持。

  15. Integrated experimental and modeling assessment of potential effects of gas leakages on groundwater composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Marton; Dethlefsen, Frank; Ebert, Markus; Schäfer, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Storing renewably produced energy is one of the major challenges for the energy systems of the upcoming decades. Power-to-gas technologies coupled to geological storage of compressed air, methane, and hydrogen offer a comparatively safe and cost-efficient way for large-scale energy storage. However, the stored gases can potentially escape from their geological reservoir and may thus affect protected natural goods such as groundwater. The geochemical reactions responsible for these composition changes are usually investigated separately in experiments and numerical models. Here we present the outcomes of an integrated experimental and modeling approach through the example of a compressed air leakage scenario. A main consequence of the presence of oxygen to be assessed in an aquifer is pyrite oxidation, well known from acid mine drainage sites. However, in contrast to acid mine drainage sites exhibiting unsaturated sediments and fed by meteoric low-carbonate water, aquifers such as in Northern Germany contain a considerable amount of solid and dissolved inorganic carbon species potentially buffering pH changes. High pressure flow-through column experiments representing an intrusion of compressed air into an aquifer were carried out to quantify pyrite oxidation kinetics and to incorporate the observations into a descriptive reaction model. Surface passivation was found to decrease the reactivity of pyrite by more than 90% after a few months of experimental run time. We propose that the carbonate buffer system enables the precipitation of a passivating mineral layer on the pyrite surface reducing the overall reaction rate significantly. Consequently, an established rate law from the literature was extended by a reactive surface passivation term[1]. This improved reaction rate equation was incorporated into a 3D numerical model using OpenGeoSys with parameters representing similarly typical aquifer conditions the experiments had characterized. These boundaries include

  16. Groundwater circulation and utilisation in an unconfined carbonate system - revealing the potential effect of climate change and humankind activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of gravitational groundwater flow systems in carbonate regions were presented by Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth (2015) based on theoretical considerations, identification and classification of groundwater flow-related field phenomena and numerical simulation. It was revealed that the changes of flow pattern in carbonate framework attributed to groundwater utilization and/or climate change are more apparent due to the effective hydraulic conductivity of carbonates. Consequently, natural or artificial disturbances of water level propagate farther, deeper and faster in carbonates than in siliciclastic basins. These changes could result in degradation and reorganization of hierarchical flow systems, modification of recharge and discharge areas and even alteration of physicochemical parameters (Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth, 2015). This paper presents the application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary, depicting the flow pattern of the area and to a practical problem of a local study area, conflicts of interest of water supply and water use of a golf course. The question is how will the natural discharge on the golf course be influenced by the planned karst drinking water production well. In addition, the effects of climate change on this conflict were evaluated. We demonstrate the importance of the understanding the appropriate scale in karst studies and illustrate how the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept can help to determine it. For this purpose, the hydrogeological conditions of the study site were examined at different scales. The goals were to define the appropriate scale and reveal the effects of tectonic structures; and give prognoses for the possible impact of a planned drinking water well and climate change on the golf course based on numerical simulation. The study also showed the low geothermal potential of the area.

  17. Application of Potential Non-Point Pollution Index For An Urban Watershed: Istanbul, Kucukcekmece Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoglu, N.; Dikerler, T.; Seker, D. Z.; Ustun, B.

    2011-12-01

    Istanbul is a major city with more than 15 million population and limited water resources. Besides, its urbanized area has been rapidly expanding for more than 30 years. Küçükçekmece Lagoon, as a potential RAMSAR site with its rich natural diversity and housing asset for birds, has been suffering from urbanization and industrial stress. With Sazlidere Dam constructed on the Lagoon's most important creek which supplies fresh water, Küçükçekmece Basin has almost 600 km2 wide area. Due to dam operation which cuts fresh water input down, water quality of the Küçükçekmece Lagoon has been deteriorating, as well as other antropogenic impacts. Potential non-point pollution index (or PNPI) is based on land use, soil and topographic data and aims to highlight the potentially polluting areas in a watershed. Denoting those areas, PNPI puts an assessment of the pressure exerted on the water bodies by different land uses. This index calculates different layers in order to represent run-off, land cover effect, and the distance of each polluting source (or pixels) in the study area. By the multiplication of those layers under GIS, a new data layer is produced showing the polluting potential of each pixel on the study area. For by Küçükçekmece Basin, Landsat ETM satellite images have been taken and its land use produced by unsupervised classification. Using this updated data, land use - land cover indicator has been calculated for the basin. Topography is another fact that is needed to produce both run-off indicator and distance indicator and it is generated by elevation data with 5m resolution. By integrating these indicator layers, PNPI analysis layer has been produced for Küçükçekmece Lagoon watershed.

  18. Evaluation of four supervised learning methods for groundwater spring potential mapping in Khalkhal region (Iran) using GIS-based features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Moradi Dashtpagerdi, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    One important tool for water resources management in arid and semi-arid areas is groundwater potential mapping. In this study, four data-mining models including K-nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and quadric discriminant analysis (QDA) were used for groundwater potential mapping to get better and more accurate groundwater potential maps (GPMs). For this purpose, 14 groundwater influence factors were considered, such as altitude, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, slope length, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index, distance from rivers, river density, distance from faults, fault density, land use, and lithology. From 842 springs in the study area, in the Khalkhal region of Iran, 70 % (589 springs) were considered for training and 30 % (253 springs) were used as a validation dataset. Then, KNN, LDA, MARS, and QDA models were applied in the R statistical software and the results were mapped as GPMs. Finally, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was implemented to evaluate the performance of the models. According to the results, the area under the curve of ROCs were calculated as 81.4, 80.5, 79.6, and 79.2 % for MARS, QDA, KNN, and LDA, respectively. So, it can be concluded that the performances of KNN and LDA were acceptable and the performances of MARS and QDA were excellent. Also, the results depicted high contribution of altitude, TWI, slope angle, and fault density, while plan curvature and land use were seen to be the least important factors.

  19. Evaluation of Groundwater Pathways and Travel Times From the Nevada Test Site to the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, K. F.; Zhu, J.; Ye, M.; Carroll, R. W.; Chapman, J. B.; Russell, C. E.; Shafer, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada has been recommended as a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If YM is licensed as a repository by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, it will be important to identify the potential for radionuclides to migrate from underground nuclear testing areas located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the hydraulically downgradient repository area to ensure that monitoring does not incorrectly attribute repository failure to radionuclides originating from other sources. In this study, we use the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate potential groundwater migration pathways and associated travel times from the NTS to the proposed YM repository area. Using results from the calibrated DVRFS model and the particle tracking post-processing package MODPATH we modeled three-dimensional groundwater advective pathways in the NTS and YM region. Our study focuses on evaluating the potential for groundwater pathways between the NTS and YM withdrawal area and whether travel times for advective flow along these pathways coincide with the prospective monitoring time frame at the proposed repository. We include uncertainty in effective porosity as this is a critical variable in the determination of time for radionuclides to travel from the NTS region to the YM withdrawal area. Uncertainty in porosity is quantified through evaluation of existing site data and expert judgment and is incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulation. Since porosity information is limited for this region, the uncertainty is quite large and this is reflected in the results as a large range in simulated groundwater travel times.

  20. Evaluation of the Water Quality Pollution Indices for Groundwater Resources of Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was carried out for evaluation of water quality pollution indices for monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination in Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran during spring and summer 2012. Methods: Totally, 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and maintained cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The mean values of Contamination index (Cd, Heavy metal pollution index (HPI and Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.27, 9.01 and 1.73 respectively and in samples for summer season were -1.95, 8.69 and 2.04 respectively. It indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Ghahavand Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but severe precautions consideration such as manage the use of agricultural inputs, prevention of use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, control of overuse of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries are recommended in this area.

  1. 地下水污染调查中探地雷达有限差分数值模拟%GPR numerical modeling with finite-difference method in investigating groundwater pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书; 闫天龙

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors built five kinds of pollution models and carried out numerical simulation with the finite⁃difference method to tackle different ways and different media of groundwater pollution, based on GPR forward modeling software ( GPRMax) . The simulation results show that GPR exhibits fairly good application effects in detecting groundwater pollution.%基于探地雷达正演模拟软件GprMax,针对地下水不同污染途径和不同污染介质,建立了地下水污染的5种模型,采用有限差分法进行了数值模拟计算。模拟结果表明探地雷达在探测地下水污染中有较好的应用效果。

  2. Leaching of the potentially toxic pollutants from composites based on waste raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills were applied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick without any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements and the chemical composition investigation is included. Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods. Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in construction materials production.

  3. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  4. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  5. Application of a GIS-/remote sensing-based approach for predicting groundwater potential zones using a multi-criteria data mining methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Lim, Hwee San

    2017-07-01

    This study integrates the application of Dempster-Shafer-driven evidential belief function (DS-EBF) methodology with remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to analyze surface and subsurface data sets for the spatial prediction of groundwater potential in Perak Province, Malaysia. The study used additional data obtained from the records of the groundwater yield rate of approximately 28 bore well locations. The processed surface and subsurface data produced sets of groundwater potential conditioning factors (GPCFs) from which multiple surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic parameter thematic maps were generated. The bore well location inventories were partitioned randomly into a ratio of 70% (19 wells) for model training to 30% (9 wells) for model testing. Application results of the DS-EBF relationship model algorithms of the surface- and subsurface-based GPCF thematic maps and the bore well locations produced two groundwater potential prediction (GPP) maps based on surface hydrologic and subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics which established that more than 60% of the study area falling within the moderate-high groundwater potential zones and less than 35% falling within the low potential zones. The estimated uncertainty values within the range of 0 to 17% for the predicted potential zones were quantified using the uncertainty algorithm of the model. The validation results of the GPP maps using relative operating characteristic curve method yielded 80 and 68% success rates and 89 and 53% prediction rates for the subsurface hydrogeologic factor (SUHF)- and surface hydrologic factor (SHF)-based GPP maps, respectively. The study results revealed that the SUHF-based GPP map accurately delineated groundwater potential zones better than the SHF-based GPP map. However, significant information on the low degree of uncertainty of the predicted potential zones established the suitability of the two GPP maps for future development of

  6. The Use Of Electromagnetic And Electrical Resistivity Methods In Assessing Groundwater Resource Potentials In Adoe Sunyani Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred K. Bienibuor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were used to map out potential groundwater sites for boreholes drilling in the Adoe community in the Sunyani west district of Ghana. The electromagnetic data was taken with the Geonics EM-34 conductivity meter while the electrical resistivity data was taken with the ABEM SAS 1000 C Terrameter using the Schlumberger electrode configuration. Results from the measurements revealed four subsurface geological layers of the following resistivity and thickness ranges quartzitic sandstone with clay 42-118 amp937m 1-2.2 m sandy clay with silt 27-487 amp937m 9-12 m lateritic sandstone 13-728 amp937m 6-14 m and clayey shale 20-29 amp937m 6-14 m The overburden ranged in thickness from 14 m to 24 m. Sites selected for borehole drilling had a groundwater yield range of 0.94 -12 m3h.

  7. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  8. Numerical groundwater-flow modeling to evaluate potential effects of pumping and recharge: implications for sustainable groundwater management in the Mahanadi delta region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sasmita; Jha, Madan K.

    2017-07-01

    Process-based groundwater models are useful to understand complex aquifer systems and make predictions about their response to hydrological changes. A conceptual model for evaluating responses to environmental changes is presented, considering the hydrogeologic framework, flow processes, aquifer hydraulic properties, boundary conditions, and sources and sinks of the groundwater system. Based on this conceptual model, a quasi-three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was designed using MODFLOW to simulate the groundwater system of Mahanadi River delta, eastern India. The model was constructed in the context of an upper unconfined aquifer and lower confined aquifer, separated by an aquitard. Hydraulic heads of 13 shallow wells and 11 deep wells were used to calibrate transient groundwater conditions during 1997-2006, followed by validation (2007-2011). The aquifer and aquitard hydraulic properties were obtained by pumping tests and were calibrated along with the rainfall recharge. The statistical and graphical performance indicators suggested a reasonably good simulation of groundwater flow over the study area. Sensitivity analysis revealed that groundwater level is most sensitive to the hydraulic conductivities of both the aquifers, followed by vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining layer. The calibrated model was then employed to explore groundwater-flow dynamics in response to changes in pumping and recharge conditions. The simulation results indicate that pumping has a substantial effect on the confined aquifer flow regime as compared to the unconfined aquifer. The results and insights from this study have important implications for other regional groundwater modeling studies, especially in multi-layered aquifer systems.

  9. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  10. Digitized generalized areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater withdrawals in adjacent valleys, Great Basin National Park area, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons delineate generalized areas in and around Great Basin National Park where surface-water resources likely or potentially are susceptible to groundwater...

  11. Potential groundwater sampling sites for installation of a well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). This dataset includes 90 potential groundwater sampling sites randomly generated using...

  12. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  13. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is me

  14. The bioindicative potential evaluation of Tabebuia alba (Cham. Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, in urban atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Vinícius Carvalheiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the existence of leaf anatomic characteristics in Tabebuia alba changed by air pollutants, which could be used as tool for a bioindication program. The quantification of mutagenic events on pollen grains also were measured. For this, median leaves and pre-anthesis flowers were collected from the adult plants from three places of Curitiba and one place in Araucaria, all nearby to the air monitoring stations. The comparison of the four study sites showed a reduction in leaf area, an increasing of stomatal density, subepidermic layer, epidermis in both faces and the amount of micronucleus. Also, there was reduction of chlorophyllian parenchymas at the site where there was the higher average for the ozone level. It was concluded that these modifications might be a consequence of the effect of troposferic pollution on T. alba plants. However, further studies with this species would be necessary to confirm its potential for bioindication.

  15. Submarine groundwater discharge at Kahana Bay, Oahu, 1997-2001: in situ CTD and water chemistry tracer data (NODC Accession 0011399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is neither well understood nor commonly investigated in Hawaii, but it is recognized as a potential pollution source to coastal...

  16. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Coastal recirculation potential affecting air pollutants in Portugal: The role of circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Jerez, Sonia; Mendes, Manuel; Trigo, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are under increasing development and experience air pollution episodes regularly. These episodes are often related to peaks in local emissions from industry or transportation, but can also be associated with regional transport from neighbour urban areas influenced by land-sea breeze recirculation. This study intends to analyze the relation between circulation weather patterns, air mass recirculation and pollution levels in three coastal airsheds of Portugal (Lisbon, Porto and Sines) based on the application of an objective quantitative measure of potential recirculation. Although ventilation events have a dominant presence throughout the studied 9-yrs period on all the three airsheds, recirculation and stagnation conditions occur frequently. The association between NO2, SO2 and O3 levels and recirculation potential is evident during summer months. Under high average recirculation potential and high variability, NO2 and SO2 levels are higher for the three airsheds, whilst for O3 each airshed responds differently. This indicates a high heterogeneity among the three airsheds in (1) the type of emission - traffic or industry - prevailing for each contaminant, and (2) the response to the various circulation weather patterns and recirculation situations. Irrespectively of that, the proposed methodology, based on iterative K-means clustering, allows to identify which prevailing patterns are associated with high recirculation potential, having the advantage of being applicable to any geographical location.

  19. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  20. Three-dimensional inversion of self-potential data used to constrain the pattern of groundwater flow in geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; BolèVe, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2008-09-01

    We propose an algorithm to invert self-potential signals measured at the ground surface of the Earth to localize hydromechanical disturbances or to the pattern of groundwater flow in geothermal systems. The self-potential signals result from the divergence of the streaming current density. Groundwater flow can be either driven by topography of the water table, free convection, or deform