WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater onsite early

  1. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A; Abernethy, Cary S; McKinstry, Craig A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs

  2. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Estimating potential groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.; Neuder, S.M.; Pennifill, R.A.; Ginn, T.

    1986-11-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report describe the NRC's methodology for assessing the potential public health and environmental impacts associated with onsite disposal of very low activity radioactive materials. This volume (Vol. 3) describes a general methodology for predicting potential groundwater contamination from onsite disposal. The methodology includes formulating a conceptual model, representing the conceptual model mathematically, estimating conservative parameters, and predicting receptor concentrations. Processes which must generally be considered in the methodology include infiltration, leaching of radionuclides from the waste, transport to the saturated zone, transport within the saturated zone, and withdrawal at a receptor location. A case study of shallow burial of iodine-125 illustrates application of the MOCMOD84 version of the US Geological Survey's 2-D solute transport model and a corresponding analytical solution. The appendices include a description and listing of MOCMOD84, descriptions of several analytical solution techniques, and a procedure for estimating conservative groundwater velocity values

  3. Assessment of On-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamar, Rafat; Jangam, C.; Veligeti, J.; Chintalapudi, P.; Janipella, R.

    2017-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of the On-site sanitation system on the groundwater sources in its vicinity. The study has been undertaken in the Agra city of Yamuna sub-basin. In this context, sampling sites (3 nos) namely Pandav Nagar, Ayodhya Kunj and Laxmi Nagar were selected for sampling. The groundwater samples were analyzed for major cations, anions and faecal coliform. Critical parameters namely chloride, nitrate and Faecal coliform were considered to assess the impact of the On-site sanitation systems. The analytical results shown that except for chloride, most of the samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standard limits for drinking water for all the other analyzed parameters, i.e., nitrate and faecal coliform in the first two sites. In Laxmi Nagar, except for faecal coliform, all the samples are below the BIS limits. In all the three sites, faecal coliform was found in majority of the samples. A comparison of present study indicates that the contamination of groundwater in alluvial setting is less as compared to hard rock where On-site sanitation systems have been implemented.

  4. An early warning system for groundwater pollution based on the assessment of groundwater pollution risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong.; Zhao, Yongsheng; Hong, Mei; Guo, Xiaodong

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater pollution usually is complex and concealed, remediation of which is difficult, high cost, time-consuming, and ineffective. An early warning system for groundwater pollution is needed that detects groundwater quality problems and gets the information necessary to make sound decisions before massive groundwater quality degradation occurs. Groundwater pollution early warning were performed by considering comprehensively the current groundwater quality, groundwater quality varying trend and groundwater pollution risk . The map of the basic quality of the groundwater was obtained by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or BP neural network evaluation. Based on multi-annual groundwater monitoring datasets, Water quality state in sometime of the future was forecasted using time-sequenced analyzing methods. Water quality varying trend was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlative coefficient.The relative risk map of groundwater pollution was estimated through a procedure that identifies, cell by cell,the values of three factors, that is inherent vulnerability, load risk of pollution source and contamination hazard. DRASTIC method was used to assess inherent vulnerability of aquifer. Load risk of pollution source was analyzed based on the potential of contamination and pollution degree. Assessment index of load risk of pollution source which involves the variety of pollution source, quantity of contaminants, releasing potential of pollutants, and distance were determined. The load risks of all sources considered by GIS overlay technology. Early warning model of groundwater pollution combined with ComGIS technology organically, the regional groundwater pollution early-warning information system was developed, and applied it into Qiqiha'er groundwater early warning. It can be used to evaluate current water quality, to forecast water quality changing trend, and to analyze space-time influencing range of groundwater quality by natural process and human activities. Keywords

  5. Temporal Variability of Faecal Contamination from On-Site Sanitation Systems in the Groundwater of Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C. Joon; Ziegler, Alan D.

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the impacts of on-site sanitation systems to local groundwater. In this year-long study, we monitored the response of faecal contamination levels to hydroclimatological factors including rainfall and groundwater table. Concentration of faecal indicators— E. coli (ESC), Enterococcus (ENT), nitrate—in thirteen pairs of shallow and deep wells were determined every 7-14 days. All samples from shallow wells were tested positive for faecal contamination (ESC and ENT > 1 MPN/100 mL) but concentration varies. A maximum of 24,000 MPN/100 mL were recorded in some shallow wells. Water from deep wells showed lower susceptibility to contamination with only 4 and 23% of samples tested positive for ESC and ENT, respectively. Concentrations of ESC and ENT were lower too, with a maximum of 5 MPN/100 mL and 28 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Fluctuation in contamination among the wells was described by four archetypal responses to hydroclimatological forcing: (i) flushing during the onset of wet season, (ii) dilution over the course of the wet season, (iii) concentration during the dry season, and (iv) synoptic response to storms. Previous studies attempting to link the prevalence of faecal/waterborne diseases and temporal factors (e.g., dry vs wet season) have produced differing outcomes. Our study may help explain the relevant hydrological mechanisms leading to these varying observations. Presently, most communities in Thailand have access to `improved' sanitation systems. However, due to the unsustainable implementation of these systems, the otherwise viable drinking-water resources in the form of the abundant local groundwater has become a genuine health hazard.

  6. The impact of onsite wastewater disposal systems on groundwater in areas inundated by Hurricane Sandy in New York and New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Irene; Phillips, Patrick J.; Colella, Kaitlyn; Fisher, Shawn C.; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) were inundated by Hurricane Sandy's storm tide. This study compares the shallow groundwater quality (nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) downgradient of OWDS before and after Hurricane Sandy, where available, and establishes a baseline for wastewater influence on groundwater in coastal communities inundated by Hurricane Sandy. Nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were detected in shallow groundwater downgradient of OWDS in two settings along the New Jersey and New York coastlines: 1) a single, centralized OWDS in a park; and 2) multiple OWDS (cesspools) in low-density residential and mixed-use/medium density residential areas. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were lidocaine (40%), carbamazepine (36%), and fexofenadine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, meprobamate, and tramadol (24–32%). Increases in the number and total concentration of pharmaceuticals after Hurricane Sandy may reflect other factors (seasonality, usage) besides inundation, and demonstrate the importance of analyzing for a wide variety of CECs in regional studies.

  7. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  8. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, Shane [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick [Department of Applied Sciences, Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Dundalk (Ireland); Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  9. Advancing family health through the Garden of Eatin': on-site food gardens in early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.

  10. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  11. Earthquake Early Warning: Real-time Testing of an On-site Method Using Waveform Data from the Southern California Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, K.; Hauksson, E.; Kanamori, H.; Wu, Y.; Heaton, T.; Boese, M.

    2007-12-01

    We have implemented an on-site early warning algorithm using the infrastructure of the Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). We are evaluating the real-time performance of the software system and the algorithm for rapid assessment of earthquakes. In addition, we are interested in understanding what parts of the SCSN need to be improved to make early warning practical. Our EEW processing system is composed of many independent programs that process waveforms in real-time. The codes were generated by using a software framework. The Pd (maximum displacement amplitude of P wave during the first 3sec) and Tau-c (a period parameter during the first 3 sec) values determined during the EEW processing are being forwarded to the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) web page for independent evaluation of the results. The on-site algorithm measures the amplitude of the P-wave (Pd) and the frequency content of the P-wave during the first three seconds (Tau-c). The Pd and the Tau-c values make it possible to discriminate between a variety of events such as large distant events, nearby small events, and potentially damaging nearby events. The Pd can be used to infer the expected maximum ground shaking. The method relies on data from a single station although it will become more reliable if readings from several stations are associated. To eliminate false triggers from stations with high background noise level, we have created per station Pd threshold configuration for the Pd/Tau-c algorithm. To determine appropriate values for the Pd threshold we calculate Pd thresholds for stations based on the information from the EEW logs. We have operated our EEW test system for about a year and recorded numerous earthquakes in the magnitude range from M3 to M5. Two recent examples are a M4.5 earthquake near Chatsworth and a M4.7 earthquake near Elsinore. In both cases, the Pd and Tau-c parameters were determined successfully within 10 to 20 sec of the arrival of the

  12. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  13. In-situ and on-site technologies; An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, F J [Technical Support Branch, ORD, RREL, U.S. EPA, Edison, New Jersey (US)

    1990-01-01

    A broad analysis of and perspective on the characteristics and measured performance of in-situ and on-site treatment technologies available for remediation of contaminated soils, groundwater and associated debris at hazardous waste sites. Included in the analysis is information from U.S. and European sources. Available data are appended from nine recently completed field demonstrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The most frequently applied technology areas appear to be on-site thermal treatment for organics, on-site and in-situ solidification/stabilization technologies for most inorganics and metals, traditional on-site water treatment techniques, and soil vapor extraction for volatile organic compounds. Rapidly developing areas include bioremediation technologies, and concentration technologies. Two of the weakest areas include materials handling for such situations as excavating buried drums and soils with volatiles safely, and performing physical and chemical site characterization using technology-sensitive parameters. An area worthy of international cooperatin is that of performing benchscale screening and treatability studies, including the specification of key parameters needing measurement, techniques for such measurement and for interpretation, storage and retrieval of resulting data. We are in the process of evaluating existing treatability study data on soils and debris, and will be installing that data onto an on-line information system available to the public world-wide. (AB) 10 refs.

  14. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  15. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  16. Hydrochemical variations in selected geothermal groundwater and carbonated springs in Korea: a baseline study for early detection of CO2 leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hanna; Piao, Jize; Woo, Nam C; Cho, Heuynam

    2017-02-01

    A baseline hydrochemistry of the above zone aquifer was examined for the potential of CO 2 early detection monitoring. Among the major ionic components and stable isotope ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, components with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of leakage into the above zone. As an analog to the zone above CO 2 storage formation, we sampled deep groundwater, including geothermal groundwater from well depths of 400-700 m below the ground surface (bgs) and carbonated springs with a high CO 2 content in Korea. Under the natural conditions of inland geothermal groundwater, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), bicarbonate (HCO 3 ), δ 18 O, δ 2 H, and δ 13 C were relatively stable as well as sensitive to the introduction of CO 2 (g), thus showing good potential as monitoring parameters for early detection of CO 2 leakage. In carbonated springs, the parameters identified were pH, δ 18 O, and δ 2 H. Baseline hydrochemistry monitoring could provide information on parameters useful for detecting anomalies caused by CO 2 leakage as measures for early warning.

  17. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  18. 42 CFR 424.517 - Onsite review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Onsite review. 424.517 Section 424.517 Public... Billing Privileges § 424.517 Onsite review. (a) CMS reserves the right, when deemed necessary, to perform onsite review of a provider or supplier to verify that the enrollment information submitted to CMS or its...

  19. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  20. Engineered wetlands for on-site groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands have been touted as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and water. They incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems that enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. Engineered wetlands generally emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. Design parameters include biodegradation rate coefficients, flowrate, hydraulic residence time plus influent and required effluent concentrations. This paper described the installation of an engineered wetland system at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery in Wyoming where a pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and ammonia. The wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of contaminated ground water per day and has been in operation since May 2003. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Training Artisans On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and  the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation. 

  2. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities

  3. Wekiva Basin onsite sewage treatment and disposal system study

    OpenAIRE

    Booher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Existing onsite systems and aquifer vulnerability in the Wekiva Basin. Recommendations from the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health. (11 slides)

  4. CTBT on-site inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  5. Nitrogen and carbon dynamics beneath on-site wastewater treatment systems in Pitt County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Katie L; Humphrey, Charles P; Mitra, Siddhartha; O'Driscoll, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWS) are a potentially significant non-point source of nutrients to groundwater and surface waters, and are extensively used in coastal North Carolina. The goal of this study was to determine the treatment efficiency of four OWS in reducing total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations before discharge to groundwater and/or adjacent surface water. Piezometers were installed for groundwater sample collection and nutrient analysis at four separate residences that use OWS. Septic tank effluent, groundwater, and surface water samples (from an adjacent stream) were collected four times during 2012 for TDN and DOC analysis and pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen measurements. Treatment efficiencies from the tank to the groundwater beneath the drainfields ranged from 33 to 95% for TDN and 45 to 82% for DOC, although dilution accounted for most of the concentration reductions. There was a significant positive correlation between nitrate concentration and separation distance from trench bottom to water table and a significant negative correlation between DOC concentration and separation distance. The TDN and DOC transport (>15 m) from two OWS with groundwater saturated drainfield trenches was significant.

  6. Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Power Systems in US Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Roy K.

    2015-01-01

    The AC electric power system is the source of power for station auxiliaries during normal operation and for the reactor protection system and emergency safety features during abnormal and accident conditions. Since the construction of early plants in US, the functional adequacy and requirements of the offsite power systems, safety and non safety related onsite electric power systems have changed considerably to ensure that these systems have adequate redundancy, independence, quality, maintenance and testability to support safe shutdown of the nuclear plant. The design of AC systems has evolved from a single train to multiple (up to four) redundant trains in the current evolutionary designs coupled with other auxiliary AC systems. The early plants were designed to cope with a Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) event through the use of onsite power supplies only. However operating experience has indicated that onsite and offsite power AC power systems can fail due to natural phenomena (earthquakes, lightning strikes, fires, geomagnetic storms, tsunamis, etc.) or operational abnormalities such as loss of a single phase, switching surges or human error. The onsite DC systems may not be adequately sized to support plant safe shutdown over an extended period if AC power cannot be restored within a reasonable time. This paper will discuss the requirements to improve availability and reliability of offsite and onsite alternating current (AC) power sources to U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. In addition, the paper will discuss the requirements and guidance beyond design basis events. (author)

  7. Facilitating Employee Recruitment and Retention through On-Site Child Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Kathy A.

    An early childhood educator at a 360-bed community general hospital implemented a licensed on-site child care program for children between 6 weeks and 10 years of age in order to improve employee recruitment and retention by assisting employees with appropriate child care arrangements. A parent questionnaire was used to assess the degree to which…

  8. Evaluation of Approaches for Managing Nitrate Loading from On-Site Wastewater Systems near La Pine, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Weick, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and Deschutes County, to develop a better understanding of the effects of nitrogen from on-site wastewater disposal systems on the quality of ground water near La Pine in southern Deschutes County and northern Klamath County, Oregon. Simulation models were used to test the conceptual understanding of the system and were coupled with optimization methods to develop the Nitrate Loading Management Model, a decision-support tool that can be used to efficiently evaluate alternative approaches for managing nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems. The conceptual model of the system is based on geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data collected for this study, as well as previous hydrogeologic and water quality studies and field testing of on-site wastewater systems in the area by other agencies. On-site wastewater systems are the only significant source of anthropogenic nitrogen to shallow ground water in the study area. Between 1960 and 2005 estimated nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems increased from 3,900 to 91,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. When all remaining lots are developed (in 2019 at current building rates), nitrate loading is projected to reach nearly 150,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. Low recharge rates (2-3 inches per year) and ground-water flow velocities generally have limited the extent of nitrate occurrence to discrete plumes within 20-30 feet of the water table; however, hydraulic-gradient and age data indicate that, given sufficient time and additional loading, nitrate will migrate to depths where many domestic wells currently obtain water. In 2000, nitrate concentrations greater than 4 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg N/L) were detected in 10 percent of domestic wells sampled by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Numerical simulation models were constructed at transect (2

  9. Onsite well screening with a transportable gas chromatography/mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Eckenrode, B.A.; Owens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The number of hazardous waste site operations continue to multiply. The requirements for efficient chemical assessment and monitoring of these sites become more stringent daily. As more samples are required, the time required for cleanup operations also increases and may make analytical costs prohibitive. Thus improvements in operation efficiency and reduction of cost in evaluating specific sites to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the surrounding environment are critical. For many years a formal policy did not exist for the disposal of waste solvents and other chemicals, thus many of these compounds were disposed of ensite. So long as these materials were contained onsite they were not considered to pose a threat to the surrounding environment. We have since determined that many of these compounds found their way into the groundwater. Contaminants such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, which were heavily used for cleaning and degreasing purposes, must be monitored. Groundwater wells can be used to define the location and extent of the migration of any contaminant plume and aid in the determination of required cleanup. The major problem is that monitoring of hundreds of wells may be necessary, requiring several hundred samples on a quarterly basis to characterize the degree and extent of any contamination. Onsite analysis of monitoring wells for this characterization of waste operations could provide time savings and significant cost reduction. Field analyses can provide the required analytical results quickly and at a reduced cost without compromising either sample integrity or data quality. By using onsite analytical instrumentation, such as a field-transportable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS), screening analyses can be performed to eliminate retturning to the laboratory with meaningless samples. Onsite GC/MS will provide qualitative or semi-quantitative information that can significantly simplify subsequent laboratory analyses

  10. SICOM: On-site inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, J.J.; Quecedo, M.; Fernandez, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    As the irradiation conditions become more demanding for the fuel than in the past, there is a need for surveillance programs to gather in-reactor operating experience. The data obtained in these programs can be used to assess the performance of current fuel designs and the improvements incorporated to the fuel assembly design, the performance of the advanced cladding alloys, etc. In these regards, valuable data is obtained from on-site fuel inspections. These on-site data comprise fuel assembly dimensional data such as length and distortion (tilt, twist and bow) and fuel rod data such as length and oxide thickness. These data have to be reliable and accurate to be useful thus, demanding a high precision inspection equipment. However, the inspection equipment has to be also robust and flexible enough to operate in the plant spent fuel pool and, sometimes, without interfering in the works carried out during a plant outage. To meet these requirements, during the past years ENUSA and TECNATOM have developed two on-site inspection systems. While the first system can perform most of the typical measurements in a stand-alone manner thus, without interfering with the critical path of the reload, the second one reduces the inspection time but requires using the plant capabilities. The paper describes both equipment for fuel on-site inspection, their characteristics and main features. (author)

  11. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  12. Requirements of on-site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchardt, H.

    1977-01-01

    1) Requirements of on-site facilities: a) brief description of supplying the site with electricity and water; communication facilities, b) necessary facilities for containment and pipeline installation, c) necessary facilities for storage, safety, accommodation of personnel, housing; workshops; 2) Site management: a) Organisation schedules for 'turn-key-jobs' and 'single commission', b) Duties of the supervisory staff. (orig.) [de

  13. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neems, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  14. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    4Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Corresponding ... integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. .... table is mainly controlled by subsurface movement of water into ...

  15. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik

    2011-11-15

    The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination events. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an early warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 66795 - TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... follows: ``All workers TTM Technologies, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Services and Aerotek... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-64,993] TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site Leased Worker From Orbotech...

  17. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided

  18. Onsite gas storage for industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikari, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The changing pattern of industrial gas marketing in the United States and other countries has placed new pressures on industrial users to assume responsibility for assuring their own supply. Technological changes in manufacturing processes have placed greater emphasis on assuring fuel quality and many processes can no longer tolerate near-substitutes such as distillate fuel oil and LPG. One way to take advantage of lower cost interruptible gas service contracts is to provide stand-by sources of gas onsite which can be used when the primary supply is curtailed. This paper describes the methods which an industrial gas consumer could use to store gas onsite (or close by an industrial factory) and their technical and economic advantages or limitations. The regulatory factors such as environmental and safety issues are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are described. The application of emerging technologies such as storing natural gas on adsorbents at low pressure and solid absorption in LPG are reviewed and the research needed to make them acceptable is discussed. The potential applications in the marketplace are also discussed and the economics of onsite storage of natural gas is compared to other alternatives. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. 2011 Mound Site Groundwater Plume Rebound Exercise and Follow-Up - 13440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [Mound Site Manager, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Cato, Rebecca; Lupton, Greg [S.M. Stoller Company, contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Mound Site facility near Miamisburg, Ohio, opened in 1948 to support early atomic weapons programs. It grew into a research, development, and production facility performing work in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons and energy programs. The plant was in operation until 1995. During the course of operation, an onsite landfill was created. The landfill was located over a finger of a buried valley aquifer, which is a sole drinking water source for much of the Miami Valley. In the 1980's, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were discovered in groundwater at the Mound site. The site was placed on the National Priorities List on November 21, 1989. DOE signed a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Federal Facility Agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The agreement became effective in October 1990. The area that included the landfill was designated Operational Unit 1 (OU-1). In 1995, a Record of Decision was signed that called for the installation and operation of a pump and treatment (P and T) system in order to prevent the VOCs in OU-1 groundwater from being captured by the onsite water production wells. In addition to the P and T system, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed in 1997 to accelerate removal of VOCs from groundwater in the OU-1 area. The SVE system was successful in removing large amounts of VOCs and continued to operate until 2007, when the amount of VOCs removed became minimal. A rebound study was started in February 2003 to determine how the groundwater system and contaminants would respond to shutting down the P and T system. The rebound test was stopped in February 2004 because predetermined VOC threshold concentrations were exceeded down-gradient of the landfill. The P and T and SVE systems were restarted after the termination of the rebound test. In 2006, the remediation of the Mound site was

  20. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  1. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  2. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Rieger, J.T.; Webber, W.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Gillespie, B.M.; Luttrell, S.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Liikala, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  4. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  5. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  6. 7 CFR 205.403 - On-site inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.403 On-site inspections. (a) On-site inspections. (1... site that produces or handles organic products and that is included in an operation for which...

  7. On-site and off-site activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Design principles for NPP training programs. Effects of NPP contracts. Effects of domestic industrial activities. The role of international bodies. Requirements for on-site training. Training abroad, technical, financial and social aspects. Training center on-site, an evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

  9. Changes between early development (1930–60) and recent (2005–15) groundwater-level altitudes and dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations In and near Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Teeple, Andrew; Payne, Jason; Ikard, Scott

    2016-06-21

    Llano Estacado Underground Water Conservation District, Sandy Land Underground Water Conservation District, and South Plains Underground Water Conservation District manage groundwater resources in a part of west Texas near the Texas-New Mexico State line. Declining groundwater levels have raised concerns about the amount of available groundwater in the study area and the potential for water-quality changes resulting from dewatering and increased vertical groundwater movement between adjacent water-bearing units.

  10. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gokmen

    2011-12-01

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic groundwater contamination are agricultural activities, mining waste, industrial waste, on-site septic tank systems, and pollution from imperfect well constructions. The analysis results revealed that natural contamination due to salt and gypsum are mostly found in Central and Mediterranean regions and arsenic in Aegean region. Geothermal fluids which contain fluoride poses a danger for skeleton, dental, and bone problems, especially in the areas of Denizli, Isparta, and Aydın. Discharges from surface water bodies contaminate groundwater by infiltration. Evidence of such contamination is found in Upper Kızılırmak basin, Gediz basin, and Büyük Melen river basin and some drinking water reservoirs in İstanbul. Additionally, seawater intrusion causes groundwater quality problems in coastal regions, especially in the Aegean coast. Industrial wastes are also polluting surface and groundwater in industrialized regions of Turkey. Deterioration of water quality as a result of fertilizers and pesticides is another major problem especially in the regions of Mediterranean, Aegean, Central Anatolia, and Marmara. Abandoned mercury mines in the western regions of Turkey, especially in Çanakkale, İzmir, Muğla, Kütahya, and Balıkesir, cause serious groundwater quality problems.

  11. Managing the risks of on-site health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2011-11-01

    This review sought to assess compliance concerns, determine risk management strategies, and identify opportunities for future research to contribute to employers' understanding of the laws and regulations that apply to on-site care. A comprehensive review of databases, professional organizations' websites, and journals resulted in 22 publications reporting on the consequences of noncompliance among on-site health centers accepted for inclusion. None of those studies reported a study design or quantifiable outcome data. Two noncompliance themes were repeated among the publications. First, direct penalties included fines, civil actions, loss of licensure, and, potentially, criminal charges. Second, noncompliance also resulted in indirect costs such as employee mistrust and lowered standards of care, which jeopardize on-site health centers' ability to demonstrate a return on investment. Further research with rigorous methodology is needed to inform employer decisions about on-site health services and associated risk management. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Radioactive waste on-site storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The first, most frequently evaluated approach for the large producer is the construction of a relatively expensive storage building. However, with the likely possibility that at least one disposal site will remain available and the building never used, such expenditures are difficult to justify. A low cost, but effective alternative, is the use of ''On-Site Storage Containers'' (OSSC) when and if required. Radwaste is only stored in the OSSC if a disposal site is not available. A small number of OSSC's would be purchased initially just to assure immediate access to storage. Only in the unlikely event of total disposal sites closure would additional OSSC's have to be obtained and even this is cost effective. With two or three months of storage available on site, production lead time is sufficient for the delivery of additional units at a rate faster than the waste can be produced. The recommended OSSC design would be sized and shielding optimized to meet the needs of the waste generator. Normally, this would duplicate the shipping containers (casks or vans) currently in use. The reinforced concrete design presented is suitable for outside storage, contains a leakproof polyethylene liner and has remote sampling capability. Licensing would be under 10CFR50.59 for interim storage with long-term storage under 10CFR30 not an impossibility. Cost comparisons of this approach vs. building construction show that for a typical reactor plant installation, the OSSC offers direct savings even under the worst case assumption that no disposal sites are available and the time value of money is zero

  13. On-site monitoring of plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Richardson, C.K.; Paulka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: As part of the Maralinga rehabilitation program it is necessary to implement a system of on-site monitoring for the workers in order to ensure that they do not exceed recommended dose limits. The main problem in the rehabilitation work is the inhalation of dusts which contain micron sized plutonium particles. Using the new ICRP lung model and available data derived from measurements on contaminated soils, the intake for a dose of 20 mSv was calculated to be 1200 Bq. Four methods are available for direct measurements on workers; nasal swabs, faecal analysis, urine analysis and lung monitoring. The first two techniques are sensitive but will give varying results depending of the time interval between exposure and sampling. They are also difficult to implement on a routine basis. For the second two techniques, the activity in the lungs and the activity excreted per day in the urine remain relatively constant for several years following an intake, making more accurate dose estimates possible. The ICRP lung model predicts deposition in the lung of the order of 5% of intake and urinary excretion models predict approximately 10 -5 of this will be excreted daily in the urine. Lung monitoring of workers will be performed routinely at Maralinga in a partly enclosed room constructed from 10cm of steel, using two 50 mm diameter germanium detectors shielded with lead collimators. The detectors will measure 241 Am, which has grown in following the decay of 241 Pu, and the minimum detectable activity will be 15 - 20 Bq depending on the chest thickness and chest wall thickness of the individual being measured. Urine will be collected routinely and selected samples will be measured. The minimum detectable activity will be 2001μBq of 239 Pu in a daily urine sample

  14. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling mun...

  15. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  16. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  17. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  18. Fate and Transport of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.; Danmowa, N.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to groundwater pollution is largely not quantified in most aquifers and watersheds in the world. Thus, the knowledge about the fate and transport of N and P from OWTS is needed to protect groundwater contamination. In Florida, porous sandy soils intensify the transport of N from drianfield of OWTS to shallow groundwater. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to investigate the dynamics of N and P transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in full scale OWTS. We constructed three mounds: (1) drip dispersal mound: 45 cm depth of sand below the emitters, followed by natural soil; (2) gravel trench mound: 45 cm depth of sand below the emitters, followed by 30 cm depth of gravels, and natural soil; and (3) advanced system mound: which contained aerobic (lingo-cellulosic) and anaerobic (sulfur) media for enhanced nitrification and denitrification before dispersing wastewater in the vadose zone. Each mound received 120 L of septic tank effluent (STE) per day (equivalent to maximum allowable rate of 3 L/ft2/day) from our facility (office and homes); STE was dosed 6 times at 4-hour intervals in a day. Soil water samples were collected from the mounds (vadose zone) by using suction cup lysimeters installed at 0.30, 0.60, and 1.05 m depth and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers installed at 3-3.30 m depth below mounds. We collected samples during May-Aug 2012 before STE delivery (3 events at 3-day intervals) and after STE delivery (10 events at 3-day intervals; 13 events at 7-day intervals). Collected samples (STE, soil water, groundwater) were analysed for pH, EC, chloride (Cl), and organic and inorganic N and P fractions. The ranges of pH, EC, and Cl of STE (26 events) were 6.9-7.7, 1.01-1.33 d

  19. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  20. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Siegrist, Robert L; Barber, Larry B; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  1. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    groundwaters, and also by stable isotopes and uranium isotopes in secondary minerals. Information on timing of water and solute movements is important because it indicates any correlation with the timing of external events that might have perturbed and destabilised the groundwater system in the past, and allows a timescale to be estimated for the persistence of stable conditions. Data from a number of published site investigation projects and research programmes are reviewed to illustrate the patterns of geochemical data and the relationships between them, and how these are interpreted in terms of hydrodynamic stability. Data from Aespoe and Stripa and from exploratory boreholes at Finnsjoen and other sites in Sweden are compiled and discussed. Preliminary data from SKB's ongoing site investigations at Simpevarp/Laxemar and Forsmark are not considered in detail but their general similarities with Aespoe and Finnsjoen/SFR respectively are introduced into the discussion of geochemical evidence for groundwater stability in inland and coastal areas. Relevant data from Finnish sites including Olkiluoto, from the Whiteshell URL area in Canada, from Sellafield in the UK, and from the Tono area and URL in Japan are also summarised in appendices and discussed because they add further insights into the interpretation of geochemical indicators for a range of geological environments. The compiled data provide only limited scope for comparison of groundwater evolution and stability between inland and coastal areas in Sweden, because of the patchiness of representative data especially from early site studies. The external changes that might have perturbed stable groundwater conditions in the past are glaciation (i.e. melt water, mechanical loading/unloading and permafrost) and varying sea water infiltration at coastal sites due to changes in palaeo-Baltic and isostatic conditions. The present distributions of palaeo-Baltic sea water in groundwaters at coastal sites vary, reflecting local

  2. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    groundwaters, and also by stable isotopes and uranium isotopes in secondary minerals. Information on timing of water and solute movements is important because it indicates any correlation with the timing of external events that might have perturbed and destabilised the groundwater system in the past, and allows a timescale to be estimated for the persistence of stable conditions. Data from a number of published site investigation projects and research programmes are reviewed to illustrate the patterns of geochemical data and the relationships between them, and how these are interpreted in terms of hydrodynamic stability. Data from Aespoe and Stripa and from exploratory boreholes at Finnsjoen and other sites in Sweden are compiled and discussed. Preliminary data from SKB's ongoing site investigations at Simpevarp/Laxemar and Forsmark are not considered in detail but their general similarities with Aespoe and Finnsjoen/SFR respectively are introduced into the discussion of geochemical evidence for groundwater stability in inland and coastal areas. Relevant data from Finnish sites including Olkiluoto, from the Whiteshell URL area in Canada, from Sellafield in the UK, and from the Tono area and URL in Japan are also summarised in appendices and discussed because they add further insights into the interpretation of geochemical indicators for a range of geological environments. The compiled data provide only limited scope for comparison of groundwater evolution and stability between inland and coastal areas in Sweden, because of the patchiness of representative data especially from early site studies. The external changes that might have perturbed stable groundwater conditions in the past are glaciation (i.e. melt water, mechanical loading/unloading and permafrost) and varying sea water infiltration at coastal sites due to changes in palaeo-Baltic and isostatic conditions. The present distributions of palaeo-Baltic sea water in groundwaters at coastal sites vary, reflecting

  3. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  4. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  5. Risk management of onsite transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Field, J.G.

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has recently undergone a significant change in its mission. The focus of site-wide operations has been shifted from production to environmental restoration. As a result, there is a significant increase in quantities of the radioactive wastes and other hazardous materials to be packaged and transported onsite. In response to the elevated transportation activities, the operations and engineering contractor for the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to further enhance the safe operations of the onsite packaging and transportation activities involving radioactive and other hazardous materials. This paper summarizes Westinghouse Hanford's proposed risk assessment and risk management methodology for onsite transportation of hazardous materials. The proposed Westinghouse Hanford risk assessment and management methodology for onsite packaging and transportation has three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization process. The purposes are to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable, and to further reduce the overall risk for current and future onsite transportation activities

  6. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  7. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    bacteria. Therefore the applicability of on-site enzymatic activity determination as a direct surrogate or proxy parameter for microbiological standard assays and quantification of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentration could not be approved and further research in this field is necessary. Presently we conclude that rapid on-site detection of enzymatic activity is applicable for surface water monitoring and that it constitutes a complementary on-site monitoring parameter with high potential. Selection of the type of measured enzymatic activities has to be done on a catchment-specific basis and further work is needed to learn more about its detailed information characteristics in different habitats. The accomplishment of this method detecting continuous data of enzymatic activity in high temporal resolution caused by a target bacterial member is on the way of becoming a powerful tool for water quality monitoring, health related water quality- and early warning requirements.

  8. Waste-management activities for groundwater protection, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Management of hazardous, low-level radioactive, and mixed waste for groundwater protection at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), Aiken, South Carolina is proposed. The preferred disposal alternative would involve modification of the SRP waste-management program to comply with all groundwater-protection requirements by implementing the following actions: (1) removal of wastes at selected existing waste sites to the extent practicable and implementing closure and groundwater remedial actions as required by applicable state and federal regulations; (2) establishment of a combination of retrievable storage, above ground, and below ground disposal facilities; and (3) continuation of the use of seepage and containment basins for the periodic discharge of reactor disassembly-basin purge. Groundwater contamination of aquifers would be controlled, improving on-site groundwater as well as surface water quality. Associated public health risks, as well as risks associated with atmospheric releases, would be reduced. Risks from releases of transuranic and high level wastes, volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, radionuclides, and other miscellaneous chemical would be contained. Some sites would be removed from public use. Other adverse impacts could include local and transitory on-site groundwater drawdown effects and minor short-term terrestrial impacts due to the use of borrow pits for backfill. Wildlife-habitat impacts could result due to land clearing and development

  9. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations. (authors). 2 figs., 6 refs

  10. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations

  11. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    This document summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-3620 (1986) summarized modifications and improvements to the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. This document summarizes a modified version of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. This modified version of the computer program operates on a personal computer and permits the user to optionally select radiation dose conversion factors published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in their Publication No. 30 (ICRP 1979-1982) in place of those published by the ICRP in their Publication No. 2 (ICRP 1959) (as implemented in the previous versions of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program). The pathway-to-human models used in the computer program have not been changed from those described previously. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program and supporting data bases are included in the appendices of this document

  12. Experiences with on-site power sources at KCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijnen, B. M.A. [Borssele Nuclear Power Station, N.V. P.Z.E.M., Postbus 48, 4330 AA Middleburg (Netherlands)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the nuclear power station is of the late sixties. The experiences with the on-site power sources, signal processing and some of the resulting modifications of the design of the power plant are mentioned. In order to let the design satisfy as much as possible present ideas about safety, it was decided to realize a total new and Independent decay heat removal System. With this system a second independent on-site power System is at disposal in case of accident situations. (author)

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) Castor GSF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The CASTOR GSF packaging was designed and fabricated to be a certified Type B(U) packaging and comply with the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for transport of up to five sealed canisters of vitrified radioactive materials. This onsite Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analysis and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the casks, with the canister payload, meet the intent of the Type B packaging regulations set forth in 10 CFR 71 and therefore meet the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping

  14. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.

    1988-01-01

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  15. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  16. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Neuder, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risks from onsite burials of radioactive waste, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The amended regulations now require licensees to apply for approval of proposed procedures for onsite disposal pursuant to 10 CFR 20.302. The NRC technically reviews these requests on a case-by-case basis. These technical reviews require modeling potential pathways to man and projecting radiation dose commitments. This document contains a summary of our efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and to modify a version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. The documentation of the ONSITE/MAXI computer program is written for two audiences. The first (Audience A) includes persons concerned with the mathematical models and computer algorithms. The second (Audience B) includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and scenarios for specific onsite disposal applications. Five sample problems are presented and discussed to assist the user in operating the computer program. Summaries of the input and output for the sample problems are included along with a discussion of the hand calculations performed to verify the correct operation of the computer program. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program with an abbreviated data base listing are included as Appendix 1 to this document. Finally, complete listings of the data base with listings of the special codes used to create the data base are included in Appendix 2 as a microfiche attachment to this document

  17. Number of on-site personnel and their functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, M.

    1986-01-01

    After the definition of the general tasks, the development of an organization chart for on-site personnel is shown, the number and qualifications are indicated relating to the specific jobs. The functions of the different people are explained in detail. (orig.)

  18. Local Area Artworks: Collaborative Art Interpretation On-Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polli, Anna Maria; Korn, Matthias; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Local Area Artworks, a system enabling collaborative art interpretation on-site deployed during an exhibition in a local art gallery. Through the system, we explore ways to re-connect people to the local place by making use of their personal mobile devices as interfaces...

  19. Safety assessment requirements for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-05-01

    This document contains the requirements for developing a safety assessment document for an onsite package containing radioactive material. It also provides format and content guidance to establish uniformity in the safety assessment documentation and to ensure completeness of the information provided

  20. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  1. 75 FR 3250 - Glaxosmithkline, Including On-Site Temporary and Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... subject firm. The workers are engaged in the production of penicillin-based antibiotics for humans and animals. The company reports that on-site leased workers from Dream Clean, Inc. were employed on-site at...

  2. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow at Kori Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Sohn, Soon Whan; Chon, Chul Min; Kim, Kue Youn

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the understanding of hydrogeological characteristics of nuclear power sites is getting more importance with increasing public concerns over the environment since such understanding is essential for an environmentally friendly operation of plants. For such understanding, the prediction of groundwater flow pattern onsite plays the most critical role since it is the most dynamic of the factors to be considered. In this study, the groundwater flow at the Kori Plant 1 site has been simulated numerically with aim of providing fundamental information needed for improving the understanding of the hydrogeological characteristics of the site

  3. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-04-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

  4. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-01-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system

  5. 75 FR 879 - National Semiconductor Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... engaged in activities related to the production of integrated circuits. The company reports that on-site... Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers From GCA, CMPA (Silverleaf), Custom..., applicable to workers of National Semiconductor Corporation, Arlington Manufacturing Site, including on-site...

  6. 75 FR 41895 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews International, Inc., M.H. Equipment, and... 10321). The notice was amended on May 25, 2010 to include on-site leased workers from Andrews... workers of Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, including on-site leased workers from Andrews...

  7. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  8. January 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 19, 2011, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1.Water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  9. Management of Ground and Groundwater Contamination on a Compact Site Constrained by Ongoing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, K.E.; Reeve, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Site is a compact and complex site which since the 1940's has been home to a range of facilities associated with the production and reprocessing of fissile material. The site contains the UK equivalent of the Chicago Pile-1 reactor, Hanford B Reactor, Rocky Flats Buildings 771 and 774, West Valley Main Process Plant Building, Savannah River Vitrification Plant, Savannah River MOX Plant, Savannah River F Canyon, Hanford 222 Analytical Laboratory, Savannah River K-, L-, and P-Basins, and the Fort St. Vrain Reactor all in an area of approximately 1000 acres. Spent fuel reprocessing is still undertaken on site; however waste management and decommissioning activities are of increasing importance. These include the emptying and removal of fragile ponds and silos containing significant radioactive inventories, the decommissioning of reactors (including the world's first commercial reactor for power generation and the Windscale Piles, the site of a reactor fire in the late 1950's) and the construction of a new generation of vitrification and encapsulation plants. Leaks, spills and on-site disposals during the site's industrial lifetime have resulted in a legacy of fission products and other radionuclides in the ground and groundwater. Volumes of contaminated ground have been estimated as being as much as 18 million m 3 and an estimated below ground inventory of approximately 1.8 E16 Bq. These have all occurred within close proximity to a range of receptors including farm land and the sea. The cramped nature of the facilities on site, overlapping source terms and ongoing decommissioning, waste management and operating activities all raise significant challenges in the management and remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. The strategy to address these challenges includes: 1. Data collection, management and interpretation. The congested nature of the site and the age of some of the monitoring facilities has resulted in particular difficulties. For

  10. Clarke County, Virginia's innovative response to groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.R.; Christoffel, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1982, the Clarke County Planning Commission created a Water Supply committee which led to the following county actions: adoption of a resource conservation overlay zone to protect the County Sanitation Authority's public spring; submission of the first Virginia application for federal sole-source aquifer designation; drafting of a proposed oil and gas exploration and extraction ordinance; and a contract with the USGS for a three-year groundwater resources study. In February 1987, the Clarke County Plan was published. Six implementation strategies were recommended, the majority of which have been adopted: (1) on-site wastewater treatment system management; (2) a sinkhole ordinance; (3) well standards; (4) underground storage tank requirements; (5) community education; and (6) a geographic information system. This plan emphasizes direct local government land use policies designed to mitigate risks of groundwater contamination. The plan used existing technical information to focus on prevention as the best strategy for natural resource protection

  11. LLNL Livermore site Groundwater Surveillance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 establishes environ-mental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations to assume compliance with federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations; Federal Executive Orders; and internal DOE policies. ne DOE Order contains requirements and guidance for environmental monitoring programs, the objectives of which are to demonstrate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements imposed by federal, state, and local agencies; confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection polices; and support environmental management decisions. The environmental monitoring programs consist of two major activities: (1) measurement and monitoring of effluents from DOE operations, and (2) surveillance through measurement, monitoring, and calculation of the effects of those operations on the environment and public health. The latter concern, that of assessing the effects, if any, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations and activities on on-site and off-site surface waters and groundwaters is addressed by an Environmental Surveillance Program being developed by LLNL. The Groundwater Surveillance Plan presented here has been developed on a sitespecific basis, taking into consideration facility characteristics, applicable regulations, hazard potential, quantities and concentrations of materials released, the extent and use of local water resources, and specific local public interest and concerns

  12. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  13. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  14. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  15. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  16. Groundwater Assessment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Podgorski, Joel; Berg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Groundwater Assessment Platform is a free, interactive online GIS platform for the mapping, sharing and statistical modeling of groundwater quality data. The modeling allows users to take advantage of publicly available global datasets of various environmental parameters to produce prediction maps of their contaminant of interest.

  17. The feasibility of mobile computing for on-site inspection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Karl Emanuel; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Blair, Dianna Sue

    2014-09-01

    With over 5 billion cellphones in a world of 7 billion inhabitants, mobile phones are the most quickly adopted consumer technology in the history of the world. Miniaturized, power-efficient sensors, especially video-capable cameras, are becoming extremely widespread, especially when one factors in wearable technology like Apples Pebble, GoPro video systems, Google Glass, and lifeloggers. Tablet computers are becoming more common, lighter weight, and power-efficient. In this report the authors explore recent developments in mobile computing and their potential application to on-site inspection for arms control verification and treaty compliance determination. We examine how such technology can effectively be applied to current and potential future inspection regimes. Use cases are given for both host-escort and inspection teams. The results of field trials and their implications for on-site inspections are discussed.

  18. On-site tests on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Favennec, J.M.; Neau, P.; Preudhomme, E.

    1996-01-01

    On-site tests and experiments are performed by EDF Research and Development Division on the nuclear power plants to assess the behaviour of major components submitted to thermal and vibratory solicitations. On-going studies deal with the qualification of new nuclear power plant standard and with the feedback of plants under operation. The tests, particularly the investigation tests, correspond to large investments and entail an important data volume which must ensure the continuity over a long period of the order of magnitude of the in-service plant life (around 40 years). This paper addresses the on-site experimental activities, describes the means to be used, and gives an example: the qualification of SG of new 1450 MW nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  1. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  3. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  6. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  7. The development of an on-site container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Jones, P.L.; McKinney, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a package for the on-site transport of chemical munitions for the US Army. This package was designed to prevent the release of lethal quantities of chemical agents during transportation of munitions to the demilitarization facilities on-site. The packaging prevents auto-ignition of the munitions by limiting the thermal and structural assault on the munitions during an accident. This package, with some modifications to account for contents, may be suitable for the on-site transport of mixed wastes at United States Department of Energy facilities. This paper discusses the design and verification testing of the package. The safety criteria for the package were modeled after the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hypothetical accident sequence and modified to take credit for operational controls. The modified accident sequence consisted of drop, puncture, and thermal events. The post-accident leak rate was established to prevent harm to an exposed worker. The packaging has a mass of 8600 kg and can accommodate up to 3600 kg of contents. The interior of the package is 188 cm in diameter and 232 cm long. Two sample ports can be used to sample the interior of the package prior to opening the closure and an o-ring test port can be used to determine the leak rates prior to and after transport

  8. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  9. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  10. Windows of Opportunity for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been little attention focused on how the value and effectiveness of groundwater management is influenced by the timing of regulatory intervention relative to aquifer depletion. To address this question, we develop an integrated framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a model of a groundwater abstraction borehole. Unlike existing models that only consider the impact of aquifer depletion on groundwater extraction costs, our model also captures the dynamic changes in well productivity and how these in turn affect crop yields and farmer incomes. We use our model to analyze how the value of imposing groundwater quotas is affected by the prior level of depletion before regulations are introduced. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers. In this range, restricting abstraction rates slows the rate of change in well yields and, as a result, increases agricultural production over the simulated planning horizon. Contrastingly, when current saturated thickness is outside this range, regulating groundwater use will provide negligible social benefits and will impose large negative impacts on farm-level profits. We suggest that there are 'windows of opportunity' for managing aquifer depletion that are a function of local hydrology as well as economic characteristics. Regulation that is too early will harm the rural economy needlessly, while regulation that is too late will be unable to prevent aquifer exhaustion. The insights from our model can be a valuable tool to help inform policy decisions about when, and at what level, regulations should be implemented in order to maximize the benefits obtained from limited groundwater resources.

  11. Evaluating groundwater flow using passive electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, E.; Revil, A.; Singha, K.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate quantification of groundwater flow patterns, both in magnitude and direction, is a necessary component of evaluating any hydrologic system. Groundwater flow patterns are often determined using a dense network of wells or piezometers, which can be limited due to logistical or regulatory constraints. The self-potential (SP) method, a passive geophysical technique that relies on currents generated by water movement through porous materials, is a re-emerging alternative or addition to traditional piezometer networks. Naturally generated currents can be measured as voltage differences at the ground surface using only two electrodes, or a more complex electrode array. While the association between SP measurements and groundwater flow was observed as early as 1890s, the method has seen resurgence in hydrology since the governing equations were refined in the 1980s. The method can be used to analyze hydrologic processes at various temporal and spatial scales. Here we present the results of multiple SP surveys collected a multiple scales (1 to 10s of meters). Here single SP grid surveys are used to evaluate flow patterns through artic hillslopes at a discrete point in time. Additionally, a coupled groundwater and electrical model is used to analyze multiple SP data sets to evaluate seasonal changes in groundwater flow through an alpine meadow.

  12. Global depletion of groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; van Kempen, C.M.; Reckman, J.W.T.M.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems groundwater is often used as an additional water source. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge for extensive areas and long times, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. Here we

  13. Modeling groundwater flow at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater flow in the shallow unconfined aquifer at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles County, Missouri, was modeled with the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) groundwater flow and contaminant transport computer code. The modeling was performed in support of a hydrogeological characterization effort that is part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement process being carried out by the US Department of Energy at the site. This report presents the results of model development and calibration. In the calibration procedure, the range of field-measured hydrogeological parameters was tested to obtain the best match between model-predicted and measured groundwater elevations. After calibration, the model was used to evaluate whether the presence of an on-site disposal cell would impact the ability to remediate contaminated groundwater beneath the cell. The results of the numerical modeling, which were based on an evaluation of steady-state groundwater flow velocity plots, indicated that groundwater would flow beneath the disposal cell along natural gradients. The presence of a disposal cell would not significantly affect remediation capability for groundwater contamination

  14. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  15. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  16. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri, and to a lesser extent in Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Predevelopment groundwater flow is represented in the MERAS model as a steady-state stress period, assumed to be prior to 1870. The simulated groundwater-flow budget indicates the largest predevelopment inflow to the system is net recharge to the alluvial aquifer. This inflow is balanced by outflow to gaining streams. Overall, water enters as net recharge to the alluvial aquifer or through outcrop areas of the various hydrogeologic units. Away from the outcrop areas, groundwater flow in the deeper formations is primarily upward into overlying units, ultimately discharging to streams through the alluvial aquifer. Total net recharge and discharge (sum of inflows or outflows) for the model ranged from about 0.66 million acre-feet per year during predevelopment to 20.16 million acre-feet per year by the end of the simulation (final simulated irrigation period in summer of 2006). This change in the model budget reflects increases in withdrawals compared to predevelopment conditions. Cumulative storage within aquifers simulated in the MERAS model indicates overall depletion of 140 million acre-feet (equivalent to 2.8 feet of water covering the entire study area). Postdevelopment inflow to the system is still through net recharge to the alluvial aquifer and the outcrop areas of the several hydrogeologic units, however, the flow between each unit is no longer upward to the alluvial aquifer. Groundwater flow during the summer of 2006 was primarily downward to offset demand from pumping. Early in the model simulation (1870-1920s), the primary components of the water budget were simulated as outflow from stream leakage and inflow from net recharge. As pumpage increased through time, water that would otherwise flow to streams reversed, and net stream leakage became an inflow to the system. The largest reversals began in the mid-1980s, but

  17. On-site infiltration of a copper roof runoff: role of clinoptilolite as an artificial barrier material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Konstantinos; Helmreich, Brigitte; Horn, Harald

    2007-08-01

    On-site infiltration may be considered as a promising way of managing rainwater runoffs in urban areas, provided the hydrological and ecological conditions allow infiltration, and provided there is adequate treatment of the contaminants to avoid a risk of soil and groundwater pollution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the application of a new technical infiltration system equipped with clinoptilolite as an artificial barrier material for the treatment of the copper roof runoff of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, Germany. During the 2-yr sampling period, 30 rain events were examined. The cover material of the roof and the drainage system was responsible for the high copper concentrations in the roof runoff. The rain height and the rain intensity were of great significance regarding the establishment of the copper runoff rate. The technical infiltration system applied was able to reduce the copper from the roof runoff by a factor up to 96%. The mean measured copper concentration in percolation water was lower than the critical value of 50 microg/l set by the German Federal Soil Protection Act and Ordinance, indicating no risk for soil and groundwater contamination.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF GROUNDWATER HYDROCHEMISTRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... It was concluded that water quality of the study area is unsuitable for irrigation ... Key words: Assessment, characterization, Groundwater quality, .... The in-situ measurement was ..... framework of the aquifer in and around East.

  19. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  20. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  1. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  2. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen profile and clogging in vertical flow sand filters for on-site wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Boutin, C

    2016-04-01

    13 million people (about 20% of the population) use on-site wastewater treatment in France. Buried vertical sand filters are often built, especially when the soil permeability is not sufficient for septic tank effluent infiltration in undisturbed soil. Clogging is one of the main problems deteriorating the operation of vertical flow filters for wastewater treatment. The extent of clogging is not easily assessed, especially in buried vertical flow sand filters. We suggest examining two possible ways of detecting early clogging: (1) NH4-N/NO3-N outlet concentration ratio, and (2) oxygen measurement within the porous media. Two pilot-scale filters were equipped with probes for oxygen concentration measurements and samples were taken at different depths for pollutant characterization. Influent and effluent grab-samples were taken three times a week. The systems were operated using batch-feeding of septic tank effluent. Qualitative description of oxygen transfer processes under unclogged and clogged conditions is presented. NH4-N outlet concentration appears to be useless for early clogging detection. However, NO3-N outlet concentration and oxygen content allows us to diagnose the early clogging of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated groundwater data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Peter; Brodaric, Boyan; Stenson, Matt; Booth, Nathaniel; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of a data manager is to ensure that data is safely stored, adequately described, discoverable and easily accessible. However, to keep pace with the evolution of groundwater studies in the last decade, the associated data and data management requirements have changed significantly. In particular, there is a growing recognition that management questions cannot be adequately answered by single discipline studies. This has led a push towards the paradigm of integrated modeling, where diverse parts of the hydrological cycle and its human connections are included. This chapter describes groundwater data management practices, and reviews the current state of the art with enterprise groundwater database management systems. It also includes discussion on commonly used data management models, detailing typical data management lifecycles. We discuss the growing use of web services and open standards such as GWML and WaterML2.0 to exchange groundwater information and knowledge, and the need for national data networks. We also discuss cross-jurisdictional interoperability issues, based on our experience sharing groundwater data across the US/Canadian border. Lastly, we present some future trends relating to groundwater data management.

  6. On-site worker-risk calculations using MACCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    We have revised the latest version of MACCS for use with the calculation of doses and health risks to on-site workers for postulated accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado. The modifications fall into two areas: (1) an improved estimate of shielding offered by buildings to workers that remain indoors; and, (2) an improved treatment of building-wake effects, which affects both indoor and outdoor workers. Because the postulated accident can be anywhere on plant site, user-friendly software has been developed to create those portions of the (revised) MACCS input data files that are specific to the accident site

  7. Onsite assessments for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, compliance with DOE Order 5480.11 became a requirement in January 1989. One of the requirements of this Order is that personal external dosimetry programs be accredited under the Department of Energy's Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) in Personnel Dosimetry. The accreditation process, from the facility's perspective, is two-fold: dosimeters must meet performance criteria in radiation categories appropriate for each facility, and personnel administering and carrying out the program must demonstrate good operating practices. The DOELAP onsite assessment is designed to provide an independent evaluation of the latter

  8. Impact of onsite solar generation on system load demand forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Pedro, Hugo T.C.; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We showed the impact onsite solar generation on system demand load forecast. • Forecast performance degrades by 9% and 3% for 1 h and 15 min forecast horizons. • Error distribution for onsite case is best characterized as t-distribution. • Relation between error, solar penetration and solar variability is characterized. - Abstract: Net energy metering tariffs have encouraged the growth of solar PV in the distribution grid. The additional variability associated with weather-dependent renewable energy creates new challenges for power system operators that must maintain and operate ancillary services to balance the grid. To deal with these issues power operators mostly rely on demand load forecasts. Electric load forecast has been used in power industry for a long time and there are several well established load forecasting models. But the performance of these models for future scenario of high renewable energy penetration is unclear. In this work, the impact of onsite solar power generation on the demand load forecast is analyzed for a community that meets between 10% and 15% of its annual power demand and 3–54% of its daily power demand from a solar power plant. Short-Term Load Forecasts (STLF) using persistence, machine learning and regression-based forecasting models are presented for two cases: (1) high solar penetration and (2) no penetration. Results show that for 1-h and 15-min forecasts the accuracy of the models drops by 9% and 3% with high solar penetration. Statistical analysis of the forecast errors demonstrate that the error distribution is best characterized as a t-distribution for the high penetration scenario. Analysis of the error distribution as a function of daily solar penetration for different levels of variability revealed that the solar power variability drives the forecast error magnitude whereas increasing penetration level has a much smaller contribution. This work concludes that the demand forecast error distribution

  9. Analytical quality control concept in the Euratom on-site laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Duinslaeger, L.; Cromboom, O.; Ottmar, H.; Wojnowski, D.; Vegt, H. van der

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Two on-site laboratories have been developed, installed, commissioned and put into routine operation by the Euratom safeguards office (ESO), jointly with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). These laboratories are operated by ITU staff and provide verification measurement results on samples taken by Euratom inspectors. The analysts work in weekly changing shift teams, manage the laboratories and operate the various analytical techniques. Operating such a laboratory at a remote location, without a senior scientist immediately available in case of problems, The existing boundary conditions challenge the robustness of the entire laboratory, i.e. comprising staff and instrumentation. In order to continuously ensure a high degree of reliability of the measurement results, a stringent quality control system was implemented. The quality control concept for the two on-site laboratories was developed at a very early stage and implemented in the pre-OSL training facility at ITU. This enabled to thoroughly test and develop further the concept. At the same time the analysts get acquainted with the quality control procedures in place and they are instilled with the principles. The quality control concept makes use of a fully computerized data management and data acquisition system. All measurement devices, including balances, density meters, mass spectrometers, passive neutron counter, hybrid K-edge instrument, gamma spectrometers and alpha spectrometers are networked and data exchange is performed on electronic basis. A specifically developed laboratory information management system collects individual measurement data, calculates intermediate and final result and shares the information with a quality control module. In order to ensure the reliability of the results, which are reported to the ESO inspectorate, five levels of quality control were implemented. The present paper describes in detail the different levels of quality control, which check the

  10. Voltammetric determination of arsenic in high iron and manganese groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon-Walsh, Kristoff; Salaün, Pascal; Uroic, M Kalle; Feldmann, Joerg; McArthur, John M; van den Berg, Constant M G

    2011-09-15

    Determination of the speciation of arsenic in groundwaters, using cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV), is severely hampered by high levels of iron and manganese. Experiments showed that the interference is eliminated by addition of EDTA, making it possible to determine the arsenic speciation on-site by CSV. This work presents the CSV method to determine As(III) in high-iron or -manganese groundwaters in the field with only minor sample treatment. The method was field-tested in West-Bengal (India) on a series of groundwater samples. Total arsenic was subsequently determined after acidification to pH 1 by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Comparative measurements by ICP-MS as reference method for total As, and by HPLC for its speciation, were used to corroborate the field data in stored samples. Most of the arsenic (78±0.02%) was found to occur as inorganic As(III) in the freshly collected waters, in accordance with previous studies. The data shows that the modified on-site CSV method for As(III) is a good measure of water contamination with As. The EDTA was also found to be effective in stabilising the arsenic speciation for longterm sample storage at room temperature. Without sample preservation, in water exposed to air and sunlight, the As(III) was found to become oxidised to As(V), and Fe(II) oxidised to Fe(III), removing the As(V) by adsorption on precipitating Fe(III)-hydroxides within a few hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  12. The development of an on-site container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Jones, P.L.; McKinney, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the development of a packaging designed for on-site transportation of chemical munitions. The criteria for the package were patterned after the requirements for Type B packagings, but were modified to take credit for the operational controls that could be applied on-site. The design phase has been completed and a contract has been placed for fabrication of 165 units. In addition to the tests completed during the design phase, a complete sequence of verification tests will be performed on the first fleet unit. This sequence will consist of: (1) a 22,700-kg load placed on the packaging for 24 hours, (2) the flat side free drop, (3) the center-of-gravity over closure joint puncture test, and (4) a 15-min all-engulfing JP-4 pool-fire test. At the completion of the test sequence, the package will be required to meet the less than 1 x 10 -1 std cc/s leak test. (J.P.N.)

  13. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg-1 and 8 μg kg-1, respectively.

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  15. 37Ar monitoring techniques and on-site inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Rongliang; Chen Yinliang; Li Wei; Wang Hongxia; Hao Fanhua

    2001-01-01

    37 Ar is separated, purified and extracted from air sample with a low temperature gas-solid chromatographic purifying method, prepared into a radioactive measurement source and its radioactivity is measured with a proportional counter. Based on the monitoring result, a judgement can be made if an nuclear explosion event has happened recently in a spectabilis area. A series of element techniques that are associated the monitoring of the trace element 37 Ar have been investigated and developed. Those techniques include leaked gas sampling, 37 Ar separation and purification, 37 Ar radioactivity measurement and the on-site inspection of 37 Ar. An advanced 37 Ar monitoring method has been developed, with which 200 liters of air can be treated in 2 hours with sensitivity of 0.01 Bq/L for 37 Ar radioactivity measurement. A practical 37 Ar On-site Inspection system has been developed. This research work may provide technical and equipment support for the verification protection, verification supervision and CTBT verification

  16. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  17. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  18. 77 FR 13352 - Exxonmobil Chemical Company Films Business Division Including on-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ..., Take Care Corporation, Conestoga Rovers and Associates, Phillips Engineering, Rockwell Engineering, Excel Logistics, and American Food and Vending, Calhoun Spotting Service, and Job World working on-site...

  19. Status of small reactor designs without on-site refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest in member states in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). A distinct trend in design and technology development, accounting for about half of the SMR concepts developed worldwide, is represented by small reactors without on-site refuelling. Such reactors, also known as battery-type reactors, could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel in the core over long periods, from 5 to 25 years and beyond. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA member states, within its Programme 1 'Nuclear Power, Fuel Cycle, and Nuclear Science', the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMRs development and implementation in the 21st century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR technology. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and

  20. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  1. The development of a code of practice for single house on-site wastewater treatment in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W

    2011-01-01

    The performance of six separate percolation areas was intensively monitored to ascertain the attenuation effects of unsaturated subsoils with respect to on-site wastewater effluent: three sites receiving septic tank effluent, the other three sites receiving secondary treated effluent. The development of a biomat across the percolation areas receiving secondary treated effluent was restricted on these sites compared to those sites receiving septic tank effluent. This created significant differences in terms of the hydraulic loading on the percolation areas with implications for the transport and attenuation of indicator microorganisms and nitrogen down through the subsoils and into the groundwater. The results of this work have formed a large input into the production of a new Code of Practice Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems Serving Single Houses. This has led to changes in the design of on-site hydraulic loading from 180 L per capita per day (L/c.d) down to 150 L/c.d. The range of acceptable subsoils receiving septic tank effluent has narrowed for more highly permeable subsoils following a series of tracer studies using bacteriophages. However, the range has been extended for lower permeability subsoils (range 0.08 down to 0.06 m/d) receiving secondary treated effluent in order to encourage the effluent to spread further along the trenches. The maximum individual length of percolation trenches receiving secondary effluent has also been reduced to 10 m to encourage dispersion on a wider area. This paper thus highlights how research can directly feed into a Code of Practice.

  2. Belgrade waterworks groundwater source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, A.; Dasic, M.; Vukcevic, G.; Vasiljevic, Lj.; Nikolic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Paper deals with Belgrade Waterworks groundwater source, its characteristics, conception of protection programme, contaminations on source and with parameters of groundwater quality degradation. Groundwaters present natural heritage with their strategic and slow renewable natural resources attributes, and as such they require priority in protection. It is of greatest need that existing source is to be protected and used optimally for producing quality drinkable water. The concept of source protection programme should be based on regular water quality monitoring, identification of contaminators, defining areas of their influences on the source and their permanent control. However, in the last 10 years, but drastically in the last 3, because of the overall situation in the country, it is very characteristic downfall in volume of business, organisation and the level of supply of the technical equipment

  3. Basin F Subregional Groundwater Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazion, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The groundwater flow system at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is complex. To evaluate proposed remedial alternatives, interaction of the local groundwater flow system with the present contamination control systems must be understood...

  4. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  5. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  6. Enhancement of on-site emergency diesel generator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boner, G.L.; Hanners, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has concluded a program designed to provide NRC/DOR with technical assistance in evaluating the factors leading to improved reliability of on-site emergency diesel generator (DG) units. The program consisted of a comprehensive review of DG maintenance and operating experience and a comparative evaluation of the DG manufacturer's recommendations. This information, will enable the NRC to improve the basis on which it makes regulatory decisions. The primary goal of the program is to better identify the main problem areas which decrease the reliability of the DG units and make recommendations. The report has attained the program objectives by identifying and discussing the more significant problems and presenting the recommended corrective actions. The identified problems have been categorized into three groups as a function of their significance

  7. CTBTO tests its on-site inspection regime in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The former Soviet Union's nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in the east of today's Kazakhstan was closed down after Kazakhstan became an independent State in 1991. This region in the Kazakh steppe is deserted and pockmarked by countless craters, remnants of over 450 nuclear explosions that were detonated there. In September 2008, the area will start brimming with activity. Scientists, diplomats and journalists will arrive from all over the world to witness an endeavour in the Kazakh steppe that is of great significance for the safety of our planet. The organization that monitors the comprehensive ban on nuclear testing will conduct a large scale exercise to test one of the key elements of its global alarm system - on-site inspections.

  8. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  10. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  11. CASDAC system: On-Site Multiplexer user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1993-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment and Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system is a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The CASDAC system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. This report describes the outline and usage of the On-Site Multiplexer (OSM), which controls all other equipments in a facility subsystem and communicates with the GCC. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  12. Innovative on-site treatment cuts frac flowback water costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Water is an essential component of the drilling and hydraulic fracturing or fracking process and so the natural gas industry is a heavy user of water. Learning from other industries, gas producers are now employing mobile service providers with the latest integrated treatment systems (ITS) to clean flowback and produced water from fracturing operations at the wellhead. This paper presents a novel on-site treatment for frac water. ITS are pre-fabricated on moveable skids or a truck trailer with all the necessary controls, piping, valves, instrumentation, pumps, mixers and chemical injection modules. They remove oil and other hydrocarbons, suspended solids, and dissolved metals from the frac water using the tightly controlled chemistry, separation and filtration technology. This method can cut the average cost of treating produced water by 50%, simultaneously allowing drillers to maximize their efforts and manpower on generating oil and gas profits, rather than on water treatment.

  13. The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)).

  14. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Hand; Willard Thomas; Frank Sciacca; Manny Negrete; Susan Kelley

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if 'equivalent safety' to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfer's packaging and its contents

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  16. Groundwater regimes and isotopic studies, Ranger mine area, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Green, D C

    1986-12-01

    Three types of groundwater occur in the area of the Ranger mine. Type A groundwater occurs in the loose sands and gravels occupying the present day stream channels, Type B in the weathering profile and Type C occurs in relatively fresh fractured bedrock occupying open fractures and other cavities. The three types of groundwater can be distinguished both chemically and isotopically. Light stable isotope data suggest that most early rains are lost by evapotranspiration and have no imprint on the groundwater. Later in the wet season, the ground is saturated and groundwater recharge occurs on a regional scale. This younger groundwater sits on the older waters. Mixing is probably minimal as before any large scale mixing could occur, most younger waters are lost by evapotranspiration. Stable isotope data suggest that Type B groundwater in certain areas has some connection with evaporated surface water bodies. Stable isotope measurements for the pollution monitoring bores around the tailings dam do not indicate any connection with the polluted pond waters at the time of sample collection.

  17. Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

    2012-09-01

    A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

  18. Can agricultural groundwater economies collapse? An inquiry into the pathways of four groundwater economies under threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivier; Kuper, Marcel; López-Gunn, Elena; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Daoudi, Ali; Lejars, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the notion of collapse of agricultural groundwater economies using the adaptive-cycle analytical framework. This framework was applied to four case studies in southern Europe and North Africa to question and discuss the dynamics of agricultural groundwater economies. In two case studies (Saiss in Morocco and Clain basin in France), the imminent physical or socio-economic collapse was a major concern for stakeholders and the early signs of collapse led to re-organization of the groundwater economy. In the other two cases (Biskra in Algeria and Almeria in Spain), collapse was either not yet a concern or had been temporarily resolved through increased efficiency and access to additional water resources. This comparative analysis shows the importance of taking the early signs of collapse into account. These signs can be either related to resource depletion or to environmental and socio-economic impacts. Beyond these four case studies, the large number of groundwater economies under threat in (semi-)arid areas should present a warning regarding their possible collapse. Collapse can have severe and irreversible consequences in some cases, but it can also mean new opportunities and changes.

  19. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  20. 77 FR 32628 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Environmental Onsite Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF12-6-000] Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Environmental Onsite Review On June 13 and 14, 2012, the Office of Energy Projects (OEP) staff will conduct site visits of the proposed Line MB Loop Extension Project. The purpose of the onsite review is to review...

  1. 13 CFR 120.1051 - Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations. 120.1051 Section 120.1051 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1051 Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations...

  2. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... losses); (3) Management quality (including internal controls, loan portfolio management, and asset... Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1050 On-site reviews and examinations. (a) On-site... operations management; (3) Credit administration; and (4) Compliance with Loan Program Requirements. (b) On...

  3. 78 FR 28642 - Eastman Kodak Company, Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Kodak Company, Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Datrose, Spencerport, New York; Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) filed on behalf of Eastman Kodak Company, Electrographic Print...

  4. 78 FR 19530 - Eastman Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Datrose, Spencerport, New York; Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco..., 2011, applicable to workers of Eastman Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, including...

  5. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leafstone... Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey. The workers are engaged... to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  6. 75 FR 32221 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews International, Inc., Evansville, IN... that workers leased from Andrews International, Inc. were employed on-site at the Evansville, Indiana... findings, the Department is amending this certification to include leased workers from Andrews...

  7. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,201] Abbott Laboratories..., applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, including on-site leased workers from... (clerical) were employed on-site at the Irving, Texas location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division...

  8. 75 FR 28295 - Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    .... The Department has determined that workers from Spherion Staffing were sufficiently under the control..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing, Including On-Site Workers From Hagemeyer North America, Lake Mills, IA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  9. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently...., Automation and Control Solutions Division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Spherion...

  10. 76 FR 175 - Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Servcies and Emcon Technologies, Troy, MI..., applicable to workers of Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies, Troy, Michigan, including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services, Troy, Michigan. The Department's notice of determination was...

  11. The extent of on-site leakage in selected suburbs of Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated on-site leakage on 182 properties with relatively new municipal water meters in well-established suburbs of Johannesburg. A methodology was developed to estimate the on-site leakage rate from readings taken from these municipal water meters, which was then adjusted to account for metering ...

  12. Study of an aquifer contaminated by ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): Site characterization and on-site bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle-Guichard, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.fayolle@ifpen.fr [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Durand, Jonathan [Institut EGID Bordeaux 3, 1 Allee Daguin 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Cheucle, Mathilde [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Rosell, Monica [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Michelland, Rory Julien [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne (France); Tracol, Jean-Philippe [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Le Roux, Francoise [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Grundman, Genevieve [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne (France); Atteia, Olivier [Institut EGID Bordeaux 3, 1 Allee Daguin 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Richnow, Hans H. [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dumestre, Alain [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); and others

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) (>300 mg L{sup -1}) found in a groundwater (gas-station). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant carbon or hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE along the plume. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MC-IFP culture degraded ETBE (0.91 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and BTEX (0.64 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pilot plant (2 m{sup 3}) inoculated with MC-IFP degraded ETBE in groundwater (15 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ethB gene (ETBE biodegradation) amplified during bioaugmentation (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}ethB gene copies L{sup -1}). - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was detected at high concentration (300 mg L{sup -1}) in the groundwater below a gas-station. No significant carbon neither hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE was detected along the plume. ETBE and BTEX biodegradation capacities of the indigenous microflora Pz1-ETBE and of a culture (MC-IFP) composed of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016, Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017 and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis IFP 2003 showed that ETBE and BTEX degradation rates were in the same range (ETBE: 0.91 and 0.83 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1} and BTEX: 0.64 and 0.82 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively) but tert-butanol (TBA) accumulated transiently at a high level using Pz1-ETBE (74 mg L{sup -1}). An on-site pilot plant (2 m{sup 3}) filled with polluted groundwater and inoculated by MC-IFP, successfully degraded four successive additions of ETBE and gasoline. However, an insignificant ETBE isotopic fractionation was also accompanying this decrease which suggested the involvement of low fractionating-strains using EthB enzymes, but required of additional proofs. The ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 involved in ETBE biodegradation (present in R. aetherivorans IFP 2017) was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) on DNA extracted from water sampled in the pilot plant

  13. Study of an aquifer contaminated by ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): Site characterization and on-site bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise; Durand, Jonathan; Cheucle, Mathilde; Rosell, Mònica; Michelland, Rory Julien; Tracol, Jean-Philippe; Le Roux, Françoise; Grundman, Geneviève; Atteia, Olivier; Richnow, Hans H.; Dumestre, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) (>300 mg L −1 ) found in a groundwater (gas-station). ► No significant carbon or hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE along the plume. ► MC-IFP culture degraded ETBE (0.91 mg L −1 h −1 ) and BTEX (0.64 mg L −1 h −1 ). ► A pilot plant (2 m 3 ) inoculated with MC-IFP degraded ETBE in groundwater (15 °C). ► ethB gene (ETBE biodegradation) amplified during bioaugmentation (5 × 10 6 ethB gene copies L −1 ). - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was detected at high concentration (300 mg L −1 ) in the groundwater below a gas-station. No significant carbon neither hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE was detected along the plume. ETBE and BTEX biodegradation capacities of the indigenous microflora Pz1-ETBE and of a culture (MC-IFP) composed of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016, Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017 and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis IFP 2003 showed that ETBE and BTEX degradation rates were in the same range (ETBE: 0.91 and 0.83 mg L −1 h −1 and BTEX: 0.64 and 0.82 mg L −1 h −1 , respectively) but tert-butanol (TBA) accumulated transiently at a high level using Pz1-ETBE (74 mg L −1 ). An on-site pilot plant (2 m 3 ) filled with polluted groundwater and inoculated by MC-IFP, successfully degraded four successive additions of ETBE and gasoline. However, an insignificant ETBE isotopic fractionation was also accompanying this decrease which suggested the involvement of low fractionating-strains using EthB enzymes, but required of additional proofs. The ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 involved in ETBE biodegradation (present in R. aetherivorans IFP 2017) was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) on DNA extracted from water sampled in the pilot plant which yield up to 5 × 10 6 copies of ethB gene per L −1 .

  14. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  15. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  16. Automated Groundwater Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard B.

    2005-01-01

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application

  17. Controlling groundwater over abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois

    2017-01-01

    The control of groundwater over abstraction is a vexing problem worldwide. Jordan is one of the countries facing severe water scarcity which has implemented a wide range of measures and policies over the past 20 years. While the gap between formal legal and policy frameworks and local practices on

  18. Groundwater quota versus tiered groundwater pricing : two cases of groundwater management in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse, Eefje; Qu, Wei; Bluemling, B.; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in monitoring groundwater extraction cause groundwater regulations to fail worldwide. In two counties in north-west China local water authorities have installed smart card machines to monitor and regulate farmers’ groundwater use. Data from a household survey and in-depth interviews are

  19. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management

  20. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchens, G.D. [Lynntech, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  1. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact

  2. How Sustainable is Groundwater Abstraction? A Global Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I.; Van Beek, R.; Gleeson, T. P.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible freshwater resource and is of critical importance for irrigation, and thus for global food security. For regions with high demands, groundwater abstractions often exceed recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The direct effects of depletion are falling groundwater levels, increased pumping costs, land subsidence, and reduced baseflows to rivers. Water demands are expected to increase further due to growing population, economic development, and climate change, posing the urgent question how sustainable current water abstractions are worldwide and where and when these abstractions approach conceivable economic and environmental limits. In this study we estimated trends over 1960-2100 in groundwater levels, resulting from changes in demand and climate. We explored the limits of groundwater abstraction by predicting where and when groundwater levels drop that deep that groundwater gets unattainable for abstraction (economic limit) or, that groundwater baseflows to rivers drop below environmental requirements (environmental limit). We used a global hydrological model coupled to a groundwater model, meaning lateral groundwater flows, river infiltration and drainage, and infiltration and capillary-rise are simulated dynamically. Historical data and projections are used to prescribe water demands and climate forcing to the model. For the near future we used RCP8.5 and applied globally driest, average, and wettest GCM to test climate sensitivity. Results show that in general environmental limits are reached before economic limits, for example starting as early as the 1970s compared to the 1980s for economic limits in the upper Ganges basin. Economic limits are mostly related to regions with depletion, while environmental limits are reached also in regions were groundwater and surface water withdrawals are significant but depletion is not taking place (yet), for example in Spain and Portugal. In the near future

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New Mexico Administrative Code), 'Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,'specifically 40 CFR 264.90 through 264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  6. Development and implementation of a comprehensive groundwater protection program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that future operations do not adversely affect the quality or availability of the groundwater resources at the site. The specific elements of this program include (1) continuation of an extensive groundwater monitoring program, (2) assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality, (3) implementation of mitigative actions, as required, to restore or protect groundwater quality, (4) incorporation of groundwater protection concepts in the design of new production and waste management facilities, and (5) review of site utilization of groundwater resources to ensure compatibility with regional needs. The major focal points of the groundwater protection program are the assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality and the implementation of remedial action projects. Many locations at SRP have been used as waste disposal sites for a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Field investigations are ongoing to determine the nature and extent of any contamination in the sediments and groundwater at these waste sites on a priority basis. Remedial action has been initiated. Certain aspects of the groundwater protection program have been identified as key to the success in achieving the desired objectives. Key elements of the program have included early identification of all the potential sources for groundwater contamination, development of an overall strategy for waste site assessment and mitigation, use of a flexible computerized system for data base management, and establishing good relationships with regulatory agencies. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  7. 76 FR 19466 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable Staffing, and Third Dimension Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network... Group including on-site leased workers from Reserves Network, Jackson, Ohio. The workers produce...

  8. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear...

  9. 77 FR 40638 - Syniverse Technologies, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ..., Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing, and Randstad Formerly Known..., Massachusetts, including on-site leased workers from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad formerly known as... Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad, formerly known as Sapphire Technologies, were employed on-site...

  10. 77 FR 29362 - Kohler Company, Malvern Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Staffing and Dow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Staffing and Dow Cleaning Services, Malvern, AR..., and components. The company reports that workers from Dow Cleaning Services were employed on-site at... leased from Dow Cleaning Services working on-site at the Malvern, Arkansas location of Kohler Company...

  11. 75 FR 26793 - Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business Health, Guardsmark, and Lab... 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Beam Global Spirits & Wine, including on-site leased workers from... on-site at the Cincinnati, Ohio location of Beam Global Spirits & Wine. The Department has determined...

  12. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  13. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  14. Phonon transmission and thermal conductance in one-dimensional system with on-site potential disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Deng Honggui; Yang Bingchu

    2011-01-01

    The role of on-site potential disorder on phonon transmission and thermal conductance of one-dimensional system is investigated. We found that the on-site potential disorder can lead to the localization of phonons, and has great effect on the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of the system. As on-site potential disorder W increases, the transmission coefficients decrease, and approach zero at the band edges. Corresponding, the thermal conductance decreases drastically, and the curves for thermal conductance exhibit a series of steps and plateaus. Meanwhile, when the on-site potential disorder W is strong enough, the thermal conductance decreases dramatically with the increase of system size N. We also found that the efficiency of reducing thermal conductance by increasing the on-site potential disorder strength is much better than that by increasing the on-site potential's amplitude. - Highlights: → We studied the effect of on-site potential disorder on thermal transport. → Increasing disorder will decrease thermal transport. → Increasing system size will also decrease its thermal conductance. → Increasing disorder is more efficient than other in reducing thermal conductance.

  15. Mass transport by groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, E.; Goblet, P.; Jamet, Ph.; De Marsily, G.; Des Orres, P.E.; Lewi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The first analyses of the safety of radioactive waste disposal published in 1970s were mostly of a generic type using the models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These simply constructed models gave way to more sophisticated techniques in order to represent better the complexity and diversity of geological media. In this article, it is attempted to review the various concepts used to quantify radionuclide migration and the evolution of their incorporation into the models. First, it was examined how the type of discontinuity occurring in geological media affects the choice of a representative model. The principle of transport in the subsurface was reviewed, and the effect that coupled processes exert to groundwater flow and mass migration was discussed. The processes that act directly to cause groundwater flow were distinguished. The method of validating such models by comparing the results with the geochemical systems in nature was explained. (K.I.)

  16. Do On-Site Mental Health Professionals Change Pediatricians' Responses to Children's Mental Health Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-01-01

    To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1986-05-01

    The document entitled Intruder Dose Pathway Analysis of the Onsite Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 Computer Program (1984) summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrustion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. This document is a supplement to that document and summarizes efforts to further modify and improve the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. To facilitate cross-referencing, it follows the same format. Notable improvements to the software package include the capability to account for shielding conditions that represent noncompacted trash wastes and the option to indicate alternative land-use condition;s. This supplement contains a description of the implementation of these modifications. In addition, a series of discussions are included in an attempt to increase the user's understanding of the scenarios and dose calculation methods. These discussions respond to frequently asked questions about the mathematical models and use of the software. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program are included as Appendices A and B of this document. Appendix C lists external exposure dose-rate factor libraries

  18. Nutrient loading on subsoils from on-site wastewater effluent, comparing septic tank and secondary treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W; O'Luanaigh, N; Johnston, P M; Misstear, B D R; O'Suilleabhain, C

    2009-06-01

    The performance of six separate percolation areas was intensively monitored to ascertain the attenuation effects of unsaturated subsoils with respect to on-site wastewater effluent: three sites receiving septic tank effluent, the other three sites receiving secondary treated effluent. The development of a biomat across the percolation areas receiving secondary treated effluent was restricted on these sites compared to those sites receiving septic tank effluent and this created significant differences in terms of the potential nitrogen loading to groundwater. The average nitrogen loading per capita at 1.0m depth of unsaturated subsoil equated to 3.9 g total-N/d for the sites receiving secondary treated effluent, compared to 2.1 g total-N/d for the sites receiving septic tank effluent. Relatively high nitrogen loading was, however, found on the septic tank sites discharging effluent into highly permeable subsoil that counteracted any significant denitrification. Phosphorus removal was generally very good on all of the sites although a clear relationship to the soil mineralogy was determined.

  19. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  20. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  1. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Richard C. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  2. Biological fluidized-bed treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, G.M.; Scheible, O.K.; Maiello, J.A.; Guarini, W.J.; Sutton, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bench- and pilot-scale biological treatability studies were performed as part of a comprehensive study for developing an on-site treatment system for contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site. The bench-scale work, which included evaluations of activated sludge and fluidized-bed biological processes, indicated that a carbon-based fluidized-bed process was most appropriate. The process was then demonstrated on a pilot level at the site. The bench and pilot studies demonstrated significant reductions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and all target organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  3. Transport of chemicals in the groundwater systems at two sites near Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benioff, P.A.; Yang, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During operations at a uranium and thorium processing facility near Weldon Spring, Missouri, radioactive sludge residues (raffinates) were stored in four onsite pits. A nearby quarry was used to store other contaminated material and rubble. Two alternatives are compared to evaluate the effectiveness of waste stabilization and isolation at the raffinate pits area: (1) no action, and (2) improved containment. A 1000 year period of maintenance and monitoring is analyzed. Groundwater impacts are assessed for both the assumed 1000 year maintenance and monitoring period and the long-term period beyond 1000 years during which federal control might be lost. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  5. Canon multifunction copier machines – now with onsite support!

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Following a retendering process in 2012, the IT Department is pleased to announce that leased multifunction copier machines are now covered by onsite support, provided by Canon technicians via the CERN Service Desk support system.   You can now contact the Service Desk regarding any problems or requests for toner: Telephone: 77777 Email: Service-Desk@cern.ch Please remember to quote the machine printer name and/or serial number (marked on the side of the machine). The following submission forms are available online: Report a failure with a printer or copier Request for network printer or copier installation or move Request toner/ink for my printer or copier The website below details the range of models available, all of which include print, photocopy and scan-to-mail functions as standard. These multifunction copier machines are leased subject to a monthly charge (minimum of 48 months) plus a “per click” charge to cover consumables (except staples), leaving you noth...

  6. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition. An on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent has been developed. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-sol

  7. On-site equipment and materials against CBRNE terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Soichiro; Tokita, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    There is no almighty field service equipment that can handle by itself all CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive) terrorism. Since there is merit and demerit for each of equipment, operation methods and linkage of material/equipment based on detection principle are indispensable. This paper explained the principle and operation method of detection equipment, operation using multiple material/equipment, and system construction to facilitate cooperation with related ministries and agencies. There are six examples as typical material/equipment and detection principle for handling CBRNE as shown below: (1) ion mobility spectrometer, (2) infrared spectroscopy, (3) Raman scattering spectroscopy, (4) gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, (5) fluorescent reactive dye classification method, and (6) antigen antibody reaction method. This paper shows a flowchart that can measure within the duration of a respirator while wearing Level A protective clothing (about 15 to 20 min) by the combination of detector/analyzer based on these methods. The authors developed an information system that allows prompt information exchange between the on-site administrative agencies, research institutes, and other related organizations via network, in the case when substances etc. could not be specified in the above flowchart. (A.O.)

  8. Advanced on-site conceptual simulator for Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.; Sjoestrand, K.

    1984-01-01

    On-site conceptual simulators have been extensively used at Swedish nuclear power plants. Despite having access to identical replica simulators, both the Swedish State Power Board and the Swedish private power industry have ordered conceptual simulators during 1982. The motivation has been that a complete training programme requires access to both a replica and a conceptual simulator. The replica simulator is perfect for training in control room behaviour but less appropriate for ensuring deeper process understanding. On the other hand, the conceptual simulator is not well suited for getting the personnel acquainted with the control room but is perfect for extending their knowledge of the plant processes. In order to give a realistic description of these processes, the conceptual simulator model must be fairly advanced. The Forsmark 3 conceptual simulator simulates the entire primary system, including the details of the steam and feedwater systems. Considerable attention has also been devoted to the presentation of calculated variables. For example, all the variables in the data base (approx. 6600) can be presented on colour-graphic CRTs as functions of time. (author)

  9. An On-Site Presentation of Invisible Prehistoric Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Unger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology has enabled the creation of entirely new presentation frameworks and this article will attempt to explore the subject of on-site presentation of archaeological sites. The most frequently used environment currently has been in the form of a variety of virtual museums that are accessible on the Internet; in essence these keep their visitors stuck in front of a PC monitor. One option that allows leaving the monitor and stepping directly out-of-doors into a virtual open-air museum is by means of applications for mobile phones. Terms such as 'virtual' or 'augmented reality' no longer represent a million light-years away science-fiction concepts, but rather a new tool for public archaeology and for the preservation of the archaeological heritage. This article presents several projects that have been implemented by the Archaeological Institute in Prague, who, by using mobile applications, built virtual open-air museums directly in the locations of archaeological excavations.

  10. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are required to verify that a target analyte has been found by comparison with the mass spectra of fragrance compounds in the NIST mass spectral library. A I -L sample usually provides insufficient analyte for full scan data acquisition. This paper describes an on-site extraction method developed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)- Las Vegas Nevada - for synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for a wide array of synthetic musks. Quantification of these compounds was achieved from the full-scan data directly, without the need to acquire SIM data. The detection limits obtained with this method are an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from liquid-liquid and other solid phase extraction methods. This method is highly reproducible, and recoveries ranged from 80 to 97% in spiked sewage treatment plant effluent. The high rate of sorbent-sample mass transfer eliminated the need for a methanolic activation step, which reduced extraction time, labor, and solvent use, More samples could be extracted in the field at lower cost. After swnple extraction, the light- weight cartridges ar

  11. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  12. Development of the on-site power supply in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-5000 Koeln 1, Cologne (Germany)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the on-site power supply is different in German Nuclear Power Plants, depending on age and size of the plant. The cause for this is the evolution of the safety requirements. The general development of the design of safety Systems, which resulted in a strict separation of redundant trains is also reflected in the design of the emergency power system and even the complete on-site power supply System. This will be demonstrated by different examples. The advantages of this design with respect to the availability of on-site power will be explained and verified by means of operating experience. (author)

  13. Ground-water protection activities of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report evaluates the internal consistency of NRC's ground-water protection programs. These programs have evolved consistently with growing public concerns about the significance of ground-water contamination and environmental impacts. Early NRC programs provided for protection of the public health and safety by minimizing releases of radionuclides. More recent programs have included provisions for minimizing releases of nonradiological constituents, mitigating environmental impacts, and correcting ground-water contamination. NRC's ground-water protection programs are categorized according to program areas, including nuclear materials and waste management (NMSS), nuclear reactor operation (NRR), confirmatory research and standards development (RES), inspection and enforcement (IE), and agreement state programs (SP). Based on analysis of existing ground-water protection programs within NRC, the interoffice Ground-water Protection Group has identified several inconsistencies between and within program areas. These inconsistencies include: (1) different definitions of the term ''ground-water,'' (2) variable regulation of nonradiological constituents in ground water, (3) different design periods for ground-water protection, and (4) different scopes and rigor of ground-water assessments. The second inconsistency stems from differences in statutory authority granted to the NRC. The third inconsistency is rationalized by recognizing differences in perceived risks associated with nuclear facilities. The Ground-water Protection Group will document its analysis of the remaining inconsistencies and make recommendations to reconcile or eliminate them in a subsequent report

  14. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 CFR 60.113 (a). The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time

  15. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations. The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time, as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss (1) the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, (2) two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and (3) the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  17. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  18. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  19. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  20. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  1. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some of the aesthetic and operational problems associated with iron in water supplies. Iron removal from groundwater is, therefore, a major concern for water supply companies using groundwater sources....

  2. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  3. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miodrag Jelic

    resistance (ρ); dielectric constant (ε); magnetic permeability (η); electrochemical activity ..... comprises grey sands of different particle size distribution ..... groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in. Bangladesh.

  4. Postulated accident scenarios for the on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandin, G.; Sauve, R.

    2004-01-01

    Once a spent fuel container is loaded with spent fuel it typically travels on-site to a processing building for permanent lid attachment. During on-site transport a lid clamp is utilized to ensure the container lid remains in place. The safe on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel must rely on the structural integrity of the transport container and system of transport. Regard for on-site traffic and safe, efficient travel routes are important and manageable with well thought-out planning. Non-manageable incidences, such as flying debris from tornado force winds or postulated blasts in proximity to the transport container, that may result in high velocity impact and shock loading on the transport system must be considered. This paper consists of simulations that consider these types of postulated accident scenarios using detailed nonlinear finite element techniques

  5. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    .... Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased Workers From Modis, West Norriton, PA..., applicable to workers of Quest Diagnostics, Inc., Information Technology Help Desk Services, West Norriton... Quest Diagnostics, Inc., Information Technology Help Desk [[Page 2145

  6. 75 FR 49526 - Halliburton Company, Duncan Mfg., Including On-Site Leased Workers from Express Personnel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Company, Duncan Mfg., Including On-Site Leased Workers from Express Personnel, Clayton Personnel Service, and Manpower Planning, Duncan, OK; Halliburton Company, Technology and Engineering Division, Finance... Halliburton Company, Technology and Engineering Division, and Finance and Administration Division, Duncan...

  7. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  8. Comparison of central adjudication of outcomes and onsite outcome assessment on treatment effect estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndounga Diakou, Lee A ymar; Trinquart, Ludovic; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    ) when AC assessed events identified independently from unblinded onsite assessors; and 1.11 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.27, I(2) = 0%, 10 RCTs) when AC assessed events identified by unblinded onsite assessors. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between these subgroups (P = 0.03) AUTHORS......, there was no difference in treatment effect estimates from onsite assessors and AC (combined ROR: 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 47 RCTs). The combined ROR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 35 RCTs) when onsite assessors were blinded; 0.76 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.12, I(2) = 0%, two RCTs...

  9. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering... reviewed the certification to clarify the subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed...

  10. On-Site Processing and Subsampling of Surface Soil Samples for the Analysis of Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewitt, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    The on-site implementation of a sampling and analysis plan for the determination of explosives residues exposed a large uncertainty in our ability to quickly obtain representative subsamples from either large (>500 g...

  11. AMCO On-Site Air Monitoring Map Service, Oakland CA, Live 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service contains the following layers: All On-Site Air Monitors, TCE, PCE, and Vinyl Chloride. The layers draws at all scales. Full FGDC metadata for the...

  12. On-site quality assurance during erection of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with general quality assurance measures, the quality assurance during on-site production (incoming inspection, inspection of welds and welding equipment) and describes in more detail the quality assurance procedures for the containment. (RW) [de

  13. Medical complications and outcomes at an onsite rehabilitation unit for older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulroy, M

    2013-09-01

    The rehabilitation of older patients in Ireland after an acute medical event occurs at dedicated onsite hospital units or at offsite centres. Information on medical complications and outcomes is inadequate.

  14. Greywater characterization and loadings - Physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, C; Andreadakis, A; Kouris, N; Charchousi, D; Mendrinou, P; Galani, A; Mantziaras, I; Koumaki, E

    2018-06-15

    Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater. Based on the results average daily greywater production was equal to 98 L per person per day and accounts for approximately 70-75% of the total household wastewater production (135 L per person per day). Among the different sources, laundry and kitchen sink are the main contributors to the total greywater load of organic carbon, suspended solids and surfactants, whereas dishwasher and bathroom greywater are the main sources of phosphorus and endocrine disrupting chemicals respectively. Depending on sources, greywater accounts for as low as 15% of the total wastewater load of organic carbon (in the case of light greywater sources), to as high as 74% of the total load organic load (in the case of the heavy greywater sources). On the other hand, the nutrients load of greywater is limited. The application of a physical treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, granular activated carbon filtration and disinfection can provide for a final effluent with high quality characteristics for onsite reuse, especially when treating light greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Onsite vibrational characterization of DCMIX2/3 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé, Judit; Dubert, Diana; Gavaldà, Josefina; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Ruiz, Xavier; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2017-11-01

    The SODI-DCMIX thermodiffusion series experiments are part of the fluid research program carried out by the European Space Agency on board of the International Space Station (ISS). In particular, DCIMIX2/3 were conducted in the past inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox in the US Laboratory. Due to the physical nature of the processes implied, these kind of runs were very long and particularly delicate because the low vibratory limit requirements must be maintained for hours. This restrictive condition not always is achieved, therefore, an accurate surveillance of the acceleration levels along the different experiments is necessary, to ensure a correct interpretation of the experimental results. This work analyzes onsite vibrational environment of DCMIX2/3 covering the periods in which the experiments were going on. To do so, acceleration signals only coming from the es03 sensor, nearest to the experimental equipment and located in the Glovebox, were downloaded from the PIMS NASA website. To be as precise as possible the signals have always been treated minute by minute. To detect the transient disturbances along the experiments, several warnings were considered. First, 1 min RMS values, for the three acceleration components were evaluated, in time and in frequency domain. Additional information was obtained by plotting the power spectral densities of the signals, PSD, and their spectrogram with the aim of characterizing long periods of acceleration data. Due to great influence of low frequencies in this type of experiments, the Frequency Factor Index, FFI, was evaluated each minute. Complementary, the spectral entropy evolution was proposed as a fast new indicator of external perturbations. It has been found a good correlation between the spectrogram, temporal RMS and spectral entropy. Finally, a graphic representation of the points associated to the 1-min RMS values in one-third-octave frequency intervals which exceed the ISS limit curve requirements, was

  16. Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Gustavo A.

    1999-01-01

    Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education) is a joint effort among NASA/John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida International University, Universidad del Turabo, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and the Caguas/Gurabo Public Schools in Puerto Rico. The project's main mission is to institutionalize change among the elementary and middle school science and math teachers at participating schools so that their students receive continuously enriched instruction in the principles of science and math through the use of hands-on and minds-on experiments called learning modules. These leaming modules incorporate the national science and math education standards provided by the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessments and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, respectively. The use of learning modules that require hands-on and minds-on activities in a classroom setting garners great enthusiasm and motivation on the part of the target students for the understanding of the lesson's underlying math and science principles. With this enthusiasm and motivation, comes acceptance, attention, participation, discipline, acquiescence, and collaboration. Additionally, the use of hands-on activities may also require learning through a gamut of senses. Not only can the student use his/her eyes and ears during these activities, but most times, they can also use their senses of touch, smell, and taste, as well as intuition. Learning is, therefore, achieved using most or all the human senses. The combination of motivation/enthusiasm and the use of multiple senses creates an ideal environment conducive to leaming at a profound level.

  17. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  18. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site Dan Step by Step Untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru Dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Ichrom, Moch. Sholeh Y.A

    1996-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  19. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Y.; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  20. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  1. Coaching and Quality Assistance in Quality Rating Improvement Systems: Approaches Used by TA Providers to Improve Quality in Early Care and Education Programs and Home-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor; Schneider, Will; Kreader, J. Lee; Ong, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Quality Rating Improvement Systems (QRISs) commonly offer on-site technical assistance (TA) and coaching to help early care and education settings achieve quality improvements and a higher QRIS rating. In surveys of administrators overseeing statewide QRISs, almost all states reported the use of on-site TA and coaching in both center-based and…

  2. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  3. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  4. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies

  5. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-06-27

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  6. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  7. Groundwater protection management program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ''Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan'' (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program's significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1

  8. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  9. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  10. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  11. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  12. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  13. Groundwater: from mystery to management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T N

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

  14. REPORT OF ON-SITE INSPECTION WORKSHOP-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-07

    The central issue addressed by this workshop was the task of making the on-site inspection (OSI) part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification system operationally ready at entry into force of the Treaty. It is recognized, and this was emphasized by the 2008 OSI Integrated Field Exercise (IFE), that it is not possible to develop every part of the OSI regime simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the approach to OSI readiness. The reviews of the IFE have pointed to many elements of OSI readiness that still need development. The objective of this workshop was to provide priorities for the path forward for Working Group B to consider. Several critical areas have been identified that are related to the development of OSI readiness: (1) Technology development: Priorities are radionuclide and noble gas sampling and analysis, visual observation, multispectral/infrared imaging methods, active seismic methods and the recognition of the importance of signatures. (2) Organizational development: Priorities are health and safety, the Operations Support Centre, the Equipment Storage and Maintenance Facility, information technology data flow and communications. (3) Resources: The expertise to develop key parts of the OSI regime is not available within the current OSI Division staff. To develop these aspects of the regime will require more staff or supplements to the staff with cost-free experts or other means. Aspects of the system that could benefit from more staff include radionuclide and noble gas detection methods, data flow and communications, visual observation, multispectral/infrared methods and health and safety. As the path forward, participants of this workshop recognized a need to optimize the development of OSI priorities. The outcome of this workshop is to suggest for consideration an operational approach to OSI readiness that utilizes results of an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of OSI elements versus their relative

  15. Flamanville 3 EPR, Safety Assessment and On-site Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedagnel, Corinne; Tarallo, Francois; Monnot, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    As a Technical Support Organisation of the French Safety Authority (ASN), the IRSN carries out the safety assessment of EPR project design and participates in the ASN inspections performed at the construction site and in factories. The design assessment consists in defining the safety functions which should be ensured by civil structures, evaluating the EPR Technical Code for Civil works (ETC-C) in which EdF has defined design criteria and construction rules, and carrying out a detailed assessment of a selection of safety-related structures. Those detailed assessments do not consist of a technical control but of an analysis whose objectives are to ensure that design and demonstrations are robust, in accordance with safety and regulatory rules. Most assessments led IRSN to ask EdF to provide additional justification sometimes involving significant modifications. In the light of those complementary justifications and modifications, IRSN concluded that assessments carried out on design studies were globally satisfactory. The participation of IRSN to the on-site inspections led by ASN is a part of the global control of the compliance of the reactor with its safety objectives. For that purpose IRSN has defined a methodology and an inspection program intended to ASN: based on safety functions associated with civil works (confinement and resistance to aggressions), the corresponding behaviour requirements are identified and linked to a list of main civil works elements. During the inspections, deviations to the project's technical specifications or to the rules of the art were pointed out by IRSN. Those deviations cover various items, such as concrete fabrication, concrete pouring methodology, lack of reinforcement in some structures, unadapted welding procedures of the containment leak-tight steel liner and unsatisfactory treatment of concreting joints. The analysis of those problems has revealed flaws in the organisation of the contractors teams together with an

  16. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  17. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Rhen, Ingvar

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  18. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  19. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  20. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  1. Management of groundwater in farmed pond area using risk-based regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Ying; Liao, Chiao-Miao; Lin, Kao-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Haw

    2014-09-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)~10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5 × 10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5 × 10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.

  2. Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Taher, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, which includes the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, with a population of approximately 4 million, has several Afghan, United States, and international military installations that depend on groundwater resources for a potable water supply. This study examined groundwater levels in the Kabul Basin from 2004 to 2012. Groundwater levels have increased slightly in rural areas of the Kabul Basin as a result of normal precipitation after the drought of the early 2000s. However, groundwater levels have decreased in the city of Kabul due to increasing water use in an area with limited recharge. The rate of groundwater-level decrease in the city is greater for the 2008–2012 period (1.5 meters per year (m/yr) on average) than for the 2004–2008 period (0–0.7 m/yr on average). The analysis, which is corroborated by groundwater-flow modeling and a non-governmental organization decision-support model, identified groundwater-level decreases and associated implications for groundwater sustainability in the city of Kabul. Military installations in the city of Kabul (the Central Kabul subbasin) are likely to face water management challenges resulting from long-term groundwater sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow water-supply wells. Installations in the northern part of the Kabul Basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Groundwater-level monitoring and groundwater-flow simulation can be valuable tools for assessing groundwater management options to improve the sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin.

  3. The discharge of nitrate-contaminated groundwater from developed shoreline to marsh-fringed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.; Nowicki, B.L.; Roman, C.T.; Urish, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    As residential development, on-site wastewater disposal, and groundwater contamination increase in the coastal zone, assessment of nutrient removal by soil and sedimentary processes becomes increasingly important. Nitrogen removal efficiency depends largely on the specific flow paths taken by groundwater as it discharges into nitrogen-limited estuarine waters. Shoreline salinity surveys, hydraulic studies, and thermal infrared imagery indicated that groundwater discharge into the Nauset Marsh estuary (Eastham, Massachusetts) occurred in high-velocity seeps immediately seaward of the upland-fringing salt marsh. Discharge was highly variable spatially and occurred through permeable, sandy sediments during low tide. Seepage chamber monitoring showed that dissolved inorganic nitrogen (principally nitrate) traversed nearly conservatively from the aquifer through shallow estuarine sediments to coastal waters at flux rates of 1–3 mmol m−2 h−1. A significant relationship between pore water NO3-N concentrations and NO3-N flux rates may provide a rapid method of estimating nitrogen loading from groundwater to the water column.

  4. A survey of domestic wells and pit latrines in rural settlements of Mali: Implications of on-site sanitation on the quality of water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Santos, P; Martín-Loeches, M; García-Castro, N; Solera, D; Díaz-Alcaide, S; Montero, E; García-Rincón, J

    2017-10-01

    On-site sanitation is generally advocated as a means to eradicate the health hazards associated with open defecation. While this has provided a welcome upgrade to the livelihoods of millions of people in low-income countries, improved sanitation facilities are increasingly becoming a threat to domestic groundwater-based supplies. Within this context, a survey of pit latrines, domestic wells and improved water sources was carried out in a large rural village of southern Mali. All households were surveyed for water, sanitation and hygiene habits. Domestic wells and improved water sources were georeferenced and sampled for water quality (pH, electric conductivity, temperature, turbidity, total dissolved solids, thermotolerant coliforms, chloride and nitrate) and groundwater level, while all latrines were inspected and georeferenced. A GIS database was then used to evaluate the proportion of water points within the influence area of latrines, as well as to underpin multiple regression models to establish the determinants for fecal contamination in drinking supplies. Moreover, an appraisal of domestic water treatment practices was carried out. This revealed that nearly two-thirds of the population uses bleach to purify drinking supplies, but also that domestic-scale treatment as currently implemented by the population is far from effective. It is thus concluded that existing habits could be enhanced as a means to make water supplies safer. Furthermore, population, well and latrine density were all identified as statistically significant predictors for fecal pollution at different spatial scales. These findings are policy-relevant in the context of groundwater-dependent human settlements, since many countries in the developing world currently pursue the objective of eliminating open defecation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. A 13-year cohort study of musculoskeletal disorders treated in an autoplant, on-site physiotherapy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Jackie; MacDermid, Joy C; Chesworth, Bert; Birmingham, Trevor

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the rate and distribution of treatment visits provided in an on-site, automotive plant, physiotherapy clinic over a 13-year period. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected at an on-site physiotherapy clinic (1990-2002, 65,977 visits; n = 2,636 workers). The average age of workers was 43 +/- 9 years; most remained at work (85%) when treated. Disorders most commonly affected the shoulder, lumbar, and cervical regions; the median number of visits for these was 7, 6, and 5, respectively. Elbow disorders occurred commonly only for work-related complaints and required a median of eight visits. Rate of utilization was higher for women, with 47% of the plant's female workers attending physiotherapy in 1 year. Women had higher rates of cervical spine (12 vs. 22%) and wrist (5 vs. 10%) disorders. The two most common causes of injury reported by workers with an industrial injury were "frank injury arising out of normal employment" (51%) and "gradual onset/no frank injury" (37%). The diagnosis most often reported by the physiotherapist after initial assessment was "strain" which was similar for both industrial (43%) and non-industrial (49%) injuries. The six main departments in this automotive plant account for 93% of all industrial injuries reported. Final Assembly accounted for the largest number and highest rate of injury, although shift variability was noted in utilization rates (13 vs. 26%), despite the same tasks, shift schedules, and demographics. Although there was no control group, the number of visits to discharge was lower than reported in the literature for off-site physical therapy; there was a large reduction in claims (441-275) following introduction of the clinic and reduced duration/costs of lost time were identified by the employer as a rationale to continue and enhance the service over time. On-site physiotherapy services can provide early, cost-effective management of WRMSD in the automotive

  6. Assessment of ground-water flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer using geostatistical filtering and hydrocarbon fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquis, S.A. Jr.; Smith, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional environmental investigations at tidally influenced hazardous waste sites such as marine fuel storage terminals have generally failed to characterize ground-water flow and chemical transport because they have been based on only a cursory knowledge of plume geometry, chemicals encountered, and hydrogeologic setting and synoptic ground-water level measurement. Single-time observations cannot be used to accurately determine flow direction and gradient in tidally fluctuating aquifers since these measurements delineate hydraulic head at only one point in time during a tidal cycle, not the net effect of the fluctuations. In this study, a more rigorous approach was used to characterize flow and chemical transport in a tidally influenced aquifer at a marine fuel storage terminal using: (1) ground-water-level monitoring over three tidal cycles (72 hours), (2) geostatistical filtering of ground-water-level data using 25-hour and 71-hour filtering methods, and (3) hydrocarbon fingerprinting analysis. The results from the study indicate that naphtha released from one of the on-site naphtha tanks has been the predominant contributor to the hydrocarbon plume both on-site and downgradient off-site and that net ground-water and hydrocarbon movement has been to the southeast away from the tank since 1989

  7. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  8. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.

    1987-07-01

    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am 3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe 3+ , REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  9. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.

    1984-12-01

    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  10. Soil treatment and groundwater control for No. 6 fuel oil and PCB contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girioni, M.J.; St. Hilaire, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of a Short-Term Measure ordered by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), soil contaminated by No. 6 fuel oil and low-level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated, treated and recycled on-site as an asphalt base course for a parking lot at an industrial complex in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Approximately 300 cubic yards of contaminated soil were treated with an asphalt emulsion and utilized as a aggregate component for asphalt processed at ambient temperatures during the month of December 1990. In order to determine if the contaminated soils to be recycled would be classified as a hazardous waste (as defined by the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR 30.000), or if the soil to be recycled would pose a significant risk to health, safety or the environment, analytical testing of the contaminated soil was conducted prior, during and after treatment. Analytical testing included Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses of the untreated and treated soil. An alternative solution to the standard groundwater pump-and-treat method was designed and constructed to control and recover the highly viscous floating petroleum product. A series of precast leaching galleys (oil collection chambers) and a precast leach pit (groundwater discharge structure) were constructed to alter the local groundwater table to induce groundwater flow by gravity into the leaching chambers. Passive (i.e., nonpumping) groundwater flow to the leaching chambers was induced by placing of the groundwater discharge structure hydraulically downgradient of the leaching chambers. Collected oil, separated by gravity, will be periodically vacuumed, as necessary, for proper off-site disposal. Excess water discharges to the downgradient leach pit

  11. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  12. Deep groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.; Axelsen, K.; Fredlund, F.

    1987-06-01

    Starting in 1977 and up till now a number of places in Sweden have been investigated in order to collect the necessary geological, hydrogeological and chemical data needed for safety analyses of repositories in deep bedrock systems. Only crystalline rock is considered and in many cases this has been gneisses of sedimentary origin but granites and gabbros are also represented. Core drilled holes have been made at nine sites. Up to 15 holes may be core drilled at one site, the deepest down to 1000 m. In addition to this a number of boreholes are percussion drilled at each site to depths of about 100 m. When possible drilling water is taken from percussion drilled holes. The first objective is to survey the hydraulic conditions. Core drilled boreholes and sections selected for sampling of deep groundwater are summarized. (orig./HP)

  13. Global scale groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  14. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  15. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  16. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of commercial radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1984-10-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risks from onsite burials of commercial radioactive waste, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The amended regulations now require licensees to apply for approval of proposed procedures for onsite disposal pursuant to 10 CFR 20.302. The NRC technically reviews these requests on a case-by-case basis. These technical reviews require modeling potential pathways to man and projecting radiation dose commitments. This paper contains a summary of our efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and to modify a version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. The ONSITE/MAXI1 computer software package contains four computer codes. ONSITE is the interactive user interface that allows the end-user to simply and efficiently create and use the radiation-exposure scenarios. MAXI1 is then used with the scenario information to calculate the maximum annual dose to the exposed individual from selected pathways. 1 figure

  17. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of$27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are: (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33)-Steel, Aluminum, Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation

  18. Modification of an existing radwaste facility to provide onsite low level waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ault, G.M.; Reiss, J.F.; Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The decision of whether or not to install onsite storage capacity for low-level radioactive waste is dictated by individual utility circumstances. Commonwealth Edison has decided to construct facilities to store low-level radwaste onsite at each of their four operating nuclear stations, and they plan to have those facilities in operation by January, 1986. At Dresden, that onsite storage capacity is being provided by modifying an existing radwaste building which already has installed a remotely-operated precision-placement type crane. The purposes of this paper are to describe: (1) how Commonwealth Edison arrived at the decision to construct onsite storage facilities as a hedge against possible disruption of burial site availability in January, 1986; (2) why the desire to minimize the capital investment for this protection led to selection of an uncomplicated design for their ''standard'' facility and to the decision to modify an existing building at Dresden rather than construct a new one; and (3) what is being done to adapt the Dresden 1 Decontamination/Radwaste Building for extended onsite storage

  19. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  20. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  1. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  2. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... of water in the oxidized zone of the aquifer nearly halved, following implementation of action plans to reduce N leaching from agriculture. However, due to denitrification by pyrite oxidation in the aquifer, a plume of sulfate-rich water migrates through the aquifer as a legacy of the historical NO3...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...

  3. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  4. Comparison of conventional vs. modular hydrogen refueling stations and on-site production vs. delivery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To meet the needs of public and private stakeholders involved in the development, construction, and operation of hydrogen fueling stations needed to support the widespread roll-out of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, this work presents publicly available station templates and analyses. These ‘Reference Stations’ help reduce the cost and speed the deployment of hydrogen stations by providing a common baseline with which to start a design, enable quick assessment of potential sites for a hydrogen station, identify contributors to poor economics, and suggest areas of research. This work presents layouts, bills of materials, piping and instrumentation diagrams, and detailed analyses of five new station designs. In the near term, delivered hydrogen results in a lower cost of hydrogen compared to on-site production via steam methane reforming or electrolysis, although the on-site production methods have other advantages. Modular station concepts including on-site production can reduce lot sizes from conventional assemble-on-site stations.

  5. Development of emergency response training program for on-site commanders (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Kanayama, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, there have been increasing calls for developing the leadership capabilities of managers who are in charge of command and control of the on-site emergency response center at nuclear power plants. Training programs to improve non-technical skills are being developed and introduced. The authors developed an active learning exercise that can be repeatedly performed on-site, targeting on-site commander teams in charge of the initial response in an emergency situation. The exercise forms the core element of a non-technical skills training curriculum. This paper outlines the developed exercise, evaluates the stress on the participants caused by the exercise, and identifies any issues before actually introducing it to a site. (author)

  6. Effects of Edge on-Site Potential in a Honeycomb Topological Magnon Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleón, Pierre A.; Xian, Yang

    2018-06-01

    While the deviation of the edge on-site potential from the bulk values in a magnonic topological honeycomb lattice leads to the formation of edge states in a bearded boundary, this is not the case for a zigzag termination, where no edge state is found. In a semi-infinite lattice, the intrinsic on-site interactions along the boundary sites generate an effective defect and this gives rise to Tamm-like edge states. If a nontrivial gap is induced, both Tamm-like and topologically protected edge states appear in the band structure. The effective defect can be strengthened by an external on-site potential, and the dispersion relation, velocity and magnon density of the edge states all become tunable.

  7. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  8. Groundwater sampling in uranium reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.

    1977-03-01

    The groundwater sampling program is based on the premise that ground water geochemistry reflects the chemical composition of, and geochemical processes active in the strata from which the sample is obtained. Pilot surveys have shown that wells are the best source of groundwater, although springs are sampled on occasion. The procedures followed in selecting a sampling site, the sampling itself, and the field measurements, as well as the site records made, are described

  9. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Gus J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Egger, Ann E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Krebs, Kenneth M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Milbrath, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warren, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilmer, N. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  10. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, Gus J.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Milbrath, B. D.; Jordan, D. V.; Warren, G. A.; Wilmer, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy-Osiris-software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  11. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Groundwater Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  13. Comparison and critical review of onsite treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of information developed in the Onsite Treatment of Contaminated Soil Manual (Manual) prepared for the Western States Petroleum Associated (WSPA). The manual provides an easy to use reference for evaluating technologies which may be applicable to onsite remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, by providing materials in the following three formats: The main text, which provides summaries for each available technology and a screening procedure to identify potentially viable options for specific site conditions; several appendices, which contain detailed descriptions for each technology, and permit requirement summaries for nine western states; and a separate appendix which lists published references and vendor's literature used n preparing the Manual

  14. Innovative on-site approach to oil based drilling mud waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurell, A.

    1999-01-01

    An innovative system has been developed by Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) for the environmentally safe containment and decomposition of oily drilling residuals. The approach is a complete management system which provides an on-site alternative to off-site disposal. The approach uses the principles of total containment and microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons. The complete management system transforms the waste into an end product suitable for on-site land treatment, in accordance with regulatory guidelines. This paper describes how the approach can eliminate the future environmental risk and economic liability associated with hydrocarbon contaminated materials

  15. Methods for estimating on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Currently, Gaussian type dispersion modeling and point source approximation are combined to estimate the ambient air concentrations of pollutants dispersed downwind of an areawide emission source, using the approach of virtual point source approximation. This Gaussian dispersion modeling becomes less accurate as the receptor comes closer to the source, and becomes inapplicable for the estimation of on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites. Partial differential equations are solved with appropriate boundary conditions for use in estimating the on-site concentrations in the ambient air impacted by emissions from an area source such as land disposal sites. Two variations of solution techniques are presented, and their predictions are compared

  16. Compact solitary waves in linearly elastic chains with non-smooth on-site potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Milano, Via Saldini 50, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gramchev, Todor [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Walcher, Sebastian [Lehrstuhl A Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2007-04-27

    It was recently observed by Saccomandi and Sgura that one-dimensional chains with nonlinear elastic interaction and regular on-site potential can support compact solitary waves, i.e. travelling solitary waves with strictly compact support. In this paper, we show that the same applies to chains with linear elastic interaction and an on-site potential which is continuous but non-smooth at minima. Some different features arise; in particular, the speed of compact solitary waves is not uniquely fixed by the equation. We also discuss several generalizations of our findings.

  17. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  18. Small Reactors without On-site Refuelling: Neutronic Characteristics, Emergency Planning and Development Scenarios. Final Report of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Small reactors without on-site refuelling have a capability to operate without reloading or shuffling of fuel in their cores for reasonably long periods of time consistent with plant economy and considerations of energy security, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. In 2009, more than 25 design concepts of such reactors were analyzed or developed in IAEA Member States, representing both developed and developing countries. Small reactors without on-site refuelling are being developed for several reactor lines, including water cooled reactors, sodium cooled fast reactors, lead and lead bismuth cooled reactors, and also include some non-conventional concepts. Most of the concepts of small reactors without on-site refuelling reactors are at early design stages. To make such reactors viable, further research and development (R and D) is necessary, inter alia, to validate long-life core operation, define and validate new robust types of fuel, justify an option of plant location in the proximity to its users, and examine possible niches that such reactors could fill in future energy systems. To further research and development (R and D) in the areas mentioned above and several others, and to facilitate progress in Member States in design and technology development for small reactors without on-site refueling, the IAEA has conducted a dedicated Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Small Reactors without On-site Refuelling' (CRPi25001). The project started late in 2004 and, after a review in 2008, was extended for one more year to be ended in 2009. The project has created a network of 18 research institutions from 10 Member States, representing both developed and developing countries. Over the CRP period, collaborative results were achieved for many of the abovementioned research areas. Some studies highlighted new directions of research to be furthered after the CRP completion. Some studies remained the efforts of

  19. Bikini Atoll groundwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear weapons testing during the 1950's has left the soil and ground water on Bikini Atoll contaminated with cesium-137, and to a lesser extent, strontium-90. Plans currently are underway for the clean-up and resettlement of the atoll by removal of approximately the upper 30 cm of soil. Any large-scale resettlement program must include provisions for water supply. This will be achieved principally by catchment and storage of rain water, however, since rainfall in Bikini is highly seasonal and droughts occur frequently, ground water development must also be considered. The quantity of potable ground water that can be developed is limited by its salinity and radiological quality. The few ground water samples available from Bikini, which have been collected from only about the top meter of the groundwater body, indicate that small bodies of potable ground water exist on Bikini and Eneu, the two principal living islands, but that cesium and strontium in the Bikioni ground water exceed drinking water standards. In order to make a reasonable estimate of the ground water development potential for the atoll, some 40 test boreholes will be drilled during July/August 1985, and a program of water quality monitoring initiated. This paper will describe preliminary results of the drilling and monitoring work

  20. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  1. Cyclic metal migration in a groundwater stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, W.; Portmann, W.; Wernli, C.; Linder, P.; Burkart, W.

    1988-04-01

    The behaviour of dissolved (<0.45 μm) inorganic species (e.g. metals, anions), and changes in relevant properties of polluted river water during infiltration into adjacent groundwater are investigated. Water from the river and from several wells is analyzed for temporal and spacial changes. For many of the measured quantities a pronounced annual cycle is observed. The temperature differences between summer and winter influence biological activity. Growth and degradation of organic material lead to drastic changes in pH and redox conditions in the near infiltration field. During summer, under relatively anoxic conditions, manganese oxides/hydroxides dissolve. In winter, the higher concentration of dissolved oxygen induce reprecipitation of manganese. Trace metal mobility (e.g. Cu, Zn, Cd) is influenced by these annual variations. In the river, daily cycles are observed for many of the measured quantities. These short term variations are induced by photosynthesis and respiration of aquatic biota. The cyclic behaviour disappears during the early stage of infiltration. The changes between river and groundwater can be modelled by a combination of simplified electron transfer and weathering reactions. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs

  2. 75 FR 21353 - Intel Corporation, Fab 20 Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,642] Intel Corporation, Fab 20... of Intel Corporation, Fab 20 Division, including on-site leased workers of Volt Technical Resources... Precision, Inc. were employed on-site at the Hillsboro, Oregon location of Intel Corporation, Fab 20...

  3. 75 FR 76038 - Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La..., including on-site leased workers from Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, Texas. The Department's... investigation revealed that Zach System Corporation is a subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA, not Zach System SPA...

  4. 76 FR 16447 - ETHICON, a Subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... workers of ETHICON, A Johnson and Johnson Company, San Angelo, Texas, separated from employment on or... Johnson & Johnson Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Temporary Services, San Angelo, TX; Amended... of ETHICON, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Temporary...

  5. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix, Including Workers Whose Unemployment..., applicable to workers of CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from... workers employed at CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Winston-Salem, North Carolina who were...

  6. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of Express Personnel Services and the La Salle Network, Bloomingdale, IL; Havi Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL..., applicable to workers of HAVI Logistics, North America, a subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP, including on-site...

  7. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and Employment Staffing Solutions... 19, 2010, applicable to workers of CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site..., North Carolina location of CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division. The Department has determined...

  8. 75 FR 55613 - Dupont Teijin Films Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, SC; Amended Certification... Teijin Films, including on-site leased workers from Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina... leased workers of Schenkers Logistics, Inc., Florence, South Carolina, who became totally or partially...

  9. 75 FR 11921 - Heritage Aviation, Ltd., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Global Technical Services and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,924] Heritage Aviation, Ltd., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Global Technical Services and Global, Inc. (Global Employment... from Heritage Aviation, Ltd, including on-site leased workers from Global Technical Services, Grand...

  10. 76 FR 61741 - Bmc Software, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From COMSYS ITS Including Remote Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,540] Bmc Software, Inc... November 23, 2010, applicable to workers of BMC Software, Inc., including on-site leased workers from... BMC Software, inc., including on-site leased workers from Comsys ITS, and including remote workers...

  11. 76 FR 50272 - West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,099] West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Albuquerque, New... former workers of West, A Thomson Reuters Business, Thomson Reuters Legal Division, including On-Site...

  12. 78 FR 2287 - Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp., including on-site leased workers from Noramtec, First Choice... America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Noramtec, First Choice Staffing, Staff Works, and Mr. Santo Lamarco From Wurth Revcar Fasteners, Inc., Oriskany...

  13. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,048] FLSMidth, Inc., Cement..., Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, including on-site leased workers of Aerotek Contract.... were also employed on-site at FLSmidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Bethlehem...

  14. 75 FR 45166 - Jeld-Wen, Inc., Hawkins Window Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Nicolet Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,014] Jeld-Wen, Inc., Hawkins Window Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Nicolet Staffing, Hawkins, WI; Notice of Negative...., Hawkins Window Division, including on-site leased workers of Nicolet Staffing, Hawkins, Wisconsin. Signed...

  15. 78 FR 21155 - Eastman Kodak Company, IPS-Dayton Location, Including On-site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,387] Eastman Kodak Company, IPS--Dayton Location, Including On-site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio; Notice of... and former workers of Eastman Kodak Company, IPS--Dayton Location, including on-site leased workers...

  16. 77 FR 3499 - Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Selectremedy Park Ridge, NJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,501M] Sony Electronics, Inc... Electronics, Inc., SEL Headquarters, including on-site leased workers of SelectRemedy, StaffMark, and Payrolling.com , San Diego, California (TA-W-71,501); Sony Electronics, Inc., including on-site leased...

  17. 76 FR 62452 - Avon Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    .... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, OH; Amended Certification Regarding... workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were...., including on-site leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or...

  18. 76 FR 62451 - Avon Products, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio; Amended Certification... workers of the subject firm. The company reports that workers leased from Spherion/Source Right were...., including on-site leased workers from Spherion/Source Right, Springdale, Ohio, who became totally or...

  19. 75 FR 5147 - Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...,763B] Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten Staffing Services Fairhaven, MA; Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten Staffing Services New Bedford, MA; Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands...

  20. 76 FR 2145 - International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA..., applicable to workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin... follows: All workers International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, including on-site leased...

  1. 78 FR 8587 - American Showa, Inc.; Blanchester Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Sims...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ....; Blanchester Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Sims Bros., Inc.; Blanchester, OH; Amended... workers from Sims Bros., Inc. were working on-site at the subject firm during the relevant period and that the services supplied by Sims Bros., Inc. were related to the production of gear boxes (and parts...

  2. 78 FR 61389 - Sanyo Solar of Oregon, LLC, Wafer Slicing and Quality Control Operations, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., LLC, Wafer Slicing and Quality Control Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Brown and... Quality Control Operations, Salem, Oregon, including on-site leased workers from Brown and Dunton, Inc... and included workers who supplied quality control and support functions. The company reports that...

  3. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  4. Evaluation of the OnSite malaria rapid test performance in Miandrivazo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarisoa, E; Andriamiandranoro, T; Raherinjafy, R; Jahevitra, M; Razanatsiorimalala, S; Andrianaranjaka, V; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic test OnSite-for detecting pan specific pLDH and Plasmodium falciparum specific HRP2 - was assessed during the malaria transmission peak period in Miandrivazo, in the southwestern part of Madagascar from April 20 to May 6, 2010. At the laboratory, the quality control OnSite Malaria Rapid Test according to the WHO/TDR/FIND method demonstrated that the test had good sensitivity. Of the 218 OnSite tests performed at the Miandrivazo Primary Health Center on patients with fever or a recent history of fever, four (1.8%, 95% CI: 0.6-4.9%) were invalid. Ninety four (43,1%) cases of malaria were confirmed by microscopy, of which 90 were P. falciparum malaria and 4 Plasmodium vivax malaria. With a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.94, the agreement between microscopy and OnSite is excellent. Compared with the rapid test CareStart™ commonly used within the public health structures in Madagascar, the sensitivity and specificity of the OnSite test were 97.9% and 96.8%.

  5. Effluent information system (EIS)/onsite discharge information system (ODIS) 1985 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-09-01

    The Effluent Information System (EIS) and Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS) are Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems that aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into EIS and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into ODIS. This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1985 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of two parts. The first part summarizes information for effluents released offsite, and the second part summarizes information for effluents retained onsite. These summaries are taken from the routine annual reports sent to each DOE Operations Office. Special tabulations or specific data can be supplied upon request. Explanations of the significant changes are included in the EIS and ODIS graphic sections. Only those changes in activity greater than a factor of two and having a magnitude greater than 0.1 Ci are considered significant and are addressed in the explanation

  6. Cost-effective on-site screening for anaemia in pregnancy in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    syphilis serology. Results are returned days or weeks later depending on local circumstances.2 For some mobile clinics in rural areas, this delay may be as long as a month. On-site screening for ... probably anaemic still require a diagnostic test to determine ... accurate and cheap screening for and diagnosis of anaemia,.

  7. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... undated planning and organizing products. The review shows that on August 21, 2008, a certification of..., Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Pro-Tel People, Sidney, NY; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with...

  8. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  9. 76 FR 73683 - Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,593] Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing, Andrews International, IBM Corporation... refrigerators and trash compactors. The notice was published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR...

  10. 76 FR 72978 - Whirlpool Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,593] Whirlpool Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing, Andrews International, IBM Corporation... workers are engaged in the production of refrigerators and trash compactors. The notice was published in...

  11. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the properties of heat transfer are examined theoretically.

  12. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the prop- erties of heat transfer are examined ...

  13. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Villot-Kadri, M.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Michel, K.; Bruyère, D.; Laperche, V. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ► We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ► We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ► We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ► Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced.

  14. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,054C] Apria Healthcare..., 2009, applicable to workers of Apria Healthcare, including on-site leased workers from Corestaff... subject firm. The workers are engaged in activities related to the information technology and patient...

  15. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.108... burn hazardous waste in an on-site boiler or industrial furnace are exempt from the requirements of...

  16. 75 FR 76487 - Haldex Brake Corporation, Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ..., Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Johnston Integration Technologies, a... Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C... system components. The company reports that workers leased from Johnston Integration Technologies, a...

  17. Comparing Person-Centered Communication Education in Long-Term Care Using Onsite and Online Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carissa K; Fanning, Kim; Williams, Kristine N

    2015-11-01

    Educating nursing home (NH) staff to provide person-centered care is complicated by scheduling, costs, and other feasibility issues. The current study compared outcomes for an in-service program focused on person-centered communication provided in onsite and online formats. The Changing Talk program was provided onsite in seven NHs (n = 327 staff). The online program included eight NHs (n = 211 staff). Analysis of variance revealed an interaction between format type and pre-/post-test scores with improved recognition of person-centered communication in the onsite group only. Group program evaluations based on the modified Diffusion of Innovation in Long-Term Care Battery indicated no significant differences between training formats. Staff perception of the program was similar. Although statistically significant gains were noted in posttest scores indicating awareness of person-centered communication for the onsite group, gains were of limited clinical significance. Feasibility and effectiveness are important considerations for in-service education supporting NH culture change. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. 28 CFR 79.33 - Proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... number; (iv) The site at which the claimant participated in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear... atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. If the facts gathered by the DoD are insufficient to establish the... claimant was present onsite during the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device as an employee of the AEC...

  19. 28 CFR 79.32 - Criteria for eligibility for claims by onsite participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following: (a) That the claimant was present onsite at any time during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing; (b) That the claimant was a participant during that period in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device; and (c) That after such participation, the claimant contracted a specified compensable...

  20. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haddad, J.; Villot-Kadri, M.; Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G.; Michel, K.; Bruyère, D.; Laperche, V.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ► We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ► We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ► We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ► Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced

  1. Towards sustainable and robust on-site domestic wastewater treatment for all citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgana, S.

    2003-01-01

    In most developing countries commonly practiced domestic wastewater treatment systems predominantly constitute anaerobic treatment process. The anaerobic treatment units mostly installed are on-site at residential dwellings.

    However the commonly installed units, viz., traditional pit

  2. 78 FR 48468 - Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ..., Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Securitas, Bartech, Flint Janitorial... Adjustment Assistance on May 20, 2013, applicable to workers of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety... on- site at the Flint, Michigan location of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division. The...

  3. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  4. Slope stability and bearing capacity of landfills and simple on-site test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Atsushi; Doi, Yoichi; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield. An on-site full scale test proved that no differential settlement occurs. The repose angle test proposed as a simple on-site test method has been confirmed to be a good indicator for slope stability assessment. The repose angle test suggested that landfills which have high, near-saturation water content have considerably poorer slope stability. The results of our repose angle test and the impact acceleration test were related to the internal friction angle and the cohesion, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that the air pore volume ratio measured by an on-site air pore volume ratio test is likely to be related to various strength parameters.

  5. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ajilon... Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division, Hollywood, California (subject firm). The worker... the workers meet the eligibility requirements of the Trade Act of 1974. Conclusion After careful...

  6. The interactive on-site inspection system: An information management system to support arms control inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLand, S.M.; Widney, T.W.; Horak, K.E.; Caudell, R.B.; Grose, E.M.

    1996-12-01

    The increasing use of on-site inspection (OSI) to meet the nation`s obligations with recently signed treaties requires the nation to manage a variety of inspection requirements. This document describes a prototype automated system to assist in the preparation and management of these inspections.

  7. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  8. The Temporal Perspective in Higher Education Learners: Comparisons between Online and Onsite Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Margarida; Usart, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    Higher Education increases flexibility with online learning solutions. Nevertheless, dropout rates in online university are large. Among the reasons, one aspect deserving further study is students' Time Perspective (TP), which has been studied in onsite HE. It is necessary to know the TP profile of the growing population of online students, and…

  9. Improvement of Endovascular Stroke Treatment: A 24-Hour Neuroradiological On-Site Service Is Not Enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Nikoubashman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. With the advent of endovascular stroke treatment (EST with mechanical thrombectomy, stroke treatment has also become more challenging. Purpose of this study was to investigate whether a fulltime neuroradiological on-site service and workflow optimization with a structured documentation of the interdisciplinary stroke workflow resulted in improved procedural times. Material and Methods. Procedural times of 322 consecutive patients, who received EST (1 before (n=96 and (2 after (n=126 establishing a 24-hour neuroradiological on-site service as well as (3 after implementation of a structured interdisciplinary workflow documentation (“Stroke Check” (n=100, were analysed. Results. A fulltime neuroradiological on-site service resulted in a nonsignificant improvement of procedural times during out-of-hours admissions (p≥0.204. Working hours and out-of-hours procedural times improved significantly, if additional workflow optimization was realized (p≤0.026. Conclusions. A 24-hour interventional on-site service is a major prerequisite to adequately provide modern reperfusion therapies in patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, simple measures like standardized and focused documentation that affect the entire interdisciplinary pre- and intrahospital stroke rescue chain seem to be important.

  10. 75 FR 62423 - Barnstead Thermolyne Corporation, a Subsidiary of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... related to the production of scientific laboratory equipment. New information shows that workers leased... Corporation, a Subsidiary of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sedona Staffing... Scientific, including on- site leased workers from Sedona Staffing, Dubuque, Iowa. The notice was published...

  11. Design considerations for on-site spent-fuel transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Jones, C.R.

    1989-06-01

    Studies on spent fuel shipping logistics and operation make it clear that the use of large casks, i.e., 100--125 tons, is superior to smaller casks of similar construction. This superiority manifests itself in both transportation and/or shipping economics and safety as well as reduced personnel exposure in the processing of the casks. An on-site system for the transfer of spent fuel from the storage pool to a large shipping or storage cask, as well as the transfer of spent fuel directly from a storage cask to a shipping cask, could bring the large cask benefits to those restricted reactors. Sensing the need to look more closely at this opportunity, EPRI contracted with S. Levy, Incorporated of Campbell, CA to develop a set of design considerations for such transfer systems. Rather then embark on another design study, EPRI decided to first identify the system considerations that must be factored into any design. The format for this effort presents both the Consideration and the Rationale for the consideration. The resulting work identified thirty-six General Considerations and two Special Considerations. The Considerations are in the form of mandatory requirements and desirable but nonmandatory requirements. Additionally, a brief economic study was performed to get a feel for the cost considerations of on-site transfers. The study results suggest a relatively narrow set of scenarios where on-site transfers are economically superior to alternatives. These scenarios generally involve the use of concrete casks as on-site storage devices

  12. 78 FR 52982 - Regal Beloit Corporation; Springfield, Missouri Division Including On-site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... these workers were sufficiently under the control of the subject firm to be considered leased workers...; Springfield, Missouri Division Including On-site Leased Workers From Penmac Personnel Services and GCA Services Group Springfield, Missouri; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker...

  13. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower... Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division to be considered leased workers...

  14. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    The on-site production of cell wall degrading enzymes is an important strategy for the development of sustainable bio-refinery processes. This study concerns the optimization of production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum. A comparative secretome analysis...

  15. 76 FR 19467 - Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... employed on-site at the Federal Way, Washington location of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters... Company, Corporate Headquarters to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings, the Department... Federal Way, Washington location of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters. The amended notice...

  16. On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Buildings: A System-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2016-05-03

    Adopting a green building rating system (GBRSs) that strongly considers use of renewable energy can have important environmental consequences, particularly in developing countries. In this paper, we studied on-site renewable energy and GBRSs at the system level to explore potential benefits and challenges. While we have focused on GBRSs, the findings can offer additional insight for renewable incentives across sectors. An energy model was built for 25 sites to compute the potential solar and wind power production on-site and available within the building footprint and regional climate. A life-cycle approach and cost analysis were then completed to analyze the environmental and economic impacts. Environmental impacts of renewable energy varied dramatically between sites, in some cases, the environmental benefits were limited despite the significant economic burden of those renewable systems on-site and vice versa. Our recommendation for GBRSs, and broader policies and regulations, is to require buildings with higher environmental impacts to achieve higher levels of energy performance and on-site renewable energy utilization, instead of fixed percentages.

  17. 78 FR 8587 - Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,755] Thomson Reuters, Finance Operations & Technology Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco; Eagan, MN; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (`...

  18. Enhanced On-Site Waste Management of Plasterboard in Construction Works: A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Rivero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On-site management of construction waste commonly determines its destination. In the case of plasterboard (PB, on-site segregation becomes crucial for closed-loop recycling. However, PB is commonly mixed with other wastes in Spain. In this context, the involvement of stakeholders that can contribute to reversing this current situation is needed. This paper analyzes on-site waste management of PB in Spain through a pilot study of a construction site, with the main objective of identifying best practices to increase waste prevention, waste minimization, and the recyclability of the waste. On-site visits and structured interviews were conducted. The results show five management stages: PB distribution (I; PB installation (II; Construction waste storage at the installation area (III; PB waste segregation at the installation area (IV and PB waste transfer to the PB container and storage (V. The proposed practices refer to each stage and include the merging of Stages III and IV. This measure would avoid the mixing of waste fractions in Stage III, maximizing the recyclability of PB. In addition, two requisites for achieving enhanced management are analyzed: ‘Training and commitment’ and ‘fulfilling the requirements established by the current regulation’. The results show that foremen adopted a more pessimistic attitude than installers towards a joint commitment for waste management. Moreover, not all supervisors valued the importance of a site waste management plan, regulated by the Royal Decree 105/2008 in Spain.

  19. Finding New Water: Development of On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    By designing our buildings to collect and treat water generated on-site, can be and reused for flushing our toilets and irrigating our landscaping. Several water sources are generated with-in a building including: rainwater, stormwater, graywater, blackwater and foundation drain...

  20. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches fro On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-site non-potable water reuse is increasingly used to augment water supplies, but traditional fecal indicator approaches for defining and monitoring exposure risks are limited when applied to these decentralized options. This session emphasizes risk-based modeling to define pat...

  1. Review of pathogen treatment reductions for onsite non-potable reuse of alternative source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities face a challenge when implementing onsite reuse of collected waters for non-potable purposes given the lack of national microbial standards. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) can be used to predict the pathogen risks associated with the non-potable reuse o...

  2. 2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context.

  3. Alternative Wastewater Treatment: On-Site Bio-treatment Wetlands at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, J.; Glassmeyer, C.; Sauer, N.; Powell, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a constructed on-site bio-treatment wetland at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center. The use of constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater at the Fernald Preserve contributed to the award of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design platinum certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. (authors)

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  5. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.; Hart, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We will present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48

  6. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. (author)

  7. On-site voltage measurement with capacitive sensors on high voltage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    In Extra/High-Voltage (EHV/HV) power systems, over-voltages occur e.g. due to transients or resonances. At places where no conventional voltage measurement devices can be installed, on-site measurement of these occurrences requires preferably non intrusive sensors, which can be installed with little

  8. Decision precision or holistic heuristic?: Insights on on-site selection of student nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, Colin; Stephen, Audrey; Taylor, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about quality of care delivery in the UK have led to more scrutiny of criteria and methods for the selection of student nurses. However few substantive research studies of on-site selection processes exist. This study elicited and interpreted perspectives on interviewing processes and related decision making involved in on-site selection of student nurses and midwives. Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with 36 lecturers, 5 clinical staff and 72 students from seven Scottish universities. Enquiry focused primarily on interviewing of candidates on-site. Qualitative content analysis was used as a primary strategy, followed by in-depth thematic analysis. Students had very mixed experiences of interview processes. Staff typically took into account a range of candidate attributes that they valued in order to achieve holistic assessments. These included: interpersonal skills, team working, confidence, problem-solving, aptitude for caring, motivations, and commitment. Staff had mixed views of the validity and reliability of interview processes. A holistic heuristic for overall decision making predominated over belief in the precision of, and evidence base for, particular attribute measurement processes. While the development of measurement tools for particular attributes continues apace, tension between holism and precision is likely to persist within on-site selection procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 70688 - Actel Corporation, Currently Known as Microsemi Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., Accountants, Inc. and Accountant Temps Mountain View, CA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... on-site leased workers from ATR International, Accountants, Inc., and Accountant Temps, Mountain View... a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Microsemi Corporation. Accordingly...

  10. Application of rapid onsite PCR (TaqMan) for Phytophthora ramorum under U.S. conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin Hughes; Jenny Tomlinson; Neil Boonham; Kelly Ivors; Matteo Garbelotto; Ian Barker

    2006-01-01

    Currently, diagnosis of Phytophthora ramorum involves sending samples to a laboratory for traditional isolation and morphological characterisation, and/or PCR analysis. This can take as long as 2 weeks from sampling to final diagnosis. However, the Plant Health Group, Central Science Laboratory, has produced on-site DNA extraction and real-time PCR (...

  11. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    on site. Moreover, the availability of the visual context in the listening experiment had no significant effect on the ratings. The participants were overall more positive toward natural sound sources on site. Conclusion: The full immersion in the on-site nonacoustic context may be important when...

  12. Source partitioning of anthropogenic groundwater nitrogen in a mixed-use landscape, Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Christopher K.; El-Kadi, Aly I.; Dulai, Henrietta; Glenn, Craig R.; Fackrell, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a modeling framework for quantifying human impacts and for partitioning the sources of contamination related to water quality in the mixed-use landscape of a small tropical volcanic island. On Tutuila, the main island of American Samoa, production wells in the most populated region (the Tafuna-Leone Plain) produce most of the island's drinking water. However, much of this water has been deemed unsafe to drink since 2009. Tutuila has three predominant anthropogenic non-point-groundwater-pollution sources of concern: on-site disposal systems (OSDS), agricultural chemicals, and pig manure. These sources are broadly distributed throughout the landscape and are located near many drinking-water wells. Water quality analyses show a link between elevated levels of total dissolved groundwater nitrogen (TN) and areas with high non-point-source pollution density, suggesting that TN can be used as a tracer of groundwater contamination from these sources. The modeling framework used in this study integrates land-use information, hydrological data, and water quality analyses with nitrogen loading and transport models. The approach utilizes a numerical groundwater flow model, a nitrogen-loading model, and a multi-species contaminant transport model. Nitrogen from each source is modeled as an independent component in order to trace the impact from individual land-use activities. Model results are calibrated and validated with dissolved groundwater TN concentrations and inorganic δ15N values, respectively. Results indicate that OSDS contribute significantly more TN to Tutuila's aquifers than other sources, and thus should be prioritized in future water-quality management efforts.

  13. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  14. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  15. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  16. Groundwater response to heavy precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waring, C.; Bradd, J.; Hankin, S.

    2003-05-01

    An investigation of the groundwater response to heavy rainfall at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) is required under the conditions of Facility Licence F0001 for the ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor. Groundwater continuous hydrograph monitoring has been used for this purpose. Hydrograph data from four boreholes are presented showing the rainfall recorded during the same period for comparison. The drought conditions have provided only limited cases where groundwater responded to a rainfall event. The characteristic response was local, caused by saturated soil contributing water directly to the borehole and the falling head as the water was redistributed into he aquifer in a few hours. Hydrograph data from borehole near the head of a gully showed that groundwater flow from the plateau to the gully produced a peak a fe days after the rainfall event and that the water level returned to its original level after about 10 days. The hydrograph data are consistent with an imperfect multi-layer groundwater flow regime, developed from earlier seismic and geophysical data, with decreasing rate of flow in each layer due to decreasing hydraulic conductivity with depth. The contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the thin permeable soil layer and the low permeable sandstone forms an effective barrier to vertical flow

  17. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  18. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes

  19. Do On-site Mental Health Professionals Change Pediatricians’ Responses to Children’s Mental Health Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S.; O’Connor, Karen G.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Green, Cori M.; Foy, Jane M.; Stein, Ruth E.K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to: assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHP) in primary care; examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and determine whether presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians’ co-managing or more frequently identifying, treat/managing or referring MH problems. Methods Analyses included AAP members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (N=321). Measures included socio-demographics, practice characteristics, questions on about on-site MHPs, co-management of MH problems and pediatricians’ behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Results Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools/universities/HMOs, <100 visits/week, <80% of patients privately insured), and interactions of practice location (urban) with visits and patient insurance, were associated with on-site MHPs. There was no overall association between co-location and co-management or whether pediatricians usually identified, treat/managed or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported co-managing there was an association with co-management when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, SA counselor, or social worker. Conclusions On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who co-manage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, SA counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with co-management or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. PMID:27064141

  20. A Comparison of Online versus On-site Training in Health Research Methodology: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchanaraksa Sukon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distance learning may be useful for building health research capacity. However, evidence that it can improve knowledge and skills in health research, particularly in resource-poor settings, is limited. We compared the impact and acceptability of teaching two distinct content areas, Biostatistics and Research Ethics, through either on-line distance learning format or traditional on-site training, in a randomized study in India. Our objective was to determine whether on-line courses in Biostatistics and Research Ethics could achieve similar improvements in knowledge, as traditional on-site, classroom-based courses. Methods Subjects: Volunteer Indian scientists were randomly assigned to one of two arms. Intervention: Students in Arm 1 attended a 3.5-day on-site course in Biostatistics and completed a 3.5-week on-line course in Research Ethics. Students in Arm 2 attended a 3.5-week on-line course in Biostatistics and 3.5-day on-site course in Research Ethics. For the two course formats, learning objectives, course contents and knowledge tests were identical. Main Outcome Measures: Improvement in knowledge immediately and 3-months after course completion, compared to baseline. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in both arms (n = 29 each. Median knowledge score for Biostatistics increased from a baseline of 49% to 64% (p Conclusion On-line and on-site training formats led to marked and similar improvements of knowledge in Biostatistics and Research Ethics. This, combined with logistical and cost advantages of on-line training, may make on-line courses particularly useful for expanding health research capacity in resource-limited settings.

  1. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  2. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  4. Geoelectrical mapping and groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rainer

    Specific electrical resistivity of near-surface materials is mainly controlled by the groundwater content and thus reacts extremely sensitive to any change in the ion content. Geoelectric mapping is a well-established, simple, and inexpensive technique for observing areal distributions of apparent specific electrical resistivities. These are a composite result of the true resistivities in the underground, and with some additional information the mapping of apparent resistivities can help to delineate low-resistivity groundwater contaminations, typically observed downstream from sanitary landfills and other waste sites. The presence of other good conductors close to the surface, mainly clays, is a serious noise source and has to be sorted out by supporting observations of conductivities in wells and geoelectric depth soundings. The method may be used to monitor the extent of groundwater contamination at a specific time as well as the change of a contamination plume with time, by carrying out repeated measurements. Examples for both are presented.

  5. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  6. The field application of an immunoassay-based test for petroleum fuels contamination in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The recent development of low-cost, rapid field analytical tests for petroleum fuels based on immunoassay technology has provided an on-site tool for the cost-effective, accurate assessment of groundwater contamination. The method allows for rapid, direct measurement of contaminant concentration. The method has been used for a variety of applications including surface water runoff testing and groundwater monitoring well siting. The PETRO RISc Water Test can be used to substantially reduce the cost of monitoring well installation. Current, monitoring wells are placed based on knowledge of the location of the source of contamination, the size of the release, the time elapsed since the release began, and the hydrogeology of the site. While the location of the source is generally known with some precision, the hydrogeology of the site and the timing of the release rarely are. This results in the need for an ''educated guess'' regarding the drilling location for monitoring wells that are installed to provide long term feedback on groundwater contamination. The tests have the greatest sensitivity to aliphatic compounds in the range of six to ten carbons and aromatic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and naphthalene

  7. Hydrogeochemical analysis and quality evaluation of groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki,. Ebonyi State .... classify the chemistry of groundwater in hard rock, ... Occurrence, movement and storage of groundwater.

  8. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities in South Africa. ... Hence, the Water Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project ... and available tools to achieve sustainable groundwater management reflect ...

  9. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the ... contributes about 60% of the total wastewater that gets discharged from ...... tern and effective groundwater management; Proc. Indian. Nat. Sci. Acad.

  10. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  11. Planning for groundwater in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maherry, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems that rely on groundwater as a water source have a natural and inherent resilience to climate change. Under natural conditions aquifers are stable water sources – in fact, ecosystems reliant on groundwater are literally the refuge...

  12. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis ... anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine ... The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin ...

  13. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  14. A tracking system for groundwater sampling and data transfer schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, T.M.

    1990-12-01

    Since groundwater monitoring programs at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have become more complex and varied and as the occasions to respond to internal and external reporting requirements have become more frequent and time constrained, the need to track groundwater sampling activities and data transfer from the analytical laboratories has become imperative. If backlogs can be caught early, resources can be added or reallocated in the field and in the laboratory in a timely manner to ensure reporting deadlines are met. The tracking system discussed in this paper starts with clear definition of the groundwater monitoring program at the facility. This information is input into base datasets at the beginning of the sampling cycle. As the sampling program progresses, information about well sampling dates and data transfer dates is input into the base datasets. From the base program data and the update data, a status report is periodically generated by a computer program which identifies the type and nature of bottle necks encountered during the implementation of the groundwater monitoring program

  15. The UMTRA PEIS: A strategy for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, C.; Ulland, L.; Weston, R.F.; Metzler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) was initiated in 1992 for the uranium mill tailings remedial action (UMTRA) program. The PEIS kicked off the groundwater restoration phase of UMTRA, a project involving remediation of 24 sites in ten states and tribal lands contaminated with tailings from uranium mining and milling operations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed, in early 1992, that a PEIS was an appropriate strategy to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for this second, groundwater phase of the project. This decision recognized that although a parallel effort was being undertaken in preparing a PEIS for DOE's Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) program, characteristics and the maturity of the UMTRA project made it more appropriate to prepare a separate PEIS. The ER/WM PEIS is intended to examine environmental restoration and waste management issues from a very broad perspective. For UMTRA, with surface remediation completed or well under way at 18 of the 24 sites, a more focused programmatic approach for groundwater restoration is more effective than including the UMTRA project within the ER/WM environmental impact statements. A separate document allows a more focused and detailed analysis necessary to efficiently tier site-specific environmental assessments for groundwater restoration at each of the 24 UMTRA former processing sites

  16. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States); Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L. [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a

  17. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  1. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  2. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Zhiming; Liu Shufen; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  3. State space modeling of groundwater fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendrecht, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in both urban and rural areas. It is therefore essential to monitor groundwater fluctuations. However, data that becomes available need to be analyzed further in order to extract specific information on the groundwater system. Until recently, simple linear time

  4. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2018-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  5. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped ... ing the affected groundwater aquifer down to some drinking water standard. Several .... For simplicity, rectangular support domain is used in this study. Figure 1 ..... For PAT remediation system, decision variables include the.

  6. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is

  7. A proposed groundwater management framework for municipalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is not being perceived as an important water resource and therefore has been given limited attention in South. Africa. This is reflected in general ... Research Commission (WRC) has commissioned a project to develop a Groundwater Management Framework that incorpo- rates all aspects of groundwater ...

  8. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  9. Public health in the field and the emergency operations center: methods for implementing real-time onsite syndromic surveillance at large public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; McKeown, Kyle; Santana, Sarah; Diggs, Alisa; Stewart, Jennifer; Harris, Robin B

    2013-10-01

    To develop an onsite syndromic surveillance system for the early detection of public health emergencies and outbreaks at large public events. As the third largest public health jurisdiction in the United States, Maricopa County Department of Public Health has worked with academic and first-response partners to create an event-targeted syndromic surveillance (EVENTSS) system. This system complements long-standing traditional emergency department-based surveillance and provides public health agencies with rapid reporting of possible clusters of illness. At 6 high profile events, 164 patient reports were collected. Gastrointestinal and neurological syndromes were most commonly reported, followed by multisyndromic reports. Neurological symptoms were significantly increased during hot weather events. The interview rate was 2 to 7 interviews per 50 000 people per hour, depending on the ambient temperature. Discussion Study data allowed an estimation of baseline values of illness occurring at large public events. As more data are collected, prediction models can be built to determine threshold levels for public health response. EVENTSS was conducted largely by volunteer public health graduate students, increasing the response capacity for the health department. Onsite epidemiology staff could make informed decisions and take actions quickly in the event of a public health emergency.

  10. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Ratio Is Improved When Using a Digital, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Onsite in a Diabetes Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Roser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of onsite screening with a nonmydriatic, digital fundus camera for diabetic retinopathy (DR at a diabetes outpatient clinic. Research Design and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 502 patients, 112 with type 1 and 390 with type 2 diabetes. Patients attended screenings for microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN, diabetic polyneuropathy (DP, and DR. Single-field retinal imaging with a digital, nonmydriatic fundus camera was used to assess DR. Prevalence and incidence of microvascular complications were analyzed and the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting complications for all entities was calculated in order to differentiate natural progress from missed DRs. Results. For both types of diabetes, prevalence of DR was 25.0% (n=126 and incidence 6.4% (n=32 (T1DM versus T2DM: prevalence: 35.7% versus 22.1%, incidence 5.4% versus 6.7%. 25.4% of all DRs were newly diagnosed. Furthermore, the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting DR was higher than those for DN (p=0.12 and DP (p=0.03 representing at least 13 patients with missed DR. Conclusions. The results indicate that implementing nonmydriatic, digital fundus imaging in a diabetes outpatient clinic can contribute to improved early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Comparison of Onsite Versus Online Chart Reviews as Part of the American College of Radiation Oncology Accreditation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Jaroslaw T; Heron, Dwight E; Mundt, Arno J; Yashar, Catheryn; Feigenberg, Steven; Koltis, Gordon; Regine, William F; Prasad, Dheerendra; Patel, Shilpen; Sharma, Navesh; Hebert, Mary; Wallis, Norman; Kuettel, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Accreditation based on peer review of professional standards of care is essential in ensuring quality and safety in administration of radiation therapy. Traditionally, medical chart reviews have been performed by a physical onsite visit. The American College of Radiation Oncology Accreditation Program has remodeled its process whereby electronic charts are reviewed remotely. Twenty-eight radiation oncology practices undergoing accreditation had three charts per practice undergo both onsite and online review. Onsite review was performed by a single reviewer for each practice. Online review consisted of one or more disease site-specific reviewers for each practice. Onsite and online reviews were blinded and scored on a 100-point scale on the basis of 20 categories. A score of less than 75 was failing, and a score of 75 to 79 was marginal. Any failed charts underwent rereview by a disease site team leader. Eighty-four charts underwent both onsite and online review. The mean scores were 86.0 and 86.9 points for charts reviewed onsite and online, respectively. Comparison of onsite and online reviews revealed no statistical difference in chart scores ( P = .43). Of charts reviewed, 21% had a marginal (n = 8) or failing (n = 10) score. There was no difference in failing charts ( P = .48) or combined marginal and failing charts ( P = .13) comparing onsite and online reviews. The American College of Radiation Oncology accreditation process of online chart review results in comparable review scores and rate of failing scores compared with traditional on-site review. However, the modern online process holds less potential for bias by using multiple reviewers per practice and allows for greater oversight via disease site team leader rereview.

  12. Administrative limits for tritium concentrations found in non-potable groundwater at nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.; Hart, D.; WIllert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a regulatory limit available for tritium in drinking water, but no such limit for non-potable groundwater. Voluntary administrative limits for site groundwater may be established at nuclear power facilities to ensure minimal risk to human health and the environment, and provide guidance for investigation or other actions intended to prevent exceedances of future regulatory or guideline limits. This work presents a streamlined approach for nuclear power facilities to develop three tiers of administrative limits for tritium in groundwater so that facilities can identify abnormal/uncontrolled releases of tritium at an early stage, and take appropriate actions to investigate, control, and protect groundwater. Tier 1 represents an upper limit of background, Tier 2 represents a level between background and Tier 3, and Tier 3 represents a risk-based concentration protective of down-gradient receptors. (author)

  13. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  14. Summary report on groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1993-07-01

    The preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal (in Finland) carried out by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) during the period 1987 to 1992 yielded data on hydrogeochemistry from a total 337 water samples. The main objective of the groundwater chemistry studies was to characterize groundwaters at the investigation sites and, specifically, to create a concept for the mean residence times and evolution of groundwater by means of isotopic analyses. Moreover, the studies yielded input data for geochemical modelling and the performance assessment. Samples were taken from deep boreholes (with a depth of 500 to 1000 m), percussion-drilled boreholes (depth approx. 200 m), flushing-water wells (approx. 100 m) and multi-level pietzometers (approx. 100 m) used in the hydrological tests. The water used for drilling the deep boreholes was taken from local flushing-water wells, whose water was also analyzed in detail. The flushing water used in drilling was marked with two tracers, iodine and uranine, analyzed with two different methods. For reference purposes, samples were also taken from surficial and groundwaters over a large area surrounding the investigation site. Precipitation over a period of at least one year was collected at all the five investigation sites and the samples were analyzed in great detail, particularly with regard to isotopes. Similarly, snow profile samples representing precipitation during the entire winter was taken from each site at least once

  15. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in drinking water is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable because of the associated aesthetic and operational problems, namely: bad taste, colour, stains on laundry and plumbing fixtures, and aftergrowth in the

  16. Adsorptive iron removal from groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some

  17. COVARIANCE CORRECTION FOR ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... between zero and one, depending on location of the observation ..... [1] Alley W.M., Reilly T.E., Franke O.L., Sustainability of ground-water resources, U.S. ... Data assimilation: the ensemble Kalman filter, Springer, New York, ...

  18. Groundwater regulation and integrated planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Philippe; Batelaan, Okke; Hunt, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of groundwater and the diversity of uses and environmental interactions call for emerging groundwater problems to be addressed through integrated management and planning approaches. Planning requires different levels of integration dealing with: the hydrologic cycle (the physical process) including the temporal dimension; river basins and aquifers (spatial integration); socioeconomic considerations at regional, national and international levels; and scientific knowledge. The great natural variation in groundwater conditions obviously affects planning needs and options as well as perceptions from highly localised to regionally-based approaches. The scale at which planning is done therefore needs to be carefully evaluated against available policy choices and options in each particular setting. A solid planning approach is based on River Basin Management Planning (RBMP), which covers: (1) objectives that management planning are designed to address; (2) the way various types of measures fit into the overall management planning; and (3) the criteria against which the success or failure of specific strategies or interventions can be evaluated (e.g. compliance with environmental quality standards). A management planning framework is to be conceived as a “living” or iterated document that can be updated, refined and if necessary changed as information and experience are gained. This chapter discusses these aspects, providing an insight into European Union (EU), United States and Australia groundwater planning practices.

  19. HYDROGEOPHYSICAL EVALUATION OF THE GROUNDWATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and hydrogeological data were used to delineate the subsurface sequence and map the aquifer units with a view to evaluating the groundwater prospect of the central part of Ogun State,. Southwestern Nigeria. Thirty Schlumberger VES with maximum current electrode spacing (AB) of ...

  20. Hydrogeological Investigation and Groundwater Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses groundwater quality and productivity in Haromaya watershed, eastern. Ethiopia. ... zones, quantity and quality of plant and animal life (Tamire H., 1981). Steep to very ... Present research work was proposed to conduct hydrogeological investigation and assess ...... Water Balance of Haromaya basin,.

  1. Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1993-10-01

    The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code's scalability

  2. Groundwater movements around a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.

    1977-10-01

    Based on regional models of groundwater flow, the regional hydraulic gradient at depth is equal to the regional topographic gradient. As a result, the equipotentials are near vertical. The permeability distribution with depth influences the groundwater flow patterns. A zone of sluggish flows, the quiescent zone is developed when the permeability decreases with depth. This feature is accentuated when horizontal anisotropy, with the horizontal permeability higher then the vertical permeability, is included. The presence of an inactive zone will be a prerequesite for a satisfactory repository site. The effect of an inclined discontinuity representing a singular geological feature such as a fault plane or shear zone has been modelled. The quiescent zone does not appear to be unduly disturbed by such a feature. However, meaningful quantitative predictions related to the flows in a typical singular feature cannot be made without more specific data on their hydraulic properties. Two dimensional analysis has been made for a site specific section of a candidate repository site at Forsmark, Sweden. The lateral extent of the model was defined by major tectonic features, assumed vertical. Potential gradients and pore velocities have been computed for a range of boundary conditions and assumed material properties. The potential gradients for the model with anisotropic permeability approach the average potential gradient between the boundaries. The result of this study of the initial groundwater conditions will be used as input data for the analyses of the thermomechanical perturbations of the groundwater regime. In the long term, the groundwater flow will return to the initial conditions. The residual effects of the repository on the flow will be discussed in part 2 of this report. (author)

  3. Resource impact evaluation of in-situ uranium groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of restoration on the groundwater following in-situ uranium solution mining in South Texas. Restoration is necessary in order to reduce the amounts of undesired chemical constituents left in solution after mining operations have ceased, and thus return the groundwater to a quality consistent with pre-mining use and potential use. Various restoration strategies have been proposed and are discussed. Of interest are the hydrologic, environmental, social, and economic impacts of these restoration alternatives. Much of the discussion concerning groundwater restoration is based on the use of an ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate leach solution in the mining process. This has been the principal leach solution used during the early period of mining in South Texas. Recently, because of apparent difficulties in restoring ammonium to proposed or required levels, many of the companies have changed to the use of other leach solutions. Because little is known about restoration with these other leach solutions they have not been specifically addressed in this report. Likewise, we have not addressed the question of the fate of heavy metals. Following a summary of the development of South Texas in-situ mining in Chapter Two, Chapter Three describes the surface and groundwater resources of the uranium mining district. Chapter Four addresses the economics of water use, and Chapter Five is concerned with regulation of the in-situ uranium industry in Texas. A discussion of groundwater restoration alternatives and impacts is presented in Chapter Six. Chapter Seven contains a summary and a discussion, and conclusions derived from this study. Two case histories are presented in Appendices A and B

  4. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  5. Experience in verification regimes. United States On-Site Inspection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppert, J.

    1998-01-01

    Experiences are described of the United States On-site Inspection Agency in verification regimes all over the world where it has been applied in the last 30 years. The challenge for the future is to extend the benefits of the applied tools to all states in all regions to enhance stability and to create conditions for peace at lower levels of armaments than currently exist. The USA need to engage states currently caught in cycles of violence and arms escalation. They must examine technologies which together with on-site aspects of verification or transparency regimes can provide a comprehensive picture at affordable costs. They foresee a growth in combined training with new states entering for the first time into regime that include arms control and transparency measure

  6. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  7. Generation, on-site storage; handling and processing of industrial waste of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abduli, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes out the present status of generation, on-site handling, processing and storage of industrial waste in Tehran. In this investigation, 67 large scale factories of different industrial groups were randomly selected. Above cited functional elements of these factories were surveyed. In this investigation a close contact with each factory was required, thus a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among these factories. The relationship between daily weight of the industrial waste (Y) and number of employer of each factory (x) is found to be Y=547.4 + 0.58 x. The relationship between daily volume of industrial waste (V), and daily weight of waste generated in each factory (Y) can be described by V=1.56 + 0.00078 Y. About 68% of the factories have their own interim storage site and the rest of the factories do not possess any on-site storage facility

  8. Procurement Specifications Templates for On-Site Solar Photovoltaic: For Use in Developing Federal Solicitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-16

    With the increasing adaption of on-site renewable energy systems designed to feed site loads, there is a critical need to develop tools that allow the federal sector to become a mature and sophisticated consumer. This document is intended to reduce project development and operational risks while increasing the speed at which projects are completed; two necessary components to reach the scale required to meet mandates and achieve cost savings for taxpayers. This guide is intended to act as a living document where lessons learned from the increasing number of projects can be incorporated and provide guidance for efforts. While additional guides will be developed to cover other renewable technologies, this guide covers on-site solar photovoltaic systems with an emphasis on third-party designed, financed, owned, and operated systems.

  9. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. Aims: This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape assessment...... in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Materials and Methods: Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured at each site......, the availability of the visual context in the listening experiment had no significant effect on the ratings. The participants were overall more positive toward natural sound sources on site. Conclusion: The full immersion in the on-site nonacoustic context may be important when evaluating overall soundscape...

  10. Variational Wavefunction for the Periodic Anderson Model with Onsite Correlation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Katsunori; Onishi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We propose a variational wavefunction containing parameters to tune the probabilities of all the possible onsite configurations for the periodic Anderson model. We call it the full onsite-correlation wavefunction (FOWF). This is a simple extension of the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GWF), in which one parameter is included to tune the double occupancy of the f electrons at the same site. We compare the energy of the GWF and the FOWF evaluated by the variational Monte Carlo method and that obtained with the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the energy is considerably improved in the FOWF. On the other hand, the physical quantities do not change significantly between these two wavefunctions as long as they describe the same phase, such as the paramagnetic phase. From these results, we not only demonstrate the improvement by the FOWF, but we also gain insights on the applicability and limitation of the GWF to the periodic Anderson model.

  11. Variational wavefunction for the periodic anderson model with onsite correlation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Katsunori; Onishi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We propose a variational wavefunction containing parameters to tune the probabilities of all the possible onsite configurations for the periodic Anderson model. We call it the full onsite-correlation wavefunction (FOWF). This is a simple extension of the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GWF), in which one parameter is included to tune the double occupancy of the f electrons at the same site. We compare the energy of the GWF and the FOWF evaluated by the variational Monte Carlo method and that obtained with the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the energy is considerably improved in the FOWF. On the other hand, the physical quantities do not change significantly between these two wavefunctions as long as they describe the same phase, such as the paramagnetic phase. From these results, we not only demonstrate the improvement by the FOWF, but we also gain insights on the applicability and limitation of the GWF to the periodic Anderson model. (author)

  12. Comparing the Scoring of Human Decomposition from Digital Images to Scoring Using On-site Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Bytheway, Joan A; Connor, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test. The average difference between on-site and photographic observations was -0.20 (t = -1.679, df = 928, p = 0.094). Individually, only two observers, both students with human decomposition based on digital images can be substituted for assessments based on observation of the corpse in situ, when necessary. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Reducing Demand Charges and Onsite Generation Variability Using Behind-the-Meter Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bush, Jason W.

    2017-04-01

    Electric utilities in the United States are increasingly employing demand charges and/or real-time pricing. This directive is bringing potential opportunities in deploying behindthe-meter energy storage (BMES) systems for various grid functionalities. This study quantifies techno-economic benefits of BMES in reducing demand charge and smoothing load/generation intermittencies, and determines how those benefits vary with onsite distributed photovoltaic. We proposed a two-stage control algorithm, whereby the first stage proactively determines costoptimal BMES configuration for reducing peak-demands and demand charges, and the second stage adaptively compensates intermittent generations and short load spikes that may otherwise increase the demand charges. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through a 24 hours time sweep simulation performed using data from smart microgrid testbed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The simulation results demonstrated that this research provides a simple but effective solution for peak shaving, demand charge reductions, and smoothing onsite PV variability.

  14. Isotope characteristics of groundwater in Beishan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lu Chuanhe

    2004-01-01

    Using the isotope techniques, the authors studied the origin, evolution and circulation of the groundwater in the potential site of China's high-level waste repository. The results indicate that both deep groundwater and shallow groundwater are mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwater in the site area is of meteoric origin. The shallow groundwater is mainly recharged by modern and local precipitation, and the deep groundwater originates from regional precipitation at higher elevation, or might be derived from the precipitation during the geological period of lower temperature. It is also known from the study that the deep underground is a system of very low-permeability where the groundwater flow rates are very low. (author)

  15. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  16. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either 90 Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites

  17. Chemical Hygiene Plan for Onsite Measurement and Sample Shipping Facility Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    This chemical hygiene plan presents the requirements established to ensure the protection of employee health while performing work in mobile laboratories, the sample shipping facility, and at the onsite radiological counting facility. This document presents the measures to be taken to promote safe work practices and to minimize worker exposure to hazardous chemicals. Specific hazardous chemicals present in the mobile laboratories, the sample shipping facility, and in the radiological counting facility are presented in Appendices A through G

  18. Probabilistic approach to external cloud dose calculations using onsite meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Bander, T.J.; Kennedy, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calculation of external total body and skin doses from accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides based on hourly onsite meteorological data. The method involves calculation of dose values from a finite size cloud for each hourly observation for a given radionuclide inventory. These values are then used to determine the probability of occurrence of dose levels for specified release times ranging from one hour to 30 days

  19. Evolution of the on-site electric power sources on French 900 MWe PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Jean [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Departement d' Analyse de Surete, Service d' Analyse Fonctionnelle, Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, B.P. No. 6, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1986-02-15

    Additional means have been provided on the French 900 MWe PWRs to improve safety if both the off-site and on-site Power sources are lost, namely: - a primary pump seal water injection device, one for two units; - a gas turbine generator for each site; - supplying any failing unit with electric power from a house load operating unit; - supplying a unit from a diesel generator of another unit. (author)

  20. Surveillance testing of onsite electrical power systems, several cases of standards misinterpretation in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recarte, I.; Cid, R. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Sor Angela de la Cruz, 3, Madrid 28016 (Spain)

    1986-02-15

    Two events related with the onsite electric Systems of Spanish nuclear power plants are discussed. The first of them is related with diesel generators, its compliance with technical specifications; with the valid test, failure classification and frequency of tests as defined in Regulatory Guide 1.108. The other problem concerns of the direct current batteries. Presently they are subject by technical specifications to testing of a discharge cycle for which they were not designed. (authors)

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release

  2. Recent chemical engineering requirements as the result of TMI on-site experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E. Sr.

    1980-01-01

    From the experiences gained from the on-site experience at TMI, it is apparent that the role of chemical engineers should increase in order for the nuclear option to proceed in a safe and efficient fashion. It is also obvious that as the results of the reports investigating the causes and effects of the accident come to light and attempts to backfit system designs to prevent a recurrence are studied, more technical demands will be placed on the profession

  3. Rapid on-site detection of Acidovorax citrulli by cross-priming amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Qian; Zhu, Shui-fang; Zhao, Wen-jun; Liu, Feng-quan

    2012-08-01

    Cross-priming amplification (CPA) for Acidovorax citrulli detection was evaluated in this study. The sensitivity of CPA assay for pure bacterial culture was 3.7 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Bacteria on naturally infected watermelon seeds were detected using CPA assay, suggesting this method is suitable for A. citrulli on-site detection from watermelon seeds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  5. Reasons for opening an onsite day care and its success factors

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenšek Rakun, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to evaluate different authors’ opinion and to analyze and identify the factors that would help improve family’s living standards. Reasons for which a company would open onsite daycare center are looked for. This evolves factors such as: work-life balance, more free time for family, a higher degree of emotional connection between parents and children in case of private child care within the company, a better public reputation for companies etc. These facto...

  6. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility ion exchange module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is in need of providing an emergency ion exchange system to remove cesium or strontium from the pool cell in the event of a capsule failure. The emergency system is call the WESF Emergency Ion Exchange System and the packaging is called the WESF ion exchange module (WIXM). The packaging system will meet the onsite transportation requirements for a Type B, highway route controlled quantity package as well as disposal requirements for Category 3 waste

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  8. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) encompasses two options of supplying renewable energy, which can offset energy use of a building, in particular on-site or off-site renewable energy supply. Currently, the on-site options are much more popular than the off-site; however, taking...... into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context...... five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of the on...

  9. Giant onsite electronic entropy enhances the performance of ceria for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, S Shahab; Emery, Antoine A; Hansen, Heine A; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Wolverton, Chris

    2017-08-18

    Previous studies have shown that a large solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of metal oxides, such as ceria, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles. In this context, the configurational entropy arising from oxygen off-stoichiometry in the oxide, has been the focus of most previous work. Here we report a different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy, arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in lanthanide f orbitals. We find that onsite electronic configurational entropy is sizable in all lanthanides, and reaches a maximum value of ≈4.7 k B per oxygen vacancy for Ce 4+ /Ce 3+ reduction. This unique and large positive entropy source in ceria explains its excellent performance for high-temperature catalytic redox reactions such as water splitting. Our calculations also show that terbium dioxide has a high electronic entropy and thus could also be a potential candidate for solar thermochemical reactions.Solid-state entropy of reduction increases the thermodynamic efficiency of ceria for two-step thermochemical water splitting. Here, the authors report a large and different source of entropy, the onsite electronic configurational entropy arising from coupling between orbital and spin angular momenta in f orbitals.

  10. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Propagation of transition fronts in nonlinear chains with non-degenerate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroky, I. B.; Gendelman, O. V.

    2018-02-01

    We address the problem of transition front propagation in chains with a bi-stable nondegenerate on-site potential and a nonlinear gradient coupling. For generic nonlinear coupling, one encounters a special regime of transitions, characterized by extremely narrow fronts, far supersonic velocities of the front propagation, and long waves in the oscillatory tail. This regime can be qualitatively associated with a shock wave. The front propagation can be described with the help of a simple reduced-order model; the latter delivers a kinetic law, which is almost not sensitive to the fine details of the on-site potential. Besides, it is possible to predict all main characteristics of the transition front, including its velocity, as well as the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillatory tail. Numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical predictions. The suggested approach allows one to consider the effects of an external pre-load, the next-nearest-neighbor coupling and the on-site damping. When the damping is moderate, it is possible to consider the shock propagation in the damped chain as a perturbation of the undamped dynamics. This approach yields reasonable predictions. When the damping is high, the transition front enters a completely different asymptotic regime of a subsonic kink. The gradient nonlinearity generically turns negligible, and the propagating front converges to the regime described by a simple exact solution for a continuous model with linear coupling.

  12. Shielding requirements on-site loading and acceptance testing on the Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitz, A.H.; Lunsford, L.D.; Wu, A.; Lindner, G.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    On August 14, 1987, the first stereotactic radiosurgical procedure using the gamma knife was performed in North America. Located in a self-contained radiosurgical suite in the basement of Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This device uses 201 highly focused beams 60Co for the single-treatment closed-skull irradiation of brain lesions localized by stereotactic techniques (radiosurgery). One hundred and fifty-two patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations or brain tumors were treated in the first year of operation. The Presbyterian University Hospital of Pittsburgh gamma knife is the first such unit in which the 60Co sources were loaded on-site. This effort required us to solve some difficult and unusual problems encountered during site preparation, delivery, and loading of the unit in a busy hospital setting. The solutions developed enabled installation and use of the gamma knife with minimal disruption of hospital activities while maintaining acceptable levels of exposure to radiation. Environmental surveys performed during the loading of the 201 radioactive sources (total, 219 TBq) confirmed that on-site loading is possible and practical. Our experience in the design, construction, and implementation of the first North American gamma knife supports the practicality and safety of on-site loading and may be of value in the planning and development of future gamma knife installations

  13. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  14. Shallow groundwater quality in the Village of Patchogue, Suffolk County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbene, Irene J.

    2010-01-01

    The onsite disposal of wastewater within the Patchogue River Basin-a riverine estuary that discharges into Great South Bay, Suffolk County, Long Island, N.Y. -has adversely affected water quality and aquatic habitats within both the tidal and non-tidal portions of the river. In response to increased development within the approximately 14 square mile basin, the Village of Patchogue has expanded efforts to manage and protect the local groundwater resources, which sustain freshwater base flow and aquatic habitats. Water-quality samples from 10 shallow wells within the Village were collected in March 2009, before the start of seasonal fertilizer application, to document the effects of onsite wastewater disposal on groundwater discharging into the Patchogue River. Each sample was analyzed for physical properties (pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature), nutrients, organic carbon, major ions, and trace elements. Water samples from eight wells were analyzed for stable isotopes of nitrogen. The nitrate concentration in one well was 40 milligrams per liter (mg/L), which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) maximum contamination level in drinking water of 10 mg/L. Sodium concentrations at nine wells exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Advisory Taste Threshold of 60 mg/L. Dissolved iron concentrations at three wells exceeded the NYSDOH and USEPA Secondary Drinking Water Standard of 300 micrograms per liter (?g/L). Nitrogen isotope signatures (d15N) were determined and compared with those reported from previous studies in Nassau and Suffolk Counties to identify possible sources of the nitrate. Local variations in measured ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and d15N signatures indicate that nitrate enters the surficial aquifer from several sources (fertilizer, septic waste, and animal waste) and reflects biogeochemical processes such as

  15. 77 FR 14832 - Plumchoice, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource..., Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, Maine. The workers are engaged in activities... leased workers from Balance Staffing, Insight Global Staffing, and Technisource, Scarborough, Maine, who...

  16. Practical problems of groundwater model ages for groundwater protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthess, G.; Muennich, K.O.; Sonntag, C.

    1976-01-01

    Water authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany have established a system of protection zones for the protection of groundwater supplies from pollution. One zone (Zone II) is defined by an outer boundary from which the groundwater needs 50 days to flow to the well. 50 days is the period accepted for the elimination of pathogenic germs. However, within Zone II carbon-14 measurements of water may give model ages of several thousand years, which may lead to some confusion in the legal and practical aspects of this scheme. These model ages may result from uncertainties in the chemical model, or from mixing of waters of different ages, either within the aquifer or during extraction at the well. The paper discusses scientific aspects of the establishment of protection zones. Two processes affecting the model age determinations are examined in detail. First, the mechanism of diffusion transport downwards through porous, but impermeable, aquicludes is examined for stable trace substances and radioactive isotopes. Secondly, examples are given of model ages resulting from mixtures of new and old waters. It is recommended that such model ages should not be reported as 'ages' since they may be misinterpreted in groundwater protection applications. (author)

  17. Work plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory groundwater program: Continuous groundwater collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The continuous collection of groundwater data is a basic and necessary part of Lockeheed Martin Energy Systems' ORNL Environmental Restoration Area-Wide Groundwater Program. Continuous groundwater data consist primarily of continually recorded groundwater levels, and in some instances, specific conductivity, pH, and/or temperature measurements. These data will be collected throughout the ORNL site. This Work Plan (WP) addresses technical objectives, equipment requirements, procedures, documentation requirements, and technical instructions for the acquisition of the continuous groundwater data. Intent of this WP is to provide an approved document that meets all the necessary requirements while retaining the flexibility necessary to effectively address ORNL's groundwater problems

  18. Groundwater use in Pakistan: opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater potential in the Indus Basin is mainly due to recharge from irrigation system, rivers and rainfall. Its quality and quantity varies spatially and temporally. However, the potential is linked with the surface water supplies. Irrigated agriculture is the major user of groundwater. Annual recharge to groundwater in the basin is estimated as 68 MAF. But 50 percent of the area has marginal to hazardous groundwater quality. Existing annual groundwater pumpage is estimated as 45 MAF (55 BCM). More than 13 MAF mainly of groundwater is lost as non-beneficial ET losses. Groundwater contributes 35 percent of total agricultural water requirements in the country. Annual cropping intensities have increased from 70% to 150% due to groundwater use. Increase in crop yield due to groundwater use has been observed 150-200. percent. Total investment on private tube wells has been made more than Rs.25.0 billion. In the areas where farmers are depending more on groundwater. mining of groundwater has been observed. Population pressure, inadequate supply of canal water and development of cheap local tub well technology have encouraged farmers to invest in the groundwater development. Deterioration of groundwater has also been observed due to excessive exploitation. The available information about the private tube wells is insufficient for different areas. Although during the past decade the growth of tube wells was tremendous but was not reflected accordingly in the statistics. Monitoring of groundwater quality is not done systematically and adequately. It is very difficult to manage a resource for which adequate information is not available. The present scenario of groundwater use is not sustainable and therefore certain measures are needed to be taken. It is recommended to. have a systematic monitoring of groundwater. For the sustainable use of groundwater, it is recommended to manage the demand of water i.e. grow more crops with less water. To achieve high productivity of

  19. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  20. Design Status and Applications of Small reactors without On-site Refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Small reactors without on-site refuelling are the reactors that can operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a reasonably long period, consistent with plant economy and considerations of energy security, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at a site during reactor operation. Such reactors could simplify the implementation of safeguards and provide certain guarantees of sovereignty to those countries that would prefer to lease fuel from a foreign vendor or, perhaps, an international fuel cycle centre. About 30 concepts of such reactors are being analyzed or developed in 6 IAEA Member States. They cover all principle reactor lines: water cooled, fast gas cooled, sodium cooled, lead or lead bismuth cooled and molten salt cooled reactors. An increased refuelling interval could be achieved with reduced core power density, burnable absorbers, or high conversion ratio. The design goals for small reactors without on-site refuelling, inter alia, include: difficult unauthorized access to fuel; design provisions to facilitate the implementation of safeguards; capability to survive all postulated accident scenarios without requiring emergency response in the public domain; economic competitiveness for anticipated market conditions and applications; the capability to achieve higher manufacturing quality through factory mass production, design standardization and common basis for design certification; and a flexibility in siting and applications. Such reactors are often considered in conjunction with fuel or NPP leasing Small reactors without on-site refuelling have many common technology development issues related to the provision of lifetime core operation, economic competitiveness, high level of safety and proliferation resistance. Reestablishment of a practice of licensing by test and establishment of legal provisions and the insurance scheme for a transit of fuel loads or factory fabricated reactors through the territory of a third country are mentioned as

  1. The groundwater problems and countermeasures of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2014. In order to take off the protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marui, Atsunao

    2014-01-01

    Since the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011, groundwater problem and its countermeasures have been reported in a variety of ways. Its information is hardly intended to accurately convey the purpose or circumstances, which generated a lot of misunderstanding. This paper rechecked the on-site geology and groundwater conditions. Based on the long-term plans of the government and Tokyo Electric Power Company toward the decommissioning, it mentions what the problem is and what kind of measures are being taken, and discusses the future challenges. It clarifies the features of the hydrogeology of the power plant region, while showing its pictures and geological cross-section view. Next, it describes the site where the contaminated water is stored and stored structure, the accumulated amount and leakage of the contaminated water, and explains the impact of groundwater problems on the decommissioning schedule. It also introduces groundwater measures, such as seaside impervious wall, land side impervious wall, fading, groundwater bypass, etc. (A.O.)

  2. Calendar Year 2016 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractoroperated laboratory. National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., manages and operates SNL/NM for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. Two types of groundwater surveillance monitoring are conducted at SNL/NM: (1) on a site-wide basis as part of the SNL/NM Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program’s Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) Groundwater Surveillance Task and (2) on a site-specific groundwater monitoring at LTS/Environmental Restoration (ER) Operations sites with ongoing groundwater investigations. This Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report summarizes data collected during groundwater monitoring events conducted at GMP locations and at the following SNL/NM sites through December 31, 2016: Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern (AOC); Chemical Waste Landfill; Mixed Waste Landfill; Technical Area-V Groundwater AOC; and the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater AOC. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  3. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  4. Superconducting correlations in the one-band Hubbard model with intermediate on-site and weak attractive intersite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.P.; Ramakumar, R.; Chancey, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a simple extended Hubbard model with an intermediate on-site interaction (both repulsive and attractive) and a weak intersite attractive interaction. Following Hubbard decoupling approximations and introducing Hubbard subband operators, we obtain a generalized gap function for singlet s-wave pairing that explicitly depends on the Hubbard subband energies. For the on-site repulsive-interaction case, we find that the superconductivity is not destroyed in the intermediate-interaction regime, contrary to the prediction of a Hartree-Fock mean-field treatment. The essential consequence of the on-site repulsion is the formation of the Hubbard subbands separated by the Mott-Hubbard gap, and it is within these subbands that pairing induced by the intersite interaction occurs. For the attractive on-site interaction case, the on-site pairing amplitude is found to be proportional to the bandwidth, and the gap function has contributions from both on-site and intersite pairing. The relevance of the model to high-temperature superconductivity is discussed

  5. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess

  6. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  7. Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the region of Seoul and Taegu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Sung Ahn

    1988-01-01

    Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the Han River Basin in areas especially occupied by crystalline rocks and limestone have been undertaken. The result indicates that the groundwater in the Seoul area is recharged by the Han River whereas in non-urban areas it is replenished by the infiltration of precipitation, the crystalline rock aquifers are recharged by downward percolation of shallow groundwater stored in overlying alluvium. Older groundwater having a very low concentration of tritium, ranging from 0 to 2 TU, was observed at the lower Han River basin near Bupyeong. It may indicate that the water sampled was recharged at a much earlier time than the other groundwater sampled, maybe, as early as the pre-thermonuclear period. The same interaction study conducted in the Karst area has shown that there is clearly no systematic differences of tritium level between surface water and groundwater and that the residence time of groundwater in limestone is very short, probably not longer than a few months. The areas recharged by the water from the overlying alluvium into the sedimentary rock aquifer were restricted only along the Kumho River channel and its tributaries in a clastic sedimentary rock area. Bedrock groundwater whose tritium level and stable isotope composition were less than 14 TU and -6.8 respectively was observed in the central part of Taegu city. (author). 15 refs, 21 figs, 8 tabs

  8. Modeling groundwater flow and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle

    2013-01-01

    In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.

  9. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  10. Monitoring bentazone concentrations in the uppermost groundwater after late season applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelese AA; Linden AMA vd; LBG

    1998-01-01

    The herbicide bentazone has been detected in groundwater in several monitoring programs with most of the findings possibly be related to applications early in the growth season. Because of a very low sorption constant bentazone can be transported in soil with the waterflow very easily. This means

  11. Key policy choices in groundwater quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batie, S.S.; Diebel, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental policy choice of who has the right to do what to whom is a pivotal issue of governance. Over the last few decades, the answer to that question has become more restrictive to those who own and use natural resources as inputs into production processes. Increasingly, the beneficiaries of new policy initiatives are those who desire higher protection of groundwater quality. With respect to groundwater management, policy design increasingly reflects such diverse interests as agriculturists, industrialists, homeowners, local government officials and state officials. Policy design is becoming complex, in part because of this diversity and in part because scientific uncertainty hampers informed policy design. No umbrella federal legislation exists for managing groundwater resources. EPA's role has been mainly an advisory one on groundwater issues. The difficulties and responsibilities of protecting groundwater thus remain with the states. For the near future, it is the states that will address key policy choices with respect to groundwater quality management issues

  12. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  13. Hydrogeochemical investigation to understand nitrate movement in groundwater of volcanic island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, E. H.; Park, J.; Chung, E.; Kang, B. R.; Park, W. B.; Woo, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is the sole-source of water supply in the volcanic island, Jeju-do, Korea. Since early 1990s, the nitrate contamination of groundwater has increased especially in the western part of the island. High level of nitrate in water can cause not only health risk to human body but also environmental side effect such as eutrophication and algal bloom in the coastal area. Several studies have done to estimate nitrate contamination in groundwater of local areas, but none of them dealt with nitrate movement with flow paths. So, this study aimed to determine the source and migration of nitrate in groundwater in the Gosan area, located in the western part of Jeju island through seasonal monitoring of hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope analyses from pumping and monitoring wells. Water samples including rainfall and groundwater are measured for major ions (Ca, Na, K, Mg, SO4, HCO3, NO3, Cl, etc.) and stable isotopes (i.e., δ2H, δ18O, δ18O-NO3, δ15N-NO3). From the monitoring data, we could evaluate hydrochemical change during nitrate contamination, and also could identify that groundwater in Gosan area is recharged mainly by regional flow from the high-altitude region. In future study, we will conduct additional seasonal monitoring from the multi-depth monitoring wells and will use statistical analysis to understand pollution sources and paths specifically.

  14. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Palas Roy; Naba Kumar Mondal; Biswajit Das; Kousik Das

    2013-01-01

    High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India) has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Mul...

  15. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity.

  16. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  17. Aquifer Characterization and Groundwater Potential Assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Aquifer Characterization, Groundwater Potential, Electrical Resistivity, Lithologic Logs ... State Water Corporation currently cannot meet the daily water ... METHOD OF STUDY ... sections which were constrained with the available.

  18. Improving large-scale groundwater models by considering fossil gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephan; Walther, Marc; Michelsen, Nils; Rausch, Randolf; Dirks, Heiko; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf; Kolditz, Olaf; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Due to limited availability of surface water, many arid to semi-arid countries rely on their groundwater resources. Despite the quasi-absence of present day replenishment, some of these groundwater bodies contain large amounts of water, which was recharged during pluvial periods of the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. These mostly fossil, non-renewable resources require different management schemes compared to those which are usually applied in renewable systems. Fossil groundwater is a finite resource and its withdrawal implies mining of aquifer storage reserves. Although they receive almost no recharge, some of them show notable hydraulic gradients and a flow towards their discharge areas, even without pumping. As a result, these systems have more discharge than recharge and hence are not in steady state, which makes their modelling, in particular the calibration, very challenging. In this study, we introduce a new calibration approach, composed of four steps: (i) estimating the fossil discharge component, (ii) determining the origin of fossil discharge, (iii) fitting the hydraulic conductivity with a pseudo steady-state model, and (iv) fitting the storage capacity with a transient model by reconstructing head drawdown induced by pumping activities. Finally, we test the relevance of our approach and evaluated the effect of considering or ignoring fossil gradients on aquifer parameterization for the Upper Mega Aquifer (UMA) on the Arabian Peninsula.

  19. Open Source Platform Application to Groundwater Characterization and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Falzone, S.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Slater, L. D.; Robinson, J.; Hammett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater characterization and monitoring commonly rely on the use of multiple point sensors and human labor. Due to the number of sensors, labor, and other resources needed, establishing and maintaining an adequate groundwater monitoring network can be both labor intensive and expensive. To improve and optimize the monitoring network design, open source software and hardware components could potentially provide the platform to control robust and efficient sensors thereby reducing costs and labor. This work presents early attempts to create a groundwater monitoring system incorporating open-source software and hardware that will control the remote operation of multiple sensors along with data management and file transfer functions. The system is built around a Raspberry PI 3, that controls multiple sensors in order to perform on-demand, continuous or `smart decision' measurements while providing flexibility to incorporate additional sensors to meet the demands of different projects. The current objective of our technology is to monitor exchange of ionic tracers between mobile and immobile porosity using a combination of fluid and bulk electrical-conductivity measurements. To meet this objective, our configuration uses four sensors (pH, specific conductance, pressure, temperature) that can monitor the fluid electrical properties of interest and guide the bulk electrical measurement. This system highlights the potential of using open source software and hardware components for earth sciences applications. The versatility of the system makes it ideal for use in a large number of applications, and the low cost allows for high resolution (spatially and temporally) monitoring.

  20. Effect of Domestic Waste Leachates on Quality Parameters of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jiya MUSA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is an elixir of life. Percolating groundwater provides a medium through which wastes particularly organics can undergo degradation into simpler substances through biochemical reactions involving dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation and reduction processes. Ground water samples in and around dumpsite and landfills located in Kubuwa were studied to assess the effect of wastewater leachates on groundwater resources in the particular area. Groundwater samples were collected from 5 different bore-wells in and around relative distances from dumpsites. EC values ranged between 30 and 138 µS/cm, TDS ranged between 95 mg/L and 120 mg/L, SS ranged between 10 and 23 mg/L while that of the evening ranged between 11 and 15 mg/L, nitrate values ranged between 0.18 to 0.80 mg/L for the early morning samples while the late evening samples which ranged between 0.25 and 0.43 mg/L, while concentration of Sulphate in the morning water sample ranged between 168 and 213 mg/L while that of the evening ranged between 20 and 45 mg/L. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria should create landfills and dumpsites far away from residential homes and better still recycling plants should be put in place to recycle the various forms of waste products from homes.

  1. In situ air sparging for bioremediation of groundwater and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.; Lei, J.; Chapdelaine, M.C.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities at a former petroleum products depot resulted in the hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater over a 30,000-m 2 area. Site remediation activities consisted of three phases: site-specific characterization and treatability study, pilot-scale testing, and full-scale bioremediation. During Phase 1, a series of site/soil/waste characterizations was undertaken to ascertain the degree of site contamination and to determine soil physical/chemical and microbiological characteristics. Treatability studies were carried out to simulate an air sparging process in laboratory-scale columns. Results indicated 42% mineral oil and grease removal and 94% benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) removal over an 8-week period. The removal rate was higher in the unsaturated zone than in the saturated zone. Phase 2 involved pilot-scale testing over a 550-m 2 area. The radius of influence of the air sparge points was evaluated through measurements of dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater and of groundwater mounding. A full-scale air sparging system (Phase 3) was installed on site and has been operational since early 1994. Physical/chemical and microbiological parameters, and contaminants were analyzed to evaluate the system performance

  2. Isotope hydrology applied to evaluation of groundwater in arid areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Geyh, M.A.; Verhagen, B.T.; Wirth, K.

    1987-01-01

    Capture of underground water in arid or semi-arid areas in developing countries is essential to safeguarding life. In order to realize in time, or to prevent, endangerment of exploitable groundwater resources due to pollution or excess exploitation, isotope hydrology offers low-cost methods that are applied along with other methods. Their results contribute to determine the origin, mixing, residence time (or age), and pollution of endangered groundwater resources. The research report in hand uses the results of hydrochemical analyses and isotope hydrological data from hydrogeological studies made over some years by the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe in six selected countries: Jordan, Cyprus, Brazil, Sudan, Djibouti, Senegal. It also uses data of recent analyses of the years 1985 and 1986. Data evaluation is done applying modern, qualitative and quantitative methods of interpretation. The available long-term series of isotopic data are scanned for any early information on water quality deterioration that is not otherwise detected. The information thus obtained is a prerequisite of urgently needed measures for protecting the groundwater reserves. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Hydrogeochemical interpretation of the groundwater at the Haestholmen site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    1986-11-01

    This investigation forms a part of the research aimed at marking an assessment of the suitability of rapakivi granite at Haestholmen, an island off the southeastern coast of Finland, for the storage of reactor waste from the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary interpretations of the groundwater chemistry based on analyses of groundwater samples taken from several drillholes down to depths of 200 m, as well as other hydrogeological studies made on the site. Chemical analyses of grounfwaters at Haestholmen have demonstrated a fresh-water/saline-water interface at 60-150 m depth, depending on the distance from the coast. The main conclusions from this study are that (1) the saline water has a seawater origin, (2) the saline water is most likely old Baltic seawater from the early to middle Holocene, (3) this seawater has been chemically modified by at least four processes: calcite precipitation, fluorite dissolution and precipitation, Na-K-Mg-Ca cation exchange and sulfate reduction, (4) the saline groundwaters are not chemically uniform with depth and (5) the saline water chemistry reflects a structural control by the bedrock

  4. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  5. Activity concentration of uranium in groundwater from uranium mineralized areas and its neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, S.A.; Funtua, I.I.; Dewu, B.B.M.; Alagbe, S.A.; Garba, M.L.; Kwaya, M.Y.; Baloga, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in parts of northeastern Nigeria necessitated its exploration during early eighties by the Nigeria Uranium Mining Company (NUMCO) which was later abandoned. During their course of decay, uranium isotopes pass through radioactive decay stage and eventually into stable isotope of lead. The course of concern for soluble uranium in groundwater especially from the mineralized areas include ionizing radiation, chemical toxicity and reproductive defects for which ingested uranium has been implicated to have caused. This study is aimed at assessing the levels of concentration of uranium in groundwater to ascertain its compliance with the World Health Organization's (WHO) and the United State Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guideline for uranium in drinking water. Thirty five groundwater samples were collected using EPA's groundwater sampling protocol and analyzed at the Department of Geology, University of Cape Town using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric (ICP-MS) technique. Significant finding of this work was that there is radiological contamination of groundwater in the area. There is also an indication that the extent of radiological contamination is not much within the mineralized zones, therefore, there is likelihood that groundwater has acted as a medium of transporting and enhancing uranium in groundwater in an environment away from that of origin. About 5.7 % of the samples studied had uranium concentration above WHO and EPA's maximum contaminant level of 30 μg/L which is a major concern for inhabitants of the area. It was also apparent that radiological contamination at the southwestern part of the study area extends into the adjacent sheet (sheet 152). Uranium concentration above set standards in those areas might have originated from rocks around established mineralized zones but was transported to those contaminated areas by groundwater that leaches across the host rock and subsequently mobilizing soluble uranium

  6. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site)

  7. A business case for on-site generation: The BD biosciences pharmingen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan; Creighton, Charles; Bailey, Owen; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Deregulation is haltingly changing the United States electricity markets. The resulting uncertainty and/or rising energy costs can be hedged by generating electricity on-site and other benefits, such as use of otherwise wasted heat, can be captured. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 first invited relatively small-scale generators ({ge} 1 MW) into the electricity market. The advent of efficient and reliable small scale and renewable equipment has spurred an industry that has, in recent years, made even smaller (business scale) electricity generation an economically viable option for some consumers. On-site energy capture and/or conversion, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as economic savings and price predictability, improved reliability, control over power quality, and emissions reductions. Despite these benefits, DER adoption can be a daunting move to a customer accustomed to simply paying a monthly utility bill. San Diego is in many ways an attractive location for DER development: It has high electricity prices typical of California and a moderate climate i.e. energy loads are consistent throughout the year. Additionally, the price shock to San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) customers during the summer of 2000 has interested many in alternatives to electricity price vulnerability. This report examines the business case for DER at the San Diego biotechnology supply company, BD Biosciences Pharmingen, which considered DER for a building with 200-300 kW base-load, much of which accommodates the refrigerators required to maintain chemicals. Because of the Mediterranean climate of the San Diego area and the high rate of air changes required due to on-site use of chemicals, modest space heating is required throughout the year. Employees work in the building during normal weekday business hours, and daily peak loads are typically about 500 kW.

  8. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  9. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process.

  10. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process

  11. Noble Gas Sampling and Detection Methods for On-Site Inspections in Support of CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieslander, J.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The On-Site Inspections (OSI) constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT, and are conducted to verify States Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out and during such an inspection, facts might also be gathered to identify a possible violator of the Treaty. The Treaty lists all activities and techniques that are permitted and one of these is the environmental sampling of noble gases (NG) in the air and underground, which can be deployed at any time during an OSI. The CTBT relevant isotopes are Xe-133, 133m, 131m, 135 and Ar-37. The samples are primarily to be analyzed on-site, although the treaty also allows off-site analysis in designated laboratories if necessary. Stringent procedures ensure the security, integrity and confidentiality of the samples throughout the sampling and analysis process — all taking place in the field. Over the past decade the techniques for NG sampling, processing and analysis of both atmospheric and subsoil NG samples have been developed further in order to fit to the conditions and requirements during an OSI. This has been a major international effort with a global set of collaborators. Especially during the past three years the efforts intensified in order to finalize the scientific and technical developments for the Integrated Field Exercise, November 2014 (IFE14). This presentation will provide an overview of the current status of the OSI NG sampling regime and the OSI NG Field Laboratory to be deployed in IFE14, together with more technical descriptions of methods and equipment as well as a short discussion on potential future developments and alternative applications as applicable. (author)

  12. The impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In order to assess the impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow groundwater ... thermal transfer systems that use the ground water as a ... Abbreviations: GWHPs, Groundwater heat pumps; GHGs, ... Areas (Mm2).

  13. Groundwater Interim Measures Work Plan for the Former Chemical Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    May 2012 Groundwater IMWP, revised per EPA's approval, focuses on the installation of a groundwater containment system to mitigate groundwater migration from the former plant. A prior 2002 work plan is included in its entirety in Appendix B.

  14. The impact of onsite workplace health-enhancing physical activity interventions on worker productivity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Michelle Jessica; Coombes, Brooke Kaye; Comans, Tracy Anne; Johnston, Venerina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of onsite workplace health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) programmes on worker productivity. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42014008750. A search for controlled trials or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of onsite workplace HEPA programmes on productivity levels of working adults was performed. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed, and the inter-rater reliability of the quality assessment was analysed. Qualitative synthesis of available evidence is presented. Eight studies were included in the review. There is consistent evidence that onsite workplace HEPA programmes do not reduce levels of sick leave. There appears to be inconsistent evidence of the impact of onsite workplace HEPA programmes on worker productivity. A high-quality study of an onsite combination (aerobic, strengthening and flexibility) HEPA regime and a moderate-quality study of a Tai Chi programme improved worker productivity measured with questionnaires in female laundry workers and older female nurses, respectively. Two high-quality studies and four moderate-quality studies did not show benefit. Studies that showed benefit were mainly those designed with productivity measures as primary outcomes, delivered to occupations involved with higher physical loads, and had higher compliance and programme intensity. The small number of studies and the lack of consistency among studies limited further analyses. There is inconsistent evidence that onsite workplace HEPA programmes improve self-reported worker productivity. Future high-quality RCTs of onsite workplace HEPA programmes should be designed around productivity outcomes, target at-risk groups and investigate interventions of sufficient intensity. High attendance with improved recording is needed to achieve significant results in augmenting worker productivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  15. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, J. (Conterra, Uppsala (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Wallin, B. (Geokema, Lidingoe (Sweden)); Bruechert, V. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)); Molinero, J. (Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    the hydrotest equipment) and monitoring values are available from one borehole section, two values are chosen, one representing an early sampling in the borehole history (i.e. CCC/hydrotest equipment) and the other representing permanent borehole installation conditions after several years (i.e. monitoring equipment). When sampling time series are measured in the monitoring sections, the sulphide values are generally much higher in the downhole tubing and in the borehole section compared with the formation groundwater from the surrounding fractures. This persists even though before taking the final samples in each time series occasion considerable amounts of water have been removed by pumping (about 10 to more than 500 section volumes). Despite such volumes, however, there still prevails some suspicion that, at least in some cases, the removed volumes may be inadequate to guarantee stable representative values. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the two groundwater samples from the same water conducting structures, i.e. the sample from the monitoring and the sample from the CCC/hydrotest equipment sampling, the latter usually showing lower sulphide, spans the interval of representative sulphide values in the formation water. Practically all sulphide concentrations at Laxemar are <= 0.03 mmol/L (approx0.9 mg/L). There is, however, a probability that for some locations at repository depth groundwaters may have sulphide concentrations as high as 0.08 mmol/L (approx2.5 mg/L)

  16. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J.; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M.J.; Auque, L.F.; Wallin, B.; Bruechert, V.; Molinero, J.

    2010-12-01

    equipment) and monitoring values are available from one borehole section, two values are chosen, one representing an early sampling in the borehole history (i.e. CCC/hydrotest equipment) and the other representing permanent borehole installation conditions after several years (i.e. monitoring equipment). When sampling time series are measured in the monitoring sections, the sulphide values are generally much higher in the downhole tubing and in the borehole section compared with the formation groundwater from the surrounding fractures. This persists even though before taking the final samples in each time series occasion considerable amounts of water have been removed by pumping (about 10 to more than 500 section volumes). Despite such volumes, however, there still prevails some suspicion that, at least in some cases, the removed volumes may be inadequate to guarantee stable representative values. Nevertheless, it is assumed that the two groundwater samples from the same water conducting structures, i.e. the sample from the monitoring and the sample from the CCC/hydrotest equipment sampling, the latter usually showing lower sulphide, spans the interval of representative sulphide values in the formation water. Practically all sulphide concentrations at Laxemar are ≤ 0.03 mmol/L (∼0.9 mg/L). There is, however, a probability that for some locations at repository depth groundwaters may have sulphide concentrations as high as 0.08 mmol/L (∼2.5 mg/L)

  17. Droplet-counting Microtitration System for Precise On-site Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Susumu; Omori, Taichi; Suzuki, Yasutada; Ueta, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    A new microtitration system based on the counting of titrant droplets has been developed for precise on-site analysis. The dropping rate was controlled by inserting a capillary tube as a flow resistance in a laboratory-made micropipette. The error of titration was 3% in a simulated titration with 20 droplets. The pre-addition of a titrant was proposed for precise titration within an error of 0.5%. The analytical performances were evaluated for chelate titration, redox titration and acid-base titration.

  18. On-site emergency intervention plan for nuclear accident situation at SCN-Pitesti TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, S.; Oprea, I.

    2008-01-01

    A 14 MW TRIGA research reactor is operated on the Institute for Nuclear Research site. In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency that may affect the public the effectiveness of protective actions depends on the adequacy of intervention plans prepared in advance. Considerable planning is necessary to reduce to manageable levels the types of decisions leading to effective responses to protect the public in such an event. The essential structures of our on-site, off-site and county emergency intervention plan and the correlation between emergency intervention plans are presented. (authors)

  19. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2006-01-01

    include an quivalence of energy in the governing equations and, as regards the parametric concept, a frequency dependent spreading of the waves is introduced. The paper includes an extensive analysis of full-scale measurements for which the directional wave spectra are estimated by the two ship response......In general, two main concepts can be applied to estimate the on-site directional wave spectrum on the basis of ship response measurements: 1) a parametric method which assumes the wave spectrum to be composed by parameterised wave spectra, or 2) a non-parametric method where the directional wave...

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) L3-181 N basin cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of this Safety Analysis Report (SARP) is to authorize the onsite transfer of a Type B, Fissile Excepted, non-highway route controlled quantity in the L3-181 packaging from the N Basin to a storage/disposal facility within 200 West Area. This SARP provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the L3-181 meets the requirements of the 'Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping', WHC- CM-2-14, by meeting the applicable performance requirements for normal conditions of transport