WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater observation holes

  1. Observing braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, R; Beckwith, K; Done, C; Gregory, Ruth; Whisker, Richard; Beckwith, Kris; Done, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Spacetime in the vicinity of an event horizon can be probed using observations which explore the dynamics of the accretion disc. Many high energy theories of gravity lead to modifications of the near horizon regime, potentially providing a testing ground for these theories. In this paper, we explore the impact of braneworld gravity on this region by formulating a method of deriving the general behaviour of the as yet unknown braneworld black hole solution. We use simple bounds to constrain the solution close to the horizon.

  2. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zimbardo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.

  3. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nistico', G; Patsourakos, S; Zimbardo, G

    2010-01-01

    Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km/s, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km/s2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 minutes, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and eq...

  4. Observational Signatures of Binary Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze; Miller, M Coleman

    2014-01-01

    Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary AGN. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength $\\lambda_n$ at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches $\\propto \\lambda_n^{16/3}$; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A sec...

  5. Sandcastle Moats and Petunia Bed Holes. A Book about Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickinson, Pat

    This book provides five instructional units on groundwater. Units included are: (1) "Where's the Groundwater?" (describing the concepts of a saturated zone, water table, hydrologic cycle, recharge and discharge, core of depression, subsidence, and saltwater intrusion); (2) "How Does It Travel?" (discussing porosity,…

  6. Observational strong gravity and quantum black hole structure

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Quantum considerations have led many theorists to believe that classical black hole physics is modified not just deep inside black holes but at horizon scales, or even further outward. The near-horizon regime has just begun to be observationally probed for astrophysical black holes -- both by LIGO, and by the Event Horizon Telescope. This suggests exciting prospects for observational constraints on or discovery of new quantum black hole structure.

  7. Black Hole Spectroscopy: Testing General Relativity through Gravitational Wave Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, O; Krishnan, B; Finn, L S; Garrison, D; López-Aleman, R; Dreyer, Olaf; Kelly, Bernard; Krishnan, Badri; Finn, Lee Samuel; Garrison, David; Lopez-Aleman, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Assuming that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity in the strong field limit, can gravitational wave observations distinguish between black hole and other compact object sources? Alternatively, can gravitational wave observations provide a test of one of the fundamental predictions of general relativity? Here we describe a definitive test of the hypothesis that observations of damped, sinusoidal gravitational waves originated from a black hole or, alternatively, that nature respects the general relativistic no-hair theorem. For astrophysical black holes, which have a negligible charge-to-mass ratio, the black hole quasi-normal mode spectrum is characterized entirely by the black hole mass and angular momentum and is unique to black holes. In a different theory of gravity, or if the observed radiation arises from a different source (e.g., a neutron star, strange matter or boson star), the spectrum will be inconsistent with that predicted for general relativistic black holes. We give a statistica...

  8. Observing stellar mass and supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    During the last 50 years, great progress has been made in observing stellar-mass black holes (BHs) in binary systems and supermassive BHs in galactic nuclei. In 1964, Zeldovich and Salpeter showed that in the case of nonspherical accretion of matter onto a BH, huge energy releases occur. The theory of disk accretion of matter onto BHs was developed in 1972-1973 by Shakura and Sunyaev, Pringle and Rees, and Novikov and Thorne. Up to now, 100 years after the creation of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, which predicts the existence of BHs, the masses of tens of stellar-mass BHs ( M_BH=(4-35) M_⊙) and many hundreds of supermassive BHs ( M_BH=(10^6-1010) M_⊙) have been determined. A new field of astrophysics, so-called BH demography, is developing. The recent discovery of gravitational waves from BH mergers in binary systems opens a new era in BH studies.

  9. Black holes formed by direct collapse: observational evidences

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    2016-01-01

    Binary black holes as the recently detected sources of gravitational waves can be formed from massive stellar binaries in the field or by dynamical interactions in clusters of high stellar density, if the black holes are the remnants of massive stars that collapsed without natal kicks that would disrupt the binary system or eject the black holes from the cluster before binary black hole formation. Here are summarized and discussed the kinematics in three dimensions of space of five Galactic black hole X-ray binaries. For Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105 it is found that the black holes of ~15 and ~10 solar masses in these sources were formed in situ, without energetic kicks. These observations suggest that binary black holes with components of ~10 solar masses may have been prolifically produced in the universe.

  10. Observations of Black Hole Binaries with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Ronald A.; Cackett, Edward; Fabian, Andrew C.; Miller, Jon M.; Ranga Reddy Pasham, Deeraj; Steiner, James F.

    2017-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER; to be launched 2017 June) will observe persistent Black Hole (BH) Binaries and BH-type transients during its 18-month Prime Mission. Substantial advances are expected from investigations of BH physical properties and accretion physics in strong gravity, continuing the science legacy of RXTE. One of the primary differences between NICER/XTI and RXTE/PCA Instruments is the energy response (0.2-12 keV vs 3-45 keV). NICER provides a direct spectral view of the inner accretion disk, where the maximum effective temperatures vary in the range 0.2-2 keV. In addition, NICER provides superior spectral resolution (140 eV at Fe K-alpha), superior time resolution (100 ns absolute accuracy), lower background (by a factor of 100), and full flexibility for data analyses (with complete information for every photon event). Finally the source count rate from NICER's 56 cameras will exceed the rate from RXTE (3 PCUs), except for sources obscured by very high levels of ISM column density (log Nh > 22).Anticipated BH science themes include sensitive measures of the effective radius and temperature of the inner disk during BH hard states and transitions, full use the disk spectrum (as seed photons) for Comptonization models for the corona, and powerful opportunities to interpret timing properties including QPOs. Such capabilities will support a new initiative on the "disk:corona" connection, which is a fundamental component of the "disk:jet" connection and our understanding of the different accretion states. Early results from NICER will be reported, to the extent possible.

  11. Can we monitor groundwater head variation from space? Coupling ERS spaceborne microwave observations to groundwater dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; de Jong, S. M.; van Geer, F. C.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether the time series of a remote sensing based soil moisture product, referred as the European Remote Sensing Soil Water Index (ERS SWI), correlates to in-situ observations of groundwater heads; and can thus be used for groundwater head prediction. As

  12. Massive Black Hole Binaries: Dynamical Evolution and Observational Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamical evolution of massive black hole pairs in mergers is crucial in the context of a hierarchical galaxy formation scenario. The timescales for the formation and the coalescence of black hole binaries are still poorly constrained, resulting in large uncertainties in the expected rate of massive black hole binaries detectable in the electromagnetic and gravitational wave spectra. Here, we review the current theoretical understanding of the black hole pairing in galaxy mergers, with a particular attention to recent developments and open issues. We conclude with a review of the expected observational signatures of massive binaries and of the candidates discussed in literature to date.

  13. Groundwater Storage Changes: Present Status from GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianli; Famigliett, James S.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provide quantitative measurement of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with unprecedented accuracy. Combining GRACE-observed TWS changes and independent estimates of water change in soil and snow and surface reservoirs offers a means for estimating groundwater storage change. Since its launch in March 2002, GRACE time-variable gravity data have been successfully used to quantify long-term groundwater storage changes in different regions over the world, including northwest India, the High Plains Aquifer and the Central Valley in the USA, the North China Plain, Middle East, and southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia, where groundwater storage has been significantly depleted in recent years (or decades). It is difficult to rely on in situ groundwater measurements for accurate quantification of large, regional-scale groundwater storage changes, especially at long timescales due to inadequate spatial and temporal coverage of in situ data and uncertainties in storage coefficients. The now nearly 13 years of GRACE gravity data provide a successful and unique complementary tool for monitoring and measuring groundwater changes on a global and regional basis. Despite the successful applications of GRACE in studying global groundwater storage change, there are still some major challenges limiting the application and interpretation of GRACE data. In this paper, we present an overview of GRACE applications in groundwater studies and discuss if and how the main challenges to using GRACE data can be addressed.

  14. Groundwater Storage Changes: Present Status from GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianli; Famiglietti, James S.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provide quantitative measurement of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with unprecedented accuracy. Combining GRACE-observed TWS changes and independent estimates of water change in soil and snow and surface reservoirs offers a means for estimating groundwater storage change. Since its launch in March 2002, GRACE time-variable gravity data have been successfully used to quantify long-term groundwater storage changes in different regions over the world, including northwest India, the High Plains Aquifer and the Central Valley in the USA, the North China Plain, Middle East, and southern Murray-Darling Basin in Australia, where groundwater storage has been significantly depleted in recent years (or decades). It is difficult to rely on in situ groundwater measurements for accurate quantification of large, regional-scale groundwater storage changes, especially at long timescales due to inadequate spatial and temporal coverage of in situ data and uncertainties in storage coefficients. The now nearly 13 years of GRACE gravity data provide a successful and unique complementary tool for monitoring and measuring groundwater changes on a global and regional basis. Despite the successful applications of GRACE in studying global groundwater storage change, there are still some major challenges limiting the application and interpretation of GRACE data. In this paper, we present an overview of GRACE applications in groundwater studies and discuss if and how the main challenges to using GRACE data can be addressed.

  15. Assimilating ambiguous observations to jointly estimate groundwater recharge and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Daniel; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In coupled modelling of catchments, the groundwater compartment can be an important water storage as well as having influence on both rivers and evapotranspirational fluxes. It is therefore important to parameterize the groundwater model as correctly as possible. Primarily important to regional groundwater flow is the spatially variable hydraulic conductivity. However, also the groundwater recharge, in a coupled system coming from the unsaturated zone but in a stand-alone groundwater model a boundary condition, is also of high importance. As with all subsurface systems, groundwater properties are difficult to observe in reality and their estimation is an ongoing topic in groundwater research and practice. Commonly, we have to rely on time series of groundwater head observations as base for any parameter estimation. Heads, however, have the drawback that they can be ambiguous and may not uniquely define the inverse problem, especially if both recharge and conductivity are seen as unknown. In the presented work we use a 2D virtual groundwater test case to investigate how the prior knowledge of recharge and conductivity influence their respective and joint estimation as spatially variable fields using head data. Using the Ensemble Kalman filter, it is shown that the joint estimation is possible if the prior knowledge is good enough. If the prior is erroneous the a-priori sampled fields cannot be corrected by the data. However, it is also shown that if the prior knowledge is directly wrong the estimated recharge field can resemble the true conductivity field, resulting in a model that meets the observations but has very poor predictive power. The study exemplifies the importance of prior knowledge in the joint estimation of parameters from ambiguous measurements.

  16. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500  km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  17. Black-hole kicks as new gravitational-wave observables

    CERN Document Server

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Generic black-hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line-of-sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler-shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational-wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black-hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black-hole kick velocities as low as ~500 km/s, which are expected to be a common outcome of black-hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black-hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational-wave astronomy.

  18. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.

    2016-02-01

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 ×10-21. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ . The source lies at a luminosity distance of 41 0-180+160 Mpc corresponding to a redshift z =0.0 9-0.04+0.03 . In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ , and the final black hole mass is 6 2-4+4M⊙ , with 3. 0-0.5+0.5M⊙ c2 radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

  19. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A

    2016-02-12

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160)  Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

  20. Dispelling Black Hole Pathologies Through Theory and Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spivey R. J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical black holes are by now routinely identified with metrics representing eter- nal black holes obtained as exact mathematical solutions of Einstein’s field equations. However, the mere existence and discovery of stationary solutions is no guarantee that they can be attained through dynamical processes. If a straightforward physical caveat is respected throughout a spacetime manifold then the ingress of matter across an event horizon is prohibited, in accordance with Einstein’s expectation. As black hole forma- tion and growth would be inhibited, the various pathological traits of black holes such as information loss, closed timelike curves and singularities of infinite mass density would be obviated. Gravitational collapse would not terminate with the formation of black holes possessing event horizons but asymptotically slow as the maximal time dilation between any pair of worldlines tends towards infinity. The remnants might be better described as dark holes, often indistinguishable from black holes except in certain as- trophysically important cases. The absence of trapped surf aces circumvents topological censorship, with potentially observable consequences for astronomy, as exemplified by the remarkable electromagnetic characteristics, extreme energetics and abrupt extinc- tion of quasars within low redshift galaxies.

  1. Observational Signatures of Tilted Black Hole Accretion Disks from Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Geometrically thick accretion flows may be present in black hole X-ray binaries observed in the low/hard state and in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Unlike in geometrically thin disks, the angular momentum axis in these sources is not expected to align with the black hole spin axis. We compute images from three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of misaligned (tilted) accretion flows using relativistic radiative transfer, and compare the estimated locations of the radiation edge with expectations from their aligned (untilted) counterparts. The radiation edge in the tilted simulations is independent of black hole spin for a tilt of 15 degrees, in stark contrast to the results for untilted simulations, which agree with the monotonic dependence on spin expected from thin accretion disk theory. Synthetic emission line profiles from the tilted simulations depend strongly on the observer's azimuth, and exhibit unique features such as broad "blue wings." Coupled with precession,...

  2. Test holes drilled in support of ground-water investigations, Project Gnome, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    Project Gnome is a proposed underground nuclear shot to be detonated within a massive salt bed in Eddy County, N. Mex. Potable and neat potable ground water is present in rocks above the salt and is being studied in relation to this nuclear event. This report presents details of two test holes which were drilled to determine ground-water conditions in the near vicinity of the shot point. A well-defined aquifer is present at the site of USGS test hole 1, about 1,000 feet south of the access shaft to the underground shot point. Water with 75 feet of artesian pressure head is contained in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. The dolomite aquifer is 32 feet thick and its top lies at a depth of 517 feet below land surface. The aquifer yielded 100 gpm (gallons per minute) with a drawdown of 40 feet during a pumping period of 24 hours. Water was not found in rocks above or below the Culebra dolomite. At the site of USGS test hole 2, about 2 miles southwest of the access shaft no distinctive aquifer exists. About one-half gpm was yielded to the well from the rocks between the Culebra dolomite and the top of the salt. Water could not be detected in the Culebra dolomite or overlying rocks. The report contains drawdown and recovery curves of yield tests, drilling-time charts, and electric logs. The data are given in tables; they include summaries of hole construction, sample description logs, water measurements, drilling-time logs, and water analyses.

  3. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of $1.0 \\times 10^{-21}$. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 {\\sigma}. The source lies at a luminosity distance of $410^{+160}_{-180}$ Mpc corresponding to a redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are $36^{+5}_{-4} M_\\odot$ and $29^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$, and the final black hole mass is $62^{+4}_{-4} M_\\odot$, with $3.0^{+0.5}_{-0.5} M_\\odot c^2$ radiated in gravitational waves. ...

  4. An Observed Fundamental Plane Relation for Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Robertson, Brant; Krause, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    We study observed correlations between supermassive black hole (BHs) and the properties of their host galaxies, and show that the observations define a BH 'fundamental plane' (BHFP), of the form M_BH sigma^(3.0+-0.3)*R_e^(0.43+-0.19), or M_BH M_bulge^(0.54+-0.17)*sigma^(2.2+-0.5), analogous to the FP of elliptical galaxies. The BHFP is preferred over a simple relation between M_BH and any of sigma, M_bulge, M_dyn, or R_e alone at >99.9% significance. The existence of this BHFP has important implications for the formation of supermassive BHs and the masses of the very largest black holes, and immediately resolves several apparent conflicts between the BH masses expected and measured for outliers in both the M_BH-sigma and M_BH-M_bulge relations.

  5. Valence holes observed in nanodiamonds dispersed in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Pflüger, Mika; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Xiao, Jie; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-02-21

    Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp(2)-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed.

  6. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Observations of slow electron holes at a magnetic reconnection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu V; Vaivads, A; André, M; Fujimoto, M; Retinò, A; Owen, C J

    2010-10-15

    We report in situ observations of high-frequency electrostatic waves in the vicinity of a reconnection site in the Earth's magnetotail. Two different types of waves are observed inside an ion-scale magnetic flux rope embedded in a reconnecting current sheet. Electron holes (weak double layers) produced by the Buneman instability are observed in the density minimum in the center of the flux rope. Higher frequency broadband electrostatic waves with frequencies extending up to f(pe) are driven by the electron beam and are observed in the denser part of the rope. Our observations demonstrate multiscale coupling during the reconnection: Electron-scale physics is induced by the dynamics of an ion-scale flux rope embedded in a yet larger-scale magnetic reconnection process.

  8. Quantum Teleportation with an Accelerated Observer and Black Hole Information

    CERN Document Server

    Shiokawa, K

    2009-01-01

    Nonperturbative analysis of quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation protocol using oscillator variables carried by observers in relativistic motion under the continuous influence of the environment is given. The full time evolution of quantum entanglement among static and accelerated observers is studied. The environment plays a dual role. While it creates bipartite and tripartite entanglement among observers even when the initial state is separable, it suppresses the entanglement via decoherence. Motivated by the black hole information problem, we consider quantum teleportation between static and accelerated observers. Acceleration of the observer suppresses fidelity of teleportation. Some of the quantum information escapes outside of the horizon in the form of bipartite and tripartite entanglement during the teleportation process. Explicit calculation of information loss is provided. In addition to the loss due to the interaction with the environment, there is an intrinsic loss originated in a measur...

  9. Observable acceleration of jets by a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Gariel, J; Wang, Anzhong

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of a model based on the gravitational field of the Kerr black hole, we turn to analyse the kinematic behaviour of extragalactic jets. We analytically calculate the observable velocities and accelerations along any geodesic. Then, by numerical calculations, we apply our results to a geodesic, typical of the M87 jet, and we probe our results by confrontation to recent observations. A transition from non-relativistic to ultrarelativistic speeds at subparsec scale is highlighted. This transition comes sooner and more abruptly than in models based on magnetic paradigm, which means that we need a weaker magnetic field to explain observed synchrotron radiation. We attribute the ejection phenomenon to the repulsive effect of the gravitomagnetic Kerr field.

  10. Primordial Black Holes: Observational characteristics of the final evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Stump, D. R.; Linnemann, J. T.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, S. S.; Yapici, T.; Tollefson, K.

    2016-07-01

    Many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 105 solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. The final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description is dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigate the final few seconds of BH evaporation, using the Standard Model and incorporating the most recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results, and provide a new parameterization for the instantaneous emission spectrum. We calculate for the first time energy-dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures. We have found a unique signature in the PBH burst light curves that may be detectable by GeV/TeV gamma-ray observatories such as the High Altitude Water Cerenkov (HAWC) observatory. The implications of beyond the Standard Model theories on the PBH burst observational characteristics are also discussed, including potential sensitivity of the instantaneous photon detection rate to a squark threshold in the 5-10 TeV range.

  11. Valence holes observed in nanodiamonds dispersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Pflüger, Mika; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Xiao, Jie; Aziz, Emad F.

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed.Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, details on XAS/XES normalization and background correction procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06639a

  12. Skyrmion Black Hole Hair: Conservation of Baryon Number by Black Holes and Observable Manifestations

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2016-01-01

    We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the sky...

  13. High-Resolution Observations of a Binary Black Hole Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Jarrett, Thomas; Emonts, Bjorn; Cluver, Michelle; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    We propose a 12-hour 2.3 GHz continuum Long Baseline Array (LBA) observation of WISE J2332-5056, a newly discovered supermassive black hole (SMBH) merger candidate that is located in the nearby universe (z = 0.3447). Our recently acquired 9 GHz ATCA map shows unusual radio morphology: a one-sided, smaller (and likely younger) FR-I jet perpendicular to a larger, Doppler-boosted FR-II jet. Follow-up Gemini-S/GMOS spectroscopy of this WISE-selected radio galaxy reveals broad emission lines blue-shifted by > 3,500 km/s with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy, hallmarks of a dual AGN system. Combined, the optical spectroscopy and radio morphology of this object are strongly suggestive of a black hole merger system. Even in the local universe these systems are extremely difficult to identify; yet the process of supermassive blackhole growth is vital toward understanding galaxy evolution from the early to the current universe. Moreover, nearby merging SMBHs may serve as outstanding targets for gravitational wave studies. The proposed high resolution LBA map, reaching 50 pc resolution at the source redshift will allow us to investigate the SMBH merger scenario hypothesis.

  14. Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gußmann, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.

  15. Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gußmann, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.gussmann@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.

  16. Groundwater quality and depletion in the Indo-Gangetic Basin mapped from in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Lark, R. M.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively. Here we report new evidence from high-resolution in situ records of groundwater levels, abstraction and groundwater quality, which reveal that sustainable groundwater supplies are constrained more by extensive contamination than depletion. We estimate the volume of groundwater to 200 m depth to be >20 times the combined annual flow of the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges, and show the water table has been stable or rising across 70% of the aquifer between 2000 and 2012. Groundwater levels are falling in the remaining 30%, amounting to a net annual depletion of 8.0 +/- 3.0 km3. Within 60% of the aquifer, access to potable groundwater is restricted by excessive salinity or arsenic. Recent groundwater depletion in northern India and Pakistan has occurred within a longer history of groundwater accumulation from extensive canal leakage. This basin-wide synthesis of in situ groundwater observations provides the spatial detail essential for policy development, and the historical context to help evaluate recent satellite gravity data.

  17. Black hole accretion versus star formation rate: theory confronts observations

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We use a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers to compare star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) for galaxies before the interaction ('stochastic' phase), during the 'merger' proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr, and in the 'remnant' phase. We calculate the bi-variate distribution of SFR and BHAR and define the regions in the SFR-BHAR plane that the three phases occupy. No strong correlation between BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR is found. A possible exception are galaxies with the highest SFR and the highest BHAR. We also bin the data in the same way used in several observational studies, by either measuring the mean SFR for AGN in different luminosity bins, or the mean BHAR for galaxies in bins of SFR. We find that the apparent contradiction or SFR versus BHAR for observed samples of AGN and star forming galaxies is actually caused by binning effects. The two types of samples use different projections of the full bi-variate distribution, and the full information would lead to unamb...

  18. Modelling variability in black hole binaries: linking simulations to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Black hole accretion flows show rapid X-ray variability. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of this is typically fit by a phenomenological model of multiple Lorentzians for both the broad band noise and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs). Our previous paper (Ingram & Done 2011) developed the first physical model for the PSD and fit this to observational data. This was based on the same truncated disc/hot inner flow geometry which can explain the correlated properties of the energy spectra. This assumes that the broad band noise is from propagating fluctuations in mass accretion rate within the hot flow, while the QPO is produced by global Lense-Thirring precession of the same hot flow. Here we develop this model, making some significant improvements. Firstly we specify that the viscous frequency (equivalently, surface density) in the hot flow has the same form as that measured from numerical simulations of precessing, tilted accretion flows. Secondly, we refine the statistical techniques which we use to fit...

  19. Observing Mergers of Non-Spinning Black-Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied m8BS ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our equal-mass and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This is an indicator of the amount of degeneracy in mass ratio for mergers of moderate mass ratio systems.

  20. Observing mergers of non-spinning black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliams, Sean T; Baker, John G

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied mass ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our 1:1 (equal mass) and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This i...

  1. Multistate observations of the Galactic black hole XTE J1752-223: evidence for an intermediate black hole spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, R.C.; Miller, J.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Cackett, E.M.; Maitra, D.; Reynolds, C.S.; Rupen, M.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752−223 was observed during the decay of its 2009 outburst with the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observatories. The observed spectra are consistent with the source being in the ‘intermediate’ and ‘low-hard’ states, respectively. The presence of a strong, relativistic

  2. NuSTAR observations of the black holes GS 1354-645: Evidence of rapid black hole spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal...... a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cf/GM(2) >= 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: 0 similar or equal to 75 (2)degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources...... in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates....

  3. Clinical Observation on Juvenile Macular Hole without Trauma and Hypermyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieying Zhao; Qingshan Chen; Ming Li; Xunqing Gu; Rulong Gao; Feng Wen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of juvenile macular hole without trauma and hypermyopia, and research the mechanism of macular hole.Methods: Sixty-seven patients less than 40 years of age were studied retrospectively from June 1998 to March 2003. Five cases (7 eyes) aged from 22 to 38 years were reported and the clinical characteristics that had macular hole without trauma or hypermyopia were summed up.Results: There was 1 male and 4 females with visual acuity from 0.08 to 0.8. The images of optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed full thickness macular hole in 5 patients (7 eyes), and the diameters were from 87 to 1043 μm. Among them, 2 cases were combined with retina pigmentosa; 1 case with binocular Coat's disease; 1 case had bilateral macular hole combined with Eagles' disease; 1 case was combined with 2-2.5PD old retinochoroidal lesion under middle-peripheral fundus, and 1.5 PD retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defect on the optical disk.Conclusion: The juvenile macular hole without trauma and hypermyopia combined the different retina vascular damages and the RPE defects.

  4. Can the Slow-Rotation Approximation be used in Electromagnetic Observations of Black Holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Ayzenberg, Dimitry; Yunes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Future electromagnetic observations of black holes may allow us to test General Relativity in the strong-field regime. Such tests, however, require knowledge of rotating black hole solutions in modified gravity theories, a class of which does not admit the Kerr metric as a solution. Several rotating black hole solutions in modified theories have only been found in the slow-rotation approximation (i.e.~assuming the spin angular momentum is much smaller than the mass squared). We here investigate whether the systematic error due to the approximate nature of these black hole metrics is small enough relative to the observational error to allow their use in electromagnetic observations to constrain deviations from General Relativity. We address this by considering whether electromagnetic observables constructed from a slow-rotation approximation to the Kerr metric can fit observables constructed from the full Kerr metric with systematic errors smaller than current observational errors. We focus on black hole shado...

  5. Holes in the Bathtub: Water Table Dependent Services and Threshold Behavior in an Economic Model of Groundwater Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-lawlor, N. E.; Edwards, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    In many groundwater systems, the height of the water table must be above certain thresholds for some types of surface flow to exist. Examples of flows that depend on water table elevation include groundwater baseflow to river systems, groundwater flow to wetland systems, and flow to springs. Meeting many of the goals of sustainable water resource management requires maintaining these flows at certain rates. Water resource management decisions invariably involve weighing tradeoffs between different possible usage regimes and the economic consequences of potential management choices are an important factor in these tradeoffs. Policies based on sustainability may have a social cost from forgoing present income. This loss of income may be worth bearing, but should be well understood and carefully considered. Traditionally, the economic theory of groundwater exploitation has relied on the assumption of a single-cell or "bathtub" aquifer model, which offers a simple means to examine complex interactions between water user and hydrologic system behavior. However, such a model assumes a closed system and does not allow for the simulation of groundwater outflows that depend on water table elevation (e.g. baseflow, springs, wetlands), even though those outflows have value. We modify the traditional single-cell aquifer model by allowing for outflows when the water table is above certain threshold elevations. These thresholds behave similarly to holes in a bathtub, where the outflow is a positive function of the height of the water table above the threshold and the outflow is lost when the water table drops below the threshold. We find important economic consequences to this representation of the groundwater system. The economic value of services provided by threshold-dependent outflows (including non-market value), such as ecosystem services, can be incorporated. The value of services provided by these flows may warrant maintaining the water table at higher levels than would

  6. A Brief Observational History of the Black-Hole Spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kundt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this year (2015, black holes (BHs celebrate their 100th birthday, if their birth is taken to be triggered by a handwritten letter from Martin Schwarzschild to Albert Einstein, in connection with his newly found spherically symmetric vacuum solution.

  7. Groundwater recharge in the tropics: a pan-African analysis of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in sub-Saharan Africa where rainfall and river discharge are unreliable and per-capita reservoir storage is among the lowest in the world. Groundwater is widely considered a distributed, low-cost and climate-resilient option to meet rapidly growing freshwater demand and alleviate endemic poverty by expanding access to safe water and improving food security through irrigation. Recent research indicates that groundwater storage in Africa is about 100 times greater than annual river discharge yet major uncertainties remain in the magnitude and nature of replenishment through recharge as well as the impacts of land-use and climate change. Here, we present newly compiled, multi-decadal observations of groundwater levels from 5 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Tanzania, Uganda) and paired measurements of stable isotope ratios of O and H in precipitation and groundwater at 11 locations. These data reveal both a distinct bias in groundwater recharge to intensive rainfall and rapid recharge pathways (e.g. focused, macropore flow) that are inconsistent with conventional recharge models assuming pore-matrix flow defined by the Darcy-Richards equation. Further the records highlight the substantial influence of land-use change (e.g. conversion of natural, perennial cover to croplands) on groundwater recharge. The compiled observations also provide, for the first time, a pan-African baseline to evaluate the performance of large-scale hydrological models and Land-Surface Models incorporating groundwater in this region. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in sub-Saharan Africa. As such, groundwater may prove to be a climate-resilient source of freshwater in the tropics, enabling adaptive strategies such as groundwater-fed irrigation and sustaining domestic and industrial water supplies.

  8. Strain Observation Affected by Groundwater-Level Change in Seismic Precursor Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Daiyong; Zhang, Jingfa

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater extraction is one of the most typical disturbance factors for strain observation in seismic precursor monitoring. The statistic regression method is used to study based on the relation between the variation of strain and the groundwater level. The least square regression linear model is built between the annual variation of Sangzi groundwater level and the Xiaoxinzhuang strain data. Such model meets t test with significance level α = 0. 0 5, which confirms that groundwater-level change in each year affects strain measurement significantly and strain's trend variation is related to groundwater-level change. Consequently, a new correction method about strain data is put forward based on the groundwater-level annual variation to eliminate the trend change. Results indicate that the accumulated residual deformation causes the horizontal displacement and strain change, which is on account of that the amount of groundwater recharge is less than that of extraction around Xiaoxinzhuang cave, the phreatic surface continues to descend, and residual deformation accumulates and leads to local subsidence area. Therefore, the decline trend change of strain is related to groundwater-level change and is not seismic precursor.

  9. NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin

    CERN Document Server

    El-Batal, A M; Reynolds, M T; Boggs, S E; Chistensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fuerst, F; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Stern, D K; Tomsick, J; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cJ/GM^2 > 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: theta = 75(2) degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower-flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.

  10. NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Boggs, S. E.; Chistensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D. K.; Tomsick, J.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 “hard” state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a={cJ}/{{GM}}2≥slant 0.98 (1σ statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: θ ≃ 75{(2)}\\circ . Strong “dips” are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.

  11. Science Advancements for Black Hole Binaries from Observations with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Miller, Jon M.; Homan, Jeroen; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Kara, Erin; Pasham, Dheeraj; Uttley, Phil; Nicer Science Team

    2017-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composiiton Explorer (NICER; 2017 launch) will advance investigations of black-hole physical properties and accretion physics in strong gravity, which are research themes that flourished during the RXTE era (1996-2012). One of the primary differences between NICER/XTI and RXTE/PCA Instruments is the energy response (0.2-12 keV vs 3-45 keV), with NICER affording a much more direct view of the inner accretion disk, where the maximum temperatures vary in the range 0.2-2 keV. In addition, NICER provides superior spectral resolution (140 eV at Fe K-alpha), superior time resolution (100 ns accuracy), lower background (by factor of 100), and full flexibility for data analyses (with complete information for each photon event). Finally the count rate from NICER's 56 cameras usually exceeds the count rates from RXTE (3 PCUs), except for sources obscured by very high levels of ISM column density (log Nh > 22).Simulations are shown to support the following expectations for advancement: (1) comprehensive measures of the effective radius and temperature of the inner disk during black hole hard states and transitions; (2) visibility of the disk spectrum to constrain (as seed photons) Comptonization models to infer the properties of the corona(3) derivation of black hole spin via simultaneous use of the disk continuum and Fe line profile; (4) investigations of both high- and low-freqency QPOs in an energy range that samples both disk and corona; (5) partnerships with NuSTAR and ASTROSAT to use reflection spectra/timing to study the disk/corona geometry and interplay in different X-ray states.

  12. Cluster and TC-1 observation of magnetic holes in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Sun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic holes with relatively small scale sizes, detected by Cluster and TC-1 in the magnetotail plasma sheet, are studied in this paper. It is found that these magnetic holes are spatial structures and they are not magnetic depressions generated by the flapping movement of the magnetotail current sheet. Most of the magnetic holes (93% were observed during intervals with Bz larger than Bx, i.e. they are more likely to occur in a dipolarized magnetic field topology. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of these magnetic holes might have a close relationship with the dipolarization process. The magnetic holes typically have a scale size comparable to the local proton Larmor radius and are accompanied by an electron energy flux enhancement at a 90° pitch angle, which is quite different from the previously observed isotropic electron distributions inside magnetic holes in the plasma sheet. It is also shown that most of the magnetic holes occur in marginally mirror-stable environments. Whether the plasma sheet magnetic holes are generated by the mirror instability related to ions or not, however, is unknown. Comparison of ratios, scale sizes and propagation direction of magnetic holes detected by Cluster and TC-1, suggests that magnetic holes observed in the vicinity of the TC-1 orbit (~7–12 RE are likely to be further developed than those observed by Cluster (~7–18 RE.

  13. Detecting massive black hole binaries and unveiling their cosmic history with gravitational wave observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A

    2012-01-01

    Space based gravitational wave astronomy will open a completely new window on the Universe and massive black holes binaries are expected to be among the primary actors on this upcoming stage. The New Gravitational-wave Observatory (NGO) is a space interferometer proposal derived from the former Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept. We describe here its capabilities of observing massive black hole binaries throughout the Universe, measuring their relevant parameters (masses, spins, distance to the observer) to high precision. The statistical properties of the population of detected systems can be used to constrain the massive black hole cosmic history, providing deep insights into the faint, high redshift Universe.

  14. Observing the dynamics of supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingarelli, C M F; Grover, K; Sidery, T; Smith, R J E; Vecchio, A

    2012-08-24

    Pulsar timing arrays are a prime tool to study unexplored astrophysical regimes with gravitational waves. Here, we show that the detection of gravitational radiation from individually resolvable supermassive black hole binary systems can yield direct information about the masses and spins of the black holes, provided that the gravitational-wave-induced timing fluctuations both at the pulsar and at Earth are detected. This in turn provides a map of the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field and a new avenue to tackle open problems in astrophysics connected to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes. We discuss the potential, the challenges, and the limitations of these observations.

  15. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100 M⊙ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5 σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9 - 240 Gpc-3 yr-1 . These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.

  16. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100M_{⊙} and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9–240  Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}. These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.

  17. Supermassive binary black holes - possible observational effects in the x-ray emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss the possible observational effects in the X-ray emission from two relativistic accretion disks in a supermassive binary black hole system. For that purpose we developed a model and performed numerical simulations of the X-ray radiation from a relativistic accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, based on the ray-tracing method in the Kerr metric, and applied it to the case of the close binary supermassive black holes. Our results indicate that the broad Fe Kα line is a powerful tool for detecting such systems and studying their properties. The most favorable candidates for observational studies are the supermassive binary black holes in the galactic mergers during the phase when the orbital velocities of their components are very large and exceed several thousand kms -1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176003: Gravitation and the Large Scale Structure of the Universe i br. 176001: Astrophysical Spectroscopy of Extragalactic Objects

  18. Equatorial geodesics in ergoregion of dirty black holes and zero energy observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-10-01

    We consider equatorial motion of particles in the ergoregion of generic axially symmetric rotating black holes. We introduce the notion of zero energy observers (ZEOs) as counterparts to known zero angular observers (ZAMOs). It is shown that the trajectory of a ZEO has precisely one turning point that lies on the boundary of the ergoregion for photons and inside the ergoregion for massive particles. As a consequence, such trajectories enter the ergosphere from the white hole region under horizon and leave it crossing the horizon again (entering the black hole region). The angular velocity of ZEO does not depend on the angular momentum. For particles with E>0 this velocity is bigger than for a ZEO, for Eblack hole can lead to the unbound energy in the centre of mass thus giving a special version of the Bañados-Silk-West effect.

  19. Gravitational waves from resolvable massive black hole binary systems and observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Volonteri, M

    2008-01-01

    Massive black holes are key components of the assembly and evolution of cosmic structures and a number of surveys are currently on-going or planned to probe the demographics of these objects and to gain insight into the relevant physical processes. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) currently provide the only means to observe gravitational radiation from massive black hole binary systems with masses >10^7 solar masses. The whole cosmic population produces a stochastic background that could be detectable with upcoming Pulsar Timing Arrays. Sources sufficiently close and/or massive generate gravitational radiation that significantly exceeds the level of the background and could be individually resolved. We consider a wide range of massive black hole binary assembly scenarios, we investigate the distribution of the main physical parameters of the sources, such as masses and redshift, and explore the consequences for Pulsar Timing Arrays observations. Depending on the specific massive black hole population model, we est...

  20. Touching Ghosts: Observing Free Fall from an Infalling Frame of Reference into a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augousti, A. T.; Gawelczyk, M.; Siwek, A.; Radosz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of communication between observers in the vicinity of a black hole in a Schwarzschild metric is considered. The classic example of an infalling observer Alice and a static distant mother station (MS) is extended to include a second infalling observer Bob, who follows Alice in falling towards the event horizon. Kruskal coordinates are…

  1. Touching Ghosts: Observing Free Fall from an Infalling Frame of Reference into a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augousti, A. T.; Gawelczyk, M.; Siwek, A.; Radosz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of communication between observers in the vicinity of a black hole in a Schwarzschild metric is considered. The classic example of an infalling observer Alice and a static distant mother station (MS) is extended to include a second infalling observer Bob, who follows Alice in falling towards the event horizon. Kruskal coordinates are…

  2. Preconditioning an ensemble Kalman filter for groundwater flow using environmental-tracer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Daniel; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater resources management requires operational, regional-scale groundwater models accounting for dominant spatial variability of aquifer properties and spatiotemporal variability of groundwater recharge. We test the Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate transient hydraulic heads and groundwater recharge, as well as the hydraulic conductivity and specific-yield distributions of a virtual phreatic aquifer. To speed up computation time, we use a coarsened spatial grid in the filter simulations, and reconstruct head measurements at observation points by a local model in the vicinity of the piezometer as part of the observation operator. We show that the EnKF can adequately estimate both the mean and spatial patterns of hydraulic conductivity when assimilating daily values of hydraulic heads from a highly variable initial sample. The filter can also estimate temporally variable recharge to a satisfactory level, as long as the ensemble size is large enough. Constraining the parameters on concentrations of groundwater-age tracers (here: tritium) and transient hydraulic-head observations cannot reasonably be done by the EnKF because the concentrations depend on the recharge history over longer times while the head observations have much shorter temporal support. We thus use a different method, the Kalman Ensemble Generator (KEG), to precondition the initial ensemble of the EnKF on the groundwater-age tracer data and time-averaged hydraulic-head values. The preconditioned initial ensemble exhibits a smaller spread as well as improved means and spatial patterns. The preconditioning improves the EnKF particularly for smaller ensemble sizes, allowing operational data assimilation with reduced computational effort. In a validation scenario of delineating groundwater protection zones, the preconditioned filter performs clearly better than the filter using the original initial ensemble.

  3. Observing Supermassive Black Holes across cosmic time: from phenomenology to physics

    CERN Document Server

    Merloni, A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, a combination of high sensitivity, high spatial resolution observations and of coordinated multi-wavelength surveys has revolutionized our view of extra-galactic black hole (BH) astrophysics. We now know that supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of almost every galaxy, grow over cosmological times by accreting matter, interact and merge with each other, and in the process liberate enormous amounts of energy that influence dramatically the evolution of the surrounding gas and stars, providing a powerful self-regulatory mechanism for galaxy formation. The different energetic phenomena associated to growing black holes and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), their cosmological evolution and the observational techniques used to unveil them, are the subject of this chapter. In particular, I will focus my attention on the connection between the theory of high-energy astrophysical processes giving rise to the observed emission in AGN, the observable imprints they leave at different wavelengths...

  4. Testing the no-hair theorem with observations of black holes in the electromagnetic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Tim

    2016-06-01

    According to the general-relativistic no-hair theorem, astrophysical black holes depend only on their masses and spins and are uniquely described by the Kerr metric. Mass and spin are the first two multipole moments of the Kerr spacetime and completely determine all other moments. The no-hair theorem can be tested by measuring potential deviations from the Kerr metric which alter such higher-order moments. In this review, I discuss tests of the no-hair theorem with current and future observations of such black holes across the electromagnetic spectrum, focusing on near-infrared observations of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, pulsar-timing and very-long baseline interferometric observations, as well as x-ray observations of fluorescent iron lines, thermal continuum spectra, variability, and polarization.

  5. Testing the No-Hair Theorem with Observations of Black Holes in the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    According to the general-relativistic no-hair theorem, black holes depend only on their masses and spins and are uniquely described by the Kerr metric. Mass and spin are the first two multipole moments of the Kerr spacetime and completely determine all other moments. The no-hair theorem can be tested by measuring potential deviations from the Kerr metric which alter such higher-order moments. In this review, I discuss tests of the no-hair theorem with current and future observations of black holes across the electromagnetic spectrum, focusing on near-infrared observations of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, pulsar-timing and very-long baseline interferometric observations, as well as X-ray observations of fluorescent iron lines, thermal continuum spectra, variability, and polarization.

  6. Digging deeper: Observing primordial gravitational waves below black hole binary confusion noise

    CERN Document Server

    Regimbau, T; Christensen, N; Katsavounidis, E; Sathyaprakash, B; Vitale, S

    2016-01-01

    The merger rate of black hole binaries inferred from the recent LIGO detections implies that a stochastic background produced by a cosmological population of mergers will likely mask the primordial gravitational-wave background. Here we demonstrate that the next generation of ground-based detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, will be able to observe binary black hole mergers throughout the universe with sufficient efficiency that the confusion background can be subtracted to observe the primordial background at the level of $\\Omega_{\\mathrm{GW}} \\simeq 10^{-13}$ after five years of observation.

  7. Digging Deeper: Observing Primordial Gravitational Waves below the Binary-Black-Hole-Produced Stochastic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regimbau, T; Evans, M; Christensen, N; Katsavounidis, E; Sathyaprakash, B; Vitale, S

    2017-04-14

    The merger rate of black hole binaries inferred from the detections in the first Advanced LIGO science run implies that a stochastic background produced by a cosmological population of mergers will likely mask the primordial gravitational wave background. Here we demonstrate that the next generation of ground-based detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, will be able to observe binary black hole mergers throughout the Universe with sufficient efficiency that the confusion background can potentially be subtracted to observe the primordial background at the level of Ω_{GW}≃10^{-13} after 5 years of observation.

  8. Installation of groundwater observation tubes OL-PVP36-38 and drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP70-71 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    In order to widen the groundwater monitoring network at Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy contracted Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to install new groundwater observation tubes to three locations and to drill two shallow drillholes with standpipes. The identification numbers of the groundwater observation tubes are OL-PVP36, OL-PVP37A, 37B, 37C, OL-PVP38A, 38B, 38C and 38D, and the shallow drillholes are named OL-PP70 and OL-PP71. The observation tubes were installed and the shallow holes drilled between September 22nd and October 12th in 2011. The drilling rig used in the installation work was a GM-200 rig. Drilling equipment consisted of casing tubes (90/77 mm) with drilling bit, 55 mm geo rods and 64 mm drilling bits and T76-equipment for drilling the shallow holes. Monitoring pipes (PVC, 60/52 mm) were lowered into the holes inside the casings. The monitoring pipes consist of a lower section of riser pipe, a middle section of screen pipe and an upper section of riser pipe. The screen pipe slot size is 0.3 mm and the length of the screen section is two metres. Protective stainless steel covers with lock-up caps were installed around the monitoring tubes and the shallow drillholes. In addition to the installation of the tubes, the work included water level measurements after installation. The core samples of the shallow drillholes were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. (orig.)

  9. Estimates of black-hole natal kick velocities from observations of low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The birth kicks of black holes, arising from asymmetric mass ejection or neutrino emission during core-collapse supernovae, are of great interest for both observationally constraining supernova models and population-synthesis studies of binary evolution. Recently, several efforts were undertaken to estimate black hole birth kicks from observations of black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We follow up on this work, specifically focussing on the highest estimated black-hole kick velocities. We find that existing observations do not require black hole birth kicks in excess of approximately 100 km/s, although higher kicks are not ruled out.

  10. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  11. Observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in an analogue black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    We observe spontaneous Hawking radiation, stimulated by quantum vacuum fluctuations, emanating from an analogue black hole in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. Correlations are observed between the Hawking particles outside the black hole and the partner particles inside. These correlations indicate an approximately thermal distribution of Hawking radiation. We find that the high-energy pairs are entangled, while the low-energy pairs are not, within the reasonable assumption that excitations with different frequencies are not correlated. The entanglement verifies the quantum nature of the Hawking radiation. The results are consistent with a driven oscillation experiment and a numerical simulation.

  12. Maryland Ground-Water Observation Well Network, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MDNET is a point coverage that represents the locations and names of a network of observation wells for the State of Maryland. Additional information on water...

  13. Satellite Observations of Groundwater Storage Variations and Their Application for Water Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Kumar, S.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Fresh water demand is steadily increasing around the world due to population growth, economic development, and people's desire for a "western" lifestyle and diet. Where surface water availability is not sufficient or consistent, groundwater is often the resource of choice for agriculture, industry, and municipal and domestic uses. However, unlike lake levels, aquifer levels are unseen and are not easily measured. This can create the illusion of an infinite water source and impede efforts to monitor and conserve groundwater. Moreover, even where depth-to-water measurements do exist, they often are not digitized, centralized, and accessible. The GRACE satellites are a partial solution to this problem, enabling space-based estimates of groundwater variability at regional scales that are not limited by political boundaries. Here we discuss emerging trends in groundwater storage around the world based on GRACE observations and how they can be combined with other information in order attribute these apparent trends and support sub-regional scale analyses of changing groundwater availability.

  14. Observational Evidence for Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in Ultra-luminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, E J M

    2004-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that some Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may contain accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We review the current observational evidence for IMBH-ULXs. While low-luminosity ULXs with L_X ~ 10^40 ergs, we suggest that this class of ULXs is generally powered by accreting IMBHs.

  15. The PyCBC search for binary black hole coalescences in Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Joshua; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's first observing run saw the first detections of binary black hole coalescences. We describe the PyCBC matched filter analysis, and the results of that search for binary systems with total mass up to 100 solar masses. This is a matched filter search for general-relativistic signals from binary black hole systems. Two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, were identified with very high significance, and a third possible signal, LVT151012, was found, though at much lower significance. Supported by NSF award PHY-1506254.

  16. Observations of Dissipation of Slow Magneto-acoustic Waves in Polar Coronal Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, G R

    2014-01-01

    We focus on polar coronal hole region to find any evidence of dissipation of propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves. We obtained time-distance and frequency-distance maps along plume structure in polar coronal hole. We also obtained Fourier power maps of polar coronal hole in different frequency ranges in 171 \\AA\\ and 193 \\AA\\ passbands. We performed intensity distribution statistics in time domain at several locations in polar coronal hole. We find presence of propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves having temperature dependent propagation speeds. The wavelet analysis and Fourier power maps of polar coronal hole show that low-frequency waves are travelling longer distances (longer detection length) as compared to high-frequency waves. We found two distinct dissipation length scales of wave amplitude decay at two different height ranges (between 0-10 Mm and 10-70 Mm) along the observed plume structure. Dissipation length obtained at higher height range show some frequency dependence. Individual Fourier power...

  17. The High-Energy Spectra of Accreting Black Holes Observational Evidence for Bulk-Motion Infall

    CERN Document Server

    Shrader, C R; Shrader, Chris; Titarchuk, Lev

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the emergent spectra from accreting black holes, considering in particular the case where the accretion is characterized by relativistic bulk motion. We suggest that such accretion is likely to occur in a wide variety of black hole enviroments, where the strong gravitational field is expected to dominate the pressure forces, and this likely to lead to a characteristic high-energy spectriscopic signature; an extended power tail. It is in the high (soft) state that matter impinging upon the event horizon can be viewed directly, and intrinsic power-law seen. A test of the model is presented using observational data from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, covering 2- 200 keV for recent galactic black hole X-ray nova outbursts.

  18. Testing general relativity with black-hole binary observations: results and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The first two LIGO-Virgo detections of gravitational waves from binary black-hole inspirals offered the first opportunity to test gravitation in its strong-field, relativistic-motion, and radiative sector. The initial tests reported in PRL 116 (2016) probed consistency with the predictions of general relativity, to moderate precision. The space-based observatory LISA will observe black-hole binary signals with much larger SNRs, allowing for even more precise tests. Last, the detection of a binary black-hole stochastic background with pulsar-timing arrays will offer more constraints on the speed and polarizations of gravitational waves. I review these results and examine synergies across the gravitational-wave spectrum. I discuss the main challenges and opportunities from the viewpoint of data analysis, and outline prospects for making contact with current alternative theories of gravitation, in particular those motivated by models of dark energy.

  19. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  20. Swift broad band observations of the Black Hole transient GRS 1716-249

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Melania; D'Ai', Antonino; Bassi, Tiziana; Segreto, Alberto; Belloni, Tomaso; Cusumano, Giancarlo; La Parola, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    We report on Swift observations of the ongoing outburst of the Black Hole Transient (BHT) GRS 1716-249 (ATel #9876, #9895). We analyzed both XRT and BAT data of three Swift ToO pointings performed on 2017 January 28, 29 and 30 (Target ID 34924, segments 1, 2, 3). The XRT count rate is about 90 count/s and therefore the observations have been performed in window-timing mode.

  1. Swift broad band observations of the Black Hole transient GRS 1716-249

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Melania; D'Ai', Antonino; Bassi, Tiziana; Segreto, Alberto; Belloni, Tomaso; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Parola, Valentina La

    2017-02-01

    We report on Swift observations of the ongoing outburst of the Black Hole Transient (BHT) GRS 1716-249 (ATel #9876, #9895). We analyzed both XRT and BAT data of three Swift ToO pointings performed on 2017 January 28, 29 and 30 (Target ID 34924, segments 1, 2, 3). The XRT count rate is about 90 count/s and therefore the observations have been performed in window-timing mode.

  2. Effects of climate change on groundwater: observed and forecasted trends on Italian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveri, Marco; Menichini, Matia; Provenzale, Antonello; Scozzari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater represents the main source of water supply at global level. In Italy, as well as in most European countries, water needs are mainly covered by groundwater exploitation. The reliance on this resource is continuously growing, given the key role that groundwater plays for mitigating the climate change/variability and for addressing the significant increase in the global water demand. Despite this, and unlike surface waters, groundwater bodies have not been widely studied, and there is a general paucity of quantitative information, especially in relation to climate change. Although groundwater systems are more resilient to climate change than surface waters, they are affected both directly and indirectly. The estimation of the entity of these effects is mandatory for a reliable management of this crucial resource. The analysis of hydro-meteorological data over a few decades highlights that also the Italian territory is experiencing a change of the climate regime. Besides the increase of mean annual temperature, observed in particular since the early 1980s, longer and more frequent drought periods have been registered, as well as an increase of extreme events characterized by heavy rainfall. It is also noticeable a decrease in total rainfall, that is much more evident in the period from January to June. In addition to the reduced yearly inputs from precipitation, such trends determine also a lower snow accumulation and earlier snow melt in mountain areas, a general increase of evapotranspiration rates and an increased runoff fraction of the effective rainfall amount. As flood hydrographs of several major Italian rivers (e.g., Po, Brenta and Arno rivers) confirm, evident effects concern surface water resources. The main observed phenomena consist in the decline of mean annual discharge, the increase of extreme events with high discharge concentrated in short periods, and longer and earlier periods of low base flow. Impacts on groundwater recharge are not well

  3. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 $\\sigma$. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of $3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7} \\times 10^{-22}$. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are $14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3} M_{\\odot}$ and $7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3} M_{\\odot}$ and the final black hole mass is $20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1} M_{\\odot}$. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2....

  4. The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitze, David

    2016-03-01

    On September 14, 2015, the two LIGO detectors operating at Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA nearly simultaneously recorded a strong trigger consistent with the passage of gravitational waves. An extensive and thorough analysis by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration over the following months determined the gravitational waves to originate from the final stage of the inspiral of two black holes with masses approximately 36 and 29 Msun merging to form a 62 Msun black hole located at a distance of roughly 410 Mpc.This discovery is remarkable in many ways. In addition to being the first direct measurement of a gravitational wave by an earth-based detector, this is the first observation of coalescing binary black hole system and the first evidence that ``heavy'' stellar mass black holes exist. The measured gravitational waveform was determined to be highly consistent with that predicted by general relativity for the merger of two black holes. In this talk, the first of two in this special session on the discovery of GW150914, I'll cover a number of topics related to the detection, including a brief description of the operation and performance of the Advanced LIGO detectors during the first `O1' Observing Run as well as the data quality verification methods used to determine the validity of the detection. I'll also present the searches that were used to find and establish the statistical confidence of the event, as well as provide an estimate of its sky localization. Finally, I will discuss the plans for future observations by LIGO, Virgo and other gravitational wave detectors over the next few years and, time permitting, present the short term and longer term programs for improving the sensitivity and range of gravitational wave detectors over the next ten years.

  5. Examination of groundwater flow scales and results of water balance observation in the regional hydrogeological study project field.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Tomoya; Inaba, Kaoru; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tono Geoscience Center, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The Tono Geoscience center has been continuing water balance observation since fiscal 1998, and examining groundwater recharge into the basement rock. This report analyzes water balance at seven catchments in the regional hydrogeological study project field, and the applicability of area precipitation, an important item of water balance analysis, is examined. The result of the examination is shown below. Values of groundwater recharge in the small-scale catchments, such as upstream and downstream of the Shobagawa, are influence by the local groundwater flow system. But, those in the Shobagawa catchment are influenced by the larger groundwater flow system. The plane distribution of groundwater recharge matches the result of the distribution of groundwater flow analysis. (author)

  6. Properties of Solar Polar Coronal Hole Plasmas Observed above the Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doschek, G. A.; Feldman, U.; Laming, J. M.; Schühle, U.; Wilhelm, K.

    2001-01-01

    We determine the line-of-sight emission measure distribution and nonthermal motions as a function of height above the limb in the north and south polar coronal holes. These quantities are derived from extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra obtained from the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. The SUMER slit was oriented along the north-south direction for all the observations, and the spatial resolution is about 1". The spectra were obtained from a number of different types of observations in 1996. We select a group of emission lines for analysis for which, under the usual assumption of ionization equilibrium, the maximum emissivities span the temperature range from about 3×105 K up to about 1.1×106 K. We compare our results with recently published similar observations of a west limb quiet-Sun streamer region, with other coronal hole results based on SUMER spectra, and with earlier observations of the quiet Sun and coronal holes obtained from Skylab and rocket spectra. We find that the electron temperature in the polar holes increases with height above the limb, that the emission measure distribution of plasma located at line-of-sight heights less than about 60" peaks at a temperature of about 9×105 K, and that nonthermal motions sometimes, but not always, increase slightly with height above the limb. When observed, these increases level off above the limb at about 120". We speculate that the increases with height above the limb may be a manifestation of the fast solar wind. They may also be due to the reduction in transition region structures with increasing limb height. We also discuss wave heating as a cause of the line width increases.

  7. Antarctic ozone hole as observed by IASI/MetOp for 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scannell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a study of the ozone hole as observed by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on-board the MetOp-A European satellite platform from the beginning of data dissemination, August 2008, to the end of December 2010. Here we demonstrate IASI's ability to capture the seasonal characteristics of the ozone hole, in particular during polar night. We compare IASI ozone total columns and vertical profiles with those of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2, also on-board MetOp-A and electrochemical concentration cell (ECC ozone sonde measurements. Total ozone column from IASI and GOME-2 were found to be in excellent agreement for this region with a correlation coefficient of 0.97, for September, October and November 2009. On average IASI exhibits a positive bias of approximately 7% compared to the GOME-2 measurements over the entire ozone hole period. Comparisons between IASI and ozone sonde measurements were also found to be in good agreement with the difference between both ozone profile measurements being less than ±30% over the altitude range of 0–40 km. The vertical structure of the ozone profile inside the ozone hole is captured remarkably well by IASI.

  8. Event Horizon Telescope Observations as Probes for Quantum Structure of Astrophysical Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The need for a consistent quantum evolution for black holes has led to proposals that their semiclassical description is modified not just near the singularity, but at horizon or larger scales. If such modifications extend beyond the horizon, they influence regions accessible to distant observeration. Natural candidates for these modifications behave like metric fluctuations, with characteristic length and time scales set by the horizon radius. We investigate the possibility of using the Event Horizon Telescope to observe these effects, if they have a strength sufficient to make quantum evolution consistent with unitarity. We find that such quantum fluctuations can introduce a strong time dependence for the shape and size of the shadow that a black hole casts on its surrounding emission. For the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, detecting the rapid time variability of its shadow will require non-imaging timing techniques. However, for the much larger black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy, a vari...

  9. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the first Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to $100 M_\\odot$ and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than $5\\sigma$ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance, which has a 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We d...

  10. Supermassive black holes in the EAGLE Universe. Revealing the observables of their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; McAlpine, Stuart; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of supermassive black holes in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The largest of the EAGLE volumes covers a (100 cMpc)3 and includes state-of-the-art physical models for star formation and black hole growth that depend only on local gas properties. We focus on the black hole mass function, Eddington ratio distribution and the implied duty cycle of nuclear activity. The simulation is broadly consistent with observational constraints on these quantities. In order to make a more direct comparison with observational data, we calculate the soft and hard X-ray luminosity functions of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). Between redshifts 0 and 1, the simulation is in agreement with data. At higher redshifts, the simulation tends to underpredict the luminosities of the brightest observed AGN. This may be due to the limited volume of the simulation, or a fundamental deficiency of the underlying model. It seems unlikely that additional unresolved variability can account for this difference. The simulation shows a similar `downsizing' of the AGN population as seen in observational surveys.

  11. Stellar progenitors of black holes: insights from optical and infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    2016-01-01

    Here are reviewed the insights from observations at optical and infrared wavelengths for low mass limits above which stars do not seem to end as luminous supernovae. These insights are: (1) the absence in archived images of nearby galaxies of stellar progenitors of core-collapse supernovae above 16-18 solar masses, (2) the identification of luminous-massive stars that quietly disappear without optically bright supernovae, (3) the absence in the nebular spectra of supernovae of type II-P of the nucleosynthetic products expected from progenitors above 20 solar masses, (4) the absence in color magnitude diagrams of stars in the environment of historic core-collapse supernovae of stars with >20 solar masses. From the results in these different areas of observational astrophysics, and the recently confirmed dependence of black hole formation on metallicity and redshift of progenitors, it is concluded that a large fraction of massive stellar binaries in the universe end as binary black holes.

  12. Outbursts and State Transitions in Black Hole Candidates observed by MAXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, H.; Maxi Team

    2010-12-01

    MAXI continuously observes several black hole candidates in our Galaxy and LMC. MAXI already detected various state transitions in Cyg X-1, GX 339-4, Swift J1752.5-127, and black hole transients, H 1743-332, 4U 1630, XTE J1752-223, and MAXI J1659-125. From these observations, we try to clarify what happens during the transitions, and what triggers the transitions. In any case, fast alerts just before the transitions and soon after the outbursts are crucial to detect, for instance, radio and high energy gamma-ray jets or emission. We also present some successful examples of alerts from our MAXI transient alert system.

  13. On similarity of binary black hole gravitational-wave skymaps: to observe or to wait?

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Klimenko, Sergey; Vedovato, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Localization estimates for GW150914, the first binary black hole detected by the LIGO instruments, were shared with partner facilities for electromagnetic follow-up. While the source was a compact binary coalescence (CBC), it was first identified by algorithms that search for unmodeled signals, which produced the skymaps that directed electromagnetic observations. Later on, CBC specific algorithms produced refined versions, which showed significant differences. In this paper we show that those differences were not accidental and that CBC and unmodeled skymaps for binary black holes will frequently be different; we thus provide a way to determine whether to observe electromagnetically as promptly as possible (following a gravitational-wave detection), or to wait until CBC skymaps become available, should they not be available in low latency. We also show that, unsurprisingly, CBC algorithms can yield much smaller searched areas.

  14. Adaptive Optics Assisted 3D spectroscopy observations for black hole mass measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Pastorini, Guia

    2006-01-01

    The very high spatial resolution provided by Adaptive Optics assisted spectroscopic observations at 8m-class telescopes (e.g. with SINFONI at the VLT) will allow to greatly increase the number of direct black hole (BH) mass measurements which is currently very small. This is a fundamental step to investigate the tight link between galaxy evolution and BH growth, revealed by the existing scaling relations between $M_{BH}$ and galaxy structural parameters. I present preliminary results from SIN...

  15. Testing General Relativity's No-Hair Theorem with X-Ray Observations of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hoormann, Janie K; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-01-01

    Despite its success in the weak gravity regime, General Relativity (GR) has yet to be verified in the regime of strong gravity. In this paper, we present the results of detailed ray tracing simulations aiming at clarifying if the combined information from X-ray spectroscopy, timing, and polarization observations of stellar mass and supermassive black holes can be used to test GR's no-hair theorem. The latter states that stationary astrophysical black holes are described by the Kerr-family of metrics with the black hole mass and spin being the only free parameters. We use four "non-Kerr metrics", some phenomenological in nature and others motivated by alternative theories of gravity, and study the observational signatures of deviations from the Kerr metric. Particular attention is given to the case when all the metrics are set to give the same Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) in quasi-Boyer Lindquist coordinates. We give a detailed discussion of similarities and differences of the observational signature...

  16. Supermassive black holes in the EAGLE Universe. Revealing the observables of their growth

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Rosas-Guevara Y M; Schaye, Joop; McAlpine, Stuart; Dalla-Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, S Carlos; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of supermassive black holes in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The largest of the EAGLE volumes covers a $(100 \\,\\rm cMpc)^3$ and includes state-of-the-art physical models for star formation and black hole growth that depend only on local gas properties. We focus on the black hole mass function, Eddington ratio distribution and the implied duty cycle of nuclear activity. The simulation is broadly consistent with observational constraints on these quantities. In order to make a more direct comparison with observational data, we calculate the soft and hard X-ray luminosity functions of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). Between redshifts $0$ and $1$, the simulation is in agreement with data. At higher redshifts, the simulation tends to underpredict the luminosities of the brightest observed AGN. This may be due to the limited volume of the simulation, or a fundamental deficiency of the underlying model. It...

  17. Effect of observational holes and borders on lacunarity and fractality measurements in a galaxy catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    García-Farieta, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological observations reveal that the Universe contains a hierarchy of galaxy clustering with a transition to homogeneity on large scales according to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. Some observational estimates suggest that the Universe behaves as a multifractal object, where galactic clustering is based on generalisation of the dimension in metric spaces. From this point of view, we study the spatial distribution of points by simulating galaxies on large scales in the Universe with samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including observational holes in the masks. We build homogeneous samples following the radial selection function using the "shuffle" method for a main sample of $3,273,548$ points limited to the redshift range $0.0020$ and percentages of holes near $40\\%$, $r_H$ is displaced on scales on the order of $120~Mpc/h$. Hole percentages between $10\\%$ and $30\\%$ show an $r_H$ of $70-90~Mpc/h$, and for percentages below $10\\%$, $r_H$ decreases to become equal to the $r_H$ value of the SDSS-BO...

  18. Observations of dissipation of slow magneto-acoustic waves in a polar coronal hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We focus on a polar coronal hole region to find any evidence of dissipation of propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves. Methods: We obtained time-distance and frequency-distance maps along the plume structure in a polar coronal hole. We also obtained Fourier power maps of the polar coronal hole in different frequency ranges in 171 Å and 193 Å passbands. We performed intensity distribution statistics in time domain at several locations in the polar coronal hole. Results: We find the presence of propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves having temperature dependent propagation speeds. The wavelet analysis and Fourier power maps of the polar coronal hole show that low-frequency waves are travelling longer distances (longer detection length) as compared to high-frequency waves. We found two distinct dissipation length scales of wave amplitude decay at two different height ranges (between 0-10 Mm and 10-70 Mm) along the observed plume structure. The dissipation lengths obtained at higher height range show some frequency dependence. Individual Fourier power spectrum at several locations show a power-law distribution with frequency whereas probability density function of intensity fluctuations in time show nearly Gaussian distributions. Conclusions: Propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves are getting heavily damped (small dissipation lengths) within the first 10 Mm distance. Beyond that waves are getting damped slowly with height. Frequency dependent dissipation lengths of wave propagation at higher heights may indicate the possibility of wave dissipation due to thermal conduction, however, the contribution from other dissipative parameters cannot be ruled out. Power-law distributed power spectra were also found at lower heights in the solar corona, which may provide viable information on the generation of longer period waves in the solar atmosphere.

  19. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Hemberger, D; Kidder, L E; Lovelace, G; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S

    2016-06-17

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5σ. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7}×10^{-22}. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3}M_{⊙} and 7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3}M_{⊙}, and the final black hole mass is 20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1}M_{⊙}. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440_{-190}^{+180}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  20. Multi-state observations of the Galactic Black Hole XTE J1752-223: Evidence for an intermediate black hole spin

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, R C; Fabian, A C; Cackett, E M; Maitra, D; Reynolds, C S; Rupen, M; Steeghs, D T H; Wijnands, R

    2010-01-01

    The Galactic Black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 was observed during the decay of its 2009 outburst with the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observatories. The observed spectra are consistent with the source being in the ''intermediate`` and ''low-hard state`` respectively. The presence of a strong, relativistic iron emission line is clearly detected in both observations and the line profiles are found to be remarkably consistent and robust to a variety of continuum models. This strongly points to the compact object in \\j\\ being a stellar-mass black hole accretor and not a neutron star. Physically-motivated and self-consistent reflection models for the Fe-\\ka\\ emission-line profile and disk reflection spectrum rule out either a non-rotating, Schwarzchild black hole or a maximally rotating, Kerr black hole at greater than 3sigma level of confidence. Using a fully relativistic line function in which the black hole spin parameter is a variable, we have formally constrained the spin parameter to be $0.52\\pm0.11 (1\\sigma)$. ...

  1. Swift Observations of MAXI J1659-152: A Compact Binary with a Black Hole Accretor

    CERN Document Server

    Kennea, J A; Mangano, V; Beardmore, A P; Evans, P A; Curran, P A; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; Yamaoka, K

    2011-01-01

    We report on the detection and follow-up high cadence monitoring observations of MAXI J1659-152, a bright Galactic X-ray binary transient with a likely black-hole accretor, by Swift over a 27 day period after its initial outburst detection. MAXI J1659-152 was discovered almost simultaneously by Swift and MAXI on 2010 Sept 25, and was monitored intensively from the early stages of the outburst through the rise to a brightness of ~0.5 Crab by the Swift XRT, UVOT, and BAT. We present temporal and spectral analysis of the Swift observations. The broadband light-curves show variability characteristic of black-hole candidate transients. We present the evolution of thermal and non-thermal components of the 0.5-150 keV combined X-ray spectra during the outburst. MAXI J1659-152 displays accretion state changes typically associated with black-hole binaries, transitioning from its initial detection in the Hard State, to the Steep Power-Law State, followed by a slow evolution towards the Thermal State, signified by an in...

  2. Where the Wild Things Are: Observational Constraints on Black Holes' Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merloni, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The physical and evolutionary relation between growing supermassive black holes (AGN) and host galaxies is currently the subject of intense research activity. Nevertheless, a deep theoretical understanding of such a relation is hampered by the unique multi-scale nature of the combined AGN-galaxy system, which defies any purely numerical, or semi-analytic approach. Various physical process active on different physical scales have signatures in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; thus, observations at different wavelengths and theoretical ideas all can contribute towards a ``large dynamic range'' view of the AGN phenomenon, capable of conceptually ``resolving'' the many scales involved. As an example, I will focus in this review on two major recent observational results on the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes, focusing on the novel contribution given to the field by the COSMOS survey. First of all, I will discuss the evidence for the so-called ``downsizing'' in the AGN population as derived from large X-ray surveys. I will then present new constraints on the evolution of the black hole-galaxy scaling relation at 1

  3. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line. Possible Signature of the Cluster for Accreting Small Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Titarchuk, L; Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, OSSE, SMM, TGRS, balloon and recent INTEGRAL data reveal a feature of the 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation of the Galactic Center with a flux of approximately 5x 10^{-4}~0.511 MeV photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}. We argue that e+e- pairs can be generated when the X-ray radiation photons and ~10-30 MeV photons interact with each other in the compact region in the proximity of the Galactic Center black hole. In fact, disks formed near black holes of 10^{17} g mass should emit the ~ 10 MeV temperature blackbody radiation. If positron e+ sources are producing about 10^{42} e+ s^{-1} near the Galactic Center they would annihilate on the way out and result in 0.511 MeV emission. We suggest that the annihilation radiation can be an observational consequence of the interaction of the accretion disk radiation of the SMall Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) with X-ray radiation in the Galactic Center. This is probably the only way to identify and observe these SMMBHs.

  4. Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Wu, Kinwah; Younsi, Ziri; Asada, Keiichi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.

  5. Can we measure individual black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Pürrer, Michael; Ohme, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations of black-hole binaries with ground-based detectors are expected to be hampered by partial degeneracies in the gravitational-wave phasing: between the two component spins, and between the spins and the binary's mass ratio, at least for signals that are dominated by the binary's inspiral. Through the merger and ringdown, however, a different set of degeneracies apply. This suggests the possibility that, if the inspiral, merger and ringdown are all within the sensitive frequency band of a detector, we may be able to break these degeneracies and more accurately measure both spins. In this work we investigate our ability to measure individual spins for non-precessing binaries, for a range of configurations and signal strengths, and conclude that in general the spin of the larger black hole will be measurable (at best) with observations from Advanced LIGO and Virgo. This implies that in many applications waveform models parameterized by only one ...

  6. Can we measure individual black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pürrer, Michael; Hannam, Mark; Ohme, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of black-hole spins from gravitational-wave observations of black-hole binaries with ground-based detectors are known to be hampered by partial degeneracies in the gravitational-wave phasing: between the two component spins, and between the spins and the binary's mass ratio, at least for signals that are dominated by the binary's inspiral. Through the merger and ringdown, however, a different set of degeneracies apply. This suggests the possibility that, if the inspiral, merger and ringdown are all within the sensitive frequency band of a detector, we may be able to break these degeneracies and more accurately measure both spins. In this work we investigate our ability to measure individual spins for nonprecessing binaries, for a range of configurations and signal strengths, and conclude that in general the spin of the larger black hole will be measurable (at best) with observations from Advanced LIGO and Virgo. This implies that in many applications waveform models parameterized by only one effective spin will be sufficient. Our work does not consider precessing binaries or subdominant harmonics, although we provide some arguments why we expect that these will not qualitatively change our conclusions.

  7. Observational Characteristics of the Final Stages of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ukwatta, T N; MacGibbon, J H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Yapici, T; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). The PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 10^5 solar masses or higher depending on the formation scenario. Hawking showed that any Black Hole (BH) has a temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will thermodynamically radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate, continually decreasing its mass and raising its temperature. The final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive. In this work, we investigate the final few seconds of the BH burst using the Standard Model of particle physics and calculate the energy dependent burst time profiles in the GeV/TeV range. We use the HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) observatory as a case study and calculate PBH burst light curves which would be observed by HAWC.

  8. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  9. Musings on Lorentz Violation Given the Recent Gravitational-Wave Observations of Coalescing Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yunes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of gravitational waves by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration provides a unique opportunity to probe the extreme gravity of coalescing binary black holes. In this regime, the gravitational interaction is not only strong, but the spacetime curvature is large, characteristic velocities are a non-negligible fraction of the speed of light, and the time scale on which the curvature and gravity change is small. This contribution discusses some consequences of these observations on modifications to General Relativity, with a special emphasis on Lorentz-violating theories.

  10. Observational Signatures of High-Redshift Quasars and Local Relics of Black Hole Seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Observational constraints on the birth and early evolution of massive black holes (BHs) come from two extreme regimes. At high redshift, quasars signal the rapid growth of billion-solar-mass BHs and indicate that these objects began remarkably heavy and/or accreted mass at rates above the Eddington limit. At low redshift, the smallest nuclear BHs known are found in dwarf galaxies and provide the most concrete limits on the mass of BH seeds. Here we review current observational work in these fields that together are critical for our understanding of the origin of massive BHs in the Universe.

  11. Groundwater Recharge Estimation using Low-Cost Observation Techniques and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Wang, Zijian; Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable groundwater management requests groundwater recharge estimation as a critical quantity. We used physical-based modelling using data from a low-cost weather station and tested the feasibility and robustness of recharge estimation. The method was tested on two locations in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. The main study was conducted in Southern Abbotsford, B.C. and applications related to water management in future climates and to water usage optimization were conducted in Okanagan Valley, B.C. Recharge was determined using HYDRUS-1D. The meteorological data were recorded by a HOBO weather station for a short observation period (about 1 year) and an existing weather station (Abbotsford A) for long-term study purpose (27 years). The derived soil hydraulic parameters of two undisturbed soil cores were used to characterize the soil. Model performance was evaluated by using observed soil moisture and soil temperature data. A rigorous sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. Recharge during the short observation period was estimated at 863 mm and 816 mm. The mean annual recharge was estimated at 848 mm/year, and 859 mm/year based on a time series of 27 years. 80% of precipitation contributed to recharge in hydrologic winter period. The comparison of the recharge estimates with other studies indicates a good agreement. Being able to predict transient recharge estimates, this method can provide a tool for estimates on nutrient leaching which is often controlled by strong precipitation events and rapid infiltration of water and nitrate into the soil. Modeling supports that recharge estimates at high temporal resolution also increase the prediction quality of nitrate leaching. The application for water resources related problems in the Okanagan Valley showed that linking groundwater and surface water using regional groundwater estimates improved calibration of existing groundwater model strongly and that our method is capable to use

  12. A new approach to calibrate steady groundwater flow models with time series of head observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergfell, C.; Bakker, M.; Maas, C.

    2012-04-01

    We developed a new method to calibrate aquifer parameters of steady-state well field models using measured time series of head fluctuations. Our method is an alternative to standard pumping tests and is based on time series analysis using parametric impulse response functions. First, the pumping influence is isolated from the overall groundwater fluctuation observed at monitoring wells around the well field, and response functions are determined for each individual well. Time series parameters are optimized using a quasi-Newton algorithm. For one monitoring well, time series model parameters are also optimized by means of SCEM-UA, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, as a control on the validity of the parameters obtained by the faster quasi-Newton method. Subsequently, the drawdown corresponding to an average yearly pumping rate is calculated from the response functions determined by time series analysis. The drawdown values estimated with acceptable confidence intervals are used as calibration targets of a steady groundwater flow model. A case study is presented of the drinking water supply well field of Waalwijk (Netherlands). In this case study, a uniform aquifer transmissivity is optimized together with the conductance of ditches in the vicinity of the well field. Groundwater recharge or boundary heads do not have to be entered, which eliminates two import sources of uncertainty. The method constitutes a cost-efficient alternative to pumping tests and allows the determination of pumping influences without changes in well field operation.

  13. Review: Moisture loading—the hidden information in groundwater observation well records

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Garth; Schmidt, Randy

    2017-07-01

    Changes of total moisture mass above an aquifer such as snow accumulation, soil moisture, and storage at the water table, represent changes of mechanical load acting on the aquifer. The resulting moisture-loading effects occur in all observation well records for confined aquifers. Deep observation wells therefore act as large-scale geological weighing lysimeters, referred to as "geolysimeters". Barometric pressure effects on groundwater levels are a similar response to surface loading and are familiar to every hydrogeologist dealing with the "barometric efficiency" of observation wells. Moisture-loading effects are small and generally not recognized because they are obscured by hydraulic head fluctuations due to other causes, primarily barometric pressure changes. For semiconfined aquifers, long-term moisture-loading effects may be dissipated and obscured by transient flow through overlying aquitards. Removal of barometric and earth tide effects from observation well records allows identification of moisture loading and comparison with hydrological observations, and also comparison with the results of numerical models that can account for transient groundwater flow.

  14. Indication of the Black Hole Powered Jet in M87 by VSOP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori; Pu, Hung-Yi

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the collimation and acceleration mechanism of relativistic jets, the jet streamline of M87 at milliarcsecond scale is extensively investigated with images from VSOP observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz. Thanks to the higher angular resolution of VSOP, especially in the direction transverse to the jet, we resolved the jet streamline into three ridgelines at the scale of milli arcseconds. While the properties of the outer two ridgelines are in good agreement with those measured in previous observations and can be expressed by one power-law line with a power law index of 1.7, an inner ridgeline is clearly observed for the first time. We compared the measured size with the outermost streamline expected by Blandford & Znajek's parabolic solutions, which are anchored at the event horizon, with different black hole spin parameters. We revealed that the observed inner ridgeline is narrower than the prediction, suggesting the origin of the inner ridgeline to be part of a spine originating from the spinning black hole. The inner ridgeline becomes very dim at large distances from the central engine at 5 GHz. We considered two possible cases for this; Doppler beaming and/or radiative cooling. Either case seems to be reasonable for its explanation, and future multi-frequency observations will discriminate those two possibilities.

  15. Using Pulsar Timing observations to understand the formation and evolution of supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Neil; Sampson, Laura; McWilliams, Sean

    2015-04-01

    The astrophysical processes that form and harden supermassive black hole binaries impart distinct features that may be observed in the gravitational-wave spectrum within the sensitive frequency range of Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA). We investigate how well the various formation and hardening mechanisms can be constrained by applying Bayesian inference to simulated PTA data sets. We find that even without strong priors on the merger rate, any detection of the signal will place interesting constraints on the astrophysical models. Folding in priors on the merger rate allows us to place interesting constraints on the astrophysical models even before a detection is made.

  16. X-ray Jet observations in coronal holes and evidence for MHD waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J.; Davey, A.

    2008-05-01

    Hinode observations of polar coronal holes have revealed that X-ray jets have two distinct velocities, one near the Alfvén speed (~800 km s-1) and another near the sound speed (200 km s-1). This analysis has been reported in Cirtain et al. (2007). In addition to the evidence of Alfvén waves and evaporation flow, there are some subset of jets that appear to oscillate in the direction transverse to the jet axis. We will present studies of these oscillations using both XRT and EIS (Hinode) data, and NFI/SOT ( Hinode) data when available.

  17. Grassmannian Connection Between Three- and Four-Qubit Observables, Mermin's Contextuality and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Levay, Peter; Saniga, Metod

    2013-01-01

    We invoke some ideas from finite geometry to map bijectively 135 heptads of mutually commuting three-qubit observables into 135 symmetric four-qubit ones. After labeling the elements of the former set in terms of a seven-dimensional Clifford algebra, we present the bijective map and most pronounced actions of the associated symplectic group on both sets in explicit forms. This formalism is then employed to shed novel light on recently-discovered structural and cardinality properties of an aggregate of three-qubit Mermin's 'magic' pentagrams. Moreover, some intriguing connections with the so-called black-hole--qubit correspondence are also pointed out.

  18. Diagnosing the Black Hole Accretion Physics of Sgr A*: Spitzer/Chandra Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Willner, Steven P.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Smith, Howard Alan; Ashby, Matthew; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Witzel, Gunther; Morris, Mark; Ghez, Andrea M.; Meyer, Leo; Becklin, Eric E.; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Carey, Sean J.; Haggard, Daryl; Marrone, Daniel P.; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The Galactic center offers the closest opportunity for studying accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The fluctuating source, Sgr A*, is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum and its flux may originate in either the accretion flow or a jet, or both. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of the flares is a central challenge to our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow. Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (GRMHD) models indicate that variability can be produced by a tilted inner disk, gravitational lensing of bright spots in the disk by the hole, or particle acceleration in reconnection events. These models produce different flare characteristics, and better characterization of flares may enable us to distinguish between strong and weakly magnetized disks. Following our successful Spitzer observations of the variability of Sgr A* in 2013 and 2014, we have undertaken a program of simultaneous IRAC (4.5 micron) and Chandra (2-10 keV) observations to (1) probe the accretion physics of Sgr A* on event-horizon scales and (2) detect any effect of the object G2 on Sgr A*. In addition, several ground-based observatories participated in the campaigns, at wavelengths including radio, sub-mm, and the near-infrared. We will present initial Spitzer/Chandra results from the two 24-hour epochs in 2016 July. Only such long-duration, continuous, multi-wavelength observations can achieve a comprehensive view of the dominant emission process(es) and quantify the physical properties near the event horizon.

  19. Assessing black hole spin in deep Suzaku observations of Seyfert 1 AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, A. R.; Reeves, J. N.; Lobban, A. P.; Porquet, D.; Markowitz, A. G.

    2011-10-01

    We present a broad-band analysis of deep Suzaku observations of nearby Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN): Fairall 9, MCG-6-30-15, NGC 3516, 3783 and 4051. The use of deep observations (exposures >200 ks) with high signal-to-noise ratio allows the complex spectra of these objects to be examined in full, taking into account features such as the soft excess, reflection continuum and complex absorption components. After a self-consistent modelling of the broad-band data (0.6-100.0 keV, also making use of Burst Alert Telescope data from Swift), the subtle curvature which may be introduced as a consequence of warm absorbers has a measured affect upon the spectrum at energies >3 keV and the Fe K region. Forming a model (including absorption) of these AGN allows the true extent to which broadened disc line emission is present to be examined and as a result the measurement of accretion disc and black hole parameters which are consistent over the full 0.6-100.0 keV energy range. Fitting relativistic line emission models appears to rule out the presence of maximally spinning black holes in all objects at the 90 per cent confidence level, in particular MCG-6-30-15 at >99.5 per cent confidence. Relativistic Fe K line emission is only marginally required in NGC 3516 and not required in NGC 4051, over the full energy bandpass. None the less, statistically significant broadened 6.4 keV Fe Kα emission is detected in Fairall 9, MCG-6-30-15 and NGC 3783 yielding black hole spin estimates of a= 0.67+0.10- 0.11, a= 0.49+0.20- 0.12 and a < -0.04, respectively, when fitted with disc emission models.

  20. Accretion onto Supermassive Black Holes in Quasars: Learning from Optical/UV Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Sulentic, J W; Marziani, Paola; Dultzin-Hacyan, Deborah; Sulentic, Jack W.

    2006-01-01

    Accretion processes in quasars and active galactic nuclei are still poorly understood, especially as far as the connection between observed spectral properties and physical parameters is concerned. Quasars show an additional degree of complexity compared to stars that is related to anisotropic emission/obscuration influencing the observed properties in most spectral ranges. This complicating factor has hampered efforts to define the equivalent of an Hertzsprung-Russel diagram for quasars. Even if it has recently become possible to estimate black hole mass and Eddington ratio for sources using optical and UV broad emission lines, the results are still plagued by large uncertainties. Nevertheless, robust trends are emerging from multivariate analysis of large spectral datasets of quasars. A firm observational basis is being laid out by accurate measurements of broad emission line properties especially when the source rest-frame is known. We consider the most widely discussed correlations (i.e. the so-called "ei...

  1. Rapid groundwater-related land subsidence in Yemen observed by multi-temporal InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullin, Ayrat

    2015-04-01

    Several basins in Yemen are suffering from a rapid drawdown of groundwater, which is the most important water source for agricultural irrigation, industry and domestic use. However, detailed geodetic measurements in the region have been lacking and the extent and magnitude of groundwater-related land subsidence has been poorly known. We used 13 ascending ALOS and 15 descending Envisat images to study land subsidence of several basins in Yemen, with a special focus on the Sana\\'a and Mabar basins. From multitemporal synthetic aperture radar interferometric analysis (persistent scatterers (PS) and small baseline subsets (SBAS)) we examined the spatio-temporal behavior of the subsidence induced by depletion of groundwater aquifer systems from November 2003 to February 2011. In the interferometric data processing, we carefully chose interferogram pairs to minimize spatial and temporal decorrelation, because of high subsidence rates and the type of land cover. Our results show that the spatial pattern of subsidence remained quite stable during the observation period in both the Sana\\'a and Mabar basins. In the Sana\\'a basin, the maximum subsidence rate exceeded 14 cm/year in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction between 2003 and 2008 in an agricultural area just north of Sana\\'a city, where water wells have been drying up according to the well data. The subsidence rate was lower in the urban areas, or approximately 1 cm/year, exhibiting annual variations. The main subsidence was found in the center and southern parts of the city, while deformation in the northern part is less obvious. For the Mabar basin, the subsidence rate exceeded 30 cm/year in the agricultural area north of the town of Mabar during 2007 - 2011. The southern part of the Mabar basin also experienced high subsidence rates, although somewhat lower than to the north. Excessive water pumping is the main cause of the ground subsidence and it has already led to extensive ground fracturing at the edge

  2. Groundwater dynamics in the Amazon basin from remotely sensed observations and hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, Frédéric; Papa, Fabrice; Tomasella, Javier; Ramillien, Guillaume; Güntner, Andreas; Emilio, Thaise; Schietti, Juliana; da Silva Carvalho, João

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in the terrestrial hydrological cycle and the water balance on the continents. It accounts for more than 30% (i.e., 8,000,000 km3 to 10,000,000 km3) of global fresh-water resources, and is also the major resource of water supply for 40% of the world's population and 50% of the world's food production. However, groundwater storage and its variations are still poorly known at global scale due to the limited extent of current monitoring networks. Most of the studies on geohydrology in the Amazon basin were carried out at local scale except a recent study that pointed out evidences on regional scale groundwater flows using a geothermal method. Gravimetry from space offers the unique opportunity to monitor water resources at basin to continental scales. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, launched in 2002, detects tiny changes in the Earth's gravity field which can be related to spatio-temporal variations of TWS at monthly or sub-monthly time-scales. Variations in groundwater storage (GW) can be separated from the TWS anomalies measured by GRACE using external information on the other hydrological reservoirs such as in situ observations, model outputs, or both. Very few studies have been undertaken yet in large river basins characterized by extensive wetlands and floodplains, due to the lack of reliable and timely information about the extent, spatial distribution, as well as the amount of water stored in wetlands and floods and their temporal variations. Using multi-satellite observations for surface water storage (SW) and hydrological outputs for soil moisture (SM), variations in GW were estimated in the Negro basin, the second largest tributary of the Amazon in terms of discharge. Here, the same approach was applied in the whole Amazon basin, allowing to estimate the contribution of each hydrological reservoir to TWS, to monitor its time variations, and to map the annual changes in the aquifers over 2003

  3. Ring-down gravity waves: How far wormhole observables can mimic those of a black hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Kamal K; Yanbekov, Almir A; Shayakhmetov, Azat A

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that the recently detected ring-down gravity waveforms could be indicative only of the presence of light rings in a horizonless object, such as a surgical Schwarzschild wormhole, with the frequencies differing drastically from those of the horizon quasinormal mode frequencies $\\omega _{\\text{QNM}}$. While the possibility of such a horizonless alternative is novel by itself, we show by an appropriate example that the difference in frequencies need not be drastic. We shall consider here an analytic (as opposed to surgical) stable traversable Ellis-Bronnikov wormhole and show that observables such as the $\\omega _{\\text{QNM}}$, strong field Bozza lensing parameters and the accretion disk signatures of the Ellis-Bronnikov wormhole could actually be very close to those of a black hole (say, SgrA$^{\\ast }$ hosted by our galaxy) of the same mass. This situation indicates that the wormhole observables could remarkably mimic those of a black hole unless highly precise measurements distinguishing the...

  4. Neutron star-black hole coalescence rate inferred from macronova/kilonova observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Neutron star$-$black hole (NS$-$BH) coalescences are widely believed to be promising gravitational wave sources in the era of advanced detectors of LIGO/Virgo but such binaries have never been directly detected yet. Evidence for NS$-$BH coalescences have been suggested in short and hybrid GRB observations, which are examined critically. Based on the suggested connection between the observed macronovae/kilonovae events and NS$-$BH coalescences, we get a fiducial lower limit of NS$-$BH coalescence rate density ${\\cal R}_{\\rm nsbh} \\approx 18.8^{+12.5}_{-8.6} ~{\\rm Gpc^{-3}~ yr^{-1}~ (\\theta_j/0.1~{\\rm rad})^{-2}}$, where $\\theta_{\\rm j}$ is the typical half-opening angle of the GRB ejecta. The real value of ${\\cal R}_{\\rm nsbh}$ is likely at least $\\sim {\\rm a~few}$ times larger, depending upon the equation of state of NS material and the properties of the NS$-$BH system, such as the mass and spin distribution of the black hole. If the link between macronovae/kilonovae and NS$-$BH coalescence is valid, one can ...

  5. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  6. Study of Accretion processes Around Black Holes becomes Science: Tell Tale Observational Signatures of Two Component Advective Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2016-01-01

    An accretion flow around a black hole has a saddle type sonic point just outside the event horizon to guarantee that the flow enters the black hole supersonically. This feature exclusively present in strong gravity limit makes its marks in every observation of black hole candidates. Another physical sonic point is present (as in a Bondi flow) even in weak gravity. Every aspect of spectral or temporal properties of every black hole can be understood using this transonic or advective flow having more than one saddle type points. This most well known and generalized solution with viscosity and radiative transfer has been verified by numerical simulations also. Spectra, computed for various combinations of the standard Keplerian, and advective sub-Keplerian components match accurately with those from satellite observations. Standing, oscillating and propagatory oscillating shocks are produced due to centrifugal barrier of the advective component. The post-shock region acts as the Compton cloud producing the power...

  7. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J

    2015-09-25

    Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 × 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves.

  8. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, R M; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J -B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X -J

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems will modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrain the characteristic amplitude of this background, $A_{\\rm c,yr}$, to be < $1.0\\times10^{-15}$ with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for $A_{\\rm c,yr}$ from current models with 91-99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments, and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would result in an increased sensitivity to gravitational waves.

  9. VLBA 24 and 43 GHz observations of massive binary black hole candidate PKS 1155 + 251

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Jun; Mi, Ligong; Cui, Lang; An, Tao; Hong, Xiaoyu; Ho, Luis C.

    2017-10-01

    PKS 1155+251 is a radio-loud quasar source at z = 0.203. Observations using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at ∼2, 5, 8 and 15 GHz show that the structure of the radio source is quite complicated on parsec scales and that the outer hotspots are apparently undergoing a significant contraction. Because these results cannot be fully explained based on the compact symmetric object (CSO) scenario with a radio core located between the northern and southern complexes, we made observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 24 and 43 GHz to search for compact substructures and alternative interpretations. The results show that the radio core revealed in the previous VLBI observations remains compact with a flat spectrum in our sub-milli-arcsecond-resolution images; the northern lobe emission becomes faint at 24 GHz and is mostly resolving out at 43 GHz; the southern complex is more bright but has been resolved into the brightest southern-end (S1) and jet or tail alike components westwards. Explaining the southern components aligned westward with a standard CSO scenario alone remains a challenge. As for the flatter spectral index of the southern-end component S1 between 24 and 43 GHz in our observations and the significant 15 GHz VLBA flux variability of S1, an alternative scenario is that the southern complex may be powered by a secondary black hole residing at S1. But more sensitive and high-resolution VLBI monitoring is required to discriminate the CSO and the binary black hole scenarios.

  10. Intermediate mass black holes in AGN disks II. Model predictions & observational constraints

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, B; Kocsis, B; Lyra, W; Winter, L M

    2014-01-01

    If intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) grow efficiently in gas disks around supermassive black holes, their host active galactic nucleus (AGN) disks should exhibit myriad observational signatures. Gap-opening IMBHs in AGN disks can exhibit spectral features and variability analagous to gapped protoplanetary disks. A gap-opening IMBH in the innermost disk imprints ripples and oscillations on the broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line which may be detectable with future X-ray missions. A non-gap-opening IMBH will accrete and produce a soft X-ray excess relative to continuum emission. An IMBH on a retrograde orbit in an AGN disk will not open a gap and will generate soft X-rays from a bow-shock 'headwind'. Accreting IMBH in a large cavity can generate ULX-like X-ray luminosities and LINER-like optical line ratios from local ionized gas. We propose that many LINERs house a weakly accreting MBH binary in a large central disk cavity and will be luminous sources of gravitational waves (GW). IMBHs in galactic nuclei may also be d...

  11. SDO and Hinode observations of a blowout jet in a coronal hole

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A blowout jet occurred within the south coronal hole on 2011 February 9 at 09:00 UT and was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Hinode satellite during coronal hole monitoring performed as part of Hinode Operations Program No. 177. Images from AIA show expanding, hot and cold loops from a small bright point with plasma ejected in a curtain up to 30 Mm wide. The initial intensity front of the jet has a projected velocity of 200 km/s, and line-of-sight velocities measured by EIS are between 100 and 250 km/s. The jet plasma has a density of 2.7 x 10^8 cm^-3, and a temperature of 1.4 MK. During the event a number of bright kernels are seen at the base of the bright point. The kernels have sizes of 1000 km, are variable in brightness, and have lifetimes of 1-15 mins. A XRT filter ratio yields temperatures of 1.5-3.0 MK for the kernels. The ...

  12. Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Rate Inferred from Macronova Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Yi-Ming; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) coalescences are widely believed to be promising gravitational-wave sources in the era of advanced detectors of LIGO/Virgo, but the rate of this population is highly uncertain due to the lack of direct detection of such binaries. There is growing evidence for the connection between the observed three luminous macronova (also known as kilonova) events and NS-BH mergers. In this work, we propose, for the first time based on such a link, a fiducial lower limit of NS-BH coalescence rate density {{ R }}{nsbh} ≈ {18.8}-8.6+12.5 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 {({θ }{{j}}/0.1{rad})}-2, where {θ }{{j}} is the typical half-opening angle of the GRB ejecta. After marginalizing over distributions of black hole masses and spins, we find a rate density {{ R }}{nsbh}≥slant {10}2 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1, depending upon the equation of state (EoS) of NS material and the properties of the NS-BH system. With the O1 non-observation by advanced LIGO, we show a preference for NS-BH systems with a stiffer NS EoS and a larger contribution from low-mass/high-spin BHs. Our estimate predicts the first detection of an NS-BH system can be as early as the late O2 run or the early O3 run. We expect that future multi-messenger observations can much better constrain NS-BH systems’ properties.

  13. Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.; McCranie, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission has conducted water resources investigations and monitored groundwater conditions and availability in the Albany, Georgia, area since 1977. This report presents an overview of hydrologic conditions, water quality, and groundwater studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2009. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2009 data. During 2009, groundwater-level data were collected in 29 wells in the Albany area to monitor water-level trends in the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Providence aquifers. Groundwater-level data from 21 of the 29 wells indicated an increasing trend during 2008–09. Five wells show no trend due to lack of data and three wells have decreasing trends. Period-of-record water levels (period of record ranged between 1957–2009 and 2003–2009) declined slightly in 10 wells and increased slightly in 4 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer; declined in 1 well and increased in 2 wells tapping the Claiborne aquifer; declined in 4 wells and increased in 2 wells tapping the Clayton aquifer; and increased in 1 well tapping the Providence aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples collected during 2009 from 12 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of a well field located southwest of Albany indicate that overall concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen increased slightly from 2008 in 8 wells. A maximum concentration of 12.9 milligrams per liter was found in a groundwater sample from a well located upgradient from the well field. The distinct difference in chemical constituents of water samples collected from the Flint River and samples collected from wells located in the well-field area southwest of Albany indicates that little water exchange occurs between the Upper Floridan aquifer and Flint River where the river flows adjacent to, but downgradient of, the well field. Water

  14. Observations of high and low Fe charge states in individual solar wind streams with coronal-hole origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Verena; Peleikis, Thies; Kruse, Martin; Berger, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Context. The solar wind originating from coronal holes is comparatively well-understood and is characterized by lower densities and average charge states compared to the so-called slow solar wind. Except for wave perturbations, the average properties of the coronal-hole solar wind are passably constant. Aims: In this case study, we focus on observations of the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) of individual streams of coronal-hole solar wind that illustrate that although the O and C charge states are low in coronal-hole wind, the Fe charge distribution is more variable. In particular, we illustrate that the Fe charge states in coronal-hole solar wind are frequently as high as in slow solar wind. Methods: We selected individual coronal-hole solar wind streams based on their collisional age as well as their respective O and C charge states and analyzed their Fe charge-state distributions. Additionally, with a combination of simple ballistic back-mapping and the potential field source surface model, transitions between streams with high and low Fe charge states were mapped back to the photosphere. The relative frequency of high and low Fe charge-state streams is compared for the years 2004 and 2006. Results: We found several otherwise typical coronal-hole streams that include Fe charge states either as high as or lower than in slow solar wind. Eight such transitions in 2006 were mapped back to equatorial coronal holes that were either isolated or connected to the northern coronal-hole. Attempts to identify coronal structures associated with the transitions were so far inconclusive.

  15. In vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" phenomenon in rat arterial bloodstream: a preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-07-01

    The "black hole," a hypo-echoic hole at the center of the bloodstream surrounded by a hyper-echoic zone in cross-sectional views, has been observed in ultrasound backscattering measurements of blood with red blood cell aggregation in in vitro studies. We investigated whether the phenomenon occurs in the in vivo arterial bloodstream of rats using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. Longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasound images of the rat common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta were obtained using a 40-MHz ultrasound system. A high-frame-rate retrospective imaging mode was employed to precisely examine the dynamic changes in blood echogenicity in the arteries. When the imaging was performed with non-invasive scanning, blood echogenicity was very low in the CCA as compared with the surrounding tissues, exhibiting no hypo-echoic zone at the center of the vessel. Invasive imaging of the CCA by incising the skin and subcutaneous tissues at the imaging area provided clearer and brighter blood echo images, showing the "black hole" phenomenon near the center of the vessel in longitudinal view. The "black hole" was also observed in the abdominal aorta under direct imaging after laparotomy. The aortic "black hole" was clearly observed in both longitudinal and cross-sectional views. Although the "black hole" was always observed near the center of the arteries during the diastolic phase, it dissipated or was off-center along with the asymmetric arterial wall dilation at systole. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" caused by the radial variation of red blood cell aggregation in arterial bloodstream.

  16. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Orosz, J A; McClintock, J E; Remillard, R A

    2001-01-01

    We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the RXTE All Sky Monitor by 11.5 +/- 0.9 and 8.8 +/- 0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve, but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to non-thermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2001-06-01

    We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor by 11.5+/-0.9 and 8.8+/-0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to nonthermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.

  18. Constraining the dark energy equation of state using LISA observations of spinning Massive Black Hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Petiteau, Antoine; Sesana, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave signals from coalescing Massive Black Hole (MBH) binaries could be used as standard sirens to measure cosmological parameters. The future space based gravitational wave observatory Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will detect up to a hundred of those events, providing very accurate measurements of their luminosity distances. To constrain the cosmological parameters we also need to measure the redshift of the galaxy (or cluster of galaxies) hosting the merger. This requires the identification of a distinctive electromagnetic event associated to the binary coalescence. However, putative electromagnetic signatures may be too weak to be observed. Instead, we study here the possibility of constraining the cosmological parameters by enforcing statistical consistency between all the possible hosts detected within the measurement error box of a few dozen of low redshift (z<3) events. We construct MBH populations using merger tree realizations of the dark matter hierarchy in a LambdaCDM ...

  19. NuSTAR observations of black hole binary candidates in the Galactic Center and its environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles James; Mori, Kaya

    2017-08-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc (Perez et al. 2015) interpreted as magnetic cataclysmic variables (Hailey et al. 2017) leaves open the question of whether a sub-dominant population of sources could exist much closer to the supermassive black hole (SMBH), which NuSTAR could not resolve. Here we report the recent NuSTAR observations of two new transient hard X-ray sources within ~ 1 pc of the Galactic Center, which were discovered by Swift. These sources have no known counterparts at other energies. The spectral properties of these sources rule out NS-HMXBs. Continuous monitoring of the Galactic Center by Swift, combined with the known short (report recent results from the NuSTAR Galactic Legacy Survey of a larger region, ~ 0.7 square degrees, focusing on the search for more BHCs.

  20. Supplement: The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Maga~na-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Porter, E; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental information for a Letter reporting the rate of binary black hole (BBH) coalescences inferred from 16 days of coincident Advanced LIGO observations surrounding the transient gravitational wave signal GW150914. In that work we reported various rate estimates whose 90\\% credible intervals fell in the range $2$--$600 \\, \\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. Here we give details of our method and computations, including information about our search pipelines, a derivation of our likelihood function for the analysis, a description of the astrophysical search trigger distribution expected from merging BBHs, details on our computational methods, a description of the effects and our model for calibration uncertainty, and an analytic method of estimating our detector sensitivity that is calibrated to our measurements.

  1. Observability of pulsar beam bending by the Sgr~A* black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, Kevin; Price, Richard H; Jenet, Fredrick A

    2011-01-01

    According to some models, there may be a significant population of radio pulsars in the Galactic center. In principle, a beam from one of these pulsars could pass close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center, be deflected, and be detected by Earth telescopes. Such a configuration would be an unprecedented probe of the properties of spacetime in the moderate- to strong-field regime of the SMBH. We present here background on the problem, and approximations for the probability of detection of such beams. We conclude that detection is marginally probable with current telescopes, but that telescopes that will be operating in the near future, with an appropriate multiyear observational program, will have a good chance of detecting a beam deflected by the SMBH.

  2. Constraining the Size of the Dark Region Around the M87 Black Hole by Space-VLBI Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rohta; Mineshige, Shin

    2011-03-01

    In order to examine if the next-generation space very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), such as VSOP-2 (VLBI Space Observatory Programme-2), will make it possible to obtain direct images of the accretion flow around the M87 black hole, we calculate the expected observed images by relativistic ray-tracing simulations under considerations of possible observational errors. We consider various cases of electron temperature profiles, as well various values for the distance, mass, and spin of the M87 black hole. We find it feasible to detect an asymmetric intensity profile around the black hole caused by rapid disk rotation, as long as the electron temperature does not rise steeply toward the black hole, as was predicted by the accretion disk theory and three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Further, we can detect a deficit in the observed intensity around the black hole when the apparent size of the gravitational radius is larger than gsim1.5 μas. In the cases that the inner edge of the disk is located at the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), moreover, even the black hole spin will be measured. We also estimate the required signal-to-noise ratio {R}_SN for achieving the scientific goals mentioned above, finding that it should be at least 10 at 22 GHz. To conclude, direct mapping observations by the next-generation space VLBI will provide us a unique opportunity to provide the best evidence for the presence of a black hole and to test the accretion disk theory.

  3. Direct observation of electron-to-hole energy transfer in CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, E; Koeberg, M; Wang, F; Zhang, H; de Mello Donegá, C; Vanmaekelbergh, D; Bonn, M

    2006-02-10

    We independently determine the subpicosecond cooling rates for holes and electrons in CdSe quantum dots. Time-resolved luminescence and terahertz spectroscopy reveal that the rate of hole cooling, following photoexcitation of the quantum dots, depends critically on the electron excess energy. This constitutes the first direct, quantitative measurement of electron-to-hole energy transfer, the hypothesis behind the Auger cooling mechanism proposed in quantum dots, which is found to occur on a 1 +/- 0.15 ps time scale.

  4. Equatorial geodesics in ergoregion of dirty black holes and zero energy observers

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavskii, O B

    2016-01-01

    We consider equatorial motion of particles in the ergoregion of generic axially symmetric rotating black holes. We introduce the notion of zero energy observers (ZEOs) as counterparts to known zero angular observers (ZAMOs). It is shown that the trajectory of a ZEO has precisely one turning point that lies on the boundary for photons and inside the ergoregion for massive particles. As a consequence, such trajectories enter the ergosphere from the region under horizon and leave it crossing the horizon again. The angular velocity of ZEO does not depend on the angular momentum. For particles with $E>0$ this velocity is bigger than for a ZEO, for $E<0$ it is smaller. General limitations on the angular momentum are found depending on whether the trajectory lies entirely inside the ergoregion, bounces back from the boundary or intersects it. These results generalize the recent observations made in A. A. Grib, Yu. V. Pavlov, arXiv:1601.02592 for the Kerr metric. We also show that collision between a ZEO and a par...

  5. Using ERS spaceborne microwave soil moisture observations to predict groundwater head in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; De Jong, S.M.; Van Geer, F.C.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is to investigate the possibility of using spaceborne remote sensing data for groundwater head prediction. Remotely-sensed soil moisture time series of SWI (Soil Water Index) derived from ERS (European Remote Sensing) scatterometers are used to predict groundwater

  6. Using ERS spaceborne microwave soil moisture observations to predict groundwater heads in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Jong, S.M. de; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Geer, F.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is to investigate the possibility of using spaceborne remote sensing data for groundwater head prediction. Remotely-sensed soil moisture time series of SWI (Soil Water Index) derived from ERS (European Remote Sensing) scatterometers are used to predict groundwater

  7. Direct Observation of Electron-to-Hole Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendry, E.; Koeberg, M.; Wang, F.; Zhang, H.; de Mello Donega, C.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Bonn, M.

    2006-01-01

    We independently determine the subpicosecond cooling rates for holes and electrons in CdSe quantum dots. Time-resolved luminescence and terahertz spectroscopy reveal that the rate of hole cooling, following photoexcitation of the quantum dots, depends critically on the electron excess energy. This c

  8. Assessing black hole spin in deep Suzaku observations of Seyfert 1 AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Patrick, A R; Lobban, A P; Porquet, D; Markowitz, A G

    2011-01-01

    We present a broad-band analysis of deep Suzaku observations of nearby Seyfert 1 AGN: Fairall 9, MCG--6-30-15, NGC 3516, NGC 3783 and NGC 4051. The use of deep observations (exposures >200 ks) with high S/N allows the complex spectra of these objects to be examined in full, taking into account features such as the soft excess, reflection continuum and complex absorption components. After a self-consistent modelling of the broad-band data (0.6-100.0 keV, also making use of BAT data from Swift), the subtle curvature which may be introduced as a consequence of warm absorbers has a measured affect upon the spectrum at energies >3 keV and the Fe K region. Forming a model (including absorption) of these AGN allows the true extent to which broadened diskline emission is present to be examined and as a result the measurement of accretion disc and black hole parameters which are consistent over the full 0.6-100.0 keV energy range. Fitting relativistic line emission models appear to rule out the presence of maximally s...

  9. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  10. Adaptive Optics Assisted 3D spectroscopy observations for black hole mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorini, G

    2006-01-01

    The very high spatial resolution provided by Adaptive Optics assisted spectroscopic observations at 8m-class telescopes (e.g. with SINFONI at the VLT) will allow to greatly increase the number of direct black hole (BH) mass measurements which is currently very small. This is a fundamental step to investigate the tight link between galaxy evolution and BH growth, revealed by the existing scaling relations between $M_{BH}$ and galaxy structural parameters. I present preliminary results from SINFONI K-band spectroscopic observations of a sample of 5 objects with $M_{BH}$ measurements obtained with the Reverberation Mapping (RM) technique. This technique is the starting point to derive the so-called virial $M_{BH}$ estimates, currently the only way to measure $M_{BH}$ at high redshift. Our goal is to assess the reliability of RM by measuring $M_{BH}$ with both gas and stellar kinematical methods and to investigate whether active galaxies follow the same $M_{BH}$-galaxy correlations as normal ones.

  11. The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schillingdag, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torresddag, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    A transient gravitational-wave signal was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC (GW150914). To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 d around the time of the signal. A search of 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data found GW150914 to have a false alarm probability (FAP) of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$. Parameter estimation followup on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses $(m_1, m_2) = 36^{+5}_{-4}, 29^{+4}_{-4} \\, M_\\odot$ at redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. Here we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a false alarm threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible r...

  12. On the theoretical framework of magnetized outflows from stellar-mass black holes and related observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-09-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly non-linear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behaviour may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion discs is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  13. Statistical study of network jets observed in the solar transition region: A comparison between coronal holes and quiet sun regions

    CERN Document Server

    Narang, Nancy; Tian, Hui; Banerjee, Dipankar; Cranmer, Steven R; DeLuca, Ed E; McKillop, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Recent IRIS observations have revealed a prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with apparent speeds of 80 - 250 km s$^{-1}$, emanating from small-scale bright regions inside network boundaries of coronal holes. We find that these network jets appear not only in coronal holes but also in quiet-sun regions. Using IRIS 1330A (C II) slit-jaw images, we extract several parameters of these network jets, e.g. apparent speed, length, lifetime and increase in foot-point brightness. Using several observations, we find that some properties of the jets are very similar but others are obviously different between the quiet sun and coronal holes. For example, our study shows that the coronal-hole jets appear to be faster and longer than those in the quiet sun. This can be directly attributed to a difference in the magnetic configuration of the two regions with open magnetic field lines rooted in coronal holes and magnetic loops often present in quiet sun. We have also detected compact bright loops, likely transition r...

  14. Direct Observation of Photoexcited Hole Localization in CdSe Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ye; Wu, Kaifeng; Shabaev, Andrew; Efros, Alexander L.; Lian, Tianquan; Beard, Matthew C.

    2016-07-08

    Quantum-confined 1D semiconductor nanostructures are being investigated for hydrogen generation photocatalysts. In the photoreaction, after fast electron transfer, holes that remain in the nanostructure play an important role in the total quantum yield of hydrogen production. Unfortunately, knowledge of hole dynamics is limited due to lack of convenient spectroscopic signatures. Here, we directly probe hole localization dynamics within CdSe nanorods (NRs) by combining transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved terahertz (TRTS) spectroscopy. We show that when methylene blue is used as an electron acceptor, the resulting electron transfer occurs with a time constant of 3.5 +/- 0.1 ps and leaves behind a delocalized hole. However, the hole quickly localizes in the Coulomb potential well generated by the reduced electron acceptor near the NR surface with time constant of 11.7 +/- 0.2 ps. Our theoretical investigation suggests that the hole becomes confined to a ~ +/-0.8 nm region near the reduced electron acceptor and the activation energy to detrap the hole from the potential well can be as large as 235 meV.

  15. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  16. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  17. Estimating parameters of binary black holes from gravitational-wave observations of their inspiral, merger, and ringdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Archisman; Del Pozzo, Walter; Ajith, Parameswaran

    2016-11-01

    We characterize the expected statistical errors with which the parameters of black hole binaries can be measured from gravitational-wave (GW) observations of their inspiral, merger, and ringdown by a network of second-generation ground-based GW observatories. We simulate a population of black hole binaries with uniform distribution of component masses in the interval (3 ,80 )M⊙, distributed uniformly in comoving volume, with isotropic orientations. From signals producing signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 in at least two detectors, we estimate the posterior distributions of the binary parameters using the Bayesian parameter estimation code LALInference. The GW signals will be redshifted due to the cosmological expansion, and we measure only the "redshifted" masses. By assuming a cosmology, it is possible to estimate the gravitational masses by inferring the redshift from the measured posterior of the luminosity distance. We find that the measurement of the gravitational masses will be, in general, dominated by the error in measuring the luminosity distance. In spite of this, the component masses of more than 50% of the population can be measured with accuracy better than ˜25 % using the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network. Additionally, the mass of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy ˜18 %. Spin of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy ˜5 %(17 %) for binaries with nonspinning (aligned-spin) black holes. Additional detectors in Japan and India significantly improve the accuracy of sky localization, and moderately improve the estimation of luminosity distance, and hence, that of all mass parameters. We discuss the implication of these results on the observational evidence of intermediate-mass black holes and the estimation of cosmological parameters using GW observations.

  18. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  19. Response to the recent note concerning the observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in an analogue black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauer, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The observation of quantum Hawking radiation and its entanglement in an analogue black hole was recently reported. A subsequent note (arXiv:1609.03803) criticized the study. We answer all of the comments in the note and show that the criticisms are not valid. We also answer a comment made by the author of the note in a different forum.

  20. The Rate of Binary Black Hole Mergers Inferred from Advanced LIGO Observations Surrounding GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    A transient gravitational-wave signal, GW150914, was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on 2015 September 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC. To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 days around the time of the signal. At the detection statistic threshold corresponding to that observed for GW150914, our search of the 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data is estimated to have a false-alarm rate (FAR) of \\lt 4.9× {10}-6 {{yr}}-1, yielding a p-value for GW150914 of \\lt 2× {10}-7. Parameter estimation follow-up on this trigger identifies its source as a binary black hole (BBH) merger with component masses ({m}1,{m}2)=({36}-4+5,{29}-4+4) {M}⊙ at redshift z={0.09}-0.04+0.03 (median and 90% credible range). Here, we report on the constraints these observations place on the rate of BBH coalescences. Considering only GW150914, assuming that all BBHs in the universe have the same masses and spins as this event, imposing a search FAR threshold of 1 per 100 years, and assuming that the BBH merger rate is constant in the comoving frame, we infer a 90% credible range of merger rates between 2{--}53 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 (comoving frame). Incorporating all search triggers that pass a much lower threshold while accounting for the uncertainty in the astrophysical origin of each trigger, we estimate a higher rate, ranging from 13{--}600 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 depending on assumptions about the BBH mass distribution. All together, our various rate estimates fall in the conservative range 2{--}600 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1.

  1. A Note on the Observational Evidence for the Existence of Event Horizons in Astrophysical Black Hole Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bambi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today, astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the nonobservation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations.

  2. XMM-Newton observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, J; Kong, A; Miller, J M; Rossi, S; Belloni, T; Lewin, W H G; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Kong, Albert; Miller, Jon M.; Rossi, Sabrina; Belloni, Tomaso; Lewin, Walter H.G.

    2006-01-01

    We report the result of an XMM-Newton observation of the black-hole X-ray transient XTE J1650-500 in quiescence. The source was not detected and we set upper limits on the 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 0.9e31-1.0e31 erg/s (for a newly derived distance of 2.6 kpc). These limits are in line with the quiescent luminosities of black-hole X-ray binaries with similar orbital periods (~7-8 hr)

  3. Observational constraints on the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, X Z; Somerville, R S; Rix, H -W; Jahnke, K; Fontanot, F; Rieke, G H; Schiminovich, D; Meisenheimer, K

    2009-01-01

    The star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) functions are measured to be proportional to each other at z 2x10^10M_sun, ultraviolet and infrared-derived SFRs from Spitzer and GALEX, and morphologies from GEMS HST/ACS imaging. Using stacking techniques, we find that 2.5), while the BHAR that we would expect if the global scalings held is three times higher. This rules out the simplest picture of co-evolution, in which SF and BHA trace each other at all times. These results could be explained if SF and BHA occur in the same events, but offset in time, for example at different stages of a merger event. However, one would then expect to see the corresponding star formation activity in early-stage mergers, in conflict with observations. We conclude that the major episodes of SF and BHA occur in different events, with the bulk of SF happening in isolated disks and most BHA occurring in major mergers. The apparent global co-evolution results from the regulation of the BH growth by the potential...

  4. The Lockman Hole project: LOFAR observations and spectral index properties of low-frequency radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mahony, E K; Prandoni, I; van Bemmel, I M; Shimwell, T W; Brienza, M; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Rivera, G Calistro; de Gasperin, F; Hardcastle, M J; Harwood, J J; Heald, G; Jarvis, M J; Mandal, S; Miley, G K; Retana-Montenegro, E; Röttgering, H J A; Sabater, J; Tasse, C; van Velzen, S; van Weeren, R J; Williams, W L; White, G J

    2016-01-01

    The Lockman Hole is a well-studied extragalactic field with extensive multi-band ancillary data covering a wide range in frequency, essential for characterising the physical and evolutionary properties of the various source populations detected in deep radio fields (mainly star-forming galaxies and AGNs). In this paper we present new 150-MHz observations carried out with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), allowing us to explore a new spectral window for the faint radio source population. This 150-MHz image covers an area of 34.7 square degrees with a resolution of 18.6$\\times$14.7 arcsec and reaches an rms of 160 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at the centre of the field. As expected for a low-frequency selected sample, the vast majority of sources exhibit steep spectra, with a median spectral index of $\\alpha_{150}^{1400}=-0.78\\pm0.015$. The median spectral index becomes slightly flatter (increasing from $\\alpha_{150}^{1400}=-0.84$ to $\\alpha_{150}^{1400}=-0.75$) with decreasing flux density down to $S_{150} \\sim$10 mJy b...

  5. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, D M; Kazanas, D; Steiner, J F; Papadopoulos, D B; Laycock, S G T

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the \\cite{bla77} model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assume...

  6. A Coronal Hole Jet Observed with Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    A small blowout jet was observed at the boundary of the south coronal hole on 2011 February 8 at around 21:00 UT. Images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) revealed an expanding loop rising from one footpoint of a compact, bipolar bright point. Magnetograms from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO showed that the jet was triggered by the cancelation of a parasitic positive polarity feature near the negative pole of the bright point. The jet emission was present for 25 mins and it extended 30 Mm from the bright point. Spectra from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode yielded a temperature and density of 1.6 MK and 0.9-1.7 x 10^8 cm^-3 for the ejected plasma. Line-of-sight velocities reached up to 250 km/s. The density of the bright point was 7.6 x 10^8 cm^-3, and the peak of the bright point's emission measure occurred at 1.3 MK, with no plasma above 3 MK.

  7. Observation of a hole-size-dependent energy shift of the surface-plasmon resonance in Ni antidot thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.; Akinoglu, E. M.; Fumagalli, P., E-mail: paul.fumagalli@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Caballero, B.; García-Martín, A. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Papaioannou, E. Th. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Cuevas, J. C. [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Giersig, M. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Nanoarchitectures for Energy Conversion, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-13

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the magneto-optic properties of a series of nickel antidot thin films is presented. The hole diameter varies from 869 down to 636 nm, while the lattice periodicity is fixed at 920 nm. This results in an overall increase of the polar Kerr rotation with decreasing hole diameter due to the increasing surface coverage with nickel. In addition, at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.3 eV, where surface-plasmon excitations are expected, we observe distinct features in the polar Kerr rotation not present in continuous nickel films. The spectral position of the peaks exhibits a red shift with decreasing hole size. This is explained within the context of an effective medium theory by a change in the effective dielectric function of the Ni thin films.

  8. A GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NULL HYPOTHESIS TEST WITH EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE SHADOW IN Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The half opening angle of a Kerr black hole shadow is always equal to (5 ± 0.2)GM/Dc{sup 2}, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of a shadow and verifying whether it is within this 4% range constitutes a null hypothesis test of general relativity. We show that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, is the optimal target for performing this test with upcoming observations using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We use the results of optical/IR monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the mass-to-distance ratio for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ∼4%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the properties of the scattering screen between Sgr A* and the Earth, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. Finally, we explore an edge detection scheme for interferometric data and a pattern matching algorithm based on the Hough/Radon transform and demonstrate that the shadow of the black hole at 1.3 mm can be localized, in principle, to within ∼9%. All these results suggest that our prior knowledge of the properties of the black hole, of scattering broadening, and of the accretion flow can only limit this general relativistic null hypothesis test with EHT observations of Sgr A* to ≲10%.

  9. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  10. CHANDRA HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF CID-42, A CANDIDATE RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Trichas, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Blecha, L.; Loeb, A. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Salvato, M.; Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Excellence Cluster, Boltzmannstrass 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainieri, V. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, Monteporzio-Catone 00040 (Italy); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna 40127 (Italy)

    2012-06-10

    We present Chandra High Resolution Camera observations of CID-42, a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) at z = 0.359 in the COSMOS survey. CID-42 shows two optical compact sources resolved in the HST/ACS image embedded in the same galaxy structure and a velocity offset of {approx}1300 km s{sup -1} between the H{beta} broad and narrow emission line, as presented by Civano et al. Two scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of CID-42: a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling SMBH and a double Type 1/Type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, where one of the two is recoiling because of slingshot effect. In both scenarios, one of the optical nuclei hosts an unobscured AGN, while the other one, either an obscured AGN or a star-forming compact region. The X-ray Chandra data allow us to unambiguously resolve the X-ray emission and unveil the nature of the two optical sources in CID-42. We find that only one of the optical nuclei is responsible for the whole X-ray unobscured emission observed and a 3{sigma} upper limit on the flux of the second optical nucleus is measured. The upper limit on the X-ray luminosity plus the analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution indicate the presence of a star-forming region in the second source rather than an obscured SMBH, thus favoring the GW recoil scenario. However, the presence of a very obscured SMBH cannot be fully ruled out. A new X-ray feature, in a SW direction with respect to the main source, is discovered and discussed.

  11. Ionospheric hole made by a North Korean rocket launched in 2012 December: Observation with the Russian GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Unha-3 rocket was launched due southward at 00:49:46UT on Dec. 12, 2012, from the Tongchang-ri.launch pad on the Yellow Sea side of North Korea. We converted the RINEX format GPS data of the launch day to TEC, and looked for the ionospheric hole signatures. We could not find clear electron depletion signals simply because no GPS satellites were available in the northwestern skies. GPS is the American GNSS system, and other systems are becoming operational. GEONET receivers have been replaced with the new models capable of receiving multiple GNSS, and about 10 percent of them could observe GLONASS and QZSS, the Russian and the Japanese GNSS, respectively, at the time of the Unha-3 launch. More than 20 GLONASS satellites are already in operation, and we used the number 13 satellite to detect the ionospheric hole formation above the Yellow Sea (see Figure). We modified the software to convert RINEX file into TEC time series [Heki et al., JGSJ 2010] in order to handle RINEX v.2.12 files including GLONASS/QZSS data. The broadcast orbits of the GLONASS satellites are given in the geocentric Cartesian coordinates instead of the Keplerian elements like GPS and QZSS. GLONASS uses different microwave frequencies for different satellites, which also required the modification for the original software to calculate TEC. Ozeki & Heki [2010] compared the thrust of the 1998 and 2009 Taepodong missiles by comparing the sizes/depths of the ionospheric holes, and here we compare the hole made by the 2012 December Unha-3 launch with the past cases. The onset times of the depletion are the same, suggesting similar ascending speeds of the three rockets (missiles). Depth of the hole depends both on the amount of water vapor in the exhaust and the background TEC. The hole of the Unha-3 is similar to the 2009 case (or somewhat deeper/larger), which would reflect the vertical TEC in the 2012 case about 1/3 larger than that in 2009. The hole seems to last longer in the 2012 case possibly

  12. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. Our group investigated the presence of intermediate-mass black holes for a sample of 10 Galactic globular clusters. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes in each cluster. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M_bh - sigma) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFU...

  13. An alternative perspective to observe the critical phenomena of dilaton black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2017-08-01

    The critical phenomena of dilaton black holes are probed from a totally different perspective other than the P- v criticality and the q- U criticality discussed in former literature. We investigate not only the two point correlation function but also the entanglement entropy of dilaton black holes. For both the two point correlation function and the entanglement entropy we consider 4× 2× 2=16 cases due to different choices of parameters. The van der Waals-like behavior can be clearly witnessed from all the T-δ L ( T-δ S) graphs for qgravity and the spacetime dimensionality on the phase structure of dilaton black holes are disclosed. Furthermore, we discuss the stability of dilaton black holes by applying the analogous specific heat definition and remove the unstable branch by introducing a bar T=T_*. It is shown that the first order phase transition temperature T_* is affected by both α and n. The analogous equal area laws for both the T-δ L graph and the T-δ S graph are examined numerically. The relative errors for all cases are small enough so that we can safely conclude that the analogous equal area laws hold for T-δ L ( T-δ S) graph of dilaton black holes.

  14. The Spin of the Black Hole GS 1124-683: Observation of a Retrograde Accretion Disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Morningstar, Warren R; Reis, Rubens C; Ebisawa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine archival Ginga data for the black hole binary system GS 1124-683, obtained when the system was undergoing its 1991 outburst. Our analysis estimates the dimensionless spin parameter a=cJ/GM^2 by fitting the X-ray continuum spectra obtained while the system was in the "Thermal Dominant" state. For likely values of mass and distance, we find the spin to be a=-0.25 (-0.64, +0.05) (90% confidence), implying that the disk is retrograde (i.e. rotating antiparallel to the spin axis of the black hole). We note that this measurement would be better constrained if the distance to the binary and the mass of the black hole were more accurately determined. This result is unaffected by the model used to fit the hard component of the spectrum. In order to be able to recover a prograde spin, the mass of the black hole would need to be at least 15.25 Msun, or the distance would need to be less than 4.5 kpc, both of which disagree with previous determinations of the black hole mass and distance. If we allow f_col ...

  15. Intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters: observations and simulations - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Kruijssen, Diederik; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; de Zeeuw, Tim; Feldmeier-Krause, Anja; van der Helm, Edwin; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2017-03-01

    The study of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is a young and promising field of research. If IMBH exist, they could explain the rapid growth of supermassive black holes by acting as seeds in the early stage of galaxy formation. Formed by runaway collisions of massive stars in young and dense stellar clusters, intermediate-mass black holes could still be present in the centers of globular clusters, today. We measured the inner kinematic profiles with integral-field spectroscopy for 10 Galactic globular cluster and determined masses or upper limits of central black holes. In combination with literature data we further studied the positions of our results on known black-hole scaling relations (such as M • - σ) and found a similar but flatter correlation for IMBHs. Applying cluster evolution codes, the change in the slope could be explained with the stellar mass loss occurring in clusters in a tidal field over its life time. Furthermore, we present results from several numerical simulations on the topic of IMBHs and integral field units (IFUs). N-body simulations were used to simulate IFU data cubes. For the specific case of NGC 6388 we simulated two different IFU techniques and found that velocity dispersion measurements from individual velocities are strongly biased towards lower values due to blends of neighbouring stars and background light. In addition, we use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics to simulate the accretion of stellar winds onto a black hole. We find that the S-stars need to provide very strong winds in order to explain the accretion rate in the galactic center.

  16. Star on the Run - Speeding Star Observed with VLT hints at Massive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    for the star to have reached its present position had it been ejected from the centre of the LMC. This could suggest the existence of a massive black hole inside the LMC, in order to have imparted the speeding star the necessary kick. Another explanation would require the star to be the result of the merging of two stars. In this case, the star could be older that presently thought, giving it time to have travelled all the way from the Milky Way Centre. This scenario, however, requires quite some fine-tuning. The astronomers are now planning new observations to confirm one of the two scenarios. See also the associated Web Story.

  17. Testing the "no-hair" property of black holes with X-ray observations of accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Accretion disks around black holes radiate a significant fraction of the rest mass of the accreting material in the form of thermal radiation from within a few gravitational radii of the black hole ($ r \\lesssim 20 G M / c^{2}$). In addition, the accreting matter may also be illuminated by hard X-rays from the surrounding plasma which adds fluorescent transition lines to the emission. This radiation is emitted by matter moving along geodesics in the metric, therefore the strong Doppler and gravitational redshifts observed in the emission encode information about the strong gravitational field around the black hole. In this paper the possibility of using the X-ray emission as a strong field test of General Relativity is explored by calculating the spectra for both the transition line and thermal emission from a thin accretion disk in a series of parametrically deformed Kerr metrics. In addition the possibility of constraining a number of known black hole spacetimes in alternative theories of gravity is conside...

  18. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; De Paolis, F.; Giordano, M.; Ingrosso, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 1010 M ⊙ obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. For these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 104–2 × 108 M ⊙ (with a median value of ≃3 × 107 M ⊙ and eight candidates having masses below 107 M ⊙). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.

  19. A General Relativistic Null Hypothesis Test with Event Horizon Telescope Observations of the black-hole shadow in Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) In General Relativity, the shadow cast by a black hole has a size that depends very weakly on its spin or the orientation of the observer. The half opening angle of the shadow is always equal to 5+-0.2 GM/Dc^2, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of the shadow of a black hole of known mass-to-distance ratio and verifying whether it is within the 4% predicted range constitutes a null hypothesis test of GR. We show that Sgr A* is the optimal target for performing this test with the Event Horizon Telescope. We use the results of monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the ratio M/D for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ~6%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the scattering screen towards Sgr A, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black-hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. We argue that, even though the properties of the scattering ellipse at longer wavelengths are ...

  20. Observation of Blobs and Holes in the Boundary Plasma of EAST Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Xu, Guosheng; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent convective transport at the edge and in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of EAST was investigated by using fast reciprocating Langmuir probe. Holes, as part of plasma structures, were detected for the first time inside the shear layer. The amplitude probability distribution function...

  1. Can Centauros or Chirons be the first observations of evaporating mini black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Tomaras, T N

    2003-01-01

    We argue that the signals expected from the evaporation of mini black holes - predicted in TeV-scale gravity models with large extra dimensions, and possibly produced in ultra high energy collisions in the atmosphere - are quite similar to the characteristics of the Centauro events, an old mystery of cosmic-ray physics.

  2. Swift follow-up observations of the new outburst of the black hole candidate V4641 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, D.; Bahramian, A.; Sivakoff, G.; Middleton, M.; Knigge, C.; Gandhi, P.; Hynes, R.; Johnson, C.; Casella, P.; Motta, S.; Miller-Jones, J.; Neilsen, J.

    2015-08-01

    The MAXI team has recently reported on the outburst onset of the black hole candidate V4641 Sgr as detected with MAXI/GSC (ATEL #7858). In order to confirm the outburst and characterize its current accretion state, a Swift/XRT PC-mode pointed observation was performed on UT 07:31:00 02/08/2015 for a total of 435 seconds.

  3. Reversible Strain-Induced Electron-Hole Recombination in Silicon Nanowires Observed with Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    optoelectronic devices that rely on long charge carrier lifetimes, such as nanostructured solar cells . Further studies of the effects of strain on the carrier...resolution and submicron spatial resolution to characterize charge–carrier recombination and transport dynamics in silicon nanowires (NWs) locally strained...release; distribution is unlimited. Reversible Strain-Induced Electron–Hole Recombination in Silicon Nanowires Observed with Femtosecond Pump–Probe

  4. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: a Bayesian analysis of neutron star - black hole binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Prayush; Pfeiffer, Harald P

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for LIGO, of which neutron star-black hole (NSBH) binaries form an important subset. GWs from NSBH sources carry signatures of (a) the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, and (b) its potential tidal disruption near merger. In this paper, we present a Bayesian study of the measurability of neutron star tidal deformability $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{NS}\\propto (R/M)^{5}$ using observation(s) of inspiral-merger GW signals from disruptive NSBH coalescences, taking into account the crucial effect of black hole spins. First, we find that if non-tidal templates are used to estimate source parameters for an NSBH signal, the bias introduced in the estimation of non-tidal physical parameters will only be significant for loud signals with signal-to-noise ratios greater than $30$. For similarly loud signals, we also f...

  5. Observing white dwarfs orbiting massive black holes in the gravitational wave and electro-magnetic window

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Eracleous, M; Sigurdsson, S

    2008-01-01

    We consider a potentially new class of gravitational wave sources consisting of a white dwarf coalescing into a massive black hole in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\msun. These sources are of particular interest because the gravitational wave signal produced during the inspiral phase can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and is promptly followed, in an extended portion of the black hole and white dwarf mass parameter space, by an electro-magnetic signal generated by the tidal disruption of the star, detectable with X-ray, optical and UV telescopes. This class of sources could therefore yield a considerable number of scientific payoffs, that include precise cosmography at low redshift, demographics of black holes in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\Msun, insights into dynamical interactions and populations of white dwarfs in the cores of dwarf galaxies, as well as a new probe into the structure and equation of state of white dwarfs. By modelling the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation pr...

  6. An alternative perspective to observe the critical phenomena of dilaton AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The critical phenomena of dilaton AdS black holes are probed from a totally different perspective other than the $P-v$ criticality and the $q-U$ criticality discussed in the former literature. We investigate not only the two point correlation function but also the entanglement entropy of dilaton AdS black holes. We achieve this goal by solving the equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition numerically and we concentrate on $\\delta L$ and $\\delta S$ which have been regularized by subtracting the terms in pure AdS with the same boundary region. For both the two point correlation function and the entanglement entropy, we consider $4\\times2\\times2=16$ cases due to different choices of parameters. The van der Waals like behavior can be clearly witnessed from all the $T-\\delta L$ ($T-\\delta S$) graphs for $qholes are disclosed. Furthermore, we discuss the stability of dilaton...

  7. Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong [Chongqing Jiaotong University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Xian-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China); Li, Li-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. For the case bQ > 0.5, where b is the Born-Infeld parameter and Q is the charge of the black hole, the phase structure is found to be similar to that of the Van der Waals phase transition, namely the black hole undergoes a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition before it reaches a stable phase. While for the case bQ < 0.5, a new phase branch emerges besides the Van der Waals phase transition. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All these results are found to be the same as that observed in the entropy-temperature plane. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 Arcsecond Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Aaron J; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J; Buote, David A; Ho, Luis C; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2016-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2-1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.044" resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (+/-500 km/s) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole, and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r=200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r=50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole's gravitational radius of influence), we find M_BH=6.64(-0.63,+0.65)*10^8 solar masses. This observation demonstrates ALMA's powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

  9. Velocity Profiles of Galaxies with Claimed Black-Holes - Part Three - Observations and Models for M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, R. P.

    1994-09-01

    We report on high-S/N subarcsec resolution spectra of M87, obtained with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope in the spectral regions around the blue G-band and the IR Ca II triplet. From the spectra we determine the line strengths, the mean and dispersion of the best-fitting Gaussian velocity profiles (i.e. the line-of-sight velocity distributions) and the Gauss-Hermite moments h_3_,...h_6_ that measure deviations from a Gaussian. We find that the main results derived from the two spectral regions agree, in contradiction to recent measurements by Jarvis & Melnick. The observed line strengths have a central minimum in both spectral regions and are consistent with the central luminosity `spike' of M87 being completely non-thermal. The coefficients h_3_,...h_6_ are close to zero at all radii. The velocity dispersion rises from ~270 km s^-1^ at ~15 arcsec to ~305 km s^-1^ at ~5 arcsec, and then to ~400 km s^-1^ at 0.5 arcsec. We model the observed velocity dispersions by solving the Jeans equation for hydrostatic equilibrium. Radial anisotropy (β ~ 0.5) is required in the outer parts to fit the observed velocity dispersion gradient. Near the centre, the data can still be fitted equally well with radially anisotropic models without a central black hole as they can be with less anisotropic models with a central black hole of mass M_BH_ Jeans models without a central black hole need not necessarily correspond to a positive and stable distribution function. We study the central velocity profile of isotropic dynamical models with a central black hole. The wings of the velocity profile are more extended than those of a Gaussian. This is due to the stars that orbit close to the hole at high velocities. The wings contribute significantly to the normalization and the dispersion of the velocity profile. A Gaussian fit to the velocity profile is insensitive to the wings, and thus underestimates both the line strength γ and the velocity dispersion σ. In the analysis of real

  10. Unambiguous observation of F-atom core-hole localization in CF4 through body-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.; Trevisan, C. S.; Lucchese, R. R.; Gaire, B.; Menssen, A.; Schöffler, M. S.; Gatton, A.; Neff, J.; Stammer, P. M.; Rist, J.; Eckart, S.; Berry, B.; Severt, T.; Sartor, J.; Moradmand, A.; Jahnke, T.; Landers, A. L.; Williams, J. B.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Dörner, R.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2017-01-01

    A dramatic symmetry breaking in K -shell photoionization of the CF4 molecule in which a core-hole vacancy is created in one of four equivalent fluorine atoms is displayed in the molecular frame angular distribution of the photoelectrons. Observing the photoejected electron in coincidence with an F+ atomic ion after Auger decay is shown to select the dissociation path where the core hole was localized almost exclusively on that atom. A combination of measurements and ab initio calculations of the photoelectron angular distribution in the frame of the recoiling CF3+ and F+ atoms elucidates the underlying physics that derives from the Ne-like valence structure of the F(1 s-1 ) core-excited atom.

  11. Global sampling to assess the value of diverse observations in conditioning a real-world groundwater flow and transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsman, Joost R.; Winters, Pieter; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Lebbe, Luc

    2016-03-01

    The use of additional types of observational data has often been suggested to alleviate the ill-posedness inherent to parameter estimation of groundwater models and constrain model uncertainty. Disinformation in observational data caused by errors in either the observations or the chosen model structure may, however, confound the value of adding observational data in model conditioning. This paper uses the global generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology to investigate the value of different observational data types (heads, fluxes, salinity, and temperature) in conditioning a groundwater flow and transport model of an extensively monitored field site in the Netherlands. We compared model conditioning using the real observations to a synthetic model experiment, to demonstrate the possible influence of disinformation in observational data in model conditioning. Results showed that the value of different conditioning targets was less evident when conditioning to real measurements than in a measurement error-only synthetic model experiment. While in the synthetic experiment, all conditioning targets clearly improved model outcomes, minor improvements or even worsening of model outcomes was observed for the real measurements. This result was caused by errors in both the model structure and the observations, resulting in disinformation in the observational data. The observed impact of disinformation in the observational data reiterates the necessity of thorough data validation and the need for accounting for both model structural and observational errors in model conditioning. It further suggests caution when translating results of synthetic modeling examples to real-world applications. Still, applying diverse conditioning data types was found to be essential to constrain uncertainty, especially in the transport of solutes in the model.

  12. X-Ray Timing and Spectral Observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550--564 During Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-11

    Soft X-ray transients (SXTs), a sub-class of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), provide a unique opportunity to test General Relativity and to probe fundamental physics under conditions terrestrially unattainable. SXT outbursts are of great interest because they allow the study of LMXBs under a wide range of accretion rates. The majority of known SXTs contain black holes, therefore SXT outbursts are key to understanding accretion physics around black holes and in active galactic nuclei, which are thought to contain supermassive, M {approx} 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 10} M{circle_dot}, where M{circle_dot} is one solar mass, central compact objects. These compact objects are most likely black holes, which exhibit, on a much larger scale, accretion physics similar to that around black holes in SXTs. In this work, the timing and spectral properties of the SXT and microquasar XTE J1550-564 during outburst are studied. Observations made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) are emphasized. USA data show a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing USA flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the USA hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV). Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) were detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the USA hardness ratio with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram shows counterclockwise cyclical evolution and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  13. Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2004-05-01

    Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

  14. Assessing the recharge of a coastal aquifer using physical observations, tritium, groundwater chemistry and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Isaac R; Zhang, Chenming; Maher, Damien T; Atkins, Marnie L; Holland, Rodney; Morgenstern, Uwe; Li, Ling

    2017-02-15

    Assessing recharge is critical to understanding groundwater and preventing pollution. Here, we investigate recharge in an Australian coastal aquifer using a combination of physical, modelling and geochemical techniques. We assess whether recharge may occur through a pervasive layer of floodplain muds that was initially hypothesized to be impermeable. At least 59% of the precipitation volume could be accounted for in the shallow aquifer using the water table fluctuation method during four significant recharge events. Precipitation events 14% of annual precipitation). Tritium dating revealed long term net vertical recharge rates ranging from 27 to 114mm/year (average 58mm/year) which were interpreted as minimum net long term recharge. Borehole experiments revealed more permeable conditions and heterogeneous infiltration rates when the floodplain soils were dry. Wet conditions apparently expand floodplain clays, closing macropores and cracks that act as conduits for groundwater recharge. Modelled groundwater flow paths were consistent with tritium dating and provided independent evidence that the clay layer does not prevent local recharge. Overall, all lines of evidence demonstrated that the coastal floodplain muds do not prevent the infiltration of rainwater into the underlying sand aquifer, and that local recharge across the muds was widespread. Therefore, assuming fine-grained floodplain soils prevent recharge and protect underlying aquifers from pollution may not be reasonable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chandra and Swift Follow-up Observations of the Intermediate Mass Black Hole in ESO243-49

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, N A; Godet, O; Servillat, M; Farrell, S A; Oates, S R

    2010-01-01

    The brightest Ultra-Luminous X-ray source HLX-1 in the galaxy ESO 243-49 provides strong evidence for the existence of intermediate mass black holes. As the luminosity and thus the mass estimate depend on the association of HLX-1 with ESO 243-49, it is essential to confirm its affiliation. This requires follow-up investigations at wavelengths other than X-rays, which in-turn needs an improved source position. To further reinforce the intermediate mass black hole identification, it is necessary to determine HLX-1's environment to establish whether it could potentially form and nourish a black hole at the luminosities observed. Using the High Resolution Camera onboard Chandra, we determine a source position of RA=01h10m28.3s and Dec=-46d04'22.3". A conservative 95% error of 0.3" was found following a boresight correction by cross-matching the positions of 3 X-ray sources in the field with the 2MASS catalog. Combining all Swift UV/Optical Telescope uvw2 images, we failed to detect a UV source at the Chandra posi...

  16. The Black-Hole Mass in M87 from Gemini/NIFS Adaptive Optics Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, Karl; Richstone, Douglas; Lauer, Tod R; Faber, S M; Gultekin, Kayhan; Murphy, Jeremy; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We present the stellar kinematics in the central 2" of the luminous elliptical galaxy M87 (NGC 4486), using laser adaptive optics to feed the Gemini telescope integral-field spectrograph, NIFS. The velocity dispersion rises to 480 km/s at 0.2". We combine these data with extensive stellar kinematics out to large radii to derive a black-hole mass equal to (6.6+-0.4)x10^9 Msun, using orbit-based axisymmetric models and including only the NIFS data in the central region. Including previously-reported ground-based data in the central region drops the uncertainty to 0.25x10^9 Msun with no change in the best-fit mass; however, we rely on the values derived from the NIFS-only data in the central region in order to limit systematic differences. The best-fit model shows a significant increase in the tangential velocity anisotropy of stars orbiting in the central region with decreasing radius; similar to that seen in the centers of other core galaxies. The black-hole mass is insensitive to the inclusion of a dark halo ...

  17. Global-scale assessment of groundwater depletion and related groundwater abstractions: Combining hydrological modeling with information from well observations and GRACE satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Schuh, Carina; Portmann, Felix T.; Eicker, Annette

    2014-07-01

    Groundwater depletion (GWD) compromises crop production in major global agricultural areas and has negative ecological consequences. To derive GWD at the grid cell, country, and global levels, we applied a new version of the global hydrological model WaterGAP that simulates not only net groundwater abstractions and groundwater recharge from soils but also groundwater recharge from surface water bodies in dry regions. A large number of independent estimates of GWD as well as total water storage (TWS) trends determined from GRACE satellite data by three analysis centers were compared to model results. GWD and TWS trends are simulated best assuming that farmers in GWD areas irrigate at 70% of optimal water requirement. India, United States, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and China had the highest GWD rates in the first decade of the 21st century. On the Arabian Peninsula, in Libya, Egypt, Mali, Mozambique, and Mongolia, at least 30% of the abstracted groundwater was taken from nonrenewable groundwater during this time period. The rate of global GWD has likely more than doubled since the period 1960-2000. Estimated GWD of 113 km3/yr during 2000-2009, corresponding to a sea level rise of 0.31 mm/yr, is much smaller than most previous estimates. About 15% of the globally abstracted groundwater was taken from nonrenewable groundwater during this period. To monitor recent temporal dynamics of GWD and related water abstractions, GRACE data are best evaluated with a hydrological model that, like WaterGAP, simulates the impact of abstractions on water storage, but the low spatial resolution of GRACE remains a challenge.

  18. NuSTAR and Swift observations of the black hole candidate XTE J1908+094 during its 2013 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J; Furst, Felix; Kennea, Jamie; Miller, Jon M; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Krimm, Hans A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    The black hole candidate XTE J1908+094 went into outburst for the first time since 2003 in October 2013. We report on an observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and monitoring observations with Swift during the outburst. NuSTAR caught the source in the soft state: the spectra show a broad relativistic iron line, and the light curves reveal a ~40 ks flare with the count rate peaking about 40% above the non-flare level and with significant spectral variation. A model combining a multi-temperature thermal component, a power-law, and a reflection component with an iron line provides a good description of the NuSTAR spectrum. Although relativistic broadening of the iron line is observed, it is not possible to constrain the black hole spin with these data. The variability of the power-law component, which can also be modeled as a Comptonization component, is responsible for the flux and spectral change during the flare, suggesting that changes in the corona (or possibly continued jet act...

  19. Formation and Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes in Galactic Centers Observational Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, G

    2003-01-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have shown that the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) is largely due to the accretion onto supermassive black holes, integrated over the cosmic time. These surveys have resolved more than 80% of the 0.1-10 keV X-ray background into discrete sources. Optical spectroscopic identifications show that the sources producing the bulk of the X-ray background are a mixture of obscured (type-1) and unobscured (type-2) AGNs, as predicted by the XRB population synthesis models. A class of highly luminous type-2 AGN, so called QSO-2s, has been detected in the deepest Chandra and XMM-Newton surveys. The new Chandra AGN redshift distribution peaks at much lower redshifts (z~0.7) than that based on ROSAT data, indicating that Seyfert galaxies peak at significantly lower redshifts than QSOs.

  20. A possible space-based tsunami early warning system using observations of the tsunami ionospheric hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Masashi; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Tsurudome, Chiaki; Tomida, Yuto; Kanaya, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Daiki; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    Ionospheric plasma disturbances after a large tsunami can be detected by measurement of the total electron content (TEC) between a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite and its ground-based receivers. TEC depression lasting for a few minutes to tens of minutes termed as tsunami ionospheric hole (TIH) is formed above the tsunami source area. Here we describe the quantitative relationship between initial tsunami height and the TEC depression rate caused by a TIH from seven tsunamigenic earthquakes in Japan and Chile. We found that the percentage of TEC depression and initial tsunami height are correlated and the largest TEC depressions appear 10 to 20 minutes after the main shocks. Our findings imply that Ionospheric TEC measurement using the existing ground receiver networks could be used in an early warning system for near-field tsunamis that take more than 20 minutes to arrive in coastal areas.

  1. GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Afrough, M; Agarwal, B; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Amato, A; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Antier, S; Appert, S; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; AultONeal, K; Avila-Alvarez, A; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Bae, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Banagiri, S; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bawaj, M; Bazzan, M; Bécsy, B; Beer, C; Bejger, M; Belahcene, I; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Billman, C R; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackman, J; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bode, N; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bohe, A; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T A; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Canepa, M; Canizares, P; Cannon, K C; Cao, H; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Carney, M F; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterjee, D; Chatziioannou, K; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, H-P; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, A K W; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Ciolfi, R; Cirelli, C E; Cirone, A; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L R; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corban, P; Corbitt, T R; Corley, K R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davis, D; Daw, E J; Day, B; De, S; DeBra, D; Deelman, E; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devenson, J; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Renzo, F; Doctor, Z; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorrington, I; Douglas, R; Dovale Álvarez, M; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Duncan, J; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Eisenstein, R A; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z B; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E J; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Feicht, J; Fejer, M M; Fernandez-Galiana, A; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Forsyth, P W F; Forsyth, S S; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fries, E M; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H; Gabel, M; Gadre, B U; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Ganija, M R; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaudio, S; Gaur, G; Gayathri, V; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, D; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghonge, S; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glover, L; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gomes, S; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Gruning, P; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hall, B R; Hall, E D

    2017-06-02

    We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10∶11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70 000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are 31.2_{-6.0}^{+8.4}M_{⊙} and 19.4_{-5.9}^{+5.3}M_{⊙} (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, χ_{eff}=-0.12_{-0.30}^{+0.21}. This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is 880_{-390}^{+450}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of z=0.18_{-0.07}^{+0.08}. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to m_{g}≤7.7×10^{-23}  eV/c^{2}. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.

  2. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  3. High-energy observations of the state transition of the X-ray nova and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bel, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Sizun, P.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of extensive high-energy observations of the X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318 performed with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst in 2003 January, was observed in February in a spectral state dominated by a soft......, typical of a black-hole binary in the so-called High/Soft State. We then followed the evolution of the source outburst over several months using the INTEGRAL Galactic Centre survey observations. The source became active again at the end of March: it showed a clear transition towards a much harder state...... of the black hole X-ray novae class which populate our galactic bulge and we discuss its properties in the frame of the spectral models used for transient black hole binaries....

  4. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes: Comparison of Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.

  5. Chandra and MMT observations of low-mass black hole active galactic nuclei accreting at low rates in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, W; Dou, L; Dong, X -B; Fan, X; Wang, T -G

    2014-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray observations of four candidate low-mass black hole (<10^6Msun) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have the estimated Eddington ratios among the lowest (~10^(-2)) found for this class. The aims are to validate the nature of their AGNs and to confirm the low Eddington ratios that are derived from the broad H_alpha line, and to explore this poorly studied regime in the AGN parameter space. Among them, two objects with the lowest significance of the broad lines are also observed with Multi-Mirror Telescope, and the high-quality optical spectra taken confirm them as Seyfert 1 AGNs and as having small black hole masses. X-ray emission is detected from the nuclei of two of the galaxies, which is variable on timescales of 10^3s, whereas no significant (or only marginal at best) detection is found for the remaining two. The X-ray luminosities are on the order of 10^(41) ergs/s or even lower, on the order of 10^(40) ergs/s for non-detections, which are among the lowest regimes ever probed ...

  6. Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 arcsecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Boizelle, Benjamin D.; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J.; Buote, David A.; Ho, Luis C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2016-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2-1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.″044 resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (±500 km s-1) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r = 200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r = 50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole’s gravitational radius of influence), we find {M}{BH}=({6.64}-0.63+0.65)× {10}8 {M}⊙ . This observation demonstrates ALMA’s powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

  7. Observations of Active Submarine Groundwater Discharge on a Shallow Coastal Sea in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Vera, I.; Enriquez, C.; Capurro, L.; Kantun, C.

    2008-12-01

    This contribution presents detailed measurements of fresh water fluxes from an energetic submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) located on the coastal ocean on Dzilam Bravo, Yucatan, Mexico. Due to the geologic characteristics of the site (karstic geology), inland groundwater flows through karstic conduits and exits at sea. Time series of fluxes measured by an acoustic velocimeter (VECTOR), temperature and salinity are correlated to the variability imposed by tides, currents, waves and rainfall. The contribution of SGD is a determining factor in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because it provides fresh water, nutrients, contaminants and other solutes. For this reason it is important to increase the knowledge about its dynamics and mixing processes that take place in these kind of environments. To study the spacial variability of thermohaline conditions, an area of 1 by 1 km (which includes five freshwater springs) was measured with a vessel towed CTD during drough and rainfall seasons. The results reveal that the flow conditions for the main spring (X'buya-Ha) is controlled by sea level variations, which include tides and weather effects. The outflow velocity is about 0.5 m/s during dry season when the discharge is weak, and about 3 m/s during periods of intense rainfall, when the discharge is strong. Also, it was noted that outflow direction changes as a result of high and low tides along a day. Results will be presented on the spatial influence as well, showing that the effect of the springs is very localised during high tide, but expands considerably during low tides.

  8. Membrana limitans interna and epiretinal membrane lying on macular holes. Some morphological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, E; Groos, S; Luciano, L; Eckardt, C; Eckardt, U

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the membrana limitans interna (MLI) in the region of the macula has been investigated by electron microscopy in (a) 2 enucleated human adult eyes and (b) 38 surgically removed samples associated with an epiretinal membrane (ERM). In the enucleated eye, the glia cells were vitrad bordered either by the lamina rara or, directly, by the lamina densa. Both extended into a coarse network whereby the lamina densa, through repeated branches and anastomoses, delimited large meshes, the lamina rara formed their contents. High magnification revealed that both meshes and contents of this network were composed by a further, finer network. It is suggested that strips and small openings of the finer network are homologous to the cords and intercordal spaces, respectively, which have been indicated as the common, basic structures of most of the basement membranes. The MLI excised with an ERM had the same structure. In some of the ERM associated with a macular hole, myofibroblasts prevailed among the cells. They showed indented nucleus, stress fibers abuting on the plasma membrane or in apparent continuity with bundles of extracellular filaments (microtendons), gap junctions. The cells lay on or were surrounded by a discontinuous basement membrane.

  9. Gravitational-wave observations of binary black holes: Effect of non-quadrupole modes

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Vijay; Husa, Sascha; Bustillo, Juan Calderon; Hannam, Mark; Puerrer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of non-quadrupolar modes in the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves (GWs) from non-spinning black-hole binaries. We evaluate the loss of signal-to-noise ratio and the systematic errors in the estimated parameters when one uses a quadrupole-mode template family to detect GW signals with all the relevant modes, for target signals with total masses $20 M_\\odot \\leq M \\leq 250 M_\\odot$ and mass ratios $1 \\leq q \\leq 18$. Target signals are constructed by matching numerical-relativity simulations describing the late inspiral, merger and ringdown of the binary with post-Newtonian/effective-one-body waveforms describing the early inspiral. We find that waveform templates modeling only the quadrupolar modes of the GW signal are sufficient (loss of detection rate $< 10\\%$) for the detection of GWs with mass ratios $q\\leq4$ using advanced GW observatories. Neglecting the effect of non-quadrupole modes will introduce systematic errors in the estimated parameters. The systemat...

  10. Kinematics of an untwisting solar jet in polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Huadong; Ma, Suli

    2012-01-01

    Using the multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft, we study a jet occurred in coronal hole near the northern pole of the Sun. The jet presented distinct helical upward motion during ejection. By tracking six identified moving features (MFs) in the jet, we found that the plasma moved at an approximately constant speed along the jet's axis, meanwhile, they made a circular motion in the plane transverse to the axis. Inferred from linear and trigonometric fittings to the axial and transverse heights of the six tracks, the mean values of axial velocities, transverse velocities, angular speeds, rotation periods, and rotation radiuses of the jet are 114 km s$^{-1}$, 136 km s$^{-1}$, 0.81\\degr\\ s$^{-1}$, 452 s, and 9.8 $\\times$ 10$^{3}$ km respectively. As the MFs rose, the jet width at the corresponding height increased. For the first time, we derived the height variation of the longitudinal magnetic field strength in the jet from the...

  11. Transient deformation of karst aquifers due to seasonal and multiyear groundwater variations observed by GPS in southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverii, Francesca; D'Agostino, Nicola; Métois, Marianne; Fiorillo, Francesco; Ventafridda, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    We present GPS, hydrological, and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) observations in southern Apennines (Italy) pointing to a previously unnoticed response of the solid Earth to hydrological processes. Transient patterns in GPS horizontal time series near to large karst aquifers are controlled by seasonal and interannual phases of groundwater recharge/discharge of karst aquifers, modulating the extensional ˜3 mm/yr strain within the tectonically active Apennines. We suggest that transient signals are produced, below the saturation level of the aquifers and above a poorly constrained depth in the shallow crust, by time-dependent opening of subvertical, fluid-filled, conductive fractures. We ascribe this process to the immature karstification and intense tectonic fracturing, favoring slow groundwater circulation, and to multiyear variations of the water table elevation, influenced by variable seasonal recharge. The vertical component displays seasonal and multiyear signals more homogeneously distributed in space and closely correlated with estimates of total water storage from GRACE, reflecting the elastic response of the lithosphere to variations of surface water loads. The different sensitivities of vertical and horizontal components to the hydrologically induced deformation processes allow us to spatially and temporally resolve the different phases of the water cycle, from maximum hydrological loading at the surface to maximum hydrostatic pressure beneath karst aquifers. Finally, we suggest that transient deformation signals in the geodetic series of the Apennines are correlated to large-scale climatic patterns (Northern Atlantic Oscillation) through their influence on precipitation variability and trends at the regional scale.

  12. Using observations in deposition tunnels to avoid intersections with critical fractures in deposition holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond

    2006-04-15

    We evaluate the efficiency of utilising a Full Perimeter Intersection (hereafter denoted FPI) criterion, for identifying discriminating fractures in deposition tunnels and deposition holes. We also evaluate the consequences of using FPI, expressed in terms of the degree of utilisation. This is achieved by means of stochastic fracture simulation consisting of two steps. The first consists of computing intersection statistics between the tunnel and the fracture array. The second step consists of computing the degree of utilisation based on the statistics derived from the first step. We base our simulations upon the DFN models produced for the Laxemar and Forsmark study sites, versions 1.2. We anticipate that these models will mature further within the framework of SKB's on-going site investigations and Site Modelling (versions 2.2 and onwards) and though we here discuss the impact of various DFN parameters on our results, it is beyond the scope of the work presented here to evaluate the validity of the published models. The DFN models have been used with no modifications and accepted as they were published. The uncertainties presented here thus mirror the uncertainties of the DFN models.The consequence of using the FPC has been quantified in terms of degree of utilisation which was judged reasonable. The degree of utilisation is higher in Forsmark as compared to Laxemar due to, mainly; the latter's higher intensity of the steep fracture sets in the studied size interval. The FPC was found insufficient to detect all potentially discriminating fractures. It needed to be complemented and we defined a new criterion, EFPC, to also address large fractures in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel, which remain undetected by tunnel mapping. We here proposed a criterion consisting in discriminating also all fractures that intersect 5 or more canister positions. The use of EFPC decreased the degree of utilisation further, though we still judge it to be reasonable. A

  13. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2016-01-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z~4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/L_Edd~0.7 and M_BH~10^9 M_sol. Our sample consists of three "FIR-bright" sources which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of SFR>1000 M_sol/yr, and three "FIR-faint" sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ~400 M_sol/yr. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data, and resolved on scales of 2 kpc, in both continuum (\\lambda_rest~150um) and [CII]157.74um line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasars' hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) for three sources -- one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ~14-45 kpc an...

  14. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for improving probabilistic estimations of interaction between rivers and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Integrated hydrological models are generally calibrated against observations of river discharge and piezometric head in groundwater aquifers. Integrated hydrological models are rarely calibrated against spatially distributed water level observations measured by either in-situ stations or spaceborne platforms. Indeed in-situ observations derived from ground-based stations are generally spaced too far apart to capture spatial patterns in the water surface. On the other hand spaceborne observations have limited spatial resolution. Additionally satellite observations have a temporal resolution which is not ideal for observing the temporal patterns of the hydrological variables during extreme events. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) offer several advantages: i) high spatial resolution; ii) tracking of the water body better than any satellite technology; iii) timing of the sampling merely depending on the operators. In this case study the Mølleåen river (Denmark) and its catchment have been simulated through an integrated hydrological model (MIKE 11-MIKE SHE). This model was initially calibrated against observations of river discharge retrieved by in-situ stations and against piezometric head of the aquifers. Subsequently the hydrological model has been calibrated against dense spatially distributed water level observations, which could potentially be retrieved by UAVs. Error characteristics of synthetic UAV water level observations were taken from a recent proof-of-concept study. Since the technology for ranging water level is under development, UAV synthetic water level observations were extracted from another model of the river with higher spatial resolution (cross sections located every 10 m). This model with high resolution is assumed to be absolute truth for the purpose of this work. The river model with the coarser resolution has been calibrated against the synthetic water level observations through Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, an

  15. High Resolution Radio Observations of AGN(Session 5 : Evidence for Giant Black Holes)

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi, HIRABAYASHI; Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

    2004-01-01

    HALCA, the first dedicated satellite for space-VLBI, was launched in February 1997, and VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) observations have been successfully undertaken at 1.6 and 5 GHz. This paper outlines the highlights of high resolution radio observations of AGN by VSOP. The planned near-future VSOP-2 mission and further future missions are introduced.

  16. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1118+480 as Observed with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Frontera, F; Zdziarski, A A; Belloni, T; Del Sordo, S; Masetti, N; Orlandini, M; Palazzi, E

    2003-01-01

    XTE J1118+480 is a well established black hole candidate with a mass estimate in the range from 7 to 10 solar masses. With BeppoSAX we observed the source 4 times, from April to December 2000. Results of the firs t observation were already reported (Frontera et al. 2001). Here we report spectral results of the later observations, performed in May, June and December 2000 and compare them with the results obtained from the 2000 April observation. We observe a decrease of the column density from a value consistent with the Galactic N_H obtained from radio measurement s to a value a factor 2 lower. The spectra are well fit with a thermal Comptonization plus a blackbody model. The blackbody luminosity decreases with time, while the electron temperature of the Comptonizing electron s does not show significant changes. A Compton reflection component is apparent and stable, although weak (mean value of Omega/2pi = 0.21[-0.04,+0.05]). The reflector shows a low metallicity (mean value of Z/Zsun = 0.13[-0.04,+0.06]). On...

  17. The soft spectral state of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 observed by INTEGRAL and Swift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Santo, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    The currently on-going outburst of the black hole candidate (BHC) IGR J17091-3624 (ATel #3144, #3159, #3167) has been recently observed simultaneously with INTEGRAL and Swift. The source was in the IBIS FOV on 2011 Feb. 28 from 17:45 to 21:23 (UTC; exposure time 7.7 ks) during the Galactic Bulge......, a better description of the spectrum (confirmed by the F-test) can be obtained adding a disk black-body component (red. chi^2=1.1 (302 d.o.f.)). The fit of the joint XRT+IBIS/ISGRI broad-band spectrum (0.8-200 keV) gives an absorption column density of N_H=1.00+/-0.06, a disc black-body temperature of 1...

  18. ISO deep far-infrared survey in the ``Lockman Hole''. A search for obscured objects at high redshift. I. Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawara, K.; Sato, Y.; Matsuhara, H.; Taniguchi, Y.; Okuda, H.; Sofue, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Karoji, H.; Okamura, S.; Chambers, K. C.; Cowie, L. L.; Joseph, R. D.; Sanders, D. B.

    1998-08-01

    Two 44arcmin x 44arcmin fields in the Lockman Hole were mapped at 95 mu m and 175 mu m using ISOPHOT. A simple program code combined with PIA works well to correct for drift in the detector responsivity. The number density of 175 mu m sources is 3-10 times higher than expected from the no-evolution model. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. The ISOPHOT data presented in this paper was reduced using PIA, which is a joint development by the ESA Astrophysics Division and the ISOPHOT consortium led by the Max Plank Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Heidelberg.

  19. The soft spectral state of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 observed by INTEGRAL and Swift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Santo, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    The currently on-going outburst of the black hole candidate (BHC) IGR J17091-3624 (ATel #3144, #3159, #3167) has been recently observed simultaneously with INTEGRAL and Swift. The source was in the IBIS FOV on 2011 Feb. 28 from 17:45 to 21:23 (UTC; exposure time 7.7 ks) during the Galactic Bulge......, a better description of the spectrum (confirmed by the F-test) can be obtained adding a disk black-body component (red. chi^2=1.1 (302 d.o.f.)). The fit of the joint XRT+IBIS/ISGRI broad-band spectrum (0.8-200 keV) gives an absorption column density of N_H=1.00+/-0.06, a disc black-body temperature of 1...

  20. The Outburst Observations of Black Hole Binary System V404 Cyg by Swift/XRT in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo-wen, Fu; Yu-peng, Chen; Shu, Zhang; Long, Ji; Jian, Li

    2017-04-01

    After a quiescence of 26 years, the black-hole binary system V404 Cyg underwent another outburst in June 2015. During the later phase of this outburst, Swift/XRT (X-ray Telescope) detected for the first time a peculiar structure of a series of concentric rings under the photon counting (PC) mode. In this paper, by using the public Swift/XRT data, we analyzed the energy spectrum and time variation of this ring structure. Our results show that the energy spectrum of the ring structure is highly softened with respect to that of the central source, and the spectral intensity varies as the rings move outward. These results were explained with the model of a cloud which is located between the source and the observer at a distance of roughly 6842 light years (about 2.1 kpc). And some constraints for the relationship between the characteristics of the rings and their burst sources were presented.

  1. A technique for estimating ground-water levels at sites in Rhode Island from observation-well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, Roy S.; Frimpter, Michael H.; Turtora, Michael; Bell, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of future high, median, and low ground- water levels are needed for engineering and architectural design decisions and for appropriate selection of land uses. For example, the failure of individual underground sewage-disposal systems due to high ground-water levels can be prevented if accurate water-level estimates are available. Estimates of extreme or average conditions are needed because short duration preconstruction obser- vations are unlikely to be adequately represen- tative. Water-level records for 40 U.S. Geological Survey observation wells in Rhode Island were used to describe and interpret water-level fluctuations. The maximum annual range of water levels average about 6 feet in sand and gravel and 11 feet in till. These data were used to develop equations for estimating future high, median, and low water levels on the basis of any one measurement at a site and records of water levels at observation wells used as indexes. The estimating technique relies on several assumptions about temporal and spatial variations: (1) Water levels will vary in the future as they have in the past, (2) Water levels fluctuate seasonally (3) Ground-water fluctuations are dependent on site geology, and (4) Water levels throughout Rhode Island are subject to similar precipitation and climate. Comparison of 6,697 estimates of high, median, and low water levels (depth to water level exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time, respectively) with the actual measured levels exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time at 14 sites unaffected by pumping and unknown reasons, yielded mean squared errors ranging from 0.34 to 1.53 square feet, 0.30 to 1.22 square feet, and 0.32 to 2.55 square feet, respectively. (USGS)

  2. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilled cores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System. The Chelungpu Fault System in Hole-A was encountered at a depth of between 1050 - 1250 m where deformation structures increased. Three major fault zone structures were found at approximate depths of 1111, 1153, and 1221 m. The presence of wide fault rock regions were mostly concentrated in these 3 fault zones. The fault zone at 1111 m mainly consists of a nearly brecciated fracture zone and a clayey fault gouge zone of about 1.05 m in thickness. Fault rocks from the fault zone at 1153 m are characterized by the presence of sand grains in the matrix content, consisting of a 1.1-m thick fault breccia zone and a 0.35-m thick fault gouge zone. The fault zone at 1221 m consists of fault breccia and fault gouge of 1.15 m in total thickness. These are relatively harder and darker in color than the previous 2 fault zones. Each of the 3 fault zones contains a few layers of dark colored rocks of approximately 5 - 80 mm in thickness within the fault breccia and fault gouge zones. These dark colored rocks were found distinctively within the fault rocks. However, there relation to the process of faulting is not clearly understood and shall be discussed in detail with the aid of microscopic observations.

  3. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift​ Supermassive​ Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-02-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z≃ 4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/{L}{Edd}≃ 0.7 and {M}{BH}≃ {10}9 {M}ȯ . Our sample consists of three “FIR-bright” sources, which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of {SFR}> 1000 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1, and three “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ∼400 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data and resolved on scales of ∼2 kpc, in both continuum ({λ }{rest}∼ 150 μ {{m}}) and [{{C}} {{II}}] λ 157.74 μ {{m}} line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasar hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ∼ 14{--}45 {kpc} and ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers are important drivers for rapid early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs and the gas kinematics as observed by ALMA suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  4. Deep Chandra Observations of the Compact Starburst Galaxy Henize 2-10: X-rays from the Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy; Miller, Jon; Sivakoff, Gregory; Greene, Jenny; Hickox, Ryan; Johnson, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    We present follow-up X-ray observations of the candidate massive black hole (BH) in the nucleus of the low-mass, compact starburst galaxy Henize 2-10. Using new high-resolution observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory totaling 200 ks in duration, as well as archival Chandra observations from 2001, we demonstrate the presence of a previously unidentified X-ray point source that is spatially coincident with the known nuclear radio source in Henize 2-10 (i.e., the massive BH). We show that the hard X-ray emission previously identified in the 2001 observation is dominated by a source that is distinct from the nucleus, with the properties expected for a high-mass X-ray binary. The X-ray luminosity of the nuclear source suggests the massive BH is radiating significantly below its Eddington limit (~10^-6 L_Edd), and the soft spectrum resembles other weakly accreting massive BHs including Sagittarius A*. Analysis of the X-ray light curve of the nucleus reveals the tentative detection of a ~9-hour periodicity, ...

  5. Multimessenger astronomy with pulsar timing and X-ray observations of massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sesana, A; Reynolds, M T; Dotti, M

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that very massive (>10^8\\msun), cosmologically nearby (z10^-13 erg s^-1 cm^-2 will be in the reach of upcoming X-ray observatories. Double relativistic K\\alpha lines may be observable in a handful of low redshift (z<0.3) sources by proposed deep X-ray probes, such as Athena. (Abridged)

  6. Recent Progress in Observational Identifications of Stellar Mass Black Holes%恒星级黑洞的观测证认研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张双南

    2012-01-01

    具有不同质量的恒星在耗尽其热核能源后,最终可能会坍缩成为性质完全不同的致密天体,如白矮星、中子星或者黑洞.从20世纪30年代起,黑洞的观测及其证认一直是天体物理学的研究热点之一.首先简要地回顾了恒星级黑洞的形成及其候选天体的研究历史;然后介绍了如何从观测上证认恒星级黑洞;接着详细讨论了恒星级黑洞的质量和自转参数的测量方法;最后介绍恒星级黑洞观测及其证认的最新研究进展,并做出结论:目前已经有充分的证据宣告在部分吸积X射线双星中存在恒星级黑洞.%After exhausting their thermal nuclear energy, stars with different masses may eventually collapse to form different types of compact objects, such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes. Since the 1930s, observations and identifications of black holes have remained active research frontiers in astrophysics. In this article we first briefly overview the research history of the formation of black holes and their candidates. We then outline how to identify stellar mass black holes observationally with five criteria; these criteria satisfy the highest standards for recognizing new discoveries in physics experiments and astronomical observations. This is followed by detailed discussions on how to measure the mass andspin parameters of stellar mass black holes. We suggest that the inclination angle of the accretion disk, which may not be exactly co-aligned with the orbital plane of a black hole binary system, may be determined by the polarization measurement of the disk emission. We propose a method of observing the orbital motion of the black hole by detecting the orbital Doppler shift of the absorption lines of the accretion disk wind. Combined with the orbital Doppler shift of the emission lines of the companion star and its mass, the black hole mass and orbital inclination angle can be determined reliably. The improved

  7. Observation of Mollow Triplets with Tunable Interactions in Double Lambda Systems of Individual Hole Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoudakis, K. G.; Fischer, K. A.; Sarmiento, T.; McMahon, P. L.; Radulaski, M.; Zhang, J. L.; Kelaita, Y.; Dory, C.; Müller, K.; Vučković, J.

    2017-01-01

    Although individual spins in quantum dots have been studied extensively as qubits, their investigation under strong resonant driving in the scope of accessing Mollow physics is still an open question. Here, we have grown high quality positively charged quantum dots embedded in a planar microcavity that enable enhanced light-matter interactions. Under a strong magnetic field in the Voigt configuration, individual positively charged quantum dots provide a double lambda level structure. Using a combination of above-band and resonant excitation, we observe the formation of Mollow triplets on all optical transitions. We find that when the strong resonant drive power is used to tune the Mollow-triplet lines through each other, we observe anticrossings. We also demonstrate that the interaction that gives rise to the anticrossings can be controlled in strength by tuning the polarization of the resonant laser drive. Quantum-optical modeling of our system fully captures the experimentally observed spectra and provides insight on the complicated level structure that results from the strong driving of the double lambda system.

  8. Upper limits on the rates of binary neutron star and neutron-star--black-hole mergers from Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J -M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jim'enez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; R"udiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Sch"onbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepa'nczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; T'apai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; T"oyr"a, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifir`o, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vas'uth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Vicer'e, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; zny, A Zadro; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron star systems and neutron-star--black-hole systems during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. In particular we searched for gravitational wave signals from binary neutron star systems with component masses $\\in [1,3] M_{\\odot}$ and component dimensionless spins $< 0.05$. We also searched for neutron-star--black-hole systems with the same neutron star parameters, black hole mass $\\in [2,99] M_{\\odot}$ and no restriction on the black hole spin magnitude. We assess the sensitivity of the two LIGO detectors to these systems, and find that they could have detected the merger of binary neutron star systems with component mass distributions of $1.35\\pm0.13 M_{\\odot}$ at a volume-weighted average distance of $\\sim$ 70Mpc, and for neutron-star--black-hole systems with neutron star masses of $1.4M_\\odot$ and black hole masses of at least $5M_\\odot$, a volume-weighted average distance of at least $\\sim$ 110Mpc. From this we...

  9. Multi-band gravitational wave astronomy: science with joint space- and ground-based observations of black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Soon after the observation of the first black hole binary (BHB) by advanced LIGO (aLIGO), GW150914, it was realised that such a massive system would have been observable in the milli-Hz (mHz) band few years prior to coalescence. Operating in the frequency range 0.1-100 mHz, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can potentially detect up to thousands inspiralling BHBs, based on the coalescence rates inferred from the aLIGO first observing run (O1). The vast majority of them (those emitting at f 10 mHz however, several of them will sweep through the LISA band, eventually producing loud coalescences in the audio-band probed by aLIGO. This contribution reviews the scientific potential of these new class of LISA sources which, in the past few months, has been investigated in several contexts, including multi-messenger and multi-band gravitational wave astronomy, BHB astrophysics, tests of alternative theories of gravity and cosmography.

  10. Observations of the Black Hole candidate GX339-4 with the TTM telescope of the "KVANT" module on board the "MIR" orbital station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, S. V.; Borozdin, K. N.; Alexandrovich, N. L.

    TTM device of the "KVANT" module onboard the "MIR" russian space station had obtained two series observations of the X-ray source Black Hole candidate GX339-4 in 1989-1994. Soft state of source, in wich source spectrum (2-28 keV) was approximated by the multi-color accretion disk model with absorption, has been founded in March 1989. Hard state of source with spectrum approximated by the power law with absorption and transfer from the hard to the soft state has been observed in the March 1994. Various source spectrum states are the prove of its belonging to the Black Hole candidates class.

  11. Could the real (not virtual) static observer exist outside a Schwarzschild black hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this Letter is rather pedagogical. We considered the static spherically symmetric ensemble of observers, having finite bare mass and trying to measure geometrical and physical properties of the environmental static (Schwarzschild) space-time. It is shown that, using the photon rockets (which the mass together with the mass of their fuel is also taken into account) they can managed to keep themselves on the fixed value of radius. The process of diminishing the total bare mass up to zero lasts infinitely long time. It is important that the problem is solved self-consistently, i.e., with full account for the back reaction of both bare mass and radiation from rockets on the space-time geometry.

  12. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well

  13. Modelling small groundwater systems - the role of targeted field investigations and observational data in reducing model uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Hughes, Andrew; Boon, David

    2017-04-01

    Coastal dunes are delicate systems that are under threat from a variety of human and natural influences. Groundwater modelling can provide a better understanding of how these systems operate and can be a useful tool towards the effective management of a coastal dune system, e.g. through predicting impacts from climatic change, sea level rise and land use management. Because of their small size, typically 10 - 100 km2, models representing small dune aquifer systems are more sensitive to uncertainties in input data, model geometry and model parameterisation as well as to the availability of observational data. This study describes the development of a groundwater flow model for a small (8 km2) spit dune system, Braunton Burrows, on the Southwest coast of England, UK. The system has been extensively studied and its hydrology is thought to be well understood. However, model development revealed a high degree of uncertainty relating to model structure (definition of model boundary conditions) and parameterisation (e.g., transmissivity distributions within the model domain). An iterative approach was employed, integrating (1) sensitivity analyses, (2) targeted field investigations and (3) Monte Carlo simulations within a cycle of repeated interrogation of the model outputs, observed data and conceptual understanding. Assessment of "soft information" and targeted field investigations were an important part of this iterative modelling process. For example, a passive seismic survey (TROMINO®) provided valuable new data for the characterisation of concealed bedrock topography and thickness of superficial deposits. The data confirmed a generally inclined underlying wave cut rock shelf platform (as suggested by literature sources), revealed a buried valley, and led to a more detailed delineation of transmissivity zones within the model domain. Constructing models with increasingly more complex spatial distributions of transmissivity, resulted in considerable improvements in

  14. Observation of High-speed Outflow on Plume-like Structures of the Quiet Sun and Coronal Holes with SDO/AIA

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Habbal, Shadia Rifal; He, Jiansen

    2011-01-01

    Observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) reveal ubiquitous episodic outflows (jets) with an average speed around 120 km s-1 at temperatures often exceeding a million degree in plume-like structures, rooted in magnetized regions of the quiet solar atmosphere. These outflows are not restricted to the well-known plumes visible in polar coronal holes, but are also present in plume-like structures originating from equatorial coronal holes and quiet-Sun regions. Outflows are also visible in the "interplume" regions throughout the atmosphere. Furthermore, the structures traced out by these flows in both plume and inter-plume regions continually exhibit transverse (Alfvenic) motion. Our finding suggests that high-speed outflows originate mainly from the magnetic network of the quiet Sun and coronal holes, and that the plume flows observed are highlighted by the denser plasma contained therein. These outflows might be an efficient means to provide heated mas...

  15. ULTRACAM observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1118+480 in quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, T; Marsh, T R; Casares, J; Zurita, C; Charles, P A; Haswell, C A; Hynes, R I

    2005-01-01

    We present high time-resolution multicolour observations of the quiescent soft X-ray transient XTE J1118+480 obtained with ULTRACAM. Superimposed on the double-humped continuum g' and i'-band lightcurves are rapid flare events which typically last a few minutes. The power density spectrum of the lightcurves can be described by a broken power-law model with a break frequency at ~2 mHz or a power-law model plus a broad quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) at ~2 mHz. In the context of the cellular-automaton we estimate the size of the quiescent advection-dominated flow (ADAF) region to be ~10^4 Schwarzschild radii, similar to that observed in other quiescent black hole X-ray transients, suggesting the same underlying physics. The similarites between the low/hard and quiescent state PDS suggest a similar origin for the optical and X-ray variability, most likely from regions at/near the ADAF.

  16. Anomalous transition of major charge carriers from holes to electrons observed in single-crystal films of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Liu, G. Z.; Gao, J.; Wang, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten (W) films were grown on SrTi O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that these as-grown films are highly epitaxial and single crystalline with the [00 l ] orientation. A special lattice stacking for the W/STO interface is observed to significantly reduce the lattice mismatching, which can be explained by the coincidence lattice model. The Hall effect has been investigated over the temperature range of 4-330 K. An anomalous transition of the major charge carriers from holes to electrons was observed in these W films upon cooling. The threshold temperature, in which the sign of the Hall coefficient RH was reversed, was found to increase with the film thinning. With the sample's thickness reduced to several unit cells, its major carriers remained electrons even at room temperature. Calculations using the density functional perturbation theory revealed that such a transition from p type to n type could be attributed to the appearance of an electron pocket along the M-Γ direction induced by the lattice mismatching between the W film and SrTi O3 substrate.

  17. Deep 3 GHz Observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - 1. Source extraction and uncertainty analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Condon, Jim; Cotton, Bill; Perley, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This is the first of two papers describing the observations and cataloguing of deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the use of simulated images, the uncertainties and accuracy of source finding routines, as well as to quantify systematic effects due to resolution, such as source confusion and source size. While these effects are not new, this work is intended as a particular case study that can be scaled and translated to other surveys. We use the simulations to derive uncertainties in the fitted parameters, as well as bias corrections for the actual catalogue (presented in Paper 2). We compare two different source-finding routines, OBIT and AEGEAN, and two different effective resolutions, 8 and 2.75 arcsec. We find that the two routines perform comparably well, with OBIT being slightly better at de-blending sources, but slightly worse at fitting resolved sources. We show that 30 to 70 per cent of sources ...

  18. Multiwavelength observations of the black hole transient XTE J1752-223 during its 2010 outburst decay

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y Y; Kalemci, E; Güver, T; Tomsick, J A; Buxton, M M; Brocksopp, C; Corbel, S; Cabrera-Lavers, A

    2013-01-01

    Galactic black hole transients show many interesting phenomena during outburst decays. We present simultaneous X-ray (\\emph{RXTE}, \\emph{Swift}, and \\emph{INTEGRAL}), and optical/near-infrared (O/NIR) observations (SMARTS) of the X-ray transient XTE J1752$-$223 during its outburst decay in 2010. The multiwavelength observations over 150 days in 2010 cover the transition from soft to hard spectral state. We discuss the evolution of radio emission is with respect to the O/NIR light curve which shows several flares. One of those flares is bright and long, starting about 60 days after the transition in X-ray timing properties. During this flare, the radio spectral index becomes harder. Other smaller flares occur along with the X-ray timing transition, and also right after the detection of the radio core. We discuss the significances of these flares. Furthermore, using the simultaneous broadband X-ray spectra including \\emph{INTEGRAL}, we find that a high energy cut-off with a folding energy near 250 keV is necess...

  19. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Transient XTE J1752-223 during Its 2010 Outburst Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Y. Y.; Dinçer, T.; Kalemci, E.; Güver, T.; Tomsick, J. A.; Buxton, M. M.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2013-06-01

    Galactic black hole transients show many interesting phenomena during outburst decays. We present simultaneous X-ray (RXTE, Swift, and INTEGRAL), and optical/near-infrared (O/NIR) observations (SMARTS) of the X-ray transient XTE J1752-223 during its outburst decay in 2010. The multiwavelength observations over 150 days in 2010 cover the transition from soft to hard spectral state. We discuss the evolution of radio emission with respect to the O/NIR light curve which shows several flares. One of those flares is bright and long, starting about 60 days after the transition in X-ray timing properties. During this flare, the radio spectral index becomes harder. Other smaller flares occur along with the X-ray timing transition, and also right after the detection of the radio core. We discuss the significances of these flares. Furthermore, using the simultaneous broadband X-ray spectra including INTEGRAL, we find that a high energy cut-off with a folding energy near 250 keV is necessary around the time that the compact jet is forming. The broadband spectrum can be fitted equally well with a Comptonization model. In addition, using photoelectric absorption edges in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer X-ray spectra and the extinction of red clump giants in the direction of the source, we find a lower limit on the distance of >5 kpc.

  20. Water level observations from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for improving estimates of surface water-groundwater interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Butts, Michael; Vammen Jacobsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . However, traditional river gauging stations are normally spaced too far apart to capture spatial patterns in the water surface, while spaceborne observations have limited spatial and temporal resolution. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can retrieve river water level measurements, providing: i) high...

  1. Coronal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  2. High-energy observations of the state transition of the X-ray nova and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bel, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Sizun, P.

    2004-01-01

    , typical of a black-hole binary in the so-called High/Soft State. We then followed the evolution of the source outburst over several months using the INTEGRAL Galactic Centre survey observations. The source became active again at the end of March: it showed a clear transition towards a much harder state...

  3. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray-radio observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratti, E.M.; Jonker, P.G.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Torres, M.A.P.; Homan, J.; Markoff, S.; Tomsick, J.; Kaaret, P.; Wijnands, R.; Gallo, E.; Özel, F.; Steeghs, D.T.H.; Fender, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752−223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752−223 is fainter than 24.4 mag in the i′ band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-201

  4. 5.0 GHz Continuum eEVN Observations of the Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole Candidate SDSSS J113323.97+550415.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Torres, M.; Piconcelli, N. Ramirez-Olivencia E.; Alberdi, A.; Komossa, S.; Herrero-Illana, R.

    2015-04-01

    We report electronic European VLBI Network (eEVN) radio observations of the recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate SDSSS J113323.97+550415.8 (=SDSS1133), in the outskirts of the nearby (D=28.9 Mpc) galaxy Mrk 177 (Koss et al.

  5. High-energy gamma-ray observations of the accreting black hole V404 Cygni during its 2015 June outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, A.; Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Rodriguez, J.; Grenier, I.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T.; Readhead, A.; Fender, R.; Mooley, K.

    2016-10-01

    We report on Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations of the accreting black hole low-mass X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its outburst in 2015 June-July. Detailed analyses reveal a possible excess of γ-ray emission on 2015 26 June, with a very soft spectrum above 100 MeV, at a position consistent with the direction of V404 Cyg (within the 95 per cent confidence region and a chance probability of 4 × 10-4). This emission cannot be associated with any previously known Fermi source. Its temporal coincidence with the brightest radio and hard X-ray flare in the light curve of V404 Cyg, at the end of the main active phase of its outburst, strengthens the association with V404 Cyg. If the γ-ray emission is associated with V404 Cyg, the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation emission by INTEGRAL reqires that the high-energy γ-rays originate away from the corona, possibly in a Blandford-Znajek jet. The data give support to models involving a magnetically arrested disc where a bright γ-ray jet can re-form after the occurrence of a major transient ejection seen in the radio.

  6. X-ray observational signature of a black hole accretion disc in an active galactic nucleus RXJ1633+4718

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a luminous ultra-soft X-ray excess in a radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert1 galaxy, RXJ1633+4718, from archival ROSAT observations. The thermal temperature of this emission, when fitted with a blackbody, is as low as 32.5(+8.0,-6.0)eV. This is in remarkable contrast to the canonical temperatures of ~0.1-0.2keV found hitherto for the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei (AGN), and is interestingly close to the maximum temperature predicted for a postulated accretion disc in this object. If this emission is indeed blackbody in nature, the derived luminosity [3.5(+3.3,-1.5)x10^(44)ergs/s] infers a compact emitting area with a size [~5x10^(12)cm or 0.33AU in radius] that is comparable to several times the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole at the mass estimated for this AGN (3x10^6Msun). In fact, this ultra-steep X-ray emission can be well fitted as the (Compton scattered) Wien tail of the multi-temperature blackbody emission from an optically thick accretion disc, whose parameters...

  7. Solar Cycle Variation of Microwave Polar Brightening and EUV Coronal Hole Observed by Nobeyama Radioheliograph and SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Park, Jong-Yeop; Kim, Yeon-Han

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the solar cycle variation of microwave and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) intensity in latitude to compare microwave polar brightening (MPB) with the EUV polar coronal hole (CH). For this study, we used the full-sun images observed in 17 GHz of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph from 1992 July to 2016 November and in two EUV channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 193 Å and 171 Å on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) from 2011 January to 2016 November. As a result, we found that the polar intensity in EUV is anti-correlated with the polar intensity in microwave. Since the depression of EUV intensity in the pole is mostly owing to the CH appearance and continuation there, the anti-correlation in the intensity implies the intimate association between the polar CH and the MPB. Considering the report of tet{gopal99} that the enhanced microwave brightness in the CH is seen above the enhanced photospheric magnetic field, we suggest that the pole area during the solar minimum has a stronger magnetic field than the quiet sun level and such a strong field in the pole results in the formation of the polar CH. The emission mechanism of the MPB and the physical link with the polar CH are not still fully understood. It is necessary to investigate the MPB using high resolution microwave imaging data, which can be obtained by the high performance large-array radio observatories such as the ALMA project.

  8. VVV Survey Observations of a Microlensing Stellar Mass Black Hole Candidate in the Field of the Globular Cluster NGC 6553

    CERN Document Server

    Minniti, D; Alonso-Garcia, J; Anguita, T; Catelan, M; Gran, F; Motta, V; Muro, G; Rojas, K; Saito, R K

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a large timescale candidate microlensing event of a bulge stellar source based on near-infrared observations with the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea Survey (VVV). The new microlensing event is projected only 3.5 arcmin away from the center of the globular cluster NGC 6553. The source appears to be a bulge giant star with magnitude Ks = 13.52, based on the position in the color-magnitude diagram. The foreground lens may be located in the globular cluster, which has well-known parameters such as distance and proper motions. If the lens is a cluster member, we can directly estimate its mass simply following Paczynski et al. (1996) which is a modified version of the more general case due to Refsdal. In that case, the lens would be a massive stellar remnant, with M = 1.5-3.5 Msun. If the blending fraction of the microlensing event appears to be small, and this lens would represent a good isolated black hole (BH) candidate, that would be the oldest BH known. Alternative explanations (w...

  9. MAXI GSC observations of a spectral state transition in the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223

    CERN Document Server

    Nakahira, Satoshi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Ebisawa, Ken; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Daikyuji, Arata; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Isobe, Naoki; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyoshi, Sho; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E; Nakajima, Motoki; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suzuki, Motoko; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results on the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 from the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on-board the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on the International Space Station. Including the onset of the outburst reported by the Proportional Counter Array on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer on 2009 October 23, the MAXI/GSC has been monitoring this source approximately 10 times per day with a high sensitivity in the 2-20 keV band. XTE J1752-223 was initially in the low/hard state during the first 3 months. An anti-correlated behavior between the 2-4 keV and 4-20 keV bands were observed around January 20, 2010, indicating that the source exhibited the spectral transition to the high/soft state. A transient radio jet may have been ejected when the source was in the intermediate state where the spectrum was roughly explained by a power-law with a photon index of 2.5-3.0. The unusually long period in the initial low/hard state implies a slow variation in the mass accretion rate, and the dramatic s...

  10. High-energy gamma-ray observations of the accreting black hole V404 Cygni during its June 2015 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, A; Dubus, G; Rodriguez, J; Grenier, I; Hovatta, T; Pearson, T; Readhead, A; Fender, R; Mooley, K

    2016-01-01

    We report on Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations of the accreting black hole low-mass X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its outburst in June-July 2015. Detailed analyses reveal a possible excess of $\\gamma$-ray emission on 26 June 2015, with a very soft spectrum above $100$ MeV, at a position consistent with the direction of V404 Cyg (within the $95\\%$ confidence region and a chance probability of $4 \\times 10^{-4}$). This emission cannot be associated with any previously-known Fermi source. Its temporal coincidence with the brightest radio and hard X-ray flare in the lightcurve of V404 Cyg, at the end of the main active phase of its outburst, strengthens the association with V404 Cyg. If the $\\gamma$-ray emission is associated with V404 Cyg, the simultaneous detection of $511\\,$keV annihilation emission by INTEGRAL requires that the high-energy $\\gamma$ rays originate away from the corona, possibly in a Blandford-Znajek jet. The data give support to models involving a magnetically-arrested disk where a brig...

  11. Groundwater geochemistry observations in littoral caves of Mallorca (western Mediterranean: implications for deposition of phreatic overgrowths on speleothems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan P. Onac

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phreatic overgrowths on speleothems (POS precipitate at the air-water interface in the littoral caves of Mallorca, Spain. Mainly composed of calcite, aragonite POS are also observed in specific locations. To characterize the geochemical environment of the brackish upper water column, water samples and salinity values were collected from water profiles (0-2.9 m in April 2012 and March 2013 near aragonite POS in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera and calcite POS in Coves del Drac (hereafter, Vallgornera and Drac. Degassing of CO2 from the water was evidenced by the existence of lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentration and enriched δ13CDIC values in a thin surface layer (the uppermost 0.4 m, which was observed in both profiles from Drac. This process is facilitated by the efficient exchange of cave air with the atmosphere, creating a CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 disparity between the cave water and air, resulting in the precipitation of calcite POS as CO2 degasses from the water. The degassed upper layer was not observed in either profile from Vallgornera, suggesting that less efficient cave ventilation restricts outgassing of CO2, which also results in accumulation of CO2 in the cave atmosphere. The presence of an existing uncorroded POS horizon, as well as higher concentrations and large amplitude fluctuations of cave air pCO2, may indicate that aragonite POS deposition is currently episodic in Vallgornera. Ion concentration data from monthly water samples collected in each cave between October 2012 and March 2013 indicate higher Mg:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca and Sr:Mg ratios in Vallgornera. Salinity alone does not appear to be a viable proxy for ions that may promote aragonite precipitation or inhibit calcite precipitation. Instead, these ions may be contributed by more intense bedrock weathering or deep groundwater flow.

  12. Disk Dominated States of 4U 1957+11: Chandra, XMM, and RXTE Observations of Ostensibly the Most Rapidly Spinning Galactic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Michael A; Homan, Jeroen; Yao, Yangsen; Wilms, Joern; Schulz, Norbert S; Canizares, Claude R

    2008-01-01

    We present simultaneous Chandra-HETG and RXTE observations of a moderate flux `soft state' of the black hole candidate 4U1957+11. These spectra, having a minimally discernible hard X-ray excess, are an excellent test of modern disk atmosphere models that include the effects of black hole spin. The HETG data show that the soft disk spectrum is only very mildly absorbed with N_H =1-2 X 10^{21} cm^-2. These data additionally reveal 13.449 A NeIX absorption consistent with the warm/hot phase of the interstellar medium. The fitted disk model implies a highly inclined disk around a low mass black hole rapidly rotating with normalized spin a*~1. We show, however, that pure Schwarzschild black hole models describe the data extremely well, albeit with large disk atmosphere ``color-correction'' factors. Standard color-correction factors can be attained if one additionally incorporates mild Comptonization. We find that the Chandra observations do not uniquely determine spin. Similarly, XMM/RXTE observations, taken only ...

  13. Deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - I. Source extraction and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Perley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    This is the first of two papers describing the observations and cataloguing of deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the use of simulated images, the uncertainties and accuracy of source-finding routines, as well as to quantify systematic effects due to resolution, such as source confusion and source size. While these effects are not new, this work is intended as a particular case study that can be scaled and translated to other surveys. We use the simulations to derive uncertainties in the fitted parameters, as well as bias corrections for the actual catalogue (presented in Paper II). We compare two different source-finding routines, OBIT and AEGEAN, and two different effective resolutions, 8 and 2.75 arcsec. We find that the two routines perform comparably well, with OBIT being slightly better at de-blending sources, but slightly worse at fitting resolved sources. We show that 30-70 per cent of sources are missed or fit inaccurately once the source size becomes larger than the beam, possibly explaining source count errors in high-resolution surveys. We also investigate the effect of blending, finding that any sources with separations smaller than the beam size are fit as single sources. We show that the use of machine-learning techniques can correctly identify blended sources up to 90 per cent of the time, and prior-driven fitting can lead to a 70 per cent improvement in the number of de-blended sources.

  14. Scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: comparing theoretical and observational measurements, and the impact of selection effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraf, C.; Di Matteo, T.; Treu, T.; Feng, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, D.

    2015-11-01

    We use the high-resolution simulation MassiveBlackII to examine scaling relations between black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties (σ, total M* and LV), finding good agreement with recent observational data, especially at the high-mass end. We find Gaussian intrinsic scatter (˜half the observed scatter) about all three relations, except among the most massive objects. Below z ˜ 2 the slope of the relations remain roughly z-independent, and only steepen by 50 per cent by z ˜ 4. The normalization of the σ, LV relations evolve by 0.3, 0.43 dex, while the M* correlation does not evolve out to at least z ˜ 2. Testing for selection biases, we find MBH- or M*-selected samples have steeper slopes than random samples, suggesting a constant-mass selection function can exhibit faster evolution than a random sample. We find a potential bias among high-LBH subsamples due to their more massive hosts, but that bright (active) active galactic nuclei exhibit no intrinsic bias relative to fainter (inactive) BHs in equivalent-mass hosts. Finally, we show that BHs below the local relation tend to grow faster than their host (72 per cent of BHs >0.3 dex below the mean relation have an MBH-M* trajectory steeper than the local relation), while those above have shallower trajectories (only 14 per cent are steeper than local). Thus BHs tend to grow faster than their hosts until surpassing the local relation, when their growth is suppressed, bringing them back towards the mean relation.

  15. Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zampieri, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, included in many land surface models to provide a lower boundary condition for soil moisture, which in turn plays a key role in the land-vegetation-atmosphere interactions and the ecosystem dynamics. In regional-scale climate applications land surface models (LSMs) are commonly coupled to atmospheric models to close the surface energy, mass and carbon balance. LSMs in these applications are used to resolve the momentum, heat, water and carbon vertical fluxes, accounting for the effect of vegetation, soil type and other surface parameters, while lack of adequate resolution prevents using them to resolve horizontal sub-grid processes. Specifically, LSMs resolve the large-scale runoff production associated with infiltration excess and sub-grid groundwater convergence, but they neglect the effect from loosing streams to groundwater. Through the analysis of observed data of soil moisture obtained from the Oklahoma Mesoscale Network stations and land surface temperature derived from MODIS we provide evidence that the regional scale soil moisture and surface temperature patterns are affected by the rivers. This is demonstrated on the basis of simulations from a land surface model (i.e., Community Land Model - CLM, version 3.5). We show that the model cannot reproduce the features of the observed soil moisture and temperature spatial patterns that are related to the underlying mechanism of reinfiltration of river water to groundwater. Therefore, we implement a simple parameterization of this process in CLM showing the ability to reproduce the soil moisture and surface temperature spatial variabilities that relate to the river distribution at regional scale. The CLM with this new parameterization is used to evaluate impacts of the improved representation of river-groundwater interactions on the simulated water cycle parameters and the surface energy budget at the regional scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: simulation of field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasa, Ehsan; Bekins, Barbara A.; Mackay, Douglas M.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Wilson, John T.; Feris, Kevin P.; Wood, Isaac A.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol (With-Ethanol Lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field dataset and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the With-Ethanol Lane than in the No-Ethanol Lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron-reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05.

  17. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasa, Ehsan; Bekins, Barbara A.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Wilson, John T.; Feris, Kevin P.; Wood, Isaac A.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-08-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (no-ethanol lane) and BToX plus ethanol (with-ethanol lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field data set and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the with-ethanol lane than in the no-ethanol lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05.

  18. Upper Limits on the Rates of Binary Neutron Star and Neutron Star-Black Hole Mergers from Advanced LIGO’s First Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio., M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave signals from binary-neutron star systems with component masses \\in [1,3] {M}⊙ and component dimensionless spins detected the merger of binary-neutron star systems with component mass distributions of 1.35 ± 0.13 M ⊙ at a volume-weighted average distance of ˜70 Mpc, and for neutron star-black hole systems with neutron star masses of 1.4 M ⊙ and black hole masses of at least 5 M ⊙, a volume-weighted average distance of at least ˜110 Mpc. From this we constrain with 90% confidence the merger rate to be less than 12,600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for binary-neutron star systems and less than 3600 Gpc-3 yr-1 for neutron star-black hole systems. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these results, which we find to be in conflict with only the most optimistic predictions. However, we find that if no detection of neutron star-binary mergers is made in the next two Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observing runs we would place significant constraints on the merger rates. Finally, assuming a rate of {10}-7+20 Gpc-3 yr-1, short gamma-ray bursts beamed toward the Earth, and assuming that all short gamma-ray bursts have binary-neutron star (neutron star-black hole) progenitors, we can use our 90% confidence rate upper limits to constrain the beaming angle of the gamma-ray burst to be greater than 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.1+1.7 (4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {3}-1.9+3.1).

  19. Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  20. Observation of momentum-dependent charge excitations in hole-doped cuprates using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the oxygen K edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenji; Tohyama, Takami; Asano, Shun; Sato, Kentaro; Fujita, Masaki; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Tustsui, Kenji; Sota, Shigetoshi; Miyawaki, Jun; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Pelliciari, Jonathan; Huang, Yaobo; Schmitt, Thorsten; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2017-09-01

    We investigate electronic excitations in La2 -x(Br,Sr ) xCuO4 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the oxygen K edge. RIXS spectra of the hole-doped cuprates show clear momentum dependence below 1 eV. The broad spectral weight exhibits positive dispersion and shifts to higher energy with increasing hole concentration. Theoretical calculation of the dynamical charge structure factor on oxygen orbitals in a three-band Hubbard model is consistent with the experimental observation of the momentum and doping dependence, and therefore the momentum-dependent spectral weight is ascribed to intraband charge excitations which have been observed in electron-doped cuprates. Our results confirm that the momentum-dependent charge excitations exist on the order of the transfer energy (t ), and the broad spectral line shape indicates damped and incoherent character of the charge excitations at the energy range in the doped Mott insulators.

  1. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10, two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol...

  2. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10, two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol...

  3. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  4. Nitrate fluxes to groundwater under citrus orchards in a Mediterranean climate: observations, calibrated models, simulations and agro-hydrological conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Daniel; Shapira, Roi H; Bar-Tal, Asher; Fine, Pinchas; Russo, David

    2013-08-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater under land used for intensive-agriculture is probably the most worrisome agro-hydrological sustainability problem worldwide. Vadose-zone samples from 0 to 9 m depth under citrus orchards overlying an unconfined aquifer were analyzed for variables controlling water flow and the fate and transport of nitrogen fertilizers. Steady-state estimates of water and NO3-N fluxes to groundwater were found to vary spatially in the ranges of 90-330 mm yr(-1) and 50-220 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Calibration of transient models to two selected vadose-zone profiles required limiting the concentration of NO3-N in the solution that is taken up by the roots to 30 mg L(-1). Results of an independent lysimeter experiment showed a similar nitrogen-uptake regime. Simulations of past conditions revealed a significant correlation between NO3-N flux to groundwater and the previous year's precipitation. Simulations of different nitrogen-application rates showed that using half of the nitrogen fertilizer added to the irrigation water by farmers would reduce average NO3-N flux to groundwater by 70%, decrease root nitrogen uptake by 20% and reduce the average pore water NO3-N concentration in the deep vadose zone to below the Israeli drinking water standard; hence this rate of nitrogen application was found to be agro-hydrologically sustainable. Beyond the investigation of nitrate fluxes to groundwater under citrus orchards and the interesting case-study aspects, this work demonstrates a methodology that enables skillful decisions concerning joint sustainability of both the water resource and agricultural production in a common environmental setting.

  5. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  6. Investigating patterns and controls of groundwater up-welling in a lowland river by combining fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing with observations of vertical head gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krause

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the patterns and controls of aquifer-river exchange in a fast-flowing lowland river by the conjunctive use of streambed temperature anomalies identified with Fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensed (FO-DTS and observations of vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG.

    FO-DTS temperature traces along this lowland river reach reveal discrete patterns with "cold spots" indicating groundwater up-welling. In contrast to previous studies using FO-DTS for investigation of groundwater-surface water exchange, the fibre-optic cable in this study was buried in the streambed sediments, ensuring clear signals despite fast flow and high discharges. During the observed summer baseflow period, streambed temperatures in groundwater up-welling locations were found to be up to 1.5 °C lower than ambient streambed temperatures. Due to the high river flows the cold spots were sharp and distinctly localized without measurable impact on downstream surface water temperature.

    VHG patterns along the stream reach were highly variable in space, revealing strong differences even at small scales. VHG patterns alone are indicators of both, structural heterogeneity of the stream bed as well as of the spatial heterogeneity of the groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes and are thus not conclusive in their interpretation. However, in combination with the high spatial resolution DTS data we were able to separate these two influences and clearly identify locations of enhanced exchange, while also obtaining information on the complex small-scale streambed transmissivity patterns responsible for the very discrete exchange patterns.

  7. Evidence for Low Black Hole Spin and Physically Motivated Accretion Models from Millimeter VLBI Observations of Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Avery E; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Loeb, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter very-long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. (2009) have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9-sigma level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provid...

  8. Direct Observation of Long Electron-Hole Diffusion Distance beyond 1 Micrometer in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Film

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu; Li, Yunlong; Wang, Wei; Bian, Zuqiang; Xiao, Lixin; Wang, Shufeng; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    In high performance perovskite based on CH3NH3PbI3, the formerly reported short charge diffusion distance is a confliction to thick working layer in solar cell devices. We carried out a study on charge diffusion in spin-coated CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin film by transient fluorescent spectroscopy. A thickness-dependent fluorescent lifetime was found. This effect correlates to the defects at crystal grain boundaries. By coating the film with electron or hole transfer layer, PCBM or Spiro-OMeTAD respectively, we observed the charge transfer directly through the fluorescent decay. One-dimensional diffusion model was applied to obtain long charge diffusion distances, which is ~1.3 micron for electrons and ~5.2 micron for holes. This study gives direct support to the high performance of perovskite solar cells.

  9. Locations, values, and uncertainties of hydraulic-head observations for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set contains the locations, values, and uncertainties of hydraulic-head observations used in the calibration of the transient model of...

  10. Locations, values, and uncertainties of hydraulic-head observations for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set contains the locations, values, and uncertainties of hydraulic-head observations used in the calibration of the transient model of...

  11. Braneworld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, an...

  12. A Use Case for implementing Earth observation (EO) to avoid regional groundwater contamination in the Midwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Pearlman, J.

    2016-12-01

    A use case to implement Landsat data for application in decisions in the agricultural sector is being developed. Stakeholders are at both the farm level and regional level. Decisions by individual farmers and communities about the intensity of use of agrochemicals on crops can affect the future quality of the groundwater in Iowa. An initial case study was completed to examine some of the technical perspectives of adapting and coupling satellite imagery and in situ water quality measurements to forecast changes in groundwater quality. This analysis was conducted to identify the benefits of EO to assist in specific decisions to improve agricultural land management and regulation of groundwater contamination. Results demonstrated that Landsat information facilitates spatiotemporal analysis of the impact of nitrates on groundwater resources. Value is dependent on whether additional information reduces the variance (uncertainty) in outcomes. The use case ultimately involves scientific experts, farmers and their representatives, and the Government. Decisions involve some level of uncertainty in scientific measurement and statistical variability affects its informational value. These issues are concerns with implementing remote sensing technology and must be examined with end users and their impact discussed and understood. Thus, the study team held meetings with subject experts from Iowa State University and the Iowa Farm Bureau to explore the next steps in developing the use case. Discussion with the subject experts focused on more detail to capture new agricultural science advances and engineering options that could be linked in a multi-scale approach. A second meeting between the study and the Iowa Farm Bureau centered on the need for efficient regulation of land use and regulation of agrochemical application in the Midwest. The impacts of these discussions and other user inputs on the directions of the use case will be presented.

  13. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  14. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  15. The complexity of earth observation valuation: Modeling the patterns and processes of agricultural production and groundwater quality to construct a production possibilities frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, W.; Raunikar, R. P.; Bernknopf, R.; Mishra, S.

    2012-12-01

    A production possibilities frontier (PPF) is a graph comparing the production interdependencies for two commodities. In this case, the commodities are defined as the ecosystem services of agricultural production and groundwater quality. This presentation focuses on the refinement of techniques used in an application to estimate the value of remote sensing information. Value of information focuses on the use of uncertain and varying qualities of information within a specific decision-making context for a certain application, which in this case included land use, biogeochemical, hydrogeologic, economic and geospatial data and models. The refined techniques include deriving alternate patterns and processes of ecosystem functions, new estimates of ecosystem service values to construct a PPF, and the extension of this work into decision support systems. We have coupled earth observations of agricultural production with groundwater quality measurements to estimate the value of remote sensing information in northeastern Iowa to be 857M ± 198M (at the 2010 price level) per year. We will present an improved method for modeling crop rotation patterns to include multiple years of rotation, reduction in the assumptions associated with optimal land use allocations, and prioritized improvement of the resolution of input data (for example, soil resources and topography). The prioritization focuses on watersheds that were identified at a coarse-scale of analysis to have higher intensities of agricultural production and lower probabilities of groundwater survivability (in other words, remaining below a regulatory threshold for nitrate pollution) over time, and thus require finer-scaled modeling and analysis. These improved techniques and the simulation of certain scale-dependent policy and management actions, which trade-off the objectives of optimizing crop value versus maintaining potable groundwater, and provide new estimates for the empirical values of the PPF. The calculation

  16. The Disk Wind in the Rapidly Spinning Stellar-mass Black Hole 4U 1630-472 Observed with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andy C.; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Krivonos, Roman; Mori, Kaya; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a* = 0.985(+0.005/-0.014) (1 sigma statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 +/- 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log xi = 3.6(+0.2/-0.3) and is dominated by He-like Fe xxv, the wind has a velocity of v/c = 0.043(+0.002/-0.007) (12900(+600/-2100) km s(exp -1)). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log xi = 6.1(+0.7/-0.6)), and is dominated by Fe xxvi, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  17. Observational Quantification of the Energy Dissipated by Alfv\\'en Waves in a Polar Coronal Hole: Evidence that Waves Drive the Fast Solar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the energy carried and dissipated by Alfv\\'en waves in a polar coronal hole. Alfv\\'en waves have been proposed as the energy source that heats the corona and drives the solar wind. Previous work has shown that line widths decrease with height in coronal holes, which is a signature of wave damping, but have been unable to quantify the energy lost by the waves. This is because line widths depend on both the non-thermal velocity v_nt and the ion temperature T_i. We have implemented a means to separate the T_i and v_nt contributions using the observation that at low heights the waves are undamped and the ion temperatures do not change with height. This enables us to determine the amount of energy carried by the waves at low heights, which is proportional to v_nt. We find the initial energy flux density present was 6.7 +/- 0.7 x 10^5 erg cm^-2 s^-1, which is sufficient to heat the coronal hole and acccelerate the solar wind during the 2007 - 2009 solar minimum. Additionally, we find tha...

  18. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  19. Electron hole tracking PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian

    2016-10-01

    An electron hole is a coherent BGK mode solitary wave. Electron holes are observed to travel at high velocities relative to bulk plasmas. The kinematics of a 1-D electron hole is studied using a novel Particle-In-Cell simulation code with fully kinetic ions. A hole tracking technique enables us to follow the trajectory of a fast-moving solitary hole and study quantitatively hole acceleration and coupling to ions. The electron hole signal is detected and the simulation domain moves by a carefully designed feedback control law to follow its propagation. This approach has the advantage that the length of the simulation domain can be significantly reduced to several times the hole width, which makes high resolution simulations tractable. We observe a transient at the initial stage of hole formation when the hole accelerates to several times the cold-ion sound speed. Artificially imposing slow ion speed changes on a fully formed hole causes its velocity to change even when the ion stream speed in the hole frame greatly exceeds the ion thermal speed, so there are no reflected ions. The behavior that we observe in numerical simulations agrees very well with our analytic theory of hole momentum conservation and energization effects we call ``jetting''. The work was partially supported by the NSF/DOE Basic Plasma Science Partnership under Grant DE-SC0010491. Computer simulations were carried out on the MIT PSFC parallel AMD Opteron/Infiniband cluster Loki.

  20. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  1. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  2. Three observational differences for binary black holes detections with second and third generation gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Advanced gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO and Virgo, will detect hundreds of gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes in the next few years. The collection of detected sources is expected to have certain properties. It is expected that a selection bias will exist toward higher mass systems, that most events will be oriented with their angular momentum pointing to or away from Earth, and that quiet events will be much more numerous than loud events. In this paper we show how all these assumptions are only true for existing detectors and do not have any universality. Using an network of proposed third-generation gravitational wave detectors, we show how each of these assumptions must be revised and we discuss several consequences on the characterization of the sources.

  3. Three observational differences for binary black holes detections with second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Advanced gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO and Virgo, will detect hundreds of gravitational-wave signals emitted by binary black holes in the next few years. The collection of detected sources is expected to have certain properties. It is expected that a selection bias will exist toward higher-mass systems, that most events will be oriented with their angular momentum pointing to or away from Earth, and that quiet events will be much more numerous than loud events. In this paper, we show how all these assumptions are only true for existing detectors and do not have any universality. Using a network of proposed third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, we show how each of these assumptions must be revised, and we discuss several consequences on the characterization of the sources.

  4. Observations of solar coronal holes using radio (GMRT & GRH), extreme ultra-violet (SOHO-EIT) and X-ray (GOES-SXI) imaging instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, F. R. H.; Ramesh, R.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Subramanian, P.; Cecatto, J. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    Solar observations with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope GMRT on 06 04 2005 at 150 MHz show evidence for a radio counterpart to a Coronal Hole CH observed as a depression in the radio brightness distribution on the solar disk In this work we compare the structural details of the radio CH using the GMRT observations and the Extreme Ultra Violet EUV and Soft X-Ray SXR images obtained with the SoHO EIT and GOES SXI respectively We also study the density temperature inside the same CH using 115 MHz data from the Gauribidanur Radioheliograph GRH We present and discuss our results for the radio counterpart to this CH focusing on the comparison of its position and size as determined from EUV and SXR with the parameters determined from the GMRT map and on the determination of plasma parameters from the GRH map

  5. Astrophysical Black Holes in the Physical Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter I focus on asking and answering the following questions: (1) What is a black hole? Answer: There are three types of black holes, namely mathematical black holes, physical black holes and astrophysical black holes. An astrophysical black hole, with mass distributed within its event horizon but not concentrated at the singularity point, is not a mathematical black hole. (2) Can astrophysical black holes be formed in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, at least this can be done with gravitational collapse. (3) How can we prove that what we call astrophysical black holes are really black holes? Answer: Finding direct evidence of event horizon is not the way to go. Instead I propose five criteria which meet the highest standard for recognizing new discoveries in experimental physics and observational astronomy. (4) Do we have sufficient evidence to claim the existence of astrophysical black holes in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, astrophysical black holes have been found at least in some galac...

  6. Continuous and event-based time series analysis of observed floodplain groundwater flow under contrasting land-use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elliott; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-10-01

    There is an ongoing need to improve quantitative understanding of land-use impacts on floodplain groundwater flow regimes. A study was implemented in Hinkson Creek Watershed, Missouri, USA, including equidistant grids of nine piezometers, equipped with pressure transducers, which were installed at two floodplain study sites: a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historical agricultural field (Ag). Data were logged at thirty minute intervals for the duration of the 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 water years (October 1, 2010-September 30, 2014). Results show significant (pflood attenuation capacity and streamwater buffering potential by the BHF floodplain, relative to the Ag, and highlight the value of floodplain forests as a land and water resource management tool.

  7. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  8. X-shaped radio galaxies as observational evidence for the interaction of supermassive binary black holes and accretion disk at pc scale

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F K

    2004-01-01

    A supermassive black hole binary may form during galaxy mergering. we investigate the interaction of the supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) and an accretion disk and show that the detected X-shaped structure in some FRII radio galaxies may be due to the interaction-realignment of inclined binary and accretion disk occurred within the pc scale of the galaxy center. We compare in detail the model and observations and show that the configuration is consistent very well with the observations of X-shaped radio sources. X-shaped radio feature form only in FRII radio sources due to the strong interaction between the binary and a standard disk, while the absence of X-shaped FRI radio galaxies is due to that the interaction between the binary and the radiatively inefficient accretion flow in FRI radio sources is negligible. It is suggested that the binary would keep misaligned with the outer disk for most of the life time of FRII radio galaxies and the orientation of jet in most FRII radio galaxies distributes r...

  9. A Clean Sightline to Quiescence: Multiwavelength Observations of the High Galactic Latitude Black Hole X-ray Binary Swift J1357.2-0933

    CERN Document Server

    Plotkin, Richard M; Jonker, Peter G; Miller-Jones, James C A; Homan, Jeroen; Munoz-Darias, Teo; Markoff, Sera; Padilla, Montserrat Armas; Fender, Rob; Rushton, Anthony P; Russell, David M; Torres, Manuel A P

    2015-01-01

    We present coordinated multiwavelength observations of the high Galactic latitude (b=+50 deg) black hole X-ray binary (XRB) J1357.2-0933 in quiescence. Our broadband spectrum includes strictly simultaneous radio and X-ray observations, and near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet data taken 1-2 days later. We detect Swift J1357.2-0933 at all wavebands except for the radio (f_5GHz < 3.9 uJy/beam). Given current constraints on the distance (2.3-6.3 kpc), its 0.5-10 keV X-ray flux corresponds to an Eddington ratio Lx/Ledd = 4e-9 -- 3e-8 (assuming a black hole mass of 10 Msun). The broadband spectrum is dominated by synchrotron radiation from a relativistic population of outflowing thermal electrons, which we argue to be a common signature of short-period quiescent BHXBs. Furthermore, we identify the frequency where the synchrotron radiation transitions from optically thick-to-thin (approximately 2-5e14 Hz, which is the most robust determination of a 'jet break' for a quiescent BHXB to date. Our interpretation ...

  10. Direct Observation of Long Electron-Hole Diffusion Distance in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Yan, Weibo; Li, Yunlong; Wang, Shufeng; Wang, Wei; Bian, Zuqiang; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-09-01

    In high performance perovskite based solar cells, CH3NH3PbI3 is the key material. We carried out a study on charge diffusion in spin-coated CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin film by transient fluorescent spectroscopy. A thickness-dependent fluorescent lifetime was found. By coating the film with an electron or hole transfer layer, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or 2,2‧,7,7‧-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9‧-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) respectively, we observed the charge transfer directly through the fluorescence quenching. One-dimensional diffusion model was applied to obtain long charge diffusion distances in thick films, which is ~1.7 μm for electrons and up to ~6.3 μm for holes. Short diffusion distance of few hundreds of nanosecond was also observed in thin films. This thickness dependent charge diffusion explained the formerly reported short charge diffusion distance (~100 nm) in films and resolved its confliction to thick working layer (300-500 nm) in real devices. This study presents direct support to the high performance perovskite solar cells and will benefit the devices’ design.

  11. NIR and optical observations of the failed outbursts of black hole binary XTE J1550-564

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, P A

    2013-01-01

    A number of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) undergo "failed outbursts" in which, instead of evolving through the canonical states, they remain in a hard state throughout the outburst. While the sources of X-ray and radio emission in the hard state are relatively well understood, the origin of the near infrared (NIR) and optical emission is more complex though it likely stems from an amalgam of different emission processes, occurring as it does, at the intersecting wavelengths of those processes. We aim to identify the NIR/optical emission region(s) during a number of failed outbursts of one such low mass X-ray binary and black hole candidate, XTE J1550-564, in order to confirm or refute their classification as hard-state, failed outbursts. We present unique NIR/optical images and spectra, obtained with the ESO-New Technology Telescope, during the failed outbursts of 2001 and 2000. We compare the NIR/optical photometric, timing, and spectral properties with those expected for the different emission mechanisms ...

  12. THE DISK WIND IN THE RAPIDLY SPINNING STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE 4U 1630–472 OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Walton, Dominic J.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ashking@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630–472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a{sub ∗}=0.985{sub −0.014}{sup +0.005} (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 ± 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log ξ=3.6{sub −0.3}{sup +0.2}) and is dominated by He-like Fe XXV, the wind has a velocity of v/c=0.043{sub −0.007}{sup +0.002} (12900{sub −2100}{sup +600} km s{sup –1}). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log ξ=6.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7}), and is dominated by Fe XXVI, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  13. Gravitational waves from a compact star in a circular, inspiral orbit, in the equatorial plane of a massive, spinning black hole, as observed by LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Lee Samuel; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-12-15

    Results are presented from high-precision computations of the orbital evolution and emitted gravitational waves for a stellar-mass object spiraling into a massive black hole in a slowly shrinking, circular, equatorial orbit. The focus of these computations is inspiral near the innermost stable circular orbit (isco) -- more particularly, on orbits for which the angular velocity {Omega} is 0.03{approx}<{Omega}/{Omega}{sub isco}{<=}1.0. The computations are based on the Teuksolsky-Sasaki-Nakamura formalism, and the results are tabulated in a set of functions that are of order unity and represent relativistic corrections to low-orbital-velocity formulas. These tables can form a foundation for future design studies for the LISA space-based gravitational-wave mission. A first survey of applications to LISA is presented: Signal to noise ratios S/N are computed and graphed as functions of the time-evolving gravitational-wave frequency for the lowest three harmonics of the orbital period, and for various representative values of the hole's mass M and spin a and the inspiraling object's mass {mu}, with the distance to Earth chosen to be r{sub o}=1 Gpc. These S/N's show a very strong dependence on the black-hole spin, as well as on M and {mu}. Graphs are presented showing the range of the {l_brace}M,a,{mu}{r_brace} parameter space, for which S/N>10 at r{sub 0}=1 Gpc during the last year of inspiral. The hole's spin a has a factor of {approx}10 influence on the range of M (at fixed {mu}) for which S/N>10, and the presence or absence of a white-dwarf--binary background has a factor of {approx}3 influence. A comparison with predicted event rates shows strong promise for detecting these waves, but not beyond about 1 Gpc if the inspiraling object is a white dwarf or neutron star. This argues for a modest lowering of LISA's noise floor. A brief discussion is given of the prospects for extracting information from the observed waves.

  14. The kinematics of an untwisting solar jet in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Dong Chen; Jun Zhang; Su-Li Ma

    2012-01-01

    Using the multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft,we study a jet occurring in a coronal hole near the northern pole of the Sun.The jet presented distinct upward helical motion during ejection.By tracking six identified moving features (MFs) in the jet,we found that the plasma moved at an approximately constant speed along the jet's axis.Meanwhile,the MFs made a circular motion in the plane transverse to the axis.Inferred from linear and trigonometric fittings to the axial and transverse heights of the six tracks,the mean values of the axial velocities,transverse velocities,angular speeds,rotation periods,and rotation radii of the jet are 114 km s-1,136 km s-1,0.81° s-1,452 s and 9.8 x 103 km respectively.As the MFs rose,the jet width at the corresponding height increased.For the first time,we derived the height variation of the longitudinal magnetic field strength in the jet from the assumption of magnetic flux conservation.Our results indicate that at heights of 1 × 104 ~ 7 ×104 km from the base of the jet,the flux density in the jet decreases from about 15 to 3 G as a function of B =0.5(R/R⊙ - 1)-0.84 (G).A comparison was made with other results in previous studies.

  15. Swift XRT Timing Observations of the Black-Hole Binary SWIFTJ1753.5--0127: Disk-Diluted Fluctuations in the Outburst Peak

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamkar, Maithili; Uttley, Phil; Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    After a careful analysis of the instrumental effects on the Poisson noise to demonstrate the feasibility of detailed stochastic variability studies with the \\textit{Swift} X-Ray Telescope (XRT), we analyze the variability of the black hole X-ray binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127 in all XRT observations during 2005-2010. We present the evolution of the power spectral components along the outburst in two energy bands: soft (0.5--2 keV) and hard (2--10 keV), and in the hard band find results consistent with those from the \\textit{Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer} (RXTE). The advantage of the XRT is that we can also explore the soft band not covered by RXTE. The source has previously been suggested to host an accretion disk extending down to close to the black hole in the low hard state, and to show low frequency variability in the soft band intrinsic to this disk. Our results are consistent with this, with at low intensities stronger low-frequency variability in the soft than in the hard band. From our analysis we are able t...

  16. The impact of CO2 on shallow groundwater chemistry: observations at a natural analog site and implications for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fessenden, Julianna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kanjorski, Nancy [NON LANL; Koning, Dan [NM BUREAU OF GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES; Pawar, Rajesh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a natural analog study of risks associated with carbon sequestration, impacts of CO{sub 2} on shallow groundwater quality have been measured in a sandstone aquifer in New Mexico, USA. Despite relatively high levels of dissolved CO{sub 2}, originating from depth and producing geysering at one well, pH depression and consequent trace element mobility are relatively minor effects due to the buffering capacity of the aquifer. However, local contamination due to influx of saline waters in a subset of wells is significant. Geochemical modeling of major ion concentrations suggests that high alkalinity and carbonate mineral dissolution buffers pH changes due to CO{sub 2} influx. Analysis oftrends in dissolved trace elements, chloride, and CO2 reveal no evidence of in-situ trace element mobilization. There is clear evidence, however, that As, U, and Pb are locally co-transported into the aquifer with CO{sub 2}-rich saline water. This study illustrates the role that local geochemical conditions will play in determining the effectiveness of monitoring strategies for CO{sub 2} leakage. For example, if buffering is significant, pH monitoring may not effectively detect CO2 leakage. This study also highlights potential complications that CO{sub 2}carrier fluids, such as saline waters, pose in monitoring impacts ofgeologic sequestration.

  17. Observations of recruitment and colonization by tunicates and associated invertebrates using giant one-meter2 recruitment plates at Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Page C.; Carman, M.R.; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2016-01-01

    Large recruitment plates measuring 1 × 1 m were deployed over an 18-month period from September 2013 to March 2015 for the purpose of documenting recruitment and colonization processes of marine invertebrate species at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Each side of two plates was subdivided into 16 subareas (25 × 25 cm), and an observational strategy was developed whereby, at approximately two-week intervals, a different subarea was cleaned. Using this approach, we were able to photographically document species recruitment and growth interactions. Water temperature records from the site show that steady warming and cooling between 3 and 20° C changed at a mean rate of 0.2 ° C d-1. However, temperature changes during the coolest and warmest parts of the temperature cycle were highly variable. In 2014, between the first and last occurrence of 0° C, temperatures were ≤0° C 15 percent of the time, but in 2015 temperatures were ≤0° C 93 percent of the time. In 2014, between the first and last occurrence of 21° C, temperatures were ≥21° C 88 percent of the time, and this warm period correlated with the disappearance of the hydroid Ectopleura crocea, the solitary tunicates Ascidiella aspersa and Ciona intestinalis, and the 2013 generation of Botrylloides violaceus. In Woods Hole, large plates provided enough space to accommodate both fast- and slow-colonizing species, resulting in the establishment of a diverse assemblage that was observed over a long time period. The most successful colonizing species had relatively long reproductive and recruitment periods, grew rapidly, repelled settlement onto their surfaces by larvae of any species, defended themselves against overgrowth by any species, overwintered, and lived a long time. Of the three dominant species observed in this study, the colonial tunicates Didemnum vexillum and Botrylloides violaceus had these qualities; the encrusting colonial bryozoan Schizoporella unicornis had all but one, it grew more slowly

  18. Life Inside Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2013-11-01

    It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.

  19. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  20. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  1. Investigating patterns and controls of groundwater up-welling in a lowland river by combining Fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing with observations of vertical hydraulic gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the patterns and controls of aquifer–river exchange in a fast-flowing lowland river by the conjunctive use of streambed temperature anomalies identified with Fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS and observations of vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG.

    FO-DTS temperature traces along this lowland river reach reveal discrete patterns with "cold spots" indicating groundwater up-welling. In contrast to previous studies using FO-DTS for investigation of groundwater–surface water exchange, the fibre-optic cable in this study was buried in the streambed sediments, ensuring clear signals despite fast flow and high discharges. During the observed summer baseflow period, streambed temperatures in groundwater up-welling locations were found to be up to 1.5 °C lower than ambient streambed temperatures. Due to the high river flows, the cold spots were sharp and distinctly localized without measurable impact on down-stream surface water temperature.

    VHG patterns along the stream reach were highly variable in space, revealing strong differences even at small scales. VHG patterns alone are indicators of both, structural heterogeneity of the stream bed as well as of the spatial heterogeneity of the groundwater–surface water exchange fluxes and are thus not conclusive in their interpretation. However, in combination with the high spatial resolution FO-DTS data we were able to separate these two influences and clearly identify locations of enhanced exchange, while also obtaining information on the complex small-scale streambed transmissivity patterns responsible for the very discrete exchange patterns. The validation of the combined VHG and FO-DTS approach provides an effective strategy for analysing drivers and controls of groundwater–surface water exchange, with implications for the quantification of biogeochemical cycling and contaminant transport at aquifer–river interfaces.

  2. How objective is black hole entropy?

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Y K

    1994-01-01

    The objectivity of black hole entropy is discussed in the particular case of a Schwarzchild black hole. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism and Euclidean path integral evaluation of partition function, it is argued that in the semiclassical limit when the fluctutation of metric is neglected, the black hole entropy of a Schwarzchild black hole is equal to the maximal information entropy of an observer whose sole knowledge of the black hole is its mass. Black hole entropy becomes a measure of number of its internal mass eigenstates in accordance with the Boltzmann principle only in the limit of negligible relative mass fluctutation. {}From the information theoretic perspective, the example of a Schwarzchild black hole seems to suggest that black hole entropy is no different from ordinary thermodynamic entropy. It is a property of the experimental data of a black hole, rather than being an intrinsic physical property of a black hole itself independent of any observer. However, it is still weakly objective in...

  3. Time-course of perceptual processing of "hole" and "no-hole"figures: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weina Zhu; Junjun Zhang; Changle Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Closure or the presence of a "hole" is an emergent perceptual feature that can be extracted by the visual system early on.This feature has been shown to have perceptual advantages over openness or "no-hole".In this study,we investigated when and how the human brain differentiates between "hole" and "no-hole" figures.Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive observation paradigm.Two pairs of simple figures (Experiment 1) and two sets of Greek letters (Experiment 2) were used as stimuli.The ERPs of "hole" and "no-hole"figures differed ~90 ms after stimulus onset:"hole"figures elicited smaller P1 and N1 amplitudes than "no-hole" figures.These suggest that both P1 and N1 components are sensitive to the difference between "hole" and "no-hole" figures; perception of "hole" and "no-hole" figures might be differentiated early during visual processing.

  4. Backward probability model using multiple observations of contamination to identify groundwater contamination sources at the Massachusetts Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupauer, R. M.; Wilson, J. L.

    2005-02-01

    Backward location and travel time probability density functions characterize the possible former locations (or the source location) of contamination that is observed in an aquifer. For an observed contaminant particle the backward location probability density function (PDF) describes its position at a fixed time prior to sampling, and the backward travel time probability density function describes the amount of time required for the particle to travel to the sampling location from a fixed upgradient position. The backward probability model has been developed for a single observation of contamination (e.g., Neupauer and Wilson, 1999). In practical situations, contamination is sampled at multiple locations and times, and these additional data provide information that can be used to better characterize the former position of contamination. Through Bayes' theorem we combine the individual PDFs for each observation to obtain a PDF for multiple observations that describes the possible source locations or release times of all observed contaminant particles, assuming they originated from the same instantaneous point source. We show that the multiple-observation probability density function is the normalized product of the single-observation PDFs. The additional information available from multiple observations reduces the variances of the source location and travel time probability density functions and improves the characterization of the contamination source. We apply the backward probability model to a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). We use four TCE samples distributed throughout the plume to obtain single-observation and multiple-observation location and travel time PDFs in three dimensions. These PDFs provide information about the possible sources of contamination. Under assumptions that the existing MMR model is properly calibrated and the conceptual model is correct the results confirm the two suspected sources of

  5. SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE TIMING OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE BINARY SWIFT J1753.5-0127: DISK-DILUTED FLUCTUATIONS IN THE OUTBURST PEAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalamkar, M.; Van der Klis, M.; Uttley, P.; Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy, E-mail: m.n.kalamkar@uva.nl [Astronomical Institute, ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-01

    After a careful analysis of the instrumental effects on the Poisson noise to demonstrate the feasibility of detailed stochastic variability studies with the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), we analyze the variability of the black hole X-ray binary SWIFT J1753.5-0127 in all XRT observations during 2005-2010. We present the evolution of the power spectral components along the outburst in two energy bands: soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV), and in the hard band we find results consistent with those from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The advantage of the XRT is that we can also explore the soft band not covered by RXTE. The source has previously been suggested to host an accretion disk extending down to close to the black hole in the low hard state, and to show low-frequency variability in the soft-band intrinsic to this disk. Our results are consistent with this, with stronger low-frequency variability at low intensities in the soft than in the hard band. From our analysis, we are able to present the first measurements of the soft-band variability in the peak of the outburst. We find the soft band to be less variable than the hard band, especially at high frequencies, opposite to what is seen at low intensity. Both results can be explained within the framework of a simple two emission-region model where the hot flow is more variable in the peak of the outburst and the disk is more variable at low intensities.

  6. XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the M31 globular cluster black hole candidate XB135: a heavyweight contender cut down to size

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Garcia, M R; Kolb, U C; Murray, S S

    2015-01-01

    CXOM31 J004252.030+413107.87 is one of the brightest X-ray sources within the D_25 region of M31, and associated with a globular cluster (GC) known as B135; we therefore call this X-ray source XB135. XB135 is a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that apparently exhibited hard state characteristics at 0.3--10 keV luminosities 4--6 E+38 erg/s, and the hard state is only observed below ~10% Eddington. If true, the accretor would be a high mass black hole (BH) (> ~50 M_Sun); such a BH may be formed from direct collapse of a metal-poor, high mass star, and the very low metalicity of B135 (0.015 Z_Sun) makes such a scenario plausible. We have obtained new XMM-Newton and Chandra HRC observations to shed light on the nature of this object. We find from the HRC observation that XB135 is a single point source located close to the center of B135. The new XMM-Newton spectrum is consistent with a rapidly spinning ~10--20 M_Sun BH in the steep power law or thermal dominant state, but inconsistent with the hard state that we prev...

  7. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  8. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  9. Comparing large-scale hydrological model predictions with observed streamflow in the Pacific Northwest: effects of climate and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Guillaume S. Mauger; Gordon E. Grant; Ivan Arismendi; Alan F. Hamlet; Se-Yeun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Assessing uncertainties in hydrologic models can improve accuracy in predicting future streamflow. Here, simulated streamflows using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model at coarse (1/16°) and fine (1/120°) spatial resolutions were evaluated against observed streamflows from 217 watersheds. In...

  10. Relics of Galaxy Merging: Observational Predictions for a Wandering Massive Black Hole and Accompanying Star Cluster in the Halo of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger, and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA and SKA) is the best frequency range to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering...

  11. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gnerucci, A; Capetti, A; Axon, D J; Robinson, A

    2012-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of BrGamma in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us and based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in the gravitational potential of an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved mass of (1.7 +- 0.2) 10^7 Msun, concentrated within r < 7 pc. The new method is capable of probing gas rotation at scales which are a factor ~3.5 smaller than those probed by the rotation curve analysis. The dynamical mass spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method is a fa...

  12. RELICS OF GALAXY MERGING: OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTIONS FOR A WANDERING MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AND ACCOMPANYING STAR CLUSTER IN THE HALO OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, Yuriko [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao, E-mail: ts.kawaguti@nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA, and the Square Kilometre Array) is the best frequency range in which to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering in a galactic halo will provide a direct means of investigating in detail the coevolution of galaxies and BHs. It also means a new population of BHs (off-center massive BHs) and offers targets for clean BH imaging that avoid strong interstellar scattering in the centers of galaxies.

  13. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  14. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  15. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  16. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  17. Deep 3 GHz Observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array -2. Catalogue and $\\mu$Jy source properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Condon, Jim; Cotton, Bill; Kellermann, Ken; Perley, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of two papers describing the observations and source catalogues derived from sensitive 3 GHz images of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We describe the reduction and cataloguing process, which yielded an image with 8 arcsec resolution and instrumental noise of $\\sigma_{\\rm n}=1.01\\,\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ rms (before primary beam corrections) and a catalogue of sources detected above $5\\sigma_{\\rm n}$. We include details of how we estimate source spectral indices across the 2 GHz VLA bandwidth, finding a median index of -0.76. We present a source count derived from the catalogue. We show a traditional count estimate compared with a completely independent estimate made via a P(D) confusion analysis, and find very good agreement. Cross-matches of the catalogue with optical, infrared, radio, and redshift catalogues are presented. The optical and infrared colours and AGN selection criteria indicates that 10 to 50 per cent of the sources with matches are classified as...

  18. Deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - II. Catalogue and μJy source properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Kellermann, K. I.; Perley, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    This is the second of two papers describing the observations and source catalogues derived from sensitive 3-GHz images of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We describe the reduction and cataloguing process, which yielded an image with 8 arcsec resolution and instrumental noise of σn = 1.01 μJy beam-1 rms (before primary-beam corrections) and a catalogue of 558 sources detected above 5σn. We include details of how we estimate source spectral indices across the 2-GHz VLA bandwidth, finding a median index of -0.76 ± 0.04. Stacking of source spectra reveals a flattening of spectral index with decreasing flux density. We present a source count derived from the catalogue. We show a traditional count estimate compared with a completely independent estimate made via a P(D) confusion analysis, and find very good agreement. Cross-matches of the catalogue with X-ray, optical, infrared, radio, and redshift catalogues are also presented. The X-ray, optical and infrared data, as well as active galactic nuclei (AGN) selection criteria allow us to classify 10 per cent as radio-loud AGN, 28 per cent as radio-quiet AGN, and 58 per cent as star-forming galaxies, with only 4 per cent unclassified.

  19. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray - radio observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, E M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Torres, M A P; Homan, J; Markoff, S; Tomsick, J A; Kaaret, P; Wijnands, R; Gallo, E; Ozel, F; Steeghs, D T H; Fender, R P

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752-223 is fainter than 24.4 magnitudes in the i'-band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-2010 outburst shows that the outburst amplitude is more than 8 magnitudes in the i'-band. Known X-ray properties of the source combined with the faintness of the quiescence optical counterpart and the large outburst optical amplitude point towards a short orbital period system (Porb<~6.8 h) with an M type (or later) mass donor, at a distance of 3.5<~d<~8 kpc. Simultaneous X-ray and radio data were collected with Chandra and the EVLA, allowing constraints to be placed on the quiescent X-ray and radio flux of XTE J1752-223. Furthermore, using data covering the final stage of the outburst decay, we investigated the low luminosity end of the X-ray - radio correlation for this source and compared it with ot...

  20. Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Rohta

    2004-01-01

    Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...

  1. Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Rohta

    2004-01-01

    Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...

  2. Over Exploitation of Groundwater in the Centre of Amman Zarqa Basin—Jordan: Evaluation of Well Data and GRACE Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana’a Al-Zyoud

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces a sincere water crisis. Groundwater is the major water resource in Jordan and most of the ground water systems are already exploited beyond their estimated safe yield. The Amman Zarqa Basin is one of the most important groundwater systems in Jordan, which supplies the three largest cities in Jordan with drinking and irrigation water. Based on new data the groundwater drawdown in the Amman Zarqa Basin is studied. This basin is the most used drainage area in Jordan. Groundwater drawdown in eight central representative monitoring wells is outlined. Based on almost continuous data for the last 15 years (2000–2015 an average drawdown for the whole basin in the order of 1.1 m·a−1 is calculated. This result is in accordance with results of previous studies in other areas in Jordan and shows that, until now, no sustainable water management is applied. Groundwater management in such a basin presents a challenge for water managers and experts. The applicability of satellite data for estimating large-scale groundwater over exploitation, such as gravity products of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission, along with supplementary data, is discussed. Although the size of the basin is below the minimum resolution of GRACE, the data generally support the measured drawdown.

  3. Decadal variations in groundwater quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Thorling, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years of groundwater quality monitoring in a sandy aquifer beneath agricultural fields showed large temporal and spatial variations in major ion groundwater chemistry, which were linked closely to the nitrate (NO3) content of agricultural recharge. Between 1988 and 2013, the NO3 content...... loading. Agriculture thus is an important determinant of major ion groundwater chemistry. Temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater quality were simulated using a 2D reactive transport model, which combined effects of the historical NO3 leaching and denitrification, with dispersive mixing...... into the pristine groundwater residing deeper in the aquifer. Reactant-to-product ratios across reaction fronts are altered by dispersive mixing and transience in reactant input functions. Modelling therefore allowed a direct comparison of observed and simulated ratios of concentrations of NO3 (reactant...

  4. Astrophysical Black Holes: Evidence of a Horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica

    In this Lecture Note we first follow a short account of the history of the black hole hypothesis. We then review on the current status of the search for astrophysical black holes with particular attention to the black holes of stellar origin. Later, we highlight a series of observations that reveal the albeit indirect presence of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, with mention to forthcoming experiments aimed at testing directly the black hole hypothesis. We further focus on evidences of a black hole event horizon in cosmic sources.

  5. Correlated Multiphoton Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Afek, Itai; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    We generate bipartite states of light which exhibit an absence of multiphoton coincidence events between two modes amid a constant background flux. These `correlated photon holes' are produced by mixing a coherent state and relatively weak spontaneous parametric down-conversion using a balanced beamsplitter. Correlated holes with arbitrarily high photon numbers may be obtained by adjusting the relative phase and amplitude of the inputs. We measure states of up to five photons and verify their nonclassicality. The scheme provides a route for observation of high-photon-number nonclassical correlations without requiring intense quantum resources.

  6. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  7. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  8. The black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence: optical and simultaneous X-ray-radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, E. M.; Jonker, P. G.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Torres, M. A. P.; Homan, J.; Markoff, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kaaret, P.; Wijnands, R.; Gallo, E.; Özel, F.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Fender, R. P.

    2012-07-01

    We present optical, X-ray and radio observations of the black hole transient (BHT) XTE J1752-223 towards and in quiescence. Optical photometry shows that the quiescent magnitude of XTE J1752-223 is fainter than 24.4 mag in the i' band. A comparison with measurements of the source during its 2009-2010 outburst shows that the outburst amplitude is more than 8 mag in the i' band. Known X-ray properties of the source combined with the faintness of the quiescence optical counterpart and the large outburst optical amplitude point towards a short orbital-period system (Porb≲ 6.8 h) with an M type (or later) mass donor, at a distance of 3.5 ≲d≲ 8 kpc. Simultaneous X-ray and radio data were collected with Chandra and the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), allowing constraints to be placed on the quiescent X-ray and radio flux of XTE J1752-223. Furthermore, using data covering the final stage of the outburst decay, we investigated the low-luminosity end of the X-ray-radio correlation for this source and compared it with other BHTs. We found that XTE J1752-223 adds to the number of outliers with respect to the 'standard' X-ray-radio luminosity relation. Furthermore, XTE J1752-223 is the second source, after the BHT H1743-322, that shows a transition from the region of the outliers towards the 'standard' correlation at low luminosity. Finally, we report on a faint, variable X-ray source we discovered with Chandra at an angular distance of ˜2.9 arcsec to XTE J1752-223 and at a position angle consistent with that of the radio jets previously observed from the BHT. We discuss the possibility that we detected X-ray emission associated with a jet from XTE J1752-223.

  9. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  10. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  11. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, G

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy astrophysics. The combination of General Relativity and Magneto-HydroDynamics (MHD) makes theory difficult; however great pionneers opened beautiful tracks in the seventies and left important problems to be solved for the next decades. These lectures will present the status of these issues. They have a tutorial aspect together with critical review aspect and contain also some new issues. Most of these lectures has been presented at the "School on Black Hole in the Universe" at Cargese, in May 2003.

  12. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  13. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  14. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  15. Groundwater dynamic, temperature and salinity response to the tide in Patagonian marshes: Observations on a coastal wetland in San José Gulf, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María del Pilar; Carol, Eleonora; Hernández, Mario A.; Bouza, Pablo J.

    2015-10-01

    The processes regulating the relationship between tidal flows and shallow groundwater dynamics, temperature and salinity in a coastal wetland in an arid climate are analysed in a detailed field study carried out in the marsh located at Playa Fracasso (Argentina). The continuous records of groundwater level, temperature and electrical conductivity from a transect perpendicular to the coastline were studied during a period ranging from summer to winter, together with the information obtained in hydrogeomorphological field surveys and soil profiles. An assessment of the processes conditioning marsh hydrology was carried out contemplating seasonal (summer-winter) and periodical variations caused by tidal flows. The study showed that the dynamics of groundwater in relation to tidal flows depends almost exclusively on the infiltration of tidal water when the marsh is flooded during spring tides (syzygy), with an increase in the groundwater discharge level at the onset of syzygy. The differences in temperature between sea and continental water were very useful in defining the origin of the different contributions. Groundwater salinity is mainly associated with the leaching of the soil salts that enter with the sea water infiltrating during flood events. The presence of saline soils in the marsh is regulated by the evapotranspiration predominating in arid zones. The conceptual hydrological model suggested may help in the understanding of the hydrological processes in other similar marshes of Patagonia, as well as in coastal wetlands of arid zones worldwide.

  16. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of the Brγ emission line in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us that is based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in a gravitational potential resulting from an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved dynamical mass of (1.7 ± 0.2) × 107 M⊙, concentrated within r curve analysis, highlighting the potential of spectroastrometry. The dynamical mass, which is spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method, is a factor ~2 smaller, 7.9+1.4-1.1 × 106M⊙, indicating that spectroastrometry has been able to spatially resolve the nuclear mass distribution down to 2 pc scales. This unresolved mass is still a factor ~4.5 larger than the BH mass measurement obtained with the H2O maser emission, indicating that even with spectroastrometry, it has not been possible to resolve the sphere of influence of the BH. Based on literature data, this spatially unresolved dynamical mass distribution is likely dominated by warm molecular gas and has been tentatively identified with the circum-nuclear torus that prevents a direct view of the central BH in Circinus. This mass distribution, with a size of ~2 pc, is similar in shape to that of the star cluster of the Milky Way, suggesting that a molecular torus, forming stars at a high rate, might be the earlier evolutionary stage of the nuclear star clusters that are common in late-type spirals. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under

  17. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  18. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  19. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  20. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  1. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment.

  2. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  3. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund

    2005-02-07

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  4. String-corrected black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, Veronika E. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Maloney, Alexander [SLAC and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect - the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive{exclamation_point} The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  5. Recoiling Black Holes in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Salviander, S

    2007-01-01

    Recent simulations of merging black holes with spin give recoil velocities from gravitational radiation up to several thousand km/s. A recoiling supermassive black hole can retain the inner part of its accretion disk, providing fuel for a continuing QSO phase lasting millions of years as the hole moves away from the galactic nucleus. One possible observational manifestation of a recoiling accretion disk is in QSO emission lines shifted in velocity from the host galaxy. We have examined QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with broad emission lines substantially shifted relative to the narrow lines. We find no convincing evidence for recoiling black holes carrying accretion disks. We place an upper limit on the incidence of recoiling black holes in QSOs of 4% for kicks greater than 500 km/s and 0.35% for kicks greater than 1000 km/s line-of-sight velocity.

  6. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  7. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  8. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  9. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole: Window to the Precambrian bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Suvi; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2017-04-01

    Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is located in eastern Finland, at latitude 62°43'4'' N and longitude 29°3'43'' E. This 2516 m long and fully cored deep hole has been utilized as a geolaboratory open for researchers worldwide since it was drilled in 2004-2005. The 220 mm diameter drill hole is open without a casing (excluding the uppermost 40 m) and thus provides a direct access to in situ conditions to 2.5 km depth. There is a wide range of wire-line logs carried out by the drilling contractor and later by ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) in several logging sessions for geothermal, hydrogeological and deep biosphere studies. Lithology, metamorphism, fluid inclusions, density, magnetic properties, seismic velocities and thermal properties of the drill core have been studied by several international groups. The hole has kept open since the end of drilling enabling future studies to be conducted in it. The drill hole is situated in the southwestern part of the Outokumpu historical mining district famous for its Cu-Co-Zn sulfide deposits. These sulfide deposits are hosted by 1.96 Ga old ophiolitic rock types, known as the Outokumpu assemblage, also penetrated by the deep drill hole at 1314-1515 m depth. Laboratory and in situ petrophysical measurements have provided valuable information about physical properties of the typical rocks of the area that can be utilized in the mineral exploration efforts. The drill site of Outokumpu was chosen based on strong reflectivity observed in the high resolution seismic profiles acquired earlier in the area. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole revealed that these reflections originate from the acoustic impedance variations caused by the ore hosting Outokumpu assemblage. In 2006, surface seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were measured in the drill site, and these data show that not only is Outokumpu assemblage rocks reflective but also water bearing fracture at 965 m depth is observed as a

  10. Multipole moments of bumpy black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Vigeland, Sarah J

    2010-01-01

    General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend on only their mass and spin (the famous "no hair" theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of "bumpy black hole" spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes are black holes with the "wrong" multipoles, where the deviation from general relativity depends on the spacetime's "bumpiness." In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose {\\it current} mome...

  11. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  12. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  13. Joint evolution of black holes and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, M; Haardt, F

    2006-01-01

    OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES Introduction Some Useful Formalism General Considerations Resolved Stellar Dynamics Gas as a Tracer of the Gravitational Potential Tackling the Unresolvable: Reverberation Mapping Scaling Relations for SMBHs Black Hole Demographics The Future JOINT EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONAL ISSUES Galaxy Activity: Generalities Local Evidence on the Interplay Between the Stellar and Gravitational Origin of AGN Activity The Cosmic History of Galaxy Activity Constraints on the Cosmic Energy Budget Current Observational Programs and Fut

  14. Hawking Radiation from Regular Black Hole as a Possible Probe for Black Hole Interior Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yanbin

    2016-01-01

    The notion of the black hole singularity and the proof of the singularity theorem in general relativity were considered great successes in gravitational physics. On the other hand they also presented deep puzzles to physicists. Conceptual challenges were set up by the intractability of the singularity. The existence of black hole horizons which cover up the interior, including the singularity of the black hole from outside observers, builds an information curtain, further hindering physicists from understanding the nature of the singularity and the interior structure of black holes. The regular black hole is a concept produced out of multiple attempts to establish a tractable and understandable interior structure for black hole and to avoid the singularity inside the black hole body. A method is needed to check the correctness of the new constructions of black holes. After studying the Hawking radiation by fermion tunnelling from one type of regular black hole, structure dependent results were obtained. The r...

  15. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  16. Rotating regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...

  17. Rotating regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-25

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.

  18. Groundwater and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Kukurić, N.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Bhaduri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans abstract two hundred times more groundwater than oil, annually. Ironically, the role of groundwater in water management and supply is underappreciated, partially due to its invisibility. By conducting a literature survey and investigating groundwater information databases, this chapter answer

  19. Static-Fluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with $p=-\\rho/3$. These represent the black holes in $S_3$ and $H_3$ spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two $S_3$ types and one $H_3$ type. The interesting solution is the one of $S_3$ type which possesses two singularities. The one is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in $S_3$ and $H_3$, and a singular static solution in $H_3$.

  20. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  1. Monitoring groundwater drought with GRACE data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Getirana, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater drought is a distinct class of drought, not a sub-class of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and has profound impacts on natural environments and societies. Due to a deficiency of in situ measurements, we developed a groundwater drought indicator using groundwater change estimates derived by assimilating GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomalies into the NASA Catchment land surface model. Data assimilation enables spatial and temporal downscaling of coarse GRACE TWS observations (monthly and ~150,000 km2 effective spatial resolution) and extrapolation to near-real time. In this talk, we will present our latest progress on using GRACE satellite data for groundwater drought monitoring in the U.S. and globally. Characteristics of this groundwater drought indicator will be discussed, including its relationship with other types of drought and how they are influenced by model physics and climate conditions. Results are evaluated using in situ groundwater observations.

  2. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  3. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  4. Decline of groundwater table in Beijing and recognition of seismic precursory information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingbo Yang; Yuehu Kang; Qing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper quantitatively analyzed groundwater table fluctuations caused by groundwater overdraft, and probed into the possibility of drawing earthquake precursory information from groundwater table variations on the background of groundwater overdraft. Main effect factors of groundwater regime in Beijing region include groundwater extraction and rainfall. The decline of groundwater table was directly related to regional groundwater overdraft. Using the method of correlation analysis, the paper analyzed the relation between groundwater overdraft and groundwater level variations, with the aim of evaluating the effect of groundwater overdraft on water levels in observation wells and providing scientific basis for identifying seismic precursory information. The results indicate that the variations of groundwater level in slightly-affected zones of groundwater overdraft can contain some seismic precursory information, and it is possible to extract seismic precursory anomalies if proper mathematical methods are adopted to remove the trend component and annual period changes.

  5. Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that

  6. Understanding the past to interpret the future: comparison of simulated groundwater recharge in the upper Colorado River basin (USA) using observed and general-circulation-model historical climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-10-01

    In evaluating potential impacts of climate change on water resources, water managers seek to understand how future conditions may differ from the recent past. Studies of climate impacts on groundwater recharge often compare simulated recharge from future and historical time periods on an average monthly or overall average annual basis, or compare average recharge from future decades to that from a single recent decade. Baseline historical recharge estimates, which are compared with future conditions, are often from simulations using observed historical climate data. Comparison of average monthly results, average annual results, or even averaging over selected historical decades, may mask the true variability in historical results and lead to misinterpretation of future conditions. Comparison of future recharge results simulated using general circulation model (GCM) climate data to recharge results simulated using actual historical climate data may also result in an incomplete understanding of the likelihood of future changes. In this study, groundwater recharge is estimated in the upper Colorado River basin, USA, using a distributed-parameter soil-water balance groundwater recharge model for the period 1951-2010. Recharge simulations are performed using precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature data from observed climate data and from 97 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) projections. Results indicate that average monthly and average annual simulated recharge are similar using observed and GCM climate data. However, 10-year moving-average recharge results show substantial differences between observed and simulated climate data, particularly during period 1970-2000, with much greater variability seen for results using observed climate data.

  7. Understanding the past to interpret the future: comparison of simulated groundwater recharge in the upper Colorado River basin (USA) using observed and general-circulation-model historical climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Pruitt, Tom

    2017-03-01

    In evaluating potential impacts of climate change on water resources, water managers seek to understand how future conditions may differ from the recent past. Studies of climate impacts on groundwater recharge often compare simulated recharge from future and historical time periods on an average monthly or overall average annual basis, or compare average recharge from future decades to that from a single recent decade. Baseline historical recharge estimates, which are compared with future conditions, are often from simulations using observed historical climate data. Comparison of average monthly results, average annual results, or even averaging over selected historical decades, may mask the true variability in historical results and lead to misinterpretation of future conditions. Comparison of future recharge results simulated using general circulation model (GCM) climate data to recharge results simulated using actual historical climate data may also result in an incomplete understanding of the likelihood of future changes. In this study, groundwater recharge is estimated in the upper Colorado River basin, USA, using a distributed-parameter soil-water balance groundwater recharge model for the period 1951-2010. Recharge simulations are performed using precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature data from observed climate data and from 97 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) projections. Results indicate that average monthly and average annual simulated recharge are similar using observed and GCM climate data. However, 10-year moving-average recharge results show substantial differences between observed and simulated climate data, particularly during period 1970-2000, with much greater variability seen for results using observed climate data.

  8. Groundwater contamination due to lead (Pb migrating from Richmond municipal landfill into Matsheumhlope aquifer: evaluation of a model using field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubare

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of solid waste in landfills is an economic option for many municipalities in developing countries where alternatives like incineration and composting are costly. However, groundwater pollution from the leachate generated within the landfill and migrating through the bottom liner material into the underlying groundwater aquifers remains a major public health concern. In our study, we evaluated the application of a mathematical model to determine the aerial extent of unacceptable groundwater contamination due to lead migrating from the Richmond landfill leachate into the underlying Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer. A one-dimensional advection-dispersion model was applied to predict the down-gradient migration of lead into the aquifer. Linear sorption and first-order decay were considered as the dominant contaminant sink mechanisms for lead. Lead concentrations in the monitoring wells at the landfill site were used as the source term. The lead migration from the landfill was determined by water quality sampling from boreholes situated down-gradient of the landfill. The model simulations gave a good fit of the field results. The safe distance for potable water abstraction was determined to be 400 m, and the model simulations showed that the aerial extent of the pollution will increase with time. The model is most sensitive to the partition coefficient, hydraulic conductivity and longitudinal dispersivity, whilst it exhibits no sensitivity to the lead decay coefficient.

  9. Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Thiago, E-mail: thiago.barbosa@unige.ch; Monteiro, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.monteiro@unige.ch

    2015-10-16

    Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox.

  10. Cosmic Intelligence and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, V A; Lefebvre, Vladimir A.; Efremov, Yuri N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new direction in SETI. After a general discussion of the field, the authors put forth the hypothesis that the black holes may serve as a physical substratum for intelligent beings. This hypothesis is based on four parallels between the brain-psyche system, on the one hand, and black holes, on the other. (1) The descriptions of brain and psyche, in the system brain-psyche, are complementary to each other, as descriptions by internal and external observers of a black hole in Susskind-t'Hooft's schema. (2) There is an aspect of the inner structure of a black hole in Kerr's model of the rotating black hole that is isomorphic to the structure of the human subjective domain in the psychological model of reflexion. (3) Both black holes and the brain-psyche system have a facet which can be represented using thermodynamic concepts. (4) The brain lends itself to a holographic description; as has been recently demonstrated by Susskind, black holes can also be described holographically. The auth...

  11. Plasma electron-hole kinematics: momentum conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, that behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside it, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  12. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  13. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2017-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen....... Therefore secondly a much simpler mass balance approach is used with lumped descriptions of the most important hydrological processes controlling water level and groundwater inflow to the system. The water level dynamics are here described and bracketed nicely and a dynamic description of the seepage rate...... the dynamic description of groundwater seepage can be very useful in future studies of the links between seepage, soil water chemistry and vegetation in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems....

  14. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  15. An observational search for large-scale organization of five-minute oscillations on the sun. [coronal holes or sector structure relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, P. H.; Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The large-scale solar velocity field has been measured over an aperture of radius 0.8 solar radii on 121 days between April and September, 1976. Measurements are made in the line Fe I 5123.730 A, employing a velocity subtraction technique similar to that of Severny et al. (1976). Comparisons of the amplitude and frequency of the five-minute resonant oscillation with the geomagnetic C9 index and magnetic sector boundaries show no evidence of any relationship between the oscillations and coronal holes or sector structure.

  16. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  17. Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen

    2011-04-15

    We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.

  18. Spatial analyses of groundwater levels using universal kriging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kemal Sulhi Gundogdu; Ibrahim Guney

    2007-02-01

    For water levels, generally a non-stationary variable, the technique of universal kriging is applied in preference to ordinary kriging as the interpolation method. Each set of data in every sector can fit different empirical semivariogram models since they have different spatial structures. These models can be classified as circular, spherical, tetraspherical, pentaspherical, exponential, gaussian, rational quadratic, hole effect, K-bessel, J-bessel and stable. This study aims to determine which of these empirical semivariogram models will be best matched with the experimental models obtained from groundwater-table values collected from Mustafakemalpasa left bank irrigation scheme in 2002. The model having the least error was selected by comparing the observed water-table values with the values predicted by empirical semivariogram models. It was determined that the rational quadratic empirical semivariogram model is the best fitted model for the studied irrigation area.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2017-09-01

    high drainage density. At last, once the potential groundwater areas were identified, cross validation of the resultant model was carefully carried out using existing data of dung wells and bore holes. The point data of dung wells and bore holes were overlaid on groundwater potential suitability map and coincide with the expected values. Generally, from this study, it can be concluded that RS and GIS with the help of MCDA are important tools in monitoring and evaluation of groundwater resource potential areas.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin

    2016-06-01

    high drainage density. At last, once the potential groundwater areas were identified, cross validation of the resultant model was carefully carried out using existing data of dung wells and bore holes. The point data of dung wells and bore holes were overlaid on groundwater potential suitability map and coincide with the expected values. Generally, from this study, it can be concluded that RS and GIS with the help of MCDA are important tools in monitoring and evaluation of groundwater resource potential areas.

  1. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  2. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  3. Gravitational Waves From Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Girolamo, Tristano

    2016-10-01

    In this talk, I will present the first direct detections of gravitational waves from binary stellar-mass black hole mergers during the first observing run of the two detectors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, which opened the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, and then discuss prospects for observing gravitational waves from supermassive black holes with future detectors.

  4. Feasibility study of a Single Well Injection Withdrawal (SWIW) experiment with synthetic groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordqvist, Rune; Byegaard, Johan; Hjerne, Calle (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    This report describes the performance and results of a feasibility study regarding SWIW (Single Well Injection Withdrawal) tests with synthetic groundwater. The objectives of the study were to investigate the possibility to perform, analyse and evaluate SWIW tests with synthetic groundwater. SWIW tests with synthetic groundwater imply that water similar to the natural groundwater is produced but without one or several compounds that naturally occurs in the groundwater. The synthetic groundwater is injected into the rock formation and later pumped back. The increase of the naturally occurring compounds may be analysed and provide information about diffusion processes in the rock formation. Simulations of SWIW tests with synthetic groundwater shows that a combination of tests with and without a waiting period may provide good opportunities to distinguish between fast and slow diffusion processes, i.e. diffusion from stagnant zones and rock matrix. Furthermore, the simulations show that it is important to use many tracers with different characteristics regarding diffusion and sorption in order to facilitate the evaluation. If additional boreholes exist in the vicinity that may be used as observation holes for tracer breakthrough, it would be a great benefit for the evaluation of the tests. This study shows that it is possible to produce a synthetic groundwater of sufficient amount and purity to a reasonable cost at CLAB (Baslab). The starting point for the study was to use the test site TRUE Block Scale in the Aespoe tunnel. The study shows that the well characterized structures no 19 and 20 probably had been suitable for SWIW tests. However, during the feasibility study a project started that will result in a new tunnel in the vicinity of TRUE Block Scale. This implies that the site will not be accessible for experiments until 2009 at the earliest. The new tunnel may also change the hydraulic characteristics at the site so that it is no longer suitable for SWIW tests

  5. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  6. Primordial black holes in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that significant numbers of medium-mass back holes (of order 10 solar masses) should form in globular clusters during the early stages of their evolution. Here we explore the dynamical and observational consequences of the presence of such a primordial black-hole population in a globular cluster. The holes initially segregate to the cluster cores, where they form binary and multiple black-hole systems. The subsequent dynamical evolution of the black-hole population ejects most of the holes on a relatively short timescale: a typical cluster will retain between zero and four black holes in its core, and possibly a few black holes in its halo. The presence of binary, triple, and quadruple black-hole systems in cluster cores will disrupt main-sequence and giant stellar binaries; this may account for the observed anomalies in the distribution of binaries in globular clusters. Furthermore, tidal interactions between a multiple black-hole system and a red giant star can remove much of the red giant's stellar envelope, which may explain the puzzling absence of larger red giants in the cores of some very dense clusters.

  7. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  8. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1999. Data collected prior to 1999 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-99. At two water-supply wells median water levels for calendar year 1999 were unchanged from their respective baseline periods. At a nearby observation well, the 1999 median water level was slightly lower (0.1 foot) than its baseline period. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1999 were slightly higher (0.2 foot to 1.6 feet) than for their respective baseline periods.

  9. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geolgical Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  10. Dating degassed groundwater with 3H/3He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    The production of gases in groundwater under contaminated locations by geochemical and biological processes is not uncommon. Degassing of these gases from groundwater and repartitioning of noble gases between water and gas phase distorts groundwater dating by 3H/3He. We observed noble gas concentrat

  11. Dating degassed groundwater with 3H/3He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    The production of gases in groundwater under contaminated locations by geochemical and biological processes is not uncommon. Degassing of these gases from groundwater and repartitioning of noble gases between water and gas phase distorts groundwater dating by 3H/3He. We observed noble gas

  12. Recent activity of the black hole X-ray binary IGR J17091-3624 as observed with the SWIFT/XRT : spectral hardening following the sharp drop in X-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Yadav, J. S.

    2012-07-01

    The last X-ray activity of the transient, Galactic, black hole X-ray binary IGR J17091-3624 was reported by Altamirano et al. (Atel #3913), where, using SWIFT/XRT data, they showed the source count rate of 15 +/- 2 cts/s on 31st January, 2012. Using INTEGRAL and IBIS detector, Drave et al. (Atel# 3916) detected the source activity in the 18-40 keV and 40-100 keV energy range respectively. Here, we are briefly summarizing the source activity using all observations from February 2012 onwards by the SWIFT/XRT.

  13. Geon black holes and quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Louko, Jorma

    2010-01-01

    Black hole spacetimes that are topological geons in the sense of Sorkin can be constructed by taking a quotient of a stationary black hole that has a bifurcate Killing horizon. We discuss the geometric properties of these geon black holes and the Hawking-Unruh effect on them. We in particular show how correlations in the Hawking-Unruh effect reveal to an exterior observer features of the geometry that are classically confined to the regions behind the horizons.

  14. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  15. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  16. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  17. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  18. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  19. Cl/Br ratios and chlorine isotope evidences for groundwater salinization and its impact on groundwater arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in the Datong basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Xie, Xianjun

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify the salinization processes and its impact on arsenic, fluoride and iodine enrichment in groundwater, hydrogeochemical and environmental isotope studies have been conducted on groundwater from the Datong basin, China. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations in groundwater ranged from 451 to 8250 mg/L, and 41% of all samples were identified as moderately saline groundwater with TDS of 3000–10,000 mg/L. The results of groundwater Cl concentrations, Cl/Br molar ratio and Cl isotope composition suggest that three processes including water-rock interaction, surface saline soil flushing, and evapotranspiration result in the groundwater salinization in the study area. The relatively higher Cl/Br molar ratio in groundwater from multiple screening wells indicates the contribution of halite dissolution from saline soil flushed by vertical infiltration to the groundwater salinization. However, the results of groundwater Cl/Br molar ratio model indicate that the effect of saline soil flushing practice is limited to account for the observed salinity variation in groundwater. The plots of groundwater Cl vs. Cl/Br molar ratio, and Cl vs δ{sup 37}Cl perform the dominant effects of evapotranspiration on groundwater salinization. Inverse geochemical modeling results show that evapotranspiration may cause approximately 66% loss of shallow groundwater to account for the observed hydrochemical pattern. Due to the redox condition fluctuation induced by irrigation activities and evapotranspiration, groundwater salinization processes have negative effects on groundwater arsenic enrichment. For groundwater iodine and fluoride enrichment, evapotranspiration partly accounts for their elevation in slightly saline water. However, too strong evapotranspiration would restrict groundwater fluoride concentration due to the limitation of fluorite solubility. - Highlights: • Natural high arsenic, fluoride and iodine groundwater co-occur with saline water.

  20. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  1. Kinematic determination of Electron-Hole velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.; Zhou, C.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent self-sustaining BGK potential structures, like the electron holes that often form during nonlinear electrostatic instabilities and are frequently observed in space plasmas, have ``kinematic'' momentum conservation properties that determine their velocity. The electron and ion momentum, both internal and external to the hole, must be included. Momentum changes arise from hole acceleration and from hole depth growth, by energization processes we call jetting; and these must balance any additional external forces on the particles. Comprehensive analytic expressions for the contributions have been calculated for holes of arbitrary localized potential form. Using these, we can deduce velocity changes in various interesting situations such as the self-acceleration of electron holes during formation, the circumstances under which holes accelerate at the rate of the electrons in a background electric field, the influence of the ion stream pushing and pulling holes to higher or lower speeds, and the trapping of hole velocity between the velocity of two ion streams. The predictions are in excellent quantitative agreement with targeted PIC simulations. The kinematic theory thus explains why isolated holes behave the way they do. Partially supported by NSF/DOE Basic Plasma Grant DE-SC0010491.

  2. Gravitational Effects Near the Kerr-Newman Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永久; 唐智明

    2001-01-01

    e have reached a solution of the Dirac equation and the energy spectrum of electrons in the gravitational field of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The results are interesting in astrophysics for observations of the black hole.

  3. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  4. Locations, values, and uncertainties of hydraulic-head observations for the steady-state, prepumped period of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set contains the locations, values, and uncertainties of 700 hydraulic-head observations used in the steady-state, prepumped period of...

  5. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  6. Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco

    2007-11-01

    Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.

  7. Pregalactic black holes - A new constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, J. D.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    Pregalactic black holes accrete matter in the early universe and produce copious amounts of X radiation. By using observations of the background radiation in the X and gamma wavebands, a strong constraint is imposed upon their possible abundance. If pregalactic black holes are actually present, several outstanding problems of cosmogony can be resolved with typical pregalactic black hole masses of 100 solar masses. Significantly more massive holes cannot constitute an appreciable mass fraction of the universe and are limited by a specific mass-density bound.

  8. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground). New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams. The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.

  9. Seeding Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass -- velocity dispersion relation, and the size -- velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is 10^3Msun, which is orders of magnitude smaller than has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  10. What does a black hole look like?

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...

  11. Simulations of binary black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's observations of merging binary black holes have inaugurated the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Accurate models of binary black holes and the gravitational waves they emit are helping Advanced LIGO to find as many gravitational waves as possible and to learn as much as possible about the waves' sources. These models require numerical-relativity simulations of binary black holes, because near the time when the black holes merge, all analytic approximations break down. Following breakthroughs in 2005, many research groups have built numerical-relativity codes capable of simulating binary black holes. In this talk, I will discuss current challenges in simulating binary black holes for gravitational-wave astronomy, and I will discuss the tremendous progress that has already enabled such simulations to become an essential tool for Advanced LIGO.

  12. A fast method for morphological analysis of laser drilling holes

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Matthieu; Berthe, Laurent; Muller, Maryse; Fabbro, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an original method for analyzing laser drilled holes. The so-called Direct Observation of Drilled hOle (DODO) method is introduced and its applications. The hole characterization that's been made is compared with x-ray radiography and cross-section analysis. Direct Observation of Drilled hole provides instantaneously surface state, geometric shape, as well as recast layer structure, without additional operation. Since no mounting resin is used to em...

  13. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  14. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    in the United States. Previously published digital data relating to brackish groundwater resources were limited to a small number of State- and regional-level studies. Data sources for this assessment ranged from single publications to large datasets and from local studies to national assessments. Geochemical data included concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and radionuclides as well as physical properties of the water (pH, temperature, and specific conductance). Additionally, the database provides selected well information (location, yield, depth, and contributing aquifer) necessary for evaluating the water resource.The assessment was divided into national-, regional-, and aquifer-scale analyses. National-scale analyses included evaluation of the three-dimensional distribution of observed dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater, the three-dimensional probability of brackish groundwater occurrence, and the geochemical characteristics of saline (greater than or equal to 1,000 mg/L of dissolved solids) groundwater resources. Regional-scale analyses included a summary of the percentage of observed grid cell volume in the region that was occupied by brackish groundwater within the mixture of air, water, and rock for multiple depth intervals. Aquifer-scale analyses focused primarily on four regions that contained the largest amounts of observed brackish groundwater and included a generalized description of hydrogeologic characteristics from previously published work; the distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations; considerations for developing brackish groundwater resources, including a summary of other chemical characteristics that may limit the use of brackish groundwater and the ability of sampled wells producing brackish groundwater to yield useful amounts of water; and the amount of saline groundwater being used in 2010.

  15. Black hole complementarity: the inside view

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers.

  16. A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…

  17. A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…

  18. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    by low-latitude coronal holes (holes closer to the Suns equator) and sunspot activity. In contrast, the total area of high-latitude coronal holes (those near the Suns poles) peaks around the minimum in each solar cycle and shrinks around each solar maximum.Predicting the Impact of the Solar WindWhy do these observations matter? Coronal holes are the source of the fast solar wind, so if we can better predict the frequency and locations of coronal holes in the future, we can make better predictions about how the solar wind might impact us here on Earth.Periodicity of high-latitude (orange) and low-latitude (blue) coronal-hole areas, and periodicity of galactic cosmic rays detected at Earth (black). The cosmic rays track the polar coronal-hole area behavior with a 1-year time lag. [Fujiki et al. 2016]In one example of this, Fujiki and collaborators show that theres a distinct correlation between polar coronal-hole area and observed galactic cosmic rays. Cosmic rays from within our galaxy have long been known to exhibit a 22-year periodicity. Fujiki and collaborators show that the periodicity of the galactic cosmic-ray activity tracks that of the polar coronal-hole area, with a ~1-year lag time which is equivalent to the propagation time of the solar wind to the termination shock.Polar coronal holes are therefore a useful observable indicator of the dipole component of the solar magnetic field, which modulates the incoming cosmic rays entering our solar system. This coronal hole database will be a useful tool for understanding the source of solar wind and the many ways the wind influences the Earth and our solar system.CitationK. Fujiki et al 2016 ApJ 827 L41. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/827/2/L41

  19. A far infrared view of the Lockman Hole from ISO 95 $\\mu$m observations - I. A new data reduction method

    CERN Document Server

    Rodighiero, G; Franceschini, A; Gregnanin, A; Fadda, D

    2003-01-01

    We report results of a new analysis of a deep 95 mu imaging survey with the photo-polarimeter ISOPHOT on board the Infrared Space Observatory, over a half square degree area within the Lockman Hole. To this end we exploit a newly developed parametric algorithm able to identify and clean spurious signals induced by cosmic-rays impacts and by transient effects and non-linearities in the detectors. These results provide us with the currently deepest -- to our knowledge -- far-IR image of the extragalactic sky. Within the survey area we detect thirty-six sources with S/N>3 (corresponding to a flux of 16 mJy), making up a complete flux-limited sample around 100$ mJy. Reliable sources are detected, with decreasing but well-controlled completeness, down to 20 mJy. The source extraction process and the completeness, the photometric and astrometric accuracies of this catalogue have been tested by us with extensive simulations accounting for all the details of the procedure. We estimate source counts down to a flux of ...

  20. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  1. Virtual Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1996-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S^2\\times S^2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S^2\\times S^2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix \\ that does not factorise into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the \\theta angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The pic...

  2. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  3. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  4. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long‐term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large‐scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3. PMID:26900184

  5. Could supermassive black holes be quintessential primordial black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, R; Bean, Rachel; Magueijo, Joao

    2002-01-01

    There is growing observational evidence for a population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic bulges. We examine in detail the conditions under which these black holes must have originated from primordial black holes (PBHs). We consider the merging and accretion history experienced by SMBHs to find that, whereas it is possible that they were formed by purely astrophysical processes, this is unlikely and most probably a populations of primordial progenitors is necessary. We identify the mass distribution and comoving density of this population and then propose a cosmological scenario producing PBHs with the right properties. Although this is not essential we consider PBHs produced at the end of a period of inflation with a blue spectrum of fluctuations. We constrain the value of the spectral tilt in order to obtain the required PBH comoving density. We then assume that PBHs grow by accreting quintessence showing that their mass scales like the horizon mass while the quintessence field itself is scal...

  6. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  7. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  8. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  9. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  10. Hole localization and symmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, R; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of some theoretical work on the symmetry breaking of electronic wavefunctions that followed the early work on Bagus and Schaefer who observed that a considerable lower SCF energy could be obtained for an ionized state of the O2 molecule with a 1s hole if the symmetry re

  11. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  12. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  13. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applications in the design of low-loss, large dynamic range amplitude modulation, and surface plasmon based terahertz devices.

  14. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  15. Deep coronal hole associated with quiescent filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesumaningrum, Rasdewita; Herdiwidjaya, Dhani

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the morphology of quiescent filament observed by H-alpha Solar Telescope at Bosscha Observatory in association with coronal hole observed by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in 193 Å from Solar Dynamics Observatory. H-alpha images were processed by imaging softwares, namely Iris 5.59 and ImageJ, to enhance the signal to noise ratio and to identify the filament features associated with coronal hole. For images observed on October 12, 2011, November 14, 2011 and January 2, 2012, we identified distinct features of coronal holes above the quiescent filaments. This associated coronal holes have filament-like morphology with a thick long thread as it's `spine', defined as Deep Coronal Hole. Because of strong magnetic field of sunspot, these filaments and coronal holes emerged far from active region and lasted for several days. It is interesting as for segmented filament, deep coronal holes above the filaments lasted for a quite long period of time and merged. This association between filament and deep coronal hole can be explained by filament magnetic loop.

  16. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  17. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  18. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs. Spin-dependen

  19. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  20. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  1. Black Hole Growth in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Malbon, R K; Frenk, C S; Lacey, C G; Malbon, Rowena K.

    2006-01-01

    We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on Lambda-CDM proposed by Baugh et al. (2005). Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zeropoint of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of the optical luminosity function of quasars. We study the demographics of the black hole population and address the issue of how black holes acquire their mass. We find that the direct accretion of cold gas during starbursts is an important growth mechanism for lower mass black holes and at high redshift. On the other hand, the re-assembly of pre-existing black hole mass into larger units via merging dominates the growth of more massive black holes at low redshift. This prediction could be tested by future gravitational wa...

  2. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    local palaeohydrogeological conditions. It is likely that inland areas have had longer durations of post-glacial fresh water infiltration than coastal areas, possibly causing greater degrees of dilution and dispersion of preexisting groundwaters and thus overprinting their hydrochemical and isotopic 'fingerprints'. Lower post-glacial hydraulic gradients relative to inland sites may account for the occurrence of more relict cold-climate water at coastal sites. Some general observations are based on rather thin evidence and therefore speculative. Firstly, it seems that glacial melt water penetrated many hundreds of metres and in some places to at least 1,000 m depth. However the low remaining proportions of melt water and of much older saline Shield water suggest that melt water flux did not fully displace pre-existing groundwaters at these depths. Secondly, where there has been post-glacial infiltration of palaeo-Baltic sea water, the density stratification or compartmentalisation effect coupled with low hydraulic gradient has reduced rates of subsequent fresh water circulation after shoreline recession. There are many uncertainties in interpreting these geochemical indicators in terms of the penetration depths of glacial melt waters and the degree to which they replace preexisting groundwaters, of other aspects of groundwater stability, and of comparisons between inland and coastal groundwater systems. Uncertainties derive partly from the reliability of groundwater samples as being representative of in situ conditions, and partly from the non-uniqueness of interpretative models. Future investigations using these approaches need to improve sampling, to make conjunctive use of geochemical and isotopic indicators which have varying timescales and sensitivities, and to integrate these indicators with palaeohydrogeological modelling to support the development of reliable groundwater flow and solute transport models for Performance Assessment.

  3. Groundwater level status report for 2010, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2010 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 194 monitoring wells, including 63 regional aquifer wells (including 10 regional/intermediate wells), 34 intermediate wells, 97 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 162 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells and seasonal responses to snowmelt runoff observed in intermediate wells.

  4. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  5. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help

  6. Information retrieval from black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.

    2016-08-01

    It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge, and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semiclassically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation nonthermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show how one can decipher the information about the in-state of the field from these distortions. We show that the distortions of a particular kind—which we call nonvacuum distortions—can be used to fully reconstruct the initial data. The asymptotic observer can do this operationally by measuring certain well-defined observables of the quantum field at late times. We demonstrate that a general class of in-states encode all their information content in the correlation of late time out-going modes. Further, using a 1 +1 dimensional dilatonic black hole model to accommodate backreaction self-consistently, we show that observers can also infer and track the information content about the initial data, during the course of evaporation, unambiguously. Implications of such information extraction are discussed.

  7. Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin, Bali Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryadi Tirtomihardjo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i3.123Due to the complex structure of the aquifer systems and its hydrogeological units related with the space in which groundwater occurs, groundwater flows were calculated in three-dimensional method (3D Calculation. The geometrical descritization and iteration procedures were based on an integrated finite difference method. In this paper, all figures and graphs represent the results of the calibrated model. Hence, the model results were simulated by using the actual input data which were calibrated during the simulation runs. Groundwater flow simulation of the model area of the Denpasar-Tabanan Groundwater Basin (Denpasar-Tabanan GB comprises steady state run, transient runs using groundwater abstraction in the period of 1989 (Qabs-1989 and period of 2009 (Qabs-2009, and prognosis run as well. Simulation results show, in general, the differences of calculated groundwater heads and observed groundwater heads at steady and transient states (Qabs-1989 and Qabs-2009 are relatively small. So, the groundwater heads situation simulated by the prognosis run (scenario Qabs-2012 are considerably valid and can properly be used for controlling the plan of groundwater utilization in Denpasar-Tabanan GB.

  8. Sound Hole Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2015-01-01

    The volume of air that goes in and out of a musical instrument's sound hole is related to the sound hole's contribution to the volume of the sound. Helmholtz's result for the simplest case of steady flow through an elliptical hole is reviewed. Measurements on multiple holes in sound box geometries and scales relevant to real musical instruments demonstrate the importance of a variety of effects. Electric capacitance of single flat plates is a mathematically identical problem, offering an alternate way to understand the most important of those effects. The measurements also confirm and illuminate aspects of Helmholtz's "bottle" resonator model as applied to musical instrument sound boxes and sound holes.

  9. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  10. Chemistry and Dynamics of the Unusual 2015 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch of the World Meteorological Organization includes several stations in Antarctica that keep a close eye on the ozone layer during the ozone hole season. Observations made during the unusually large ozone hole of 2015 will be compared to ozone holes from 2003 to 2014 and interpreted in light of the meteorological conditions. Satellite observations will be used to get a more general picture of the size and depth of the ozone hole and will also be used to calculate various metrics for ozone hole severity. In 2003, 2005 and 2006, the ozone hole was relatively large with more ozone loss than normal. This is in particular the case for 2006, which by most ozone hole metrics was the most severe ozone hole on record. On the other hand, the ozone holes of 2004, 2007, 2010 and 2012, 2013 and 2014 were less severe than normal, and only the very special ozone hole of 2002 had less ozone depletion when one regards the ozone holes of the last decade. The South Polar vortex of 2015 was unusually stable and long-lived, so ozone depletion lasted longer than seen in recent years. The ozone hole area, i.e. the area where total ozone is less that 220 DU, averaged over the worst 60 consecutive days was larger in 2015 than in any other year since the beginning of the ozone hole era in the early 1980s.

  11. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  12. Quantum-gravity phenomenology with primordial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, Francesca; Bolliet, Boris; Shutten, Marrit; Weimer, Celine

    2016-01-01

    Quantum gravity may allow black holes to tunnel into white holes. If so, the lifetime of a black hole could be shorter than the one given by Hawking evaporation, solving the information paradox. More interestingly, this could open to a new window for quantum-gravity phenomenology, in connection with the existence of primordial black holes. We discuss in particular the power of the associated explosion and the possibility to observe an astrophysical signal in the radio and in the gamma wavelengths.

  13. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G; Samarchenko, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies an...

  14. Analysis of groundwater recoverable resource by numerical method in Linfen Basin of Shanxi, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping BAI; Yeyao WANG; Jinsheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of the groundwater recoverable resource is the main part of groundwater resource evaluation. The three-dimensional groundwater flow model in Linfen Basin was established by GMS software. Then the numerical model was calibrated by observed groundwater level from February to December in 2 000. Based on the calibrated model, the groundwater recoverable resource is calculated. The simulation result shows that under the given value of the groundwater recoverable resource, the groundwater level would decrease significantly in the first 1 000 days, while the water level would drop slowly in 1 000 to 2 000 days, and the water level change tend to be stable after 2000 days.

  15. Environmental monitoring final report: groundwater chemical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of groundwater qualtiy at the SRC-I Demonstration Plant site in Newman, Kentucky. Samples were obtained from a network of 23 groundwater observation wells installed during previous studies. The groundwater was well within US EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards for trace metals, radioactivity, and pesticides, but exceeded the standard for coliform bacteria. Several US EPA Secondary Drinking Water Standards were exceeded, namely, manganese, color, iron, and total dissolved solids. Based on the results, Dames and Moore recommend that all wells should be sterilized and those wells built in 1980 should be redeveloped. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  16. Microwave Enhancement in Coronal Holes: Statistical Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ν. Gopalswamy; Κ. Shibasaki; Μ. Salem

    2000-09-01

    We report on the statistical properties of the microwave enhancement (brightness temperature, area, fine structure, life time and magnetic field strength) in coronal holes observed over a period of several solar rotations.

  17. On gravitomagnetic precession around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Merloni, A; Stella, L; Bini, D

    1998-01-01

    We compute exactly the Lense-Thirring precession frequency for point masses in the Kerr metric, for arbitrary black hole mass and specific angular momentum. We show that this frequency, for point masses at or close to the innermost stable orbit, and for holes with moderate to extreme rotation, is less than, but comparable to the rotation frequency. Thus, if the quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in the modulation of the X-ray flux from some black holes candidates are due to Lense-Thirring precession of orbiting material, we predict that a separate, distinct QPO ought to be observed in each object.

  18. Information retrieval from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semi-classically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation non-thermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show ...

  19. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  20. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  1. Black Hole Based Tests of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some impor...

  2. Dual jets from binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2010-08-20

    The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.

  3. Development of new hole expansion testing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunok; Shang, Jianhui; Beam, Kevin; Samant, Anoop; Hoschouer, Cliff; Dykeman, Jim

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a new hole expansion (HE) testing method that could be more relevant to the edge cracking problem observed in stamping advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The new testing method adopted a large hole diameter of 75 mm compared to the standard hole diameter of 10 mm. An inline monitoring system was developed to visually monitor the hole edge cracking during the test and synchronize the load-displacement data with the recorded video for capturing the initial crack. A new hole expansion testing method was found to be effective in evaluating the edge cracking by considering the effects of material properties and trimming methods. It showed a much larger difference, up to 11%, of the HE ratio between DP980 and TRIP780 compared to the standard HE testing method giving less than a 2% difference.

  4. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    in 3 pilot areas have been conducted to build research capacities of the central and provincial groundwater information centers in providing groundwater information services to decision makers and public. Groundwater regime zoning and pollution risk maps were used to lay-out groundwater quantity and quality monitoring networks, respectively. Automatic groundwater recorders were installed in selected observation wells. ArcGIS based regional groundwater information systems were constructed and used to create groundwater regime zoning and pollution risk maps. Steady state groundwater models have been constructed and calibrated. Transient groundwater models are under calibration. Groundwater resources development scenarios were formulated. The model will be used to predict what will be consequences in next 20 years if current situation continues as business as usual. Possibilities of reducing groundwater abstraction and opportunities of artificially enhanced groundwater recharge will be analyzed. Combination of decreasing abstraction and increasing recharge may lead to a sustainable plan of future groundwater resources development.

  5. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  6. Shadow casted by a twisted and rotating black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Songbai

    2016-01-01

    Zhang have obtained recently a twisted rotating black hole metric, which is a vacuum solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity. This black hole solution has a rotation parameter, but without the total angular moment. Here, we have investigated the shadow casted by a twisted rotating black hole. Our results show that the shape of the shadow of the twisted rotating black hole is a standard round disk and does not depend on the inclination angle of the observer. It means that although the twisted rotating black hole has a rotation parameter, its shadow possesses the same behaviors as the common static black hole rather than the usual Kerr-like black holes. Moreover, we find that the marginally circular orbit radius of photon is independent of the direction of photon around the black hole. The value of the marginally circular orbit radius of photon and the size of shadow increase monotonously with the rotation parameter.

  7. Destroying the event horizon of regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zilong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several authors have studied the possibility of overspinning or overcharging an existing black hole to destroy its event horizon and make the central singularity naked. When all the effects are properly taken into account, any attempt to destroy the black hole seems to be doomed to fail, in agreement with the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In this letter, we study the possibility of destroying the event horizon of regular black holes. These objects have no central singularity and therefore they are not protected by the cosmic censorship hypothesis. Our results strongly support the conclusion that regular black holes can be destroyed. If we believe that the central singularity in astrophysical black holes is solved by quantum gravity effects, we might have a chance to see the black hole's internal region and observe quantum gravity phenomena. As our finding implies the violation of the black hole's area theorem, the collision of two black holes may release an amount of energy exceeding the Hawkin...

  8. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  9. Modelling Urban diffuse pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jato, Musa; Smith, Martin; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse urban pollution of surface and ground waters is a growing concern in many cities and towns. Traffic-derived pollutants such as salts, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may wash off road surfaces in soluble or particulate forms which later drain through soils and drainage systems into surface waters and groundwater. In Brighton, about 90% of drinking water supply comes from groundwater (derived from the Brighton Chalk block). In common with many groundwater sources the Chalk aquifer has been relatively extensively monitored and assessed for diffuse rural contaminants such as nitrate, but knowledge on the extent of contamination from road run-off is currently lacking. This project examines the transfer of traffic-derived contaminants from the road surface to the Chalk aquifer, via urban drainage systems. A transect of five boreholes have been sampled on a monthly basis and groundwater samples analysed to examine the concentrations of key, mainly road run-off derived, hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminants in groundwater across the Brighton area. Trace concentrations of heavy metals and phenols have been observed in groundwater. Electrical conductivity changes in groundwater have also been used to assess local changes in ionic strength which may be associated with road-derived contaminants. This has been supplemented by systematic water and sediment sampling from urban gully pots, with further sampling planned from drainage and settlement ponds adjacent to major roads, to examine initial road to drainage system transport of major contaminants.

  10. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  11. Black-Hole and White-Hole Horizons in Superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Volovik, G E

    2006-01-01

    Ripplons -- gravity-capillary waves on the free surface of a liquid or at the interfaces between two superfluids -- are the most favourable excitations for simulation of the general-relativistic effects related to horizons and ergoregions. The white-hole horizon for the ``relativistic'' ripplons at the surface of the shallow liquid is easily simulated using the kitchen-bath hydraulic jump. The same white-hole horizon is observed in quantum liquid -- superfluid 4He. The ergoregion for the ``non-relativistic'' ripplons is generated in the experiments with two sliding 3He superfluids. The common property experienced by all these ripplons is the Miles instability inside the ergoregion or horizon. Because of the universality of the Miles instability, one may expect that it could take place inside the horizon of the astrophysical black holes, if there is a preferred reference frame which comes from the trans-Planckian physics. If this is the case, the black hole would evapotate much faster than due to the Hawking r...

  12. Multiwavelength Observations and State Transitions of an Ultra-luminous Supersoft X-ray Source: Evidence for an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Sjouwerman, L O; Di Stefano, R

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of an ultra-luminous supersoft X-ray source in M101. M101 ULX-1 underwent 2 outbursts in 2004 during which the peak bolometric luminosities reached 1e41 erg/s. The outburst spectra were very soft and can generally be fitted with a blackbody model with temperatures of 50-160 eV. In two of the observations, absorption edges at 0.33 keV, 0.56 keV, 0.66 keV, and 0.88 keV were found. A cool accretion disk was also found in the 2004 December outburst. During the low luminosity state, a power-law tail was seen up to 7 keV. It is clear the source changed from a low/hard state to a high/soft state. In addition, it showed at least 5 outbursts between 1996 and 2004. This is the first ultra-luminous X-ray source for which recurrent outbursts with state transitions similar to Galactic X-ray binaries have been observed. From the Hubble Space Telescope data, we found an optical counterpart to the source. During the 2004 outbursts, we also performed radio and groun...

  13. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  14. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  15. Physics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1982-01-01

    The activity at the galactic center might be fuelled by energy release near a large black hole. In this talk I describe some relativistic effects which may be relevant to this process. I use Newtonian language so far as possible and illustrate the effects with simple  analogies. Specifically, I describe the gravitational field near a black hole, Lens‐Thirring and geodetic precession, electro‐magnetic energy extraction of the spin energy of a black hole and the structure of accretion tori arou...

  16. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 -