WorldWideScience

Sample records for groundwater contamination water

  1. Water use and groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.J.; Livingstone, B.

    1998-01-01

    A general review of the groundwater resources in Saskatchewan and their vulnerability to contamination was provided. In particular, the use of water and the effects on water by the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. It was suggested that public concerns over scarcity and contamination of water are gradually changing perceptions about Canada's abundance of water. Saskatchewan's surface water covers 12 per cent of the province. About 90 per cent of the rural populations and 80 per cent of municipalities depend on groundwater supplies. Regulations affecting oil and gas operations that could affect water resources have become more stringent. Techniques used in the detection and monitoring of groundwater affected by salt and petroleum hydrocarbons were described. Electromagnetic surveys are used in detecting salt-affected soils and groundwater. Laboratory analysis of chloride concentrations are needed to define actual chloride concentrations in groundwater. Wells and barriers can be installed to control and recover chloride plumes. Deep well injection and reverse osmosis are other methods, but there is no cheap or simple treatment or disposal method for salt-impacted groundwater. Spills or leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources can also lead to contamination of groundwater. Various assessment and remediation methods are described. Although there is no scarcity of techniques, all of them are difficult, costly, and may take several years to complete. 11 refs., 1 tab

  2. Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    seepage is occurring in a freshwater lake environment and to map the lateral extent of any subsurface contamination at the groundwater –surface water ...and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface August 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater -Surface Water Interface 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  3. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  4. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  5. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  6. Carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution of groundwater contaminated by produced water brine with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atekwana, Eliot A.; Seeger, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    The major ionic and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and the stable carbon isotope composition of DIC (δ"1"3C_D_I_C) were measured in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by produced water brine with petroleum hydrocarbons. Our aim was to determine the effects of produced water brine contamination on the carbonate evolution of groundwater. The groundwater was characterized by three distinct anion facies: HCO_3"−-rich, SO_4"2"−-rich and Cl"−-rich. The HCO_3"−-rich groundwater is undergoing closed system carbonate evolution from soil CO_2_(_g_) and weathering of aquifer carbonates. The SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater evolves from gypsum induced dedolomitization and pyrite oxidation. The Cl"−-rich groundwater is contaminated by produced water brine and undergoes common ion induced carbonate precipitation. The δ"1"3C_D_I_C of the HCO_3"−-rich groundwater was controlled by nearly equal contribution of carbon from soil CO_2_(_g_) and the aquifer carbonates, such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −11.6‰. In the SO_4"2"−-rich groundwater, gypsum induced dedolomitization increased the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −9.4‰. In the produced water brine contaminated Cl"−-rich groundwater, common ion induced precipitation of calcite depleted the "1"3C such that the δ"1"3C of carbon added to the groundwater was −12.7‰. The results of this study demonstrate that produced water brine contamination of fresh groundwater in carbonate aquifers alters the carbonate and carbon isotopic evolution. - Highlights: • We studied carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution in groundwater contaminated by produced water brine. • Multiple processes affect the carbonate and δ"1"3C evolution of the groundwater. • The processes are carbonate weathering, dedolomitization and common ion induce calcite precipitation. • The δ"1"3C added to DIC was −11.6‰ for weathering, −9.4‰ for dedolomitization

  7. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992

  8. Hydrochemistry and Characteristics of Groundwater: Case Study Water Contamination at Citarum River Upstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sapari Dwi Hadian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rancaekek and Sayang area, West Java, are the area where many industrial factories are located.Thus, the region becomes the targeted destination for industrial development.The  population in the area is rising due to the growth of industries causing the regional development becomes uncontrollable. In addition, the constant increment of waste and also poor-coordinated disposal systems may result in groundwater contamination in the areas. The rapid growth of the area increase the need for groundwater as well as the need for more research about contamination at Rancaekek and Sayang. The research aims to explore the spread of groundwater contamination in the area. The research method is carried out based on the analysis of Geological Mapping, Hydrogeological Mapping and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the area. Chemical analyses of the groundwater were conducted through laboratory test of groundwater samples at specific spots of dug wells. The lab test results were further analyzed to determine the contamination zone. The findings reveal that the distribution of contamination in the area follow the shallow ground water flow patterns, the water contamination contains heavy metal and there is degradation of soil fertility. The findings suggest the stakeholders to delineate the contaminated area, and increase the dissemination of environmental awareness.

  9. The groundwater contribution to surface water contamination in a region with intensive agricultural land use (Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Broers, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, monitoring of soil, groundwater and surface water quality is coordinated by different authorities in the Netherlands. Nowadays, the European Water Framework Directive (EU, 2000) stimulates an integrated approach of the complete soil-groundwater-surface water system. Based on water quality data from several test catchments, we propose a conceptual model stating that stream water quality at different discharges is the result of different mixing ratios of groundwater from different depths. This concept is used for a regional study of the groundwater contribution to surface water contamination in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, using the large amount of available data from the regional monitoring networks. The results show that groundwater is a dominant source of surface water contamination. The poor chemical condition of upper and shallow groundwater leads to exceedance of the quality standards in receiving surface waters, especially during quick flow periods. - Water quality monitoring data show the importance of the groundwater contribution to surface water pollution

  10. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  11. Use of tree-ring chemistry to document historical ground-water contamination events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The annual growth rings of tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) appear to preserve a chemical record of ground-water contamination at a landfill in Maryland. Zones of elevated iron and chlorine concentrations in growth rings from trees immediately downgradient from the landfill are closely correlated temporally with activities in the landfill expected to generate iron and chloride contamination in the ground water. Successively later iron peaks in trees increasingly distant from the landfill along the general direction of ground-water flow imply movement of iron-contaminated ground water away from the landfill. The historical velocity of iron movement (2 to 9 m/yr) and chloride movement (at least 40 m/yr) in ground water at the site was estimated from element-concentration trends of trees at successive distances from the landfill. The tree-ring-derived chloride-transport velocity approximates the known ground-water velocity (30 to 80 m/yr). A minimum horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.01 to .02 cm/s) calculated from chloride velocity agrees well with values derived from aquifer tests (about 0.07 cm/s) and from ground-water modeling results (0.009 to 0.04 cm/s).

  12. Pesticide and Water management alternatives to mitigate potential ground-water contamination for selected counties in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Requena, Antonio M.; Peralta, R. C.; Deer, Howard M.; Hill, Robert W.; Ranjha, Ahmad Yar

    1990-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. Although pesticides are necessary in today's agriculture, they can be a serious problem if they reach and contaminate ground water, especially in places where drinking water needs are supplied from ground water. The relative reduction of potential ground-water contamination due to agricultural use of pesticides was analyzed for parti...

  13. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  14. Emerging organic contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a first overview of the situation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffe, Raffaella; de Bustamante, Irene

    2014-05-15

    This paper provides the first review of the occurrence of 161 emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in Italian surface water and groundwater. The reported EOCs belong to the groups of industrials, pharmaceuticals, estrogens and illicit drugs. Occurrence of 137 pesticides was also reported. The reviewed research works have been published between 1997 and 2013. The majority of the studies have been carried out in Northern Italy (n. 30) and to a lower extent in Central Italy (n. 13). Only a limited number of research studies report EOC concentrations in water resources of Southern Italy. The EOCs that have been more frequently studied are in the following descending order, pesticides (16), pharmaceuticals (15), industrials (13), estrogens (7) and illicit drugs (2). Research activities investigating the EOC occurrence in surface water are more numerous than those in groundwater. This is consistent with the higher complexity involved in groundwater sampling and EOC detection. Among the reported EOCs, industrials and pesticides are those occurring in both surface water and groundwater with the highest concentrations (up to 15 × 10(6) and 4.78 × 0(5)ng L(-1), respectively). Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water reach a maximum of 3.59 × 10(3)ng L(-1), whereas only the antimicrobial agent josamycin has been encountered in groundwater with a concentration higher than 100 ng L(-1). Both estrogens and illicit drugs appeared in surface water with concentrations lower than 50 ng L(-1). Groundwater concentrations for estrogens were measured to be below the detection limits, whereas illicit drugs have so far not been studied in groundwater. The present review reveals the serious contamination status of Italian surface water and groundwater especially by pesticides, industrials and to a lower extent by pharmaceuticals and the necessity to foster the research on EOC occurrence in Italian water resources, in particular in Southern Italy where a limited number of

  15. Agricultural contamination in soil-groundwater-surface water systems in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje

    of fertilizers and pesticides. Unfortunately, the lack of regulation or oversight has led to the overuse of these agrochemicals: current application rates (in kg/ha) are two- to threefold higher than in most developed countries, and this is taking its toll on the environment. Problems include severe surface...... water and groundwater pollution by nitrogen and pesticides, soil degradation, bioaccumulation of toxic compounds, and more. It is crucial for China to do improve the safeguarding of its water resources in order to sustain the livelihoods of its people and ensure safe supply of drinking water. Recently......-groundwater interaction was chosen, and field work was performed between October 2012 and March 2014. Results from the field study showed that fertilizer inputs were excessive, and could be reduced substantially. Contaminated river water was infiltrating – and carrying ammonium pollution – into the shallow groundwater...

  16. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  17. Costs of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged

  18. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  19. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  20. Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected

  1. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  2. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  4. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and drinking water in Vietnam: a human health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M; Tran, H C; Nguyen, T C; Pham, H V; Schertenleib, R; Giger, W

    2001-07-01

    This is the first publication on arsenic contamination of the Red River alluvial tract in the city of Hanoi and in the surrounding rural districts. Due to naturally occurring organic matter in the sediments, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in iron. With an average arsenic concentration of 159 micrograms/L, the contamination levels varied from 1 to 3050 micrograms/L in rural groundwater samples from private small-scale tubewells. In a highly affected rural area, the groundwater used directly as drinking water had an average concentration of 430 micrograms/L. Analysis of raw groundwater pumped from the lower aquifer for the Hanoi water supply yielded arsenic levels of 240-320 micrograms/L in three of eight treatment plants and 37-82 micrograms/L in another five plants. Aeration and sand filtration that are applied in the treatment plants for iron removal lowered the arsenic concentrations to levels of 25-91 micrograms/L, but 50% remained above the Vietnamese Standard of 50 micrograms/L. Extracts of sediment samples from five bore cores showed a correlation of arsenic and iron contents (r2 = 0.700, n = 64). The arsenic in the sediments may be associated with iron oxyhydroxides and released to the groundwater by reductive dissolution of iron. Oxidation of sulfide phases could also release arsenic to the groundwater, but sulfur concentrations in sediments were below 1 mg/g. The high arsenic concentrations found in the tubewells (48% above 50 micrograms/L and 20% above 150 micrograms/L) indicate that several million people consuming untreated groundwater might be at a considerable risk of chronic arsenic poisoning.

  5. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs

  6. Risk assessing heavy metals in the groundwater-surface water interface at a contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigi, Giovanni; McKnight, Ursula S.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    such as surface water and groundwater (EC, 2017). The current study quantified and assessed the contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the shallow aquifer, hyporheic zone, stream water and streambed sediments at Rådvad site, a former metal manufacturing industrial area located in Denmark, investigating...... in the soil). Stream water was sampled in 12 points, while groundwater was sampled in 4 wells close to the stream where the interaction was suspected. Sediments and hyporheic zone were sampled in pair, where upward hydraulic heads have been detected. A drain discharging in the river was also sampled....... Sediments were divided in different layers and both heavy metal total concentration and chemical partitioning were analysed. Redox species and dissolved organic matter were also analysed in the water samples, while fraction of organic carbon was investigated in the extracted sediments. Results showed a high...

  7. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  8. Resolving superimposed ground-water contaminant plumes characterized by chromium, nitrate, uranium, and technetium--99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1990-02-01

    Leakage from a liquid waste storage and solar evaporation basin at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has resulted in a ground-water contaminant plume characterized by nitrate, hexavalent chromium, uranium, and technetium-99. The plume is superimposed on a larger, pre-existing plume extending from upgradient sites and having the same suite of contaminants. However, the relative abundance of contaminant species is quite different for each plume source. Thus, characteristic concentration ratios, rather than concentrations of individual species, are used as geochemical tracers, with emphasis on graphical analysis. Accordingly, it has been possible to resolve the boundaries of the smaller plume and to estimate the contribution of each plume to the observed contamination downgradient from the storage basin. 11 refs., 7 figs

  9. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of a ground-water contamination area in Wolcott, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Casey, G.D.; Mondazzi, R.A.; Frick, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds and inorganic constituents has been identified at a number of industrial sites in the Town of Wolcott, Connecticut. Contamination is also present at a municipal landfill in the City of Waterbury that is upgradient from the industrial sites in the local ground-water-flow system. The study area, which lies in the Western Highlands of Connecticut, is in the Mad River Valley, a tributary to the Naugatuck River. Geohydrologic units (aquifer materials) include unconsolidated glacial sediments (surficial materials) and fractured crystalline (metamorphic) bedrock. Surficial materials include glacial till, coarse-grained andfine-grained glacial stratified deposits, and postglacial floodplain alluvium and swamp deposits. The ground-water-flow system in the surficial aquifer is complex because the hydraulic properties of the surficial materials are highly variable. In the bedrock aquifer, ground water moves exclusively through fractures. Hydrologic characteristics of the crystalline bedrock-degree of confinement, hydraulic conductivity, storativity, and porosity-are poorly defined in the study area. Further study is needed to adequately assess ground-water flow and contaminant migration under current or past hydrologic conditions. All known water-supply wells in the study area obtain water from the bedrock aquifer. Twenty households in a hillside residential area on Tosun Road currently obtain drinking water from private wells tapping the bedrock aquifer. The extent of contamination in the bedrock aquifer and the potential for future contamination from known sources of contamination in the surficial aquifer is of concern to regulatory agencies. Previous investigations have identified ground-water contamination by volatile organic compounds at the Nutmeg Valley Road site area. Contamination has been associated with on-site disposal of heavy metals, chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and

  10. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  11. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  12. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.D.; Wright, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  13. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  14. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  15. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). ... topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the ... of effective sites for infiltration of recharge water.

  16. Assessment of ground-water contamination near Lantana landfill, Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G.M.; Higer, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Lantana landfill located in Palm Beach County rises 40 to 50 feet above normal ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash, some below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate a contaminant plume along the eastern perimeter of the landfill that has migrated about 300 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were elevated within the plume. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of sand from 0 to about 68 feet, and sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone from 68 to 220 feet. A slight hydraulic gradient exists, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Analyses of geoelectric, lithologic, and water-quality data indicate that surface geophysical techniques were successful in determining the areal and vertical extent of leachate migration at this location.The Lantana landfill located in Palm Beach County rises 40 to 50 feet above normal ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash, some below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate a contaminant plume along the eastern perimeter of the landfill that has migrated about 300 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were elevated within the plume. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of sand from 0 to about 68 feet, and sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone from 68 to 220 feet. A slight hydraulic gradient exists, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Analyses of geoelectric, lithologic, and water-quality data indicate that surface geophysical techniques were successful in determining the areal and vertical extent of leachate migration at this location.

  17. Simulation–optimization model for groundwater contamination ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used techniques for groundwater remediation in which the contaminated groundwater is pumped ... ing the affected groundwater aquifer down to some drinking water standard. Several .... For simplicity, rectangular support domain is used in this study. Figure 1 ..... For PAT remediation system, decision variables include the.

  18. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  19. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  20. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Marc F.; Schoenberg, Michael E.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant from 1918 to 1972 in St. Louis Park, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn., resulted in ground-water contamination. This preliminary evaluation presents an overview of the problem based on the results of the first year (1979) of an ongoing study.

  1. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  2. Delineation of ground-water contamination using soil-gas analyses near Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources near Jackson, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. The study included determination of the occurrence of contaminants in the shallow aquifer using soil-gas analyses in the unsaturated zone. Between 1980 and 1988, an underground fuel-storage tank leaked about 3,000 gallons of unleaded fuel to the water table about 4 feet below land surface. A survey of soil gas using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector showed concentrations of volatile organic compounds greater than IO, 000 parts per million near the leak These compounds were detected in an area about 240 feet long and 110 feet wide extending west from the point source. The chromatograms provided two distinct 'fingerprints' of volatile organic compounds. The first revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, andxylenes, which are constituents of unleaded fuel, in addition to other volatile compounds, in soil gas in the area near the leak The second did not reveal any detectable benzene, toluene, or xylenes in the soil-gas samples, but showed the presence of other unidentified volatile organic compounds in soil gas north of the storage tank. The distribution of total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone indicated that a second plume about 200 feet long and 90 feet wide was present about 100 feet north of the storage tank The second plume could have been the result of previous activities at this site during the 1950's or earlier. Activities at the site are believed to have included storage of solvents used at the nearby railyard and flushing of tanks containing tar onto a gravel-covered parking area. The delineation of these plumes has shown that soil-gas analyses can be a useful technique for identifying areas of contamination with volatile organic compounds in shallow water-table aquifers and may have broad applications in similar situations where the water table is relatively close to the surface.

  3. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  4. An economic optimal-control evaluation of achieving/maintaining ground-water quality contaminated from nonpoint agricultural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    This study developed a methodology that may be used to dynamically examine the producer/consumer conflict related to nonpoint agricultural chemical contamination of a regional ground-water resource. Available means of obtaining acceptable ground-water quality included pollution-prevention techniques (restricting agricultural-chemical inputs or changing crop-production practices) and end-of-pipe abatement methods. Objectives were to select an agricultural chemical contaminant, estimate the regional agricultural costs associated with restricting the use of the selected chemical, estimate the economic costs associated with point-of-use ground-water contaminant removal and determine the least-cost method for obtaining water quality. The nitrate chemical derived from nitrogen fertilizer was selected as the contaminate. A three-county study area was identified in the Northwest part of Tennessee. Results indicated that agriculture was financially responsible for obtaining clean point-of-use water only when the cost of filtering increased substantially or the population in the region was much larger than currently existed

  5. Simulation of ground-water flow in the St. Peter aquifer in an area contaminated by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A model constructed to simulate ground-water flow in part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and St. Peter aquifers, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was used to test hypotheses about the movement of ground water contaminated with coal-tar derivatives and to simulate alternatives for reducing the downgradient movement of contamination in the St. Peter aquifer. The model, constructed for a previous study, was applied to simulate the effects of current ground-water withdrawals on the potentiometric surface of the St. Peter aquifer. Model simulations predict that the multiaquifer wells have the potential to limit downgradient migration of contaminants in the St. Peter aquifer caused by cones of depression created around the multiaquifer wells. Differences in vertical leakage to the St. Peter aquifer may exist in areas of bedrock valleys. Model simulations indicate that these differences are not likely to affect significantly the general patterns of ground-water flow

  6. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  7. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables

  8. An integrated model for assessing the risk of TCE groundwater contamination to human receptors and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Funder, S.G.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the hyporheic zone. In this paper, an integrated model was developed for evaluating the impact of point sources in groundwater on human health and surface water ecosystems....... This was accomplished by coupling the system dynamics-based decision support system CARO-PLUS to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX using an analytical volatilization model for the stream. The model was applied to a case study where a TCE contaminated groundwater plume is discharging to a stream. The TCE source...... will not be depleted for many decades, however measured and predicted TCE concentrations in surface water were found to be below human health risk management targets. Volatilization rapidly attenuates TCE concentrations in surface water. Thus, only a 300 m stream reach fails to meet surface water quality criteria...

  9. Flux Meter Assesses the Effects of Groundwater, Surface Water, and Contaminated Sediment Interactions on Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slow flow of water between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) is often referred to as seepage, or in scientific terms, advective flux. This slow flow at the GW/SW interface presents measurement difficulties. This project was conducted to develop a durable advective flux ...

  10. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  12. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  13. Predicting the risk of groundwater arsenic contamination in drinking water wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailong; Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Pi, Kunfu; Li, Junxia; Zhan, Hongbin; Liu, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater is a global concern with potential detrimental effects on the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. However, the extent of this problem may be more severe than anticipated, as many wells have not been tested and may contain unsafe-level of As. An optimized statistical regression model was developed to predict the probability of geogenic high As groundwater (As > 10 μg/L) in this study. Easily obtained hydrogeochemical and geological parameters that are significantly related to As geochemical behaviors were selected as explanatory variables in the model. The results indicate that pH, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, and NO3- concentrations, stratigraphic information, and well depth are excellent predictors of As exposure in the Datong Basin, China. Predicted unsafe wells correspond well with the known distribution of high As groundwater in the Datong Basin. The successful application of a data set from Bangladesh also demonstrated the applicability and credibility of this proposed method.

  14. Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Len; Solomon, Keith; Sibley, Paul; Hall, Ken; Keen, Patricia; Mattu, Gevan; Linton, Beth

    2002-01-11

    On a global scale, pathogenic contamination of drinking water poses the most significant health risk to humans, and there have been countless numbers of disease outbreaks and poisonings throughout history resulting from exposure to untreated or poorly treated drinking water. However, significant risks to human health may also result from exposure to nonpathogenic, toxic contaminants that are often globally ubiquitous in waters from which drinking water is derived. With this latter point in mind, the objective of this commission paper is to discuss the primary sources of toxic contaminants in surface waters and groundwater, the pathways through which they move in aquatic environments, factors that affect their concentration and structure along the many transport flow paths, and the relative risks that these contaminants pose to human and environmental health. In assessing the relative risk of toxic contaminants in drinking water to humans, we have organized our discussion to follow the classical risk assessment paradigm, with emphasis placed on risk characterization. In doing so, we have focused predominantly on toxic contaminants that have had a demonstrated or potential effect on human health via exposure through drinking water. In the risk assessment process, understanding the sources and pathways for contaminants in the environment is a crucial step in addressing (and reducing) uncertainty associated with estimating the likelihood of exposure to contaminants in drinking water. More importantly, understanding the sources and pathways of contaminants strengthens our ability to quantify effects through accurate measurement and testing, or to predict the likelihood of effects based on empirical models. Understanding the sources, fate, and concentrations of chemicals in water, in conjunction with assessment of effects, not only forms the basis of risk characterization, but also provides critical information required to render decisions regarding regulatory

  15. Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Frank H.; Robertson, John F.; Landmeyer, James E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes such as dispersion, advection, and biogradation serve to decrease concentrations of disssolved contaminants as they are transported in all ground-water systems.  However, the efficiency of these natural attenuation processes and the degree to which they help attain remediation goals, varies considerably from site to site.  This report provides a methodology for quantifying various natural attenuation mechanisms.  This methodology incorporates information on (1) concentrations of contaminants in space and/or time; (2) ambient reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions; (3) rates and directions of ground-water flow; (4) rates of contaminant biodegradation; and (5) demographic considerations, such as the presence of nearby receptor exposure points or property boundaries.  This document outlines the hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data needed to assess the efficiency of natural attenuation, provides a screening tool for making preliminary assessments, and provides examples of how to determine when natural attenuation can be a useful component of site remediation at leaking underground storage tank sites.

  16. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  17. Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and

  18. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: effects of frond harvesting regimes and arsenic levels in refill water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam K; Hernandez, Damaris; Cai, Yong; Zillioux, Edward J

    2011-01-30

    A large-scale hydroponic system to phytoremediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) was successfully tested in a field. In this 30-wk study, three frond-harvesting regimes (all, mature, and senescing fronds) and two water-refilling schemes to compensate for evapotranspiration (high-As water of 140-180 μg/L and low-As water of arsenic-contaminated groundwater and 32 ferns. During Cycle 1 and with initial As of 140 μg/L, As in tanks refilled with low-As water was reduced to phytoremediation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Geoelectrical mapping and groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rainer

    Specific electrical resistivity of near-surface materials is mainly controlled by the groundwater content and thus reacts extremely sensitive to any change in the ion content. Geoelectric mapping is a well-established, simple, and inexpensive technique for observing areal distributions of apparent specific electrical resistivities. These are a composite result of the true resistivities in the underground, and with some additional information the mapping of apparent resistivities can help to delineate low-resistivity groundwater contaminations, typically observed downstream from sanitary landfills and other waste sites. The presence of other good conductors close to the surface, mainly clays, is a serious noise source and has to be sorted out by supporting observations of conductivities in wells and geoelectric depth soundings. The method may be used to monitor the extent of groundwater contamination at a specific time as well as the change of a contamination plume with time, by carrying out repeated measurements. Examples for both are presented.

  20. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  1. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  2. Ground-water resources and contamination at Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.

    1996-01-01

    Kwajalein Island is the largest of the many low, sandy islets that form Kwajalein Atoll in the western North Pacific Ocean. Salinity and water-level surveys at exploratory monitoring wells in 1990 and 1991 delineated a freshwater lens nearly 40 feet thick floating on saltwater within the carbonate sand and gravel aquifer. A transition zone of mixture between the freshwater and saltwater is as thick as 90 feet. Maximum water-table height is only 1.5 feet above sea level. The freshwater lens thinned and thickened by 5 feet during the year-long field study in response to seasonal rainfall and pumping. Freshwater is produced by airstrip rain catchments and shallow, horizontal wells up to 1,400 feet long. Catchment and ground-water yields are roughly equal on average, but catchment is the principal source during the wet season, whereas the dry season requires sustained pumping. The salinity of pumped water has remained below drinking-water standards since wells were installed in 1971, except during the drought of 1983-84, the most severe drought in the rainfall record dating back to 1945. Wet-season rains at the end of the drought reduced salinity to low levels in just a few months. The operating history of the combined catchment/well water supply indicates that it is capable of producing at least 300,000 gallons per day in all but the driest years, and more in wet years. Several sites are contaminated by fuels, solvents, or metals, but most are at the periphery of the freshwater flow system where contaminants are carried toward the shore. However, three interior sites have greater potential to contaminate nearby water-supply wells.

  3. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  4. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  5. Role of high-elevation groundwater flows in the hydrogeology of the Cimino volcano (central Italy) and possibilities to capture drinking water in a geogenically contaminated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, V.; Armiento, G.; Baiocchi, A.; Mazzuoli, M.; Nardi, E.; Piacentini, S. M.; Proposito, M.; Spaziani, F.

    2018-01-01

    Origin, yield and quality of the groundwater flows at high elevation in the Cimino volcano (central Italy) were examined. In this area, groundwater is geogenically contaminated by arsenic and fluoride, yet supplies drinking water for approximately 170,000 inhabitants. The origin of the high-elevation groundwater flows is strictly related to vertical and horizontal variability of the rock types (lava flows, lava domes and ignimbrite) in an area of limited size. In some cases, groundwater circuits are related to perched aquifers above noncontinuous aquitards; in other cases, they are due to flows in the highly fractured dome carapace, limited at the bottom by a low-permeability dome core. The high-elevation groundwater outflow represents about 30% of the total recharge of Cimino's hydrogeological system, which has been estimated at 9.8 L/s/km2. Bicarbonate alkaline-earth, cold, neutral waters with low salinity, and notably with low arsenic and fluoride content, distinguish the high-elevation groundwaters from those of the basal aquifer. Given the quantity and quality of these resources, approaches in the capture and management of groundwater in this hydrogeological environment should be reconsidered. Appropriate tapping methods such as horizontal drains, could more efficiently capture the high-elevation groundwater resources, as opposed to the waters currently pumped from the basal aquifer which often require dearsenification treatments.

  6. Role of high-elevation groundwater flows in the hydrogeology of the Cimino volcano (central Italy) and possibilities to capture drinking water in a geogenically contaminated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, V.; Armiento, G.; Baiocchi, A.; Mazzuoli, M.; Nardi, E.; Piacentini, S. M.; Proposito, M.; Spaziani, F.

    2018-06-01

    Origin, yield and quality of the groundwater flows at high elevation in the Cimino volcano (central Italy) were examined. In this area, groundwater is geogenically contaminated by arsenic and fluoride, yet supplies drinking water for approximately 170,000 inhabitants. The origin of the high-elevation groundwater flows is strictly related to vertical and horizontal variability of the rock types (lava flows, lava domes and ignimbrite) in an area of limited size. In some cases, groundwater circuits are related to perched aquifers above noncontinuous aquitards; in other cases, they are due to flows in the highly fractured dome carapace, limited at the bottom by a low-permeability dome core. The high-elevation groundwater outflow represents about 30% of the total recharge of Cimino's hydrogeological system, which has been estimated at 9.8 L/s/km2. Bicarbonate alkaline-earth, cold, neutral waters with low salinity, and notably with low arsenic and fluoride content, distinguish the high-elevation groundwaters from those of the basal aquifer. Given the quantity and quality of these resources, approaches in the capture and management of groundwater in this hydrogeological environment should be reconsidered. Appropriate tapping methods such as horizontal drains, could more efficiently capture the high-elevation groundwater resources, as opposed to the waters currently pumped from the basal aquifer which often require dearsenification treatments.

  7. Statistical analysis of ground-water contamination at the alert apron and northern landfill areas of Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, P.; Naber, S.; Verducci, J.

    1988-07-01

    Two plumes of contamination are analyzed to determine their extent, composition, and movement. The large number of ground-water monitoring wells sampled over the past eight years at Wurtsmith AFB allow this analysis to be performed directly from empirical data, with minimal assumptions about solute transport mechanisms. Conclusions are drawn about the likely sources of contamination in the two plumes, the adequacy of the data for making risk assessments, and the likely consequences of alternative programs of remediation.

  8. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  9. Assessing the impact of groundwater contamination on stream water quality by multiple approaches at the groundwater-surface water interface (Invited Presentation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Balbarini, Nicola

    Contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and pesticides, as well as new classes of compounds or emerging micropollutants are extensively produced, utilized and then discarded in society and subsequently released to streams from multiple point and diffuse sources. Sustainable management of water...

  10. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis ... anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine ... The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin ...

  11. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  12. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  13. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  14. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  15. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  16. Characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in Asian coastal megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S. I.; Jin, G.; Shimizu, Y.; Admajaya, F. T.

    2017-12-01

    For the sustainable use of groundwater resources for the future, it is important to conserve its quality as well as quantity. Especially in the developing megacities, land subsidence and groundwater pollution by several contaminants (e.g. nitrogen, trace metals and organic pollutants etc.) is one of a critical environmental problems, because of the intensive extraction of groundwater and huge amount of contaminant load derived from domestic wastewater as well as agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, the process of groundwater degradation, including depletion and contamination with urbanization, has not been examined well in the previous studies. In the present study, we aim to confirm the characteristics and factors of groundwater contamination in coastal Asian megacities such as Osaka and Jakarta. In Osaka, groundwater was used as a water resource during the period of rapid population increase before 1970, and consequently groundwater resources have been degraded. Hydraulic potential of groundwater has been recovered after the regulation for abstraction. However, it is still below sea level in the deeper aquifer (>20 m) of some regions, and higher Cl-, NH4+-N and PO43-P concentrations were detected in these regions. The results also suggest that shallower aquifer (>10 m) is influenced by infiltration of sewage to groundwater. In the Jakarta metropolitan area, current hydraulic potential is below sea level in because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The distribution of Cl- and Mn concentration in groundwater suggests that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. It implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. On the other hands, NO3-N in groundwater is suggested to be attenuated by the processes of denitrification and dilution in the coastal area.

  17. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  18. Inexact Socio-Dynamic Modeling of Groundwater Contamination Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contamination may alter the behaviors of the public such as adaptation to such a contamination event. On the other hand, social behaviors may affect groundwater contamination and associated risk levels such as through changing ingestion amount of groundwater due to the contamination. Decisions should consider not only the contamination itself, but also social attitudes on such contamination events. Such decisions are inherently associated with uncertainty, such as subjective judgement from decision makers and their implicit knowledge on selection of whether to supply water or reduce the amount of supplied water under the scenario of the contamination. A socio-dynamic model based on the theories of information-gap and fuzzy sets is being developed to address the social behaviors facing the groundwater contamination and applied to a synthetic problem designed based on typical groundwater remediation sites where the effects of social behaviors on decisions are investigated and analyzed. Different uncertainties including deep uncertainty and vague/ambiguous uncertainty are effectively and integrally addressed. The results can provide scientifically-defensible decision supports for groundwater management in face of the contamination.

  19. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  20. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palas Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Multivariate data analysis was done with the collected groundwater samples from the 132 tubewells of this contaminated region shows that three variable parameters are significantly related with the arsenic. Based on these relationships, a multiple linear regression model has been developed that estimated the arsenic contamination by measuring such three predictor parameters of the groundwater variables in the contaminated aquifer. This model could also be a suggestive tool while designing the arsenic removal scheme for any affected groundwater.

  1. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  2. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) for groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.E.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and elsewhere have greatly advanced the knowledge of waste site characterization technologies. As a result, many of the techniques used in the past to investigate waste sites have been replaced by newer technologies, designed to provide greater protection for human health and the environment, greater access to suspected zones of contamination, and more accurate information of subsurface conditions. Determining the most environmentally sound method of assessing a waste unit is a major component of the SRS environmental restoration program. In an effort to understand the distribution and migration of contaminants in the groundwater system, the cone penetrometer investigation of the A/M-Area Southern Sector was implemented. The program incorporated a phased approach toward characterization by first using the CPT to delineate the plume boundary, followed by installing groundwater monitoring wells. The study provided the additional hydrogeologic information necessary to better understand the nature and extent of the contaminant plume (Fig. 1) and the hydrogeologic system in the Southem Sector. This data is essential for the optimal layout of the planned groundwater monitoring well network and recovery system to remediate the aquifers in the area. A number of other test locations were selected in the area during this study for lithologic calibration of the tool and to collect confirmation water samples from the aquifer. Cone penetrometer testing and hydrocone sampling, were performed at 17 sites (Fig. 2). The hydrocone, a tool modification to the CPT, was used to collect four groundwater samples from confined aquifers. These samples were analyzed by SRS laboratories. Elevated levels of chlorinated compounds were detected from these samples and have aided in further delineating the southern sector contaminant plume

  3. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an agricultural field before it entered a 43.5-m ditch transect. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling, we directly quantified the flow route contributions to surface water discharge and solute loading. Our multi-scale experimental approach allowed us to relate these measurements to field-scale NO 3 concentration patterns in shallow groundwater and to continuous NO 3 records at the catchment outlet. Our results show that the tile drains contributed 90-92% of the annual NO 3 and heavy metal loads. Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of tile drainage are important for adequate water quality management. - Direct measurements of flow route contributions to surface water contaminant loading reveal the crucial role of tile drainage for catchment-scale water and solute transport.

  4. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options

  5. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  6. Can nitrate contaminated groundwater be remediated by optimizing flood irrigation rate with high nitrate water in a desert oasis using the WHCNS model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Qi, Zhiming; Hu, Kelin; Prasher, Shiv O; Zhang, Yuanpei

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is an environmental concern in intensively cultivated desert oases where this polluted groundwater is in turn used as a major irrigation water resource. However, nitrate fluxes from root zone to groundwater are difficult to monitor in this complex system. The objectives of this study were to validate and apply the WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model to simulate water drainage and nitrate leaching under different irrigation and nitrogen (N) management practices, and to assess the utilization of groundwater nitrate as an approach to remediate nitrate contaminated groundwater while maintain crop yield. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a corn field irrigated with high nitrate groundwater (20 mg N L(-1)) in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment consisted of two irrigation treatments (Istd, standard, 750 mm per season; Icsv, conservation, 570 mm per season) factorially combined with two N fertilization treatments (Nstd, standard, 138 kg ha(-1); Ncsv, conservation, 92 kg ha(-1)). The validated results showed that the WHCNS model simulated values of crop dry matter, yield, soil water content and soil N concentration in soil profile all agreed well with the observed values. Compared to the standard water management (Istd), the simulated drainage and nitrate leaching decreased about 65% and 59%, respectively, under the conservation water management (Icsv). Nearly 55% of input N was lost by leaching under the IstdNstd and IstdNcsv treatments, compared to only 26% under the IcsvNstd and IcsvNcsv treatments. Simulations with more than 240 scenarios combing different levels of irrigation and fertilization indicated that irrigation was the main reason leading to the high risk of nitrate leaching, and the nitrate in irrigation groundwater can be best utilized without corn yield loss when the total irrigation was reduced from the current 750 mm to 491 mm. This reduced irrigation rate facilitated

  7. The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, A; Uddh Söderberg, T; Jarsjö, J; Åström, M; Olofsson, B; Balfors, B; Destouni, G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Combination of novel coalescing oil water separator and electrocoagulation technique for treatment of petroleum compound contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladzad, Sepideh; Fallah, Narges; Nasernejad, Bahram

    2017-07-01

    In the present study a combination of a novel coalescing oil water separator (COWS) and electrocoagulation (EC) technique was used for treatment of petroleum product contaminated groundwater. In the first phase, COWS was used as the primary treatment. Two different types of coalescing media and two levels of flow rates were examined in order to find the optimum conditions. The effluent of COWS was collected in optimum conditions and was treated using an EC process in the second phase of the research. In this phase, preliminary experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of EC reaction time and sedimentation time on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. Best conditions for EC reaction time and sedimentation time were obtained to be 5 min and 30 min, respectively. Response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effect of initial pH, current density and aeration rate on settling velocity (V s ) and effluent COD. The optimum conditions, for achieving maximum values of V s as well as the values of effluent COD, in the range of results were obtained at conditions of 7, 34 mA·cm -2 and 1.5 L·min -1 for initial pH, current density and aeration rate, respectively.

  9. An integrated model for assessing the risk of TCE groundwater contamination to human receptors and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Funder, S.G.; Rasmussen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the hyporheic zone. In this paper, an integrated model was developed for evaluating the impact of point sources in groundwater on human health and surface water ecosystems. This was accomp...

  10. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER: A STATISTICAL MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Palas Roy; Naba Kumar Mondal; Biswajit Das; Kousik Das

    2013-01-01

    High arsenic in natural groundwater in most of the tubewells of the Purbasthali- Block II area of Burdwan district (W.B, India) has recently been focused as a serious environmental concern. This paper is intending to illustrate the statistical modeling of the arsenic contaminated groundwater to identify the interrelation of that arsenic contain with other participating groundwater parameters so that the arsenic contamination level can easily be predicted by analyzing only such parameters. Mul...

  11. A model for evaluating the three-dimensional groundwater dividing pathline between a contaminant source and a partially penetrating water-supply well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Eric W.; Converse, James C.; Anderson, Mary P.; Hoopes, John A.

    1991-09-01

    Effluent from septic tank-drainfields can degrade groundwater quality and contaminate nearby water-supply wells. Such groundwater contamination is a problem in the unsewered subdivisions of the sand plain of central Wisconsin, for example. To help planners minimize the risk of direct contamination of a water-supply well by a septic system, a model was developed to estimate the location of the critical dividing pathline between a rectangular contaminant source (the septic tank drainfield) and a partially penetrating pumping well. The model is capable of handling three-dimensional, transient flow in an unconfined, homogeneous, anisotropic aquifer of infinite areal extent, under a regional horizontal hydraulic gradient. Model results are in very good agreement with several other numerical and analytical models. Examples are given for which the safe, horizontal and vertical separation distances to avoid well water contamination are determined for typical central Wisconsin sand plain conditions. A companion paper (Harmsen et al., 1991) describes the application of this model, using a Monte-Carlo analysis, to study the variation of these separation distances in the Wisconsin sand plain. The model can also be applied to larger scale problems and, therefore, could be useful in implementing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's new well head protection program.

  12. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gokmen

    2011-12-01

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic groundwater contamination are agricultural activities, mining waste, industrial waste, on-site septic tank systems, and pollution from imperfect well constructions. The analysis results revealed that natural contamination due to salt and gypsum are mostly found in Central and Mediterranean regions and arsenic in Aegean region. Geothermal fluids which contain fluoride poses a danger for skeleton, dental, and bone problems, especially in the areas of Denizli, Isparta, and Aydın. Discharges from surface water bodies contaminate groundwater by infiltration. Evidence of such contamination is found in Upper Kızılırmak basin, Gediz basin, and Büyük Melen river basin and some drinking water reservoirs in İstanbul. Additionally, seawater intrusion causes groundwater quality problems in coastal regions, especially in the Aegean coast. Industrial wastes are also polluting surface and groundwater in industrialized regions of Turkey. Deterioration of water quality as a result of fertilizers and pesticides is another major problem especially in the regions of Mediterranean, Aegean, Central Anatolia, and Marmara. Abandoned mercury mines in the western regions of Turkey, especially in Çanakkale, İzmir, Muğla, Kütahya, and Balıkesir, cause serious groundwater quality problems.

  13. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  14. Complex Treatment of Soils, Waste Water and Groundwater Contaminated by Halogenated Organic Compounds.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, P.; Rott, J.; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Jirátová, Květa

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1-3, (2007) , s. 261-271 ISSN 0011-9164. [Environmental Science and Technology Symposium /9./. Rhodes, 01.09.2005-03.09.2005] R&D Project s: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/0407; GA MPO FI-IM3/050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : vinyl chloride * waste and underground water * fenton reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2007

  15. A technical approach to groundwater contamination problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Leser, C.; Rose, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has been performing technical investigations at sites in Nebraska and Kansas that have identified groundwater contamination by carbon tetrachloride. This comprehensive program will ultimately provide the affected communities with safe drinking water. The first step in the program is to evaluate the available data and identify sites that will require an Alternate Water Supply Study (AWSS). The objective of the AWSS is to identify options for providing a safe drinking water supply to all users, in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. The AWSS consists of an engineering and cost evaluation followed by implementation of the selected alternative. For sites with contamination less than a specific concentration, the AWSS is regarded as a satisfactory long term solution, and no further action is taken. For those sites with concentrations above that specific limit, the AWSS implementation is regarded as only a stopgap measure, and the site is selected for additional remedial action. The first step of the remedial action is an Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The ESC was developed at Argonne to decrease the cost and time of the remedial investigation and feasibility study while producing a high-quality technical investigation. The ESC is designed to characterize the contaminant plume configuration and movement, which requires an understanding of the geological and hydrogeologic controls on groundwater movement as well as the nature and extent of any remaining carbon tetrachloride source in the soils. The ESC program uses a multidisciplinary technical approach that incorporates geology, geochemistry, geohydrology, and geophysics. Field activities include sampling, chemical analysis, and borehole and surface geophysical surveys

  16. Bacterial contamination of tile drainage water and shallow groundwater under different application methods of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, A D; Glasauer, S M; Lauzon, J D; O'Halloran, I P; Parkin, Gary W; Dunfield, K E

    2012-05-01

    A 2 year field experiment evaluated liquid manure application methods on the movement of manure-borne pathogens (Salmonella sp.) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens) to subsurface water. A combination of application methods including surface application, pre-application tillage, and post-application incorporation were applied in a randomized complete block design on an instrumented field site in spring 2007 and 2008. Tile and shallow groundwater were sampled immediately after manure application and after rainfall events. Bacterial enumeration from water samples showed that the surface-applied manure resulted in the highest concentration of E. coli in tile drainage water. Pre-tillage significantly (p tile water and to shallow groundwater within 3 days after manure application (DAM) in 2008 and within 10 DAM in 2007. Pre-tillage also decreased the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in tile water samples. Indicator bacteria and pathogens reached nondetectable levels within 50 DAM. The results suggest that tillage before application of liquid swine manure can minimize the movement of bacteria to tile and groundwater, but is effective only for the drainage events immediately after manure application or initial rainfall-associated drainage flows. Furthermore, the study highlights the strong association between bacterial concentrations in subsurface waters and rainfall timing and volume after manure application.

  17. Hydrogeologic Settings and Ground-Water Flow Simulations for Regional Studies of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to Public-Supply Wells - Studies Begun in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2007-01-01

    This study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) is being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and was designed to increase understanding of the most important factors to consider in ground-water vulnerability assessments. The seven TANC studies that began in 2001 used retrospective data and ground-water flow models to evaluate hydrogeologic variables that affect aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability at a regional scale. Ground-water flow characteristics, regional water budgets, pumping-well information, and water-quality data were compiled from existing data and used to develop conceptual models of ground-water conditions for each study area. Steady-state regional ground-water flow models were used to represent the conceptual models, and advective particle-tracking simulations were used to compute areas contributing recharge and traveltimes from recharge to selected public-supply wells. Retrospective data and modeling results were tabulated into a relational database for future analysis. Seven study areas were selected to evaluate a range of hydrogeologic settings and management practices across the Nation: the Salt Lake Valley, Utah; the Eagle Valley and Spanish Springs Valley, Nevada; the San Joaquin Valley, California; the Northern Tampa Bay region, Florida; the Pomperaug River Basin, Connecticut; the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio; and the Eastern High Plains, Nebraska. This Professional Paper Chapter presents the hydrogeologic settings and documents the ground-water flow models for each of the NAWQA TANC regional study areas that began work in 2001. Methods used to compile retrospective data, determine contributing areas of public-supply wells, and characterize oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions also are presented. This Professional Paper Chapter provides the foundation for future susceptibility and vulnerability analyses in the TANC

  18. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater contamination decreases the amount of available groundwater ...... ture; Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Irrigation and Drainage, paper No. ... province); The 1st IWA Malaysia Young Water Profes- sionals Conference ...

  19. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik

    2011-11-15

    The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination events. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an early warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential contamination of groundwater in the World Heritage Site of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid population growth, high levels of tourism and poor sewage waste disposal (at least for the foreseeable future) in St. Katherine have resulted in potential contamination of groundwater and subsequent high risk to human health. To evaluate the safety of well water for human use in St. Katherine, water samples were ...

  1. Radioactive ground-water contamination from an enriched-uranium cold scrap recovery operation, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, B.J.; Kipp, K.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid wastes from a uranium-bearing cold scrap recovery plant at an industrial site in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds from 1966 to 1980. Leakage from the polyethylene- and polyvinylchloride-lined ponds resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water that extends from the ponds northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin. Contaminants include: strontium 90, technetium 99, boron, nitrate and potassium. Water quality data from more than 100 observation wells indicate that the plume of contamination is approximately 700 meters long, 100 meters wide, and is confined to the upper 25 meters of saturated thickness where sediments consist of medium to coarse sand and gravel. No contamination has been detected in fine sands and silts underlying the coarser materials. Piezometric-head and water-quality data from wells screened at multiple depths on both sides of the river indicate that contaminants discharge both to the river and to a swampy area at the west edge of the river. Dilution precludes detection of contaminants once they have entered the river, which has an average flow of 5 cubic meters per second

  2. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Impact of agriculture and land use on nitrate contamination in groundwater and running waters in central-west Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Agnieszka Ewa; Zbierska, Janina; Nowak, Bogumił; Achtenberg, Krzysztof; Grześkowiak, Artur; Kanas, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Protected areas due to their long-term protection are expected to be characterized by good water quality. However, in catchments where arable fields dominate, the impact of agriculture on water pollution is still problematic. In Poland, recently, the fertilization level has decreased, mostly for economic reasons. However, this applies primarily to phosphorus and potassium. In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on water quality in a protected area with a high proportion of arable fields in the aspect of level and type of fertilization, complex monitoring has been applied. The present study was carried out in Wielkopolska National Park and its buffer zone, which are protected under Natura 2000 as Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas. The aim of the study were (1) to assess the impact of agriculture, with special attention on fertilization, on groundwater, and running water quality and (2) to designate priority areas for implementing nitrogen reduction measures in special attention on protected areas. In our study, high nitrogen concentrations in groundwater and surface waters were detected in the agricultural catchments. The results demonstrate that in the watersheds dominated by arable fields, high nitrogen concentrations in groundwater were measured in comparison to forestry catchments, where high ammonium concentrations were observed. The highest nitrogen concentrations were noted in spring after winter freezing, with a small cover of vegetation, and in the areas with a high level of nitrogen application. In the studied areas, both in the park and its buffer zone, unfavorable N:P and N:K ratios in supplied nutrients were detected. Severe shortage of phosphorus and potassium in applied fertilizers is one of the major factors causing leaching of nitrogen due to limited possibilities of its consumption by plants.

  4. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well a...

  6. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Groundwater contamination and the relationship between water chemistry and biotic components in a karst system (Bihor Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Epure

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics, microbial contaminat ion, and meiofauna of the Ocoale-Gheţar-Dobreşti karst system (Bihor Mountains, Romania were studied in order to assess the natural water quality by an interdisciplinary study. A total of 60 water samples were collected seasonally from 7 sites. Physico-chemical results showed a typical composition of karst waters, except for one site, where Ca2+ was absent, pH was very low, and the abundance and diversity of meiofauna were highest, demonstrating life support even for the most sensitive animals. No significant chemical pollution was found, but microbial contamination occurred in all samples, according to the national water quality standards of the analyzed springs. The Canonical Correlation Analysis and the Canonical Correspondence Analysis performed showed a strong connection between pH, nitrates and faecal pollution, indicating also a direct connection between microbial contaminants and dissolved oxygen.

  8. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  9. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  10. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  11. Ground-water monitoring under RCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalgate, J.

    1993-11-01

    In developing a regulatory strategy for the disposal of hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), protection of ground-water resources was the primary goal of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's ground-water protection strategy seeks to minimize the potential for hazardous wastes and hazardous constituents in waste placed in land disposel units to migrate into the environment. This is achieved through liquids management (limiting the placement of liquid wastes in or on the land, requiring the use of liners beneath waste, installing leachate collection systems and run-on and run-off controls, and covering wastes at closure). Ground-water monitoring serves to detect any failure in EPA's liquids management strategy so that ground-water contamination can be detected and addressed as soon as possible

  12. Extent and Durability of Contamination of Groundwater and Water Works With The Pesticide Metabolite Bam (2,6 -dichlorbenzamide) Evaluated For Representative Aquifers In Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter R.; Clausen, Liselotte; Larsen, Flemming

    The pesticide metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorbenzamide) is the most frequently found pesticide contaminant in Danish groundwater. In 1999 BAM was found in 26% of Danish water supply wells and the drinking water standard (0.1 µg/L) was exceeded in 11% of the wells. BAM is a metabolite from the active ingredient dichlobenil (DCB), which was used for non-agricultural total weed protection during 1966 ­ 1997. By using the numerical codes FRAC3Dvs and MODFLOW/MT3D it is the aim of the study to evaluate the extent and durability of the BAM pollution in Danish groundwater and to recommend planning strategies to avoid or minimize BAM in future water supply. The modeling was based on the total amount sold of the DCB (29.000 ton/year) combined with data for sorption and degradation of the DCB and BAM measured from comprehensive laboratory experiments with soil material representing root zone and main aquifer soil types in Denmark. As a main result the laboratory experiments revealed that BAM was only very slowly degraded in the root zone, while no degradation was observed in the sub-soil environments. Combining these model in-put data with representative data for the main aquifer types and overriding fractured clay aquitards, the modeling indicates that more than 99% of infiltrated dichlobenile has been transformed to its metabolite BAM (approximately 500 tons in total), and that currently (year 2001) approximately 100% of this compound appears widely in the groundwater and/or in the above aquitards. The modeling shows that the BAM pollution will appear in the groundwater with a high frequency in extensive parts of Denmark during the following 20 years to more than 100 years. The highest current BAM concentrations, but however also the shortest durability of the BAM pollution, will occur in contaminated aquifers, which are not covered with clay layers. Short durability in such areas is furthermore dependent on the lack of further up-stream BAM sources. The modeling moreover

  13. High levels of faecal contamination in drinking groundwater and recreational water due to poor sanitation, in the sub-rural neighbourhoods of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, John M; Thevenon, Florian; Laffite, Amandine; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mubedi, Josué I; Poté, John

    2018-04-01

    In many urban and peri-urban areas of developing countries, shallow wells and untreated water from urban rivers are used for domestic purposes, including drinking water supply, population bathing and irrigation for urban agriculture. The evaluation and monitoring of water quality are therefore necessary for preventing potential human risk associated with the exposure to contaminated water. In this study, physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were assessed in an urban river (named Kokolo Canal/Jerusalem River) draining the municipality of Lingwala (City of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo) and in two shallow wells used as drinking water supplies, during the wet and dry seasons in order to estimate the seasonal variation of contamination. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) isolated strains (Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT)) from water and surface sediment, were characterized for human-specific bacteroides by molecular approach. The results revealed very high faecal contamination of water from the shallow wells, and of water and sediments from the river, during both wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, E. coli reached the values of 18.6 × 10 5 and 4.9 × 10 5  CFU 100 mL -1 in Kokolo Canal and shallow wells, respectively; and Enterococcus reached the values of 7.4 × 10 4 and 2.7 × 10 4  CFU 100 mL -1 . Strong mutually positive correlation was observed between E. coli and ENT, with the range of R-value being 0.93 water but also on groundwater contamination. The water samples from the shallow wells and Kokolo Canal were highly polluted with faecal matter in both seasons. However, the pollution level was significantly higher during the wet season compared to the dry season. Physicochemical analysis revealed also very high water electrical conductivity, with values much higher than the recommended limits of the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water. These results highlight the

  14. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  15. Human health risk assessment via drinking water pathway due to metal contamination in the groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 30 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River Basin for source apportionment and risk assessment studies. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant spatial variation with some of the metals like As, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se exceeding the drinking water standards at some locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors that together explained 84.99 % of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated that both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal in groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) and cancer risk by ingestion for adult and child, and it was indicated that Mn was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The carcinogenic risk of As for adult and child was within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The largest contributors to chronic risks were Mn, Co and As. Considering the geometric mean concentration of metals, the hazard index (HI) for adult was above unity. Considering all the locations, the HI varied from 0.18 to 11.34 and 0.15 to 9.71 for adult and child, respectively, suggesting that the metals posed hazard by oral intake considering the drinking water pathway.

  16. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess

  17. Contaminant mass flow rates between groundwater, streambed sediments and surface water at the regionally contaminated site Bitterfeld; Schadstoffmassenstroeme zwischen Grundwasser, Flussbettsedimenten und Oberflaechenwasser am regional kontaminierten Standort Bitterfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.; Krieg, R.; Bayer-Raich, M.; Leschik, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Department Hydrogeologie, Leipzig (Germany); Kalbus, E. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Zentrum fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany); UFZ - Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH, Department Umweltinformatik, Leipzig (Germany); Reinstorf, F. [Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal, Fachbereich Wasser- und Kreislaufwirtschaft, Magdeburg (Germany); Martienssen, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Department Hydrogeologie, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schirmer, M. [EAWAG, das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs, Abteilung Wasserressourcen und Trinkwasser, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-09-15

    As a result of intensive industrial, mining, and urban development, numerous large-scale contaminated areas exist in Germany. These so-called megasites represent a challenge to risk assessment and remediation strategies. At the Bitterfeld megasite, the contaminated groundwater interacts with the local streams. Along a stream reach 280 m long, the mass flow rates of chlorinated benzenes were estimated by combining integral pumping tests, streambed temperature mapping, and analyses of contaminant concentrations in the streambed sediments. On average, a total mass flow rate of 617 mg d{sup -1} monochlorobenzene (MCB) and 157 mg d{sup -1} dichlorobenzene (DCB) is released from the adjoining aquifer into the stream along the investigated reach. Further, the streambed sediment acts as the dominant contaminant source. Considering the streambed sediments, the contaminant mass flow rate to the river increases to values between 2,355 and 4,323 mg d{sup -1} MCB and between 892 and 3,587 mg d{sup -1} DCB. (orig.) [German] Als Folge intensiver industrieller, bergbaulicher und urbaner Nutzung gibt es in Deutschland zahlreiche grossflaechig kontaminierte Standorte. Diese so genannten Megasites stellen eine grosse Herausforderung fuer die Risikobewertung und Sanierung dar. An der Megasite Bitterfeld kommt es zudem zu Wechselwirkungen zwischen kontaminiertem Grundwasser und den lokalen Vorflutern. An einem 280 m langen Flussabschnitt wurden durch die Kombination integraler Pumpversuche, Kartierung der Flussbettsedimenttemperaturen und Analysen der Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Flussbettsediment die Schadstoffmassenstroeme chlorierter Benzole abgeschaetzt, die mit der Grundwasserstroemung aus dem Aquifer und dem Flussbettsediment in den Vorfluter gelangen. Im Mittel gelangt am untersuchten Flussabschnitt eine Fracht von 617 mg d{sup -1} Monochlorbenzen (MCB) und 157 mg d{sup -1} Dichlorbenzen (DCB) aus dem Aquifer in den Vorfluter. Das Flussbettsediment des untersuchten Vorfluters

  18. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  19. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  20. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: from field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, van der Y.; Geer, van F.C.; Broers, H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an

  1. Direct measurements of the tile drain and groundwater flow route contributions to surface water contamination: From field-scale concentration patterns in groundwater to catchment-scale surface water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Broers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced knowledge of water and solute pathways in catchments would improve the understanding of dynamics in water quality and would support the selection of appropriate water pollution mitigation options. For this study, we physically separated tile drain effluent and groundwater discharge from an

  2. Reengineering water treatment units for removal of Sr-90, I-129, Tc-99, and uranium from contaminated groundwater at the DOE's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    The 33 years of active operation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins to dispose of liquid low-level radioactive waste at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has resulted in the contamination of the groundwater underlying these basins with a wide variety of radionuclides and stable metals. The current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit requires the operation of a pump-and-treat system capable of (1) maintaining hydraulic control of a specified contaminated groundwater plume, (2) treatment of the extracted groundwater, and (3) reinjection of the treated water hydraulically upgradient of the basins. Two multimillion-dollar water treatment units (WTUs) were designed and built in 1997 and the basic design consists of (1) reverse osmosis concentration, (2) chemical addition, neutralization, precipitation, polymer addition, flocculation, and clarification of the reverse osmosis concentrate, and (3) final polishing of the clarified water by ion exchange (IX) and sorption. During startup of these units numerous process optimizations were identified and, therefore, the WTUs have been recently reengineered. A systematic approach of: (1) developing a technical baseline through laboratory studies, (2) scale-up and plant testing, (3) plant modification, and (4) system performance monitoring was the basis for reengineering the WTUs. Laboratory experiments were conducted in order to establish a technical baseline for further scale-up/plant testing and system modifications. These studies focused on the following three areas of the process: (1) contaminant removal during chemical addition, neutralization and precipitation, (2) solids separation by flocculation, coagulation, clarification, and filtration, and (3) contaminant polishing of the clarified liquid by IX/sorption. Using standard laboratory-scale jar tests, the influences of pH and Fe concentration on contaminant removal during precipitation/neutralization were evaluated. The results of

  3. Emerging contaminants: strategies for the assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants 

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine. Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these compounds could be important

  4. Assessment of trace ground-water contaminants release from south Texas in-situ uranium solution-mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Humenick, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The future of uranium solution mining in south Texas depends heavily on the industry's ability to restore production zone ground water to acceptable standards. This study investigated the extent of trace contaminant solubilization during mining and subsequent restoration attempts, first through a literature search centered on uranium control mechanisms, and then by laboratory experiments simulating the mining process. The literature search indicated the complexity of the situation. The number of possible interactions between indigenous elements and materials pointed on the site specificity of the problem. The column studies evaluated three different production area ores. Uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, vanadium, and selenium were analyzed in column effluents. After simulated mining operations were completed, uranium was found to be the most persistent trace element. However, subsequent ground water flushing of the columns could restore in-situ water to EPA recommended drinking water concentrations. Limited data indicated that ground water flowing through mined areas may solubilize molybdenum present in down gradient areas adjacent to the production zone due to increased oxidation potential of ground water if adequate restoration procedures are not followed.

  5. Slow arsenic poisoning of the contaminated groundwater users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M. M.; Harun-Ar-Rashid, A. K. M.; Hossain, S. M.; Hafiz, M. A.; Nahar, K.; Mubin, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives impact of Arsenic contaminated water on human health as well as overview of the extent and severity of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. Scalp hair is the most important part of the human body to monitor the accumulation of this type of poison. Therefore, an experiment has been carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis at Atomic Energy Research Establishment , Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh on human hair of corresponding tube well water users of these areas to determine the total accumulation of arsenic to their body. Hair samples collected from the region where the groundwater was found highly contaminated with arsenic. The obtained results of arsenic concentration in the lower age (Hb) categories of users (below 12 years of age users) is in the range of 0.33 to 3.29 μg/g (ppm) and that in the Hu categories (upper 12 years of age users) is 0.47 to 6.64 μg/g (ppm). Where as maximum permissible range is 1 ppm certified from WHO. Results show that the peoples are highly affected where the groundwater is highly contaminated with arsenic and acts as the primary source of arsenic poisoning among the peoples of those areas. The results indicate that human population is affected with arsenic locally using the contaminated water for a long time

  6. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water that has not been affected by leakage from a unit. A determination of background quality may... that ensures detection of ground-water contamination in the uppermost aquifer. When physical obstacles... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258...

  7. Groundwater-surface water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.A.; Clausen, B.; Hunt, B.; Cameron, S.; Weir, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter discusses natural and modified interactions between groundwater and surface water. Theory on recharge to groundwater from rivers is introduced, and the relative importance of groundwater recharge from rivers is illustrated with an example from the Ngaruroro River, Hawke's Bay. Some of the techniques used to identify and measure recharge to groundwater from gravel-bed rivers will be outlined, with examples from the Ngaruroro River, where the recharge reach is relatively well defined, and from the Rakaia River, where it is poorly defined. Groundwater recharged from rivers can have characteristic chemical and isotopic signatures, as shown by Waimakariri River water in the Christchurch-West Melton groundwater system. The incorporation of groundwater-river interaction in a regional groundwater flow model is outlined for the Waimea Plains, and relationships between river scour and groundwater recharge are examined for the Waimakariri River. Springs are the result of natural discharge from groundwater systems and are important water sources. The interactions between groundwater systems, springs, and river flow for the Avon River in New Zealand will be outlined. The theory of depletion of stream flow by groundwater pumpage will be introduced with a case study from Canterbury, and salt-water intrusion into groundwater systems with examples from Nelson and Christchurch. The theory of artificial recharge to groundwater systems is introduced with a case study from Hawke's Bay. Wetlands are important to flora, and the relationship of the wetland environment to groundwater hydrology will be discussed, with an example from the South Taupo wetland. (author). 56 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  9. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  10. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic

  11. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  12. Sedimentological analysis of a contaminated groundwater aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of sedimentological reservoir analysis techniques adapted from standard oilfield practice can improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of the evaluation of groundwater aquifers and the design of restoration programs. An evaluation/restoration program at a site in California drilled over 200 test wells in about 750 ac. All wells were logged lithologically and with wireline. The shallow aquifer is a complex braided alluvial floodplain deposit of Late Quaternary age. Analysis demonstrates depositional and erosional responses to periodic hinterland uplifts and to changing climatic conditions. Channel, overbank, lacustrine, and minor deltaic deposits can be recognized. The aquifer architecture has been interpreted to explain the movement of fuel and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in the sediments and water. Routine engineering geology techniques and hydrologic tests were used to evaluate contamination and to design experimental restoration processes. As demonstrated here, sedimentological techniques show promise in reducing the costs and time required for this type of study. The abundant detailed data will be used in an attempt to develop a microcomputer-based expert system for rapid preliminary analyses of similar aquifers or reservoirs

  13. Water, Water Everywhere but is it Safe to Drink? Some Detrimental Health Effects Associated with Consumption of Groundwater Enriched in Naturally-Occurring Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuge, R.

    2007-05-01

    Drinking water represents a major pathway of trace elements into the human body. As such, groundwaters, the chemistry of which reflect water/rock interaction, can be a source of trace elements which will have a marked health effect on humans consuming them. Health problems associated with the consumption of groundwater enriched in various elements and compounds have been recorded for many years. For example, high-arsenic groundwaters used for public water supply were first associated with harmful health effects as early as 1917 in Córdoba Province in Argentina, where the local population suffered from skin disorders. Subsequently, in the 1960s consumption of high-arsenic groundwaters was identified as a factor in the aetiology of "black foot disease", an endemic vascular disease, in Taiwan. However, it is problems associated with the very high-arsenic groundwaters of the highly populous Ganges delta area of Bangladesh and West Bengal that has more recently highlighted the health problem of consuming high-arsenic waters. The most obvious problems of excess arsenic consumption through drinking water are arsenical skin lesions, the severity of which being generally correlated with arsenic content of the water. A high incidence of cancers of the skin, bladder and other organs has been recorded in the high-arsenic drinking water areas of the world. A high incidence of vascular disease, found in the arsenic-rich area of Taiwan, has also been shown to occur in Bangladesh. In addition, it has been suggested that high arsenic in drinking water results in increased incidence of diabetes mellitus. Fluorine is another element long recognised as having a major effect on the well-being of humans. Consumption of high-fluorine waters were first identified as having a detrimental effect on teeth in the 1920s and 30s. It was subsequently shown that where fluorine is present in drinking waters at concentrations of around 0.5 to 1 mg/L it can have beneficial effects on humans

  14. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  15. Hanford Site ground-water surveillance for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.; Kemner, M.L.

    1990-06-01

    This annual report of ground-water surveillance activities provides discussions and listings of results for ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1989. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assesses the impacts of Hanford operations on the environment for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The impact Hanford operations has on ground water is evaluated through the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance program. Five hundred and sixty-seven wells were sampled during 1989 for Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. This report contains a listing of analytical results for calendar year (CY) 1989 for species of importance as potential contaminants. 30 refs., 29 figs,. 4 tabs

  16. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Rieger, J.T.; Webber, W.D.; Thorne, P.D.; Gillespie, B.M.; Luttrell, S.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Liikala, T.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Groundwater Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1995 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that impacted groundwater quality on the site. Monitoring of water levels and groundwater chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination, to note trends in contaminant concentrations,a nd to identify emerging groundwater quality problems. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of onsite groundwater quality. A three- dimensional, numerical, groundwater model is being developed to improve predictions of contaminant transport. The existing two- dimensional model was applied to predict contaminant flow paths and the impact of changes on site conditions. These activities were supported by limited hydrogeologic characterization. Water level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Radiological monitoring results indicated that many radioactive contaminants were above US Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington drinking water standards at the Hanford Site. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, cyanide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their US EPA or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels

  17. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  18. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  19. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steadystate and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer.The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination.The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or –3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  20. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  1. Blast fracturing of bedrock to enhance recovery of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzman, L.R.; Harvey, E.M.; McKee, R.C.E.; Katsabanis, T.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons releasd from a pipeline at a site in southern Ontario had contaminated a fractured dolostone bedrock aquifer. To remediate the site, contaminated groundwater was pumped from the downgradient edge of the hydrocarbon plume and injected into an upgradient area after treatment. Contaminant flow pathways in the fractured bedrock aquifer were found to be complex and erratic. It was anticipated that contaminated groundwater could escape the influence of a line of closely spaced recovery wells. In order to capture the migrating contaminants effectively, improve communication between recovery wells, and optimize pumping efficiencies, a rubble zone was created by drilling and blasting the rock. Using 140 blastholes, the bedrock was fractured to a depth of 4 m over a distance of 200 m. Similarly, an additional 80 blastholes were used to blast fracture 100 m of bedrock to a depth of 4 m in the recharge area to enhance injection of treated water to the aquifer. Various blasthole spacings and explosive loadings and patterns were tested to fracture the rock effectively while minimizing the impact on the nearby pipeline and neighboring residences. Vibrations were carefully monitored using several seismographs. Pump tests conducted before and after the blast indicated the hydraulic connection between the naturally occurring fractures had greatly improved. Monitoring conducted after startup of the pump-treat-and-inject system has confirmed the fracturing provides effective capture and injection of the groundwater. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Bacterial contamination of groundwater in urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Rippey, B.

    1999-01-01

    Well-water samples (in=193) were collected from urban areas of five districts of Karachi during the period 1993 to 1995 to evaluate its bacteriological quality and their impact on city environment and morbidity patterns of inhabitants. Samples were analyzed by the standard method American Public Health Association. The bacteriological contamination level suggest that the groundwater of Chaahi is mainly affected by contamination of wastewater containing high levels of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. This study points towards serious need to control the seepage from sewerage system and use of contaminated well-water should be discouraged to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in order to improve the quality of life and health. (author)

  3. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal

  6. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain

  7. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-12-20

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  8. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

  9. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  10. Depth Stratification Leads to Distinct Zones of Manganese and Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Samantha C; Schaefer, Michael V; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Li, Jun; Fendorf, Scott

    2017-08-15

    Providing access to safe drinking water is a global challenge, for which groundwater is increasingly being used throughout the world. However, geogenic contaminants limit the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes over large geographic areas across most continents. Geogenic contaminants in groundwater are often evaluated individually, but here we demonstrate the need to evaluate multiple contaminants to ensure that groundwater is safe for human consumption and agricultural usage. We compiled groundwater chemical data from three aquifer regions across the world that have been reported to have widespread As and Mn contamination including the Glacial Aquifer in the U.S., the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Mehta Basin within Bangladesh, and the Mekong Delta in Cambodia, along with newly sampled wells in the Yangtze River Basin of China. The proportion of contaminated wells increase by up to 40% in some cases when both As and Mn contaminants are considered. Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis indicates that Mn contamination consistently occurs at significantly shallower depths than As contaminated wells in all regions. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater are well predicted by redox indicators (Eh and dissolved oxygen) whereas Mn shows no significant relationship with either parameter. These findings illustrate that the number of safe wells may be drastically overestimated in some regions when Mn contamination is not taken into account and that depth may be used as a distinguishing variable in efforts to predict the presence of groundwater contaminants regionally.

  11. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of public-supply wells has resulted in public-health threats and negative economic effects for communities that must treat contaminated water or find alternative water supplies. To investigate factors controlling vulnerability of public-supply wells to anthropogenic and natural contaminants using consistent and systematic data collected in a variety of principal aquifer settings in the United States, a study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The area simulated by the ground-water flow model described in this report was selected for a study of processes influencing contaminant distribution and transport along the direction of ground-water flow towards a public-supply well in southeastern York, Nebraska. Ground-water flow is simulated for a 60-year period from September 1, 1944, to August 31, 2004. Steady-state conditions are simulated prior to September 1, 1944, and represent conditions prior to use of ground water for irrigation. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells were simulated using the Multi-Node Well package of the modular three-dimensional ground-water flow model code, MODFLOW-2000, which allows simulation of flow and solutes through wells that are simulated in multiple nodes or layers. Ground-water flow, age, and transport of selected tracers were simulated using the Ground-Water Transport process of MODFLOW-2000. Simulated ground-water age was compared to interpreted ground-water age in six monitoring wells in the unconfined aquifer. The tracer chlorofluorocarbon-11 was simulated directly using Ground-Water Transport for comparison with concentrations measured in six monitoring wells and one public supply well screened in the upper confined aquifer. Three alternative model simulations indicate that simulation results are highly sensitive to the distribution of multilayer well bores where leakage

  12. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  13. Nitrate contamination of groundwater: A conceptual management framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Mohammad N.

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, public concern over the deterioration of groundwater quality from nitrate contamination has grown significantly in recent years. This concern has focused increasingly on anthropogenic sources as the potential cause of the problem. Evidence indicates that the nitrate (NO 3 ) levels routinely exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/l NO 3 -N in many aquifer systems that underlie agriculture-dominated watersheds. Degradation of groundwater quality due to nitrate pollution along with the increasing demand for potable water has motivated the adoption of restoration actions of the contaminated aquifers. Restoration efforts have intensified the dire need for developing protection alternatives and management options such that the ultimate nitrate concentrations at the critical receptors are below the MCL. This paper presents a general conceptual framework for the management of groundwater contamination from nitrate. The management framework utilizes models of nitrate fate and transport in the unsaturated and saturated zones to simulate nitrate concentration at the critical receptors. To study the impact of different management options considering both environmental and economic aspects, the proposed framework incorporates a component of a multi-criteria decision analysis. To enhance spatiality in model development along with the management options, the utilization of a land use map is depicted for the allocation and computation of on-ground nitrogen loadings from the different sources

  14. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Shallow groundwater with high arsenic concentrations from naturally occurring sources is the primary source of drinking water for millions of people in Bangladesh. It has resulted in a major public health crisis with as many as 70 million people possibly at risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is supporting international efforts and the Government of Bangladesh to find alternative, safe and sustainable sources of drinking water. (IAEA)

  15. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  16. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Crane, Emily; Hart, Alwyn

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the types of emerging organic groundwater contaminants (EGCs) which are beginning to be found in the UK. EGCs are compounds being found in groundwater that were previously not detectable or known to be significant and can come from agricultural, urban and rural point sources. EGCs include nanomaterials, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as caffeine and nicotine. Many are relatively small polar molecules which may not be effectively removed by drinking water treatment. Data from the UK Environment Agency's groundwater screening programme for organic pollutants found within the 30 most frequently detected compounds a number of EGCs such as pesticide metabolites, caffeine and DEET. Specific determinands frequently detected include pesticides metabolites, pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine and triclosan, nicotine, food additives and alkyl phosphates. This paper discusses the routes by which these compounds enter groundwater, their toxicity and potential risks to drinking water and the environment. It identifies challenges that need to be met to minimise risk to drinking water and ecosystems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination in alluvial fan of Eastern Kofu basin, JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture has significant effects on the rate and composition of groundwater recharge. The chemical loading into groundwater have been dominated by the constituents derived directly or indirectly from agricultural practices and additives. The contamination of groundwater with nitrate is a major public health and environmental concern around the world. The inorganic constituents like, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl- and variety of other minor elements of groundwater are often used as agricultural additives; and the natural occurrence of these elements are dominated by the agricultural sources. A recent study has reported that Kofu basin groundwater aquifer is contaminated by nitrate from agricultural areas because of the fertilizer application for the orchard (Kazama and Yoneyama, 2002; Sakamoto et al., 1997, Nakamura et al., 2007). The water-oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope (δ18O and δD) and nitrate-nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples were investigated to identify the source of groundwater and nitrate nitrogen contamination in groundwater in the Fuefukigawa and Hikawa_Kanegawa alluvial fans in Kofu basin. The plot of δD versus δ18O values of groundwater, river water and precipitation samples suggest that the groundwater is a mixture of precipitation and river water. And nitrate-nitrogen isotope values have suggested the nitrate contamination of groundwater is from agricultural area. The study revealed positive correlation between groundwater δ18O values and NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ concentration, which shows the agricultural contamination is carried by the recharge of groundwater from precipitation in alluvial fan. Whereas, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+ are diluted by the river water recharges. This study showed the quality of groundwater is resulted from the mixing of water from the different source during the groundwater recharge in the study area. References Kazama F, Yoneyama M (2002) Nitrogen generation

  18. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  19. Black Swans and the Effectiveness of Remediating Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.

    2013-12-01

    Black swans, outliers, dominate science far more than do predictable outcomes. Predictable success constitutes the Black Swan in groundwater remediation. Even the National Research Council concluded that remediating groundwater to drinking water standards has failed in typically complex hydrogeologic settings where heterogeneities and preferential flow paths deflect flow paths obliquely to hydraulic gradients. Natural systems, be they biological or physical, build upon a combination of large-scale regularity coupled to chaos at smaller scales. We show through a review of over 25 case studies that groundwater remediation efforts are best served by coupling parsimonious site characterization to natural and induced geochemical tracer tests to at least know where contamination advects with groundwater in the subsurface. In the majority of our case studies, actual flow paths diverge tens of degrees from anticipated flow paths because of unrecognized heterogeneities in the horizontal direction of transport, let alone the vertical direction. Consequently, regulatory agencies would better serve both the public and the environment by recognizing that long-term groundwater cleanup probably is futile in most hydrogeologic settings except to relaxed standards similar to brownfielding. A Black Swan

  20. Chlorobenzene removal efficiencies and removal processes in a pilot-scale constructed wetland treating contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeckevelt, M.; Reiche, N.; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Low-chlorinated benzenes (CBs) are widespread groundwater contaminants and often threaten to contaminate surface waters. Constructed wetlands (CWs) in river floodplains are a promising technology for protecting sensitive surface water bodies from the impact of CBs. The efficiency and seasonal var...

  1. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  2. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  3. Water contamination, land prices, and the statute of repose

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Chamblee; Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken; Joseph R. Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    We examine how water contamination risk from an inactive hazardous waste site is capitalized into surrounding vacant land prices. After public knowledge of the first instance of off-site contamination, we find that shallow groundwater contamination potential is negatively capitalized into land prices, as is proximity to a known contaminated well. Public knowledge of...

  4. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  5. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  6. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2007-11-06

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  7. Use of LCA as decision support for the selection of remedial strategies for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2009-01-01

    , there is a trade-off between obtaining local beneficial effects from the remediation and generating environmental impacts on the regional and global scale due to the remedial actions. Therefore there is a need for including the impact of soil contaminants that will potentially leach to the groundwater, e......Groundwater is the dominant source of drinking water in Denmark and the general policy is to maintain the groundwater as a clean source of drinking water. The risk of groundwater contamination is therefore often the prime reason for remediating a contaminated site. Chlorinated solvents are among...... the contaminants most frequently found to be threatening the groundwater quality in Denmark and worldwide. Life cycle assessment has recently been applied as part of decision support for contaminated site management and subsurface remediation techniques. Impacts in the groundwater compartment have only gained...

  8. Potential for ground-water contamination from movement of wastewater through the unsaturated zone, upper Mojave River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.M.; Martin, P.M.; Schroeder, R.A.; Duell, L.F.; Fay, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Septic-tank wastewater disposed in 30-foot-deep seepage pits (dry wells) at 46,000 residences is estimated to equal 18 percent of the natural recharge to the sole-source aquifer in the rapidly developing upper Mojave River Basin (Victor Valley) in the high desert northeast of Los Angeles. Vertical rates of movement of the wastewater wetting front through the unsaturated zone at three newly occupied residences ranged from 0.07 to 1.0 foot per day. These rates translate to traveltimes of several months to several years for the wastewater wetting front to reach the water table and imply that wastewater from many disposal systems already has reached the water table, which averages about 150 feet below land surface in the Victor Valley. As wastewater percolates from seepage pits into the adjacent unsaturated zone, the nitrogen present in reduced form is rapidly converted to nitrate. Analyses on soil-core extracts and soil moisturefrom suction lysimeters installed beneath the seepage pits at eight residences showed that nitrate concentrations and nitrate/ chloride ratios generally become lower with increasing depth. The intervals of greatest decline seemed to coincide with finer soil texture or were near the water table. Nitrate-reducing bacteria were tested for and found to be present in soil cores from two residences. Sparse nitrogen-15 data from suction lysimeters at one of these residences, where thenitrate concentration decreased by about one-half at a depth of 200 feet, indicate that the nitrate decline was accompanied by nitrogen-15 enrichment in the residual nitrate with an isotope-separation factor of about -10 permil. Despite the potential input of abundant nitrogen with the domestic wastewater recharge, nitrate concentrations in the area's ground water are generally low. The absence of high nitrate concentrations in the ground water is consistent with the existence of denitrification, a microbial nitrogen-removal mechanism, as wastewater moves through the

  9. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  11. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site's geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices

  12. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram-microgram per litre concentrations are present in groundwater for a large range of EOCs as well as metabolites and transformation products and under certain conditions may pose a threat to freshwater bodies for decades due to relatively long groundwater residence times. In the coming decades, more of these EOCs are likely to have drinking water standards, environmental quality standards and/or groundwater threshold values defined, and therefore a better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation remains a priority. - Highlights: ► First review to focus on EOCs in groundwater. ► A large range (n > 180) of EOCs are detected in groundwater. ► Significant concentrations (10 2 –10 4 ng/L) for a range of EOCs, including endocrine disruptors. ► Groundwater EOC occurrence is poorly characterised compared to other freshwater resources. - A large range of emerging organic contaminants are now being detected in groundwater as a result of recent and historical anthropogenic activities.

  13. Degradation of sucralose in groundwater and implications for age dating contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W D; Van Stempvoort, D R; Spoelstra, J; Brown, S J; Schiff, S L

    2016-01-01

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has been in use in Canada and the US since about 2000 and in the EU since 2003, and is now ubiquitous in sanitary wastewater in many parts of the world. It persists during sewage treatment and in surface water environments and as such, has been suggested as a powerful tracer of wastewater. In this study, longer-term persistence of sucralose was examined in groundwater by undertaking a series of three sampling snapshots of a well constrained wastewater plume in Canada (Long Point septic system) over a 6-year period from 2008 to 2014. A shrinking sucralose plume in 2014, compared to earlier sampling, during this period when sucralose use was likely increasing, provides clear evidence of degradation. However, depletion of sucralose from a mean of 40 μg/L in the proximal plume zone, occurred at a relatively slow rate over a period of several months to several years. Furthermore, examination of septic tank effluent and impacted groundwater at six other sites in Canada, revealed that sucralose was present in all samples of septic tank effluent (6-98 μg/L, n = 32) and in all groundwater samples (0.7-77 μg/L, n = 64). Even though sucralose degradation is noted in the Long Point plume, its ubiquitous presence in the groundwater plumes at all seven sites implies a relatively slow rate of decay in many groundwater septic plume environments. Thus, sucralose has the potential to be used as an indicator of 'recent' wastewater contamination. The presence of sucralose identifies groundwater that was recharged after 2000 in Canada and the US and after 2003 in the EU and many Asian countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, Colin; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using...

  15. Transport of contaminated groundwater to a river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1990-09-01

    Scenario B7 deals with the discharges of Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239 and Np-237 with the groundwater from an aquifer into a river, through the river sediment. The contamination of agricultural soil, brought about through the dredging of top sediment from the river, was also considered. Four models participated in this exercise, providing best estimate values. Only one model supplied uncertainty estimates. Brief descriptions of the models and their aims are given. the modelling of the processes taken into account for the computation of the radionuclide concentrations in river and soil compartments are described and the input parameter values are given. The model results are discussed and the reasons for the differences between the models are explained. Important discrepancies were observed. As far as the steady-state concentrations are concerned they were due to differences in the parameter values and transfer processes considered. The time-dependent concentration values depended strongly on the approach adopted for the modelling of the migration of the nuclides through the deep sediment in the source region. The major source of uncertainty pointed out by the model which performed an uncertainty analysis, was the distribution coefficient in the deep sediment. The conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the models, given at the end of the report, accentuate the lack of understanding of the phenomena occurring at the geosphere-biosphere interface and the importance of good communications between scientists of different disciplines. (au)

  16. Modeling In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Secody, Roland E

    2007-01-01

    .... An innovative technology was recently developed which uses dual-screened treatment wells to mix an electron donor into perchlorate-contaminated groundwater in order to effect in situ bioremediation...

  17. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were 10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  18. Software for modelling groundwater transport and contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gishkelyuk, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Facilities of modern software for modeling of groundwater transport and process of contaminant distribution are considered. Advantages of their application are discussed. The comparative analysis of mathematical modeling software of 'Groundwater modeling system' and 'Earth Science Module' from 'COMSOL Multiphysics' is carried out. (authors)

  19. Innovative reactive barrier technologies for regional contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkel, P.; Weiβ, H.; Teutsch, G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    At many industrial sites inadequate waste disposal, leakages and war damages have led to severe groundwater contamination on a regional scale. Standard hydraulic groundwater remediation methods, such as pump-and-treat, in most cases do not lead to satisfactory results, due to the persistence of

  20. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Nepal—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, arsenic (As contamination is a major issue of current drinking water supply systems using groundwater and has recently been one of the major environmental health management issues especially in the plain region, i.e., in the Terai districts, where the population density is very high. The Terai inhabitants still use hand tube and dug wells (with hand held pumps that are bored at shallow to medium depth for their daily water requirements, including drinking water. The National Sanitation Steering Committee (NSSC, with the help of many other organizations, has completed arsenic blanket test in 25 districts of Nepal by analysing 737,009 groundwater samples. Several organizations, including academic institutions, made an effort to determine the levels of arsenic concentrations in groundwater and their consequences in Nepal. The results of the analyses on 25,058 samples tested in 20 districts, published in the status report of arsenic in Nepal (2003, demonstrated that the 23% of the samples were containing 10–50 µg/L of As, and the 8% of the samples were containing more than 50 µg/L of As. Recent status of over 737,009 samples tested, the 7.9% and 2.3% were contaminated by 10–50 µg/L and >50 µg/L, respectively of As. The present paper examines the various techniques available for the reduction of arsenic concentrations in Nepal in combination with the main results achieved, the socio-economic status and the strategies. This paper aims to comprehensively compile all existing data sets and analyze them scientifically, by trying to suggest a common sustainable approach for identifying the As contamination in the nation, that can be easily adopted by local communities for developing a sustainable society. The paper aims also to find probable solutions to quantify and mitigate As problem without any external support. The outcome of this paper will ultimately help to identify various ways for: identify risk areas; develop awareness; adopt

  1. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STrietelmeir, B.

    2000-01-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), and extremely inexpensive and easy to emplace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels has been discharged from this plant for many years, until recently when the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated this past year to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier. will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mhl nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 microM perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system

  2. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M.; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Wu, Liyou; Watson, David B.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Alm, Eric J.; Adams, Paul D.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth’s biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly (P contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. PMID:29463661

  3. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth’s biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN, representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5 increased significantly (P < 0.05 as uranium or nitrate increased, and their changes could be used to successfully predict uranium and nitrate contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning.

  4. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  5. Toxic fluoride and arsenic contaminated groundwater in the Lahore and Kasur districts, Punjab, Pakistan and possible contaminant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Abida; Masuda, Harue; Firdous, Nousheen

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible sources of As, F - and SO 4 2- contaminated groundwater in the Kalalanwala area, Punjab, Pakistan. Five rainwater and 24 groundwater samples from three different depths were analyzed. Shallow groundwater from 24 to 27 m depth contained high F - (2.47-21.1 mg/L), while the groundwater samples from the deeper depth were free from fluoride contamination. All groundwater samples contained high As (32-1900 μg/L), in excess of WHO drinking water standards. The SO 4 2- ranges from 110 to 1550 mg/L. δ 34 S data indicate three sources for SO 4 2- air pollutants (5.5-5.7 per mille ), fertilizers (4.8 per mille ), and household waste (7.0 per mille ). Our important finding is the presence of SO 4 2- , As and F - in rainwater, indicating the contribution of these elements from air pollution. We propose that pollutants originate, in part, from coal combusted at brick factories and were mobilized promotionally by the alkaline nature of the local groundwater. - Simultaneous As and F - contamination of groundwater and possible pollutant sources are discussed

  6. In Situ Monitoring of Groundwater Contamination Using the Kalman Filter For Sustainable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Wainwright, H. M.; Faybishenko, B.; Denham, M. E.; Eddy-Dilek, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - based on less intensive passive remediation and natural attenuation - has become a desirable remediation alternative at contaminated sites. Although it has a number of benefits, such as reduced waste and water/energy usage, it carries a significant burden of proof to verify plume stability and to ensure insignificant increase of risk to public health. Modeling of contaminant transport is still challenging despite recent advances in numerical methods. Long-term monitoring has, therefore, become a critical component in sustainable remediation. However, the current approach, which relies on sparse groundwater sampling, is problematic, since it could miss sudden significant changes in plume behavior. A new method is needed to combine existing knowledge about contaminant behavior and latest advances in in situ groundwater sensors. This study presents an example of the effective use of the Kalman filter approach to estimate contaminant concentrations, based on in situ measured water quality parameters (e.g. electrical conductivity and pH) along with the results of sparse groundwater sampling. The Kalman filter can effectively couple physical models and data correlations between the contaminant concentrations and in situ measured variables. We aim (1) to develop a framework capable of integrating different data types to provide accurate contaminant concentration estimates, (2) to demonstrate that these results remain reliable, even when the groundwater sampling frequency is reduced, and (3) to evaluate the future efficacy of this strategy using reactive transport simulations. This framework can also serve as an early warning system for detecting unexpected plume migration. We demonstrate our approach using historical and current groundwater data from the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Seepage Basins to estimate uranium and tritium concentrations. The results show that the developed method can provide reliable estimates of contaminant

  7. Global aquifers dominated by fossil groundwaters but wells vulnerable to modern contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Perrone, Debra; Befus, Kevin M.; Bayani Cardenas, M.; Ferguson, Grant; Gleeson, Tom; Luijendijk, Elco; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Richard G.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-06-01

    The vulnerability of groundwater to contamination is closely related to its age. Groundwaters that infiltrated prior to the Holocene have been documented in many aquifers and are widely assumed to be unaffected by modern contamination. However, the global prevalence of these `fossil' groundwaters and their vulnerability to modern-era pollutants remain unclear. Here we analyse groundwater carbon isotope data (12C, 13C, 14C) from 6,455 wells around the globe. We show that fossil groundwaters comprise a large share (42-85%) of total aquifer storage in the upper 1 km of the crust, and the majority of waters pumped from wells deeper than 250 m. However, half of the wells in our study that are dominated by fossil groundwater also contain detectable levels of tritium, indicating the presence of much younger, decadal-age waters and suggesting that contemporary contaminants may be able to reach deep wells that tap fossil aquifers. We conclude that water quality risk should be considered along with sustainable use when managing fossil groundwater resources.

  8. Microbial Functional Gene Diversity Predicts Groundwater Contamination and Ecosystem Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Zhang, Ping; Wu, Linwei; Rocha, Andrea M; Tu, Qichao; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Bo; Qin, Yujia; Wang, Jianjun; Yan, Qingyun; Curtis, Daniel; Ning, Daliang; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Elias, Dwayne A; Watson, David B; Adams, Michael W W; Fields, Matthew W; Alm, Eric J; Hazen, Terry C; Adams, Paul D; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

    2018-02-20

    Contamination from anthropogenic activities has significantly impacted Earth's biosphere. However, knowledge about how environmental contamination affects the biodiversity of groundwater microbiomes and ecosystem functioning remains very limited. Here, we used a comprehensive functional gene array to analyze groundwater microbiomes from 69 wells at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN), representing a wide pH range and uranium, nitrate, and other contaminants. We hypothesized that the functional diversity of groundwater microbiomes would decrease as environmental contamination (e.g., uranium or nitrate) increased or at low or high pH, while some specific populations capable of utilizing or resistant to those contaminants would increase, and thus, such key microbial functional genes and/or populations could be used to predict groundwater contamination and ecosystem functioning. Our results indicated that functional richness/diversity decreased as uranium (but not nitrate) increased in groundwater. In addition, about 5.9% of specific key functional populations targeted by a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 5) increased significantly ( P contamination and ecosystem functioning. This study indicates great potential for using microbial functional genes to predict environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. IMPORTANCE Disentangling the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is an important but poorly understood topic in ecology. Predicting ecosystem functioning on the basis of biodiversity is even more difficult, particularly with microbial biomarkers. As an exploratory effort, this study used key microbial functional genes as biomarkers to provide predictive understanding of environmental contamination and ecosystem functioning. The results indicated that the overall functional gene richness/diversity decreased as uranium increased in groundwater, while specific key microbial guilds increased significantly as

  9. Tidal effects on groundwater contamination at Pekan, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Dalila Desa; Dominic, J.A.; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Faizun Khalid; Mod Omar Hassan; Kamaruzaman Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    The meeting of coastal ground water and the sea is a unique and dynamic hydro geologic boundary phenomenon that has fascinated groundwater engineers and scientists for the past century. The variation of seawater level resulting from tidal fluctuations is usually neglected in regional groundwater flow studies. In this study the effects of seawater tidal on groundwater are investigated using geophysical together with conventional method. Comparative result between these two methods shown how tidal fluctuations effects groundwater in study area. (author)

  10. Screening of French groundwater for regulated and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Ollivier, Patrick; Togola, Anne; Baran, Nicole; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-15

    Nationwide screening of 411 emerging contaminants and other regulated compounds, including parent molecules and transformation products (TPs) having various uses and origins, was done at 494 groundwater sites throughout France during two sampling campaigns in the Spring and the Fall of 2011. One hundred and eighty substances (44% of the targeted compounds) were quantified in at least one sampling point. These included pharmaceuticals, industrial products, pesticides, their transformation products and other emerging compounds. Fifty-five compounds were quantified in more than 1% of the samples. Both regulated and emerging compounds were found. Among the unregulated compounds, acetaminophen, carbamazepine, perfluorinated compounds, dioxins/furans, tolyltriazole, bisphenol A, triazine transformation products, and caffeine were quantified in more than 10% of the samples analyzed. Concentrations exceeding the threshold of toxicological concern of 0.1 μg/L were found for tolyltriazole, bisphenol A and some of the triazine transformation products (DEDIA). These new results should help the water resource managers and environmental regulators develop sound policies regarding the occurrence and distribution of regulated and emerging contaminants in groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Peter; Bernath, Balazs

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m 3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m 2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The

  12. Complex relationship between groundwater velocity and concentration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, F.E.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses the results from the Multi-component Mass Transport model to examine the complex interrelationship between groundwater velocity and contaminant dispersion, decay, and retardation with regard to their influence on the contaminant concentration distribution as it travels through the geosphere to the biosphere. The rate of transport of contaminants through the geosphere is governed by groundwater velocity, leach rate, and contaminant retardation. The dominant characteristics of the contaminant concentration distribution are inherited during leaching and modified during transport by dilution, dispersion and decay. For a hypothetical non-decaying, non-dispersing contaminant with no retardation properties, the shape of the source term distribution is governed by the groundwater velocity (dilution) and leach rate. This distribution remains unchanged throughout transport. Under actual conditions, however, dispersion, decay and retardation modify the concentration distribution during both leaching and transport. The amount of dispersion is determined by the distance traveled, but it does have a greater peak-reducing influence on spiked distributions than square-shaped distributions. Decay acts as an overall scaling factor on the concentration distribution. Retardation alters the contaminant travel time and therefore indirectly influences the amount of dilution, dispersion and decay. Simple relationships between individual parameters and groundwater velocity as they influence peak concentration do not exist. For those cases where the source term is not solubility-limited and flow past the waste is independent of regional hydrologic conditions, a threshold concentration occurs at a specific groundwater velocity where the effects of dilution balance those of dispersion and decay

  13. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2015-01-01

    measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained......An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different...

  14. Field demonstration of ex situ biological treatability of contaminated groundwater at the Strachan gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Stepan, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    A multi-phase study was conducted to deal with the issues of groundwater and soil contamination by sour gas processing plants in Alberta. Phase One consisted of a review of all soil and groundwater monitoring data submitted to Alberta Environment by sour gas plants in accordance with the Canadian Clean Water Act. The current phase involves the development, evaluation and demonstration of selected remediation technologies to address subsurface contamination of sediments and groundwater at sour gas treatment plants with special attention to the presence of natural gas condensate in the subsurface. Results are presented from a pilot-scale biological treatability test that was performed at the Gulf Strachan Natural Gas Processing Plant in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, where contaminated groundwater from the plant was being pumped to the surface through many recovery wells to control contaminant migration. The recovered groundwater was directed to a pump-and-treat system that consisted of oil-water separation, iron removal, hardness removal, and air stripping, before being reinjected. The pilot-scale biological treatability testing was conducted to evaluate process stability in treating groundwater without pretreatment for iron and hardness reduction and to evaluate the removal of organic contaminants. Results of a groundwater characterization analysis are discussed. Chemical characteristics of the groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant showed that an ex situ remediation technology would address the dissolved volatile and semi-volatile organic contamination from natural gas condensates, as well as the nitrogenous compounds resulting from the use of amine-based process chemicals. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Re-thinking stressor interactions: The role of groundwater contamination impacting stream ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Rønde, Vinni Kampman

    ) to quantify the contaminant discharges, and potentially link the chemical impact and stream water quality. Potential pollution sources include two contaminated sites (Grindstedfactory/landfill), aquaculture, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Datafor xenobiotic...... chronic stress level, so even small perturbations on top of changes in water flow or additional chemical stressors may be detrimental to the stream health. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors along a 16-km groundwater-fedstream stretch (Grindsted, Denmark...... organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow from three campaigns in 2012 and 2014 were assessed. The measured chemicalconcentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on 48-h acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna...

  16. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  17. Evaluation of groundwater-surface water interaction through groundwater modelling: simulation of the effects of removal of a dam along a river at a contaminated site in Northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Remonti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for an industrial site bounded by a river in in Basse Normandie, Northern France. The scope of the work was the optimisation of the existing groundwater pump and treat system and the prediction of possible effects on groundwater circulation after the future removal of a dam located along the river. The model has been implemented with the finite difference code MODFLOW 2005 and represents an area with an extension of approximately 800 x 500 m. It has been calibrated using static conditions groundwater head data (wells deactivated and verified with 1 abstracting conditions (wells abstracting head data, 2 simulating pumping tests with transient simulations and 3 comparing measured average river baseflow with modelled river drainage. The model indicates that the hydraulic barrier in the present abstraction scenario has some problematic areas and needs some improvements, as confirmed by the hydrochemical data of the river water. A first predictive scenario has been developed to optimise the barrier, indicating that a flow rate of 0.5 m3/h each at three new barrier wells, in addition to the present abstraction scenario, should ensure the hydraulic containment of the site. A second predictive scenario simulates the optimised groundwater abstractions without the presence of the dam along the neighbouring river. In these conditions, the river will increase the drainage effect on the aquifer, requiring a further increase in the rate of abstraction from the existing and new wells to ensure the hydraulic containment. With this paper we would like to present an example of what we think is a correct professional approach, with the design of the simplest model as possible depending on the hydrogeological conceptual model complexity, the abundance of data and the model objectives, and where multiple confirmations of the correctness of groundwater model results have been searched for.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain.

  19. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO3+SO4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO2, that is the CO2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical data

  20. Determination of timescales of nitrate contamination by groundwater age models in a complex aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Lee, E.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.; Green, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Timing and magnitudes of nitrate contamination are determined by various factors like contaminant loading, recharge characteristics and geologic system. Information of an elapsed time since recharged water traveling to a certain outlet location, which is defined as groundwater age, can provide indirect interpretation related to the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system. There are three major methods (apparent ages, lumped parameter model, and numerical model) to date groundwater ages, which differently characterize groundwater mixing resulted by various groundwater flow pathways in a heterogeneous aquifer system. Therefore, in this study, we compared the three age models in a complex aquifer system by using observed age tracer data and reconstructed history of nitrate contamination by long-term source loading. The 3H-3He and CFC-12 apparent ages, which did not consider the groundwater mixing, estimated the most delayed response time and a highest period of the nitrate loading had not reached yet. However, the lumped parameter model could generate more recent loading response than the apparent ages and the peak loading period influenced the water quality. The numerical model could delineate various groundwater mixing components and its different impacts on nitrate dynamics in the complex aquifer system. The different age estimation methods lead to variations in the estimated contaminant loading history, in which the discrepancy in the age estimation was dominantly observed in the complex aquifer system.

  1. Is nutrient contamination of groundwater causing eutrophication of groundwater-fed meadows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, N.M.; Olde Venterink, H.; Schot, P.P.; Verkroost, A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether nutrient contamination of groundwater under agricultural fields may cause nutrient-enrichment and subsequent eutrophication in discharge areas. Often, there is only circumstantial evidence to support this supposition (proximity of agricultural fields,

  2. Arsenic and fluoride contaminated groundwaters: A review of current technologies for contaminants removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sachin V; Bringas, Eugenio; Yadav, Ganapati D; Rathod, Virendra K; Ortiz, Inmaculada; Marathe, Kumudini V

    2015-10-01

    Chronic contamination of groundwaters by both arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) is frequently observed around the world, which has severely affected millions of people. Fluoride and As are introduced into groundwaters by several sources such as water-rock interactions, anthropogenic activities, and groundwater recharge. Coexistence of these pollutants can have adverse effects due to synergistic and/or antagonistic mechanisms leading to uncertain and complicated health effects, including cancer. Many developing countries are beset with the problem of F and As laden waters, with no affordable technologies to provide clean water supply. The technologies available for the simultaneous removal are akin to chemical treatment, adsorption and membrane processes. However, the presence of competing ions such as phosphate, silicate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate, and sulfate affect the removal efficiency. Highly efficient, low-cost and sustainable technology which could be used by rural populations is of utmost importance for simultaneous removal of both pollutants. This can be realized by using readily available low cost materials coupled with proper disposal units. Synthesis of inexpensive and highly selective nanoadsorbents or nanofunctionalized membranes is required along with encapsulation units to isolate the toxicant loaded materials to avoid their re-entry in aquifers. A vast number of reviews have been published periodically on removal of As or F alone. However, there is a dearth of literature on the simultaneous removal of both. This review critically analyzes this important issue and considers strategies for their removal and safe disposal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-06-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  4. Risk assessment for pesticide contamination of groundwater with sparse available data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardowicks, K.; Heredia, O.; Billib, M.; Fernández Cirelli, A.; Boochs, P.

    2009-04-01

    The contamination of the water resources by agrochemicals is recognized in industrial countries as a very important environmental problem, nevertheless in most of developing and threshold countries the risks for health and environmental problems are not considered. In these countries agrochemicals, which are forbidden since several years in Europe (e.g. atrazine), are still in use. In some threshold countries monitoring systems are already installed for nutrients (N, P) and also a few for heavy metals, but so far the contamination by pesticides is hardly ever controlled, thus there is no data available about pesticide concentrations in soil and water. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to show farmers and other water users (water agencies, drinking water supply companies) in basins of developing or threshold countries with sparse available data the risk of contamination of the groundwater resources by pesticides. A few data like pesticide application, precipitation, irrigation, potential evaporation and soil types are available in some regions. If these data is reliable it can be used together with some justified estimated parameters to perform simulations of the fate of pesticides to the groundwater. Therefore in two study cases in Argentina and Chile pesticide models (e.g. PESTAN, IPTM-CS) were used to evaluate the risk of contamination of the groundwater. The results were compared with contamination indicators, like one developed by O. Heredia, for checking their plausibility. Afterwards the results of the models were used as input data for simulations at the catchment scale, for instance for a groundwater simulation model (VISUAL MODFLOW). The results show a great risk for the contamination of the groundwater resources in the selected study areas, especially by atrazine. On this account the findings will be used by local researchers to improve the knowledge and the awareness of farmers and other stakeholders about the contamination of the

  5. Investigation of shallow groundwater contamination near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants were found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. 21 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.; van der Kooij, M.M.E.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking water and the water cycle. For only 10 contaminants, statutory guideline values ...

  7. To study the effects of groundwater contamination in Kasur due to Nallah Rohi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghumman, A.R.; Shamim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a worldwide known problem. Pakistan, being a developing country, is also facing the problem created by groundwater pollution. Disposal of domestic wastes and agricultural treatments has been reported to be a considerable factor for causing the pollution, especially the groundwater contamination. In the rural areas of Pakistan, latrines and septic tanks have become common because of the advancement in the living standards. All of the domestic wastes is disposed off into the ponds or nearby passing streams. In the similar fashion, drains in the big and well developed cities of Pakistan lead the domestic waste, along with the industrial waste, into the passing by streams, canals and rivers. All of such disposed off waste is untreated because of the lack of legislation and its improper implementation. The contaminated water affects the health of human beings and also destroys the crops when this water is used for irrigation. So this paper deals with the effects and condition of the disposal of the harmful chemicals, which ultimately through seepage reach the groundwater and make it hazardous. Also, the lateral distances of the contaminated groundwater were found out. For experimentation, major city of Kasur which is in the vicinity of Nullah Rohi, was selected. All the wastes including both the industrial as well as domestic, of the whole area, is disposed off into the Nullah. The percolation of the harmful chemicals and its mixing with groundwater has resulted in the hazardous effects on the inhabitants of the area on the irrigation land as well. So the water in the vicinity, at different locations was tested and the degree of contamination and the lateral distances of contaminated water were also worked out. (author)

  8. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION AROUND RECLAIMED MUNICIPAL LANDFILL – OTWOCK AREA, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Porowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted around reclaimed landfill, located on the suburb of Otwock, around 25 km south-west of Warsaw. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of groundwater and to determine the landfill impact on the chemical composition of groundwater downgrading from the landfill. Otwock landfill is located in very permeable area, where leachate quickly seeps into groundwater and plays a key role in controlling redox condition (and chemical composition of groundwater of the downgradient area. High concentrations of HCO3-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fetot. as well as DOC in groundwater downgradient from the landfill (in comparison to background water likely indicate that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Currently, the load of contamination is released from landfill periodically and slowly moves (70 m/y in the aquifer along the flow direction. The effect of distance of the piezometer from the pollution source was also investigated. As expected, water from the nearest piezometer to the landfill showed the highest values of contaminant (water temperature, specific electrical conductivity, sodium, iron, chlorides (except for summer and autumn analysis and calcium (except for winter analysis. Chemical status of groundwater downgradient from the landfill is poor.

  9. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  10. In Situ Treatment of Chlorinated Ethene-Contaminated Groundwater Using horizontal Flow Treatment Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferland, Derek

    2000-01-01

    The limitations of conventional containment technologies for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents have motivated development of innovative technologies to achieve national groundwater...

  11. Evaluation of organic contamination in urban groundwater surrounding a municipal landfill, Zhoukou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D M; Tong, X X; Jin, M G; Hepburn, Emily; Tong, C S; Song, X F

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the organic pollution status of shallow aquifer sediments and groundwater around Zhoukou landfill. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, monocylic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and other pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some water samples. Among the detected eleven PAHs, phenanthrene, fluorine, and fluoranthene are the three dominant in most of the groundwater samples. Analysis of groundwater samples around the landfill revealed concentrations of PAHs ranging from not detected to 2.19 μg/L. The results show that sediments below the waste dump were low in pollution, and the shallow aquifer, at a depth of 18-30 m, was heavily contaminated, particularly during the wet season. An oval-shaped pollution halo has formed, spanning 3 km from west to east and 2 km from south to north, and mainly occurs in groundwater depths of 2-4 m. For PAH source identification, both diagnostic ratios of selected PAHs and principal component analysis were studied, suggesting mixed sources of pyro- and petrogenic derived PAHs in the Zhoukou landfill. Groundwater table fluctuations play an important role in the distribution of organic pollutants within the shallow aquifer. A conceptual model of leachate migration in the Quaternary aquifers surrounding the Zhoukou landfill has been developed to describe the contamination processes based on the major contaminant (PAHs). The groundwater zone contaminated by leachate has been identified surrounding the landfill.

  12. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bonnie L.; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate 0.7-12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change.

  13. Land-use change and costs to rural households: a case study in groundwater nitrate contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeler, Bonnie L; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Loss of grassland from conversion to agriculture threatens water quality and other valuable ecosystem services. Here we estimate how land-use change affects the probability of groundwater contamination by nitrate in private drinking water wells. We find that conversion of grassland to agriculture from 2007 to 2012 in Southeastern Minnesota is expected to increase the future number of wells exceeding 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen by 45% (from 888 to 1292 wells). We link outputs of the groundwater well contamination model to cost estimates for well remediation, well replacement, and avoidance behaviors to estimate the potential economic value lost due to nitrate contamination from observed land-use change. We estimate $0.7–12 million in costs (present values over a 20 year horizon) to address the increased risk of nitrate contamination of private wells. Our study demonstrates how biophysical models and economic valuation can be integrated to estimate the welfare consequences of land-use change. (letter)

  14. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  15. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  16. Development of one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code 'GFLOW' for groundwater flow and contaminant transport analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)

  17. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Ikawa, Reo, E-mail: r_ikawa@es.sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Jun, E-mail: jshimada@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Nakano, Takanori, E-mail: nakanot@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Saito, Mitsuyo, E-mail: misaito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Onodera, Shin-ichi, E-mail: sonodera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Lee, Kang-Kun, E-mail: kklee@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinrim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Taniguchi, Makoto, E-mail: makoto@chikyu.ac.jp [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes ({delta}D, T, {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 34}S, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes ({delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 15}N of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (> 30 ppm as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (> 20 ppm as NO{sub 3}{sup -}) of groundwater. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  18. Human impacts on groundwater flow and contamination deduced by multiple isotopes in Seoul City, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Takahiro; Ikawa, Reo; Shimada, Jun; Nakano, Takanori; Saito, Mitsuyo; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Lee, Kang-Kun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of human activities on the flow system and contamination of groundwater were investigated in Seoul City, South Korea, one of the largest Asian cities, using a combination of isotopes (δD, T, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, δ 34 S, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr). Eighteen representative groundwater and river water samples, which were collected over a wide area of the city, were compared with previously reported data. The distribution of stable isotopes (δD and δ 18 O) with groundwater potential data shows that recharged groundwater from either the surrounding mountainous area as well as the Han River and other surface streams discharged towards the northern-central part of the city, where a subway tunnel pumping station is located. It is suggested from T values (3.3 to 5.8 T.U.) that groundwater was recharged in the last 30 to 40 years. The δ 34 S and δ 15 N of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - data were efficiently used as indicators of contamination by human activities. These isotopes clarified that the contribution of anthropogenic contaminants i.e., industrial and household effluents, waste landfills, and fertilizers, are responsible for the enrichment by SO 4 2- (> 30 ppm as SO 4 2- ) and NO 3 - (> 20 ppm as NO 3 - ) of groundwater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of groundwater vary (0.71326 to 0.75058) in accordance with the host rocks of different origins. Mineral elements such as Ca are also suggested to be derived naturally from rocks. The groundwater under Seoul City is greatly affected by transportation of pollutants along the groundwater flow controlled by subway tunnel pumping, contributing to the degradation of water quality in urbanized areas.

  19. [Simulation on contamination forecast and control of groundwater in a certain hazardous waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Fei; An, Da; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Ding-Long; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and data collection of a certain hazardous waste landfill, the groundwater flow and solute transport coupled models were established by applying Visual Modflow software, which was used to conduct a numerical simulation that forecast the transport process of Cr6+ in groundwater and the effects of three control measures (ground-harden, leakage-proof barriers and drainage ditches) of contaminants transport after leachate leakage happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. The results show that the contamination plume of Cr6+ transports with groundwater flow direction, the contamination rang would reach the pool's boundary in 10 years, and the distance of contamination transport is 1 450 m. But the diffusion range of contamination plume would not be obviously expanded between 10 and 20 years. While the ground is hardened, the contamination plume would not reach the pool's boundary in 20 years. When the leakage-proof barrier is set in the bottom of water table aquifer, the concentration of Cr6+ is higher than that the leakage-proof barrier is unset, but the result is just opposite when setting the leakage-proof barrier in the bottom of underlying aquifer. The range of contamination plume is effectively controlled by setting drainage ditches that water discharge is 2 642 m3 x d(-1), which makes the monitoring wells would not be contaminated in 20 years. Moreover, combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches can get the best effect in controlling contaminants diffusion, and meanwhile, the drainage ditches' daily discharge is reduced to 1 878 m3 x d(-1). Therefore, it is suggested that the control measure combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches should apply to prevent contamination diffusion in groundwater when leachate leakage have happened in impermeable layer of the landfill.

  20. Point bars as stratigraphic traps for arsenic contamination in groundwater : Case study of the Ganges River, Bihar, India (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Bhatt, A.G.; Bruining, J.; Bose, N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater causes a wide-spread, serious health risk affecting millions of people worldwide. Focus of the research is the floodplain of the Ganges River in the State of Bihar (India) where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water and irrigation, and where the

  1. Ground-water protection activities of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report evaluates the internal consistency of NRC's ground-water protection programs. These programs have evolved consistently with growing public concerns about the significance of ground-water contamination and environmental impacts. Early NRC programs provided for protection of the public health and safety by minimizing releases of radionuclides. More recent programs have included provisions for minimizing releases of nonradiological constituents, mitigating environmental impacts, and correcting ground-water contamination. NRC's ground-water protection programs are categorized according to program areas, including nuclear materials and waste management (NMSS), nuclear reactor operation (NRR), confirmatory research and standards development (RES), inspection and enforcement (IE), and agreement state programs (SP). Based on analysis of existing ground-water protection programs within NRC, the interoffice Ground-water Protection Group has identified several inconsistencies between and within program areas. These inconsistencies include: (1) different definitions of the term ''ground-water,'' (2) variable regulation of nonradiological constituents in ground water, (3) different design periods for ground-water protection, and (4) different scopes and rigor of ground-water assessments. The second inconsistency stems from differences in statutory authority granted to the NRC. The third inconsistency is rationalized by recognizing differences in perceived risks associated with nuclear facilities. The Ground-water Protection Group will document its analysis of the remaining inconsistencies and make recommendations to reconcile or eliminate them in a subsequent report

  2. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ''ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program

  4. Arsenic, manganese and aluminum contamination in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Caroline M C; Rodríguez, Juan M; Carpio, Edward A; García, Pilar A; Stengel, Caroline; Berg, Michael

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties. The majority of the wells in two of the aquifer types tap groundwater enriched in aluminum, arsenic, or manganese at levels harmful to human health. Holocene alluvial aquifers along the main Amazon tributaries with anoxic, near pH-neutral groundwater contained high concentrations of arsenic (up to 700μg/L) and manganese (up to 4mg/L). Around Iquitos, the acidic groundwater (4.2≤pH≤5.5) from unconfined aquifers composed of pure sand had dissolved aluminum concentrations of up to 3.3mg/L. Groundwater from older or deeper aquifers generally was of good chemical quality. The high concentrations of toxic elements highlight the urgent need to assess the groundwater quality throughout Western Amazonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu

    2018-03-01

    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  6. Biomarkers study in rainbow trout exposed to industrially contaminated groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet Benchalgo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The spill of liquid industrial waste from chemical and petrochemical industries in Mercier lagoons located 20 km south of Montreal, Quebec, caused a major groundwater contamination by industrial contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of Mercier groundwater, following 4 and 14 days of exposure to graded concentrations from three wells at increasing distances 1.2, 2.7 and 5.4 km from the source of contamination. Rainbow trout were examined for several biomarkers of defense [ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD and gluthatione S-transferase (GST activities] and those of tissue damage [lipid peroxidation (LPO and DNA strand breaks]. The results showed that EROD activity was significantly enhanced in hepatic tissue at 1.2 and 5.4 km, whereas inhibition in activity was observed in group at 2.7 km. Therefore, GST activity was significantly increased at 3.1% concentration for the 2.7 km well. No change in LPO was observed. However, a significant induction of DNA strand breaks in liver was obtained at each distance. In conclusion, the data suggest that the release of these contaminants in groundwater leads to increased biotransformation for coplanar aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage in groundwater.

  7. Isotope and chemical techniques in assessing groundwater contamination from Metro Manila landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalina V.; Ascano, Luz; Del Castillo, Lorena A.; Fernandez, Lourdes G.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Iblan, Cynthia L.; Baui, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of the investigations is establishing benchmark isotopic characteristics of water sources and baseline concentrations of main environmental parameters related to contamination from the landfill. Water samples were collected from the production wells and surface water in the municipalities in proximity of the landfill, in Rodriguez and in San Mateo. Stable isotope characterization of the deep groundwater and rivers shows isotopic values clustering along the LMWL with ae 18 O ranging from -7.5 promille to -6.5 promille and ae 2 H ranging from - 53.59 promille to -42.91. The shallow groundwater are more isotopically enriched trending towards the evaporation line, with mean ae 18 O and aeD values of -6.46 promille and -44.14 promille, respectively. The mean isotopic signatures of surface water, with mean ae 18 O of -7.19 promille and deep groundwater, with mean ae 18 O of -6.67 promille, in Rodriguez are significantly distinct. San Mateo groundwater appear to be more isotopically enriched, indicating recharge different from that of Rodriguez groundwater. Leachate from the landfill exhibits a distinct isotopic composition from the freshwaters, with ae 18 O and aeD values of -5.58 promille and -31.66 promille. The significant differences in the isotopic signatures of the different water sources in the study area would facilitate detection of contamination from leachate run-off to the surface water, and eventually, to the groundwater. Trace metals in the water samples collected, generally, were below the regulatory limits for drinking water and surface water. Results of elemental determination in the sediment samples obtained from rivers showed that aside from the major crustal elements, Zn, Cu, and Ni were also present in significant amount. (author)

  8. Spatial interpolation methods and geostatistics for mapping groundwater contamination in a coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Vetrimurugan; Brindha, K; Sithole, Bongani; Lakshmanan, Elango

    2017-04-01

    Mapping groundwater contaminants and identifying the sources are the initial steps in pollution control and mitigation. Due to the availability of different mapping methods and the large number of emerging pollutants, these methods need to be used together in decision making. The present study aims to map the contaminated areas in Richards Bay, South Africa and compare the results of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation techniques. Statistical methods were also used for identifying contamination sources. Na-Cl groundwater type was dominant followed by Ca-Mg-Cl. Data analysis indicate that silicate weathering, ion exchange and fresh water-seawater mixing are the major geochemical processes controlling the presence of major ions in groundwater. Factor analysis also helped to confirm the results. Overlay analysis by OK and IDW gave different results. Areas where groundwater was unsuitable as a drinking source were 419 and 116 km 2 for OK and IDW, respectively. Such diverse results make decision making difficult, if only one method was to be used. Three highly contaminated zones within the study area were more accurately identified by OK. If large areas are identified as being contaminated such as by IDW in this study, the mitigation measures will be expensive. If these areas were underestimated, then even though management measures are taken, it will not be effective for a longer time. Use of multiple techniques like this study will help to avoid taking harsh decisions. Overall, the groundwater quality in this area was poor, and it is essential to identify alternate drinking water source or treat the groundwater before ingestion.

  9. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fingerprinting groundwater pollution in catchments with contrasting contaminant sources using microorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marianne E; Lapworth, Dan J; Thomas, Jenny; Edwards, Laura

    2014-01-15

    Evaluating the occurrence of microorganics helps to understand sources and processes which may be controlling the transport and fate of emerging contaminants (ECs). A study was carried out at the contrasting instrumented environmental observatory sites at Oxford, on the peri-urban floodplain gravel aquifer of the River Thames and Boxford, in the rural valley of the River Lambourn on the chalk aquifer, in Southern England to explore the use of ECs to fingerprint contaminant sources and flow pathways in groundwater. At Oxford compounds were typical of a local waste tip plume (not only plasticisers and solvents but also barbiturates and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)) and of the urban area (plasticisers and mood-enhancing drugs such as carbamazepine). At Boxford the results were different with widespread occurrence of agricultural pesticides, their metabolites and the solvent trichloroethene, as well as plasticisers, caffeine, butylated food additives, DEET, parabens and trace polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of compounds used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products of different provenance in the environment could be distinguished, i) historical household and medical waste, ii) long-term household usage persistent in groundwater and iii) current usage and contamination from surface water. Co-contaminant and degradation products can also indicate the likely source of contaminants. A cocktail of contaminants can be used as tracers to provide information on catchment pathways and groundwater/surface water interactions. A prominent feature in this study is the attenuation of many EC compounds in the hyporheic zone. © 2013.

  11. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H 2 S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol R sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  12. Vulnerability of deep groundwater in the Bengal Aquifer System to contamination by arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W.G.; Hoque, M.A.; Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.; Breit, G.N.; Ahmed, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow groundwater, the primary water source in the Bengal Basin, contains up to 100 times the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water guideline of 10g l 1 arsenic (As), threatening the health of 70 million people. Groundwater from a depth greater than 150m, which almost uniformly meets the WHO guideline, has become the preferred alternative source. The vulnerability of deep wells to contamination by As is governed by the geometry of induced groundwater flow paths and the geochemical conditions encountered between the shallow and deep regions of the aquifer. Stratification of flow separates deep groundwater from shallow sources of As in some areas. Oxidized sediments also protect deep groundwater through the ability of ferric oxyhydroxides to adsorb As. Basin-scale groundwater flow modelling suggests that, over large regions, deep hand-pumped wells for domestic supply may be secure against As invasion for hundreds of years. By contrast, widespread deep irrigation pumping might effectively eliminate deep groundwater as an As-free resource within decades. Finer-scale models, incorporating spatial heterogeneity, are needed to investigate the security of deep municipal abstraction at specific urban locations. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  14. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  15. Groundwater isotopic variations in a uranium mining site: subsidies for contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, V. P. de

    2017-01-01

    The Caetite Experimental Basin (CEB), located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity but also the potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations, as well as the survival of the local community, is highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. This paper analyzes the stable isotopes variation of Deuterium ("2H) and Oxygen-18 ("1"8O) in CEB's groundwater to investigate its dynamics and mixing of water sources as part of initial efforts to characterize the hydrogeology of this area for future contamination and recharge studies. Measurements of δ"2H, δ"1"8O, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were carried out in water samples from 27 wells. A total of 98 groundwater samples were analyzed during the dry and wet seasons from 2012 to 2014. All the groundwater samples plotted below the local meteoric line toward more enriched δ"1"8O values, an indicative of evaporation process. "2H and "1"8O data suggests that the main source of groundwater recharge is local precipitation and there is no mixing of infiltrating rainwater with older groundwater. These results provide evidence that the aquifer system in the CEB has a relatively fast turnover time, which contribute to the vulnerability of the aquifer to contamination. These findings are corroborated by the low TDS and EC values indicative of short time in water-rock interaction. (author)

  16. Groundwater isotopic variations in a uranium mining site: subsidies for contamination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, V. P. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear; Sobrinho, G.A.N.; Freitas, L.D.; Franklin, M.R., E-mail: mariza@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The Caetite Experimental Basin (CEB), located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity but also the potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations, as well as the survival of the local community, is highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. This paper analyzes the stable isotopes variation of Deuterium ({sup 2}H) and Oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) in CEB's groundwater to investigate its dynamics and mixing of water sources as part of initial efforts to characterize the hydrogeology of this area for future contamination and recharge studies. Measurements of δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were carried out in water samples from 27 wells. A total of 98 groundwater samples were analyzed during the dry and wet seasons from 2012 to 2014. All the groundwater samples plotted below the local meteoric line toward more enriched δ{sup 18}O values, an indicative of evaporation process. {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O data suggests that the main source of groundwater recharge is local precipitation and there is no mixing of infiltrating rainwater with older groundwater. These results provide evidence that the aquifer system in the CEB has a relatively fast turnover time, which contribute to the vulnerability of the aquifer to contamination. These findings are corroborated by the low TDS and EC values indicative of short time in water-rock interaction. (author)

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

    2008-02-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

  18. Comparative metagenomics reveals impact of contaminants on groundwater microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Hemme

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand patterns of geochemical cycling in pristine versus contaminated groundwater ecosystems, pristine shallow groundwater (FW301 and contaminated groundwater (FW106 samples from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC were sequenced and compared to each other to determine phylogenetic and metabolic difference between the communities. Proteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia, Pseudomonas are the most abundant lineages in the pristine community, though a significant proportion (>55% of the community is composed of poorly characterized low abundance (individually <1% lineages. The phylogenetic diversity of the pristine community contributed to a broader diversity of metabolic networks than the contaminated community. In addition, the pristine community encodes redundant and mostly complete geochemical cycles distributed over multiple lineages and appears capable of a wide range of metabolic activities. In contrast, many geochemical cycles in the contaminated community appear truncated or minimized due to decreased biodiversity and dominance by Rhodanobacter populations capable of surviving the combination of stresses at the site. These results indicate that the pristine site contains more robust and encodes more functional redundancy than the stressed community, which contributes to more efficient nutrient cycling and adaptability than the stressed community.

  19. Impacts of Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility operations on groundwater and surface water: Appendix 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1986-04-01

    The operation of the proposed Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Newport News, Virginia, is expected to result in the activation and subsequent contamination of water resources in the vicinity of the accelerator. Since the proposed site is located in the headwaters of the watershed supplying Big Bethel Reservoir, concern has been expressed about possible contamination of water resources used for consumption. Data characterizing the surface water and groundwater regime in the site area are limited. A preliminary geotechnical investigation of the site has been completed (LAW 1985). This investigation concluded that groundwater flow is generally towards the southeast at an estimated velocity of 2.5 m/y. This conclusion is based on groundwater and soil boring data and is very preliminary in nature. This analysis makes use of the data and conclusions developed during the preliminary geotechnical investigation to provide an upper-bound assessment of radioactive contamination from CEBAF operations. A site water balance was prepared to describe the behavior of the hydrologic environment that is in close agreement with the observed data. The transport of contamination in the groundwater regime is assessed using a one-dimensional model. The groundwater model includes the mechanisms of groundwater flow, groundwater recharge, radioactive decay, and groundwater activation. The model formulation results in a closed-form, exact, analytic solution of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater. The groundwater solution is used to provide a source term for a surface-water analysis. The surface-water and groundwater models are prepared for steady state conditions such that they represent conservative evaluations of CEBAF operations

  20. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n = 16), pesticides (n = 14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n = 12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings. - Highlights: • Broad range of microorganics detected in Chalk groundwater in England and France. • Plasticisers, pesticides, BPA and THM detected at the highest concentrations. • Pesticides higher in outcrop Chalk, caffeine and BPA at concealed sites. • Occurrences show some relationship to land use, borehole depth and water level. - Broad screening reveals for the first time the extent of emerging microorganic pollution in Chalk groundwater sources across England and France

  1. The application of illite supported nanoscale zero valent iron for the treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, C; Landsberger, S; Li, Y L

    2017-09-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero valent iron I-NZVI was investigated as a remediation strategy for uranium contaminated groundwater from the former Cimarron Fuel Fabrication Site in Oklahoma, USA. The 1 L batch-treatment system was applied in the study. The result shows that 99.9% of uranium in groundwater was removed by I-NZVI within 2 h. Uranium concentration in the groundwater stayed around 27 μg/L, and there was no sign of uranium release into groundwater after seven days of reaction time. Meanwhile the release of iron was significantly decreased compared to NZVI which can reduce the treatment impact on the water environment. To study the influence of background pH of the treatment system on removal efficiency of uranium, the groundwater was adjusted from pH 2-10 before the addition of I-NZVI. The pH of the groundwater was from 2.1 to 10.7 after treatment. The removal efficiency of uranium achieved a maximum in neutral pH of groundwater. The desorption of uranium on the residual solid phase after treatment was investigated in order to discuss the stability of uranium on residual solids. After 2 h of leaching, 0.07% of the total uranium on residual solid phase was leached out in a HNO 3 leaching solution with a pH of 4.03. The concentration of uranium in the acid leachate was under 3.2 μg/L which is below the EPA's maximum contaminant level of 30 μg/L. Otherwise, the concentration of uranium was negligible in distilled water leaching solution (pH = 6.44) and NaOH leaching solution (pH = 8.52). A desorption study shows that an acceptable amount of uranium on the residuals can be released into water system under strong acid conditions in short terms. For long term disposal management of the residual solids, the leachate needs to be monitored and treated before discharge into a hazardous landfill or the water system. For the first time, I-NZVI was applied for the treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. These results provide proof that I-NZVI has

  2. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, Adrian H., E-mail: adgallardo@geowater.com.au [CONICET (Argentina National Scientific and Technical Research Council), San Luis National University, FCFMyN, Department of Geology, San Luis 5700 (Argentina); Marui, Atsunao [AIST Geological Survey of Japan, Geo-Resources and Environment Institute, Groundwater Research Group, Ibaraki-ken, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. - Highlights: • Measures are being undertaken to manage groundwater contamination in Fukushima. • Methods focus on isolating the source and controlling the radionuclides migration. • Wastewater is being temporarily held in tanks for treatment. • Impervious walls inhibit the transport of contaminants toward the ocean. • Paving and pumping further mitigate the dispersion of pollutants by water.

  3. Agriculture and groundwater nitrate contamination in the Seine basin. The STICS-MODCOU modelling chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, E.; Gomez, E.; Monget, J.M.; Viavattene, C.; Viennot, P.; Ducharne, A.; Benoit, M.; Mignolet, C.; Schott, C.; Mary, B.

    2007-01-01

    A software package is presented here to predict the fate of nitrogen fertilizers and the transport of nitrate from the rooting zone of agricultural areas to surface water and groundwater in the Seine basin, taking into account the long residence times of water and nitrate in the unsaturated and aquifer systems. Information on pedological characteristics, land use and farming practices is used to determine the spatial units to be considered. These data are converted into input data for the crop model STICS which simulates the water and nitrogen balances in the soil-plant system with a daily time-step. A spatial application of STICS has been derived at the catchment scale which computes the water and nitrate fluxes at the bottom of the rooting zone. These fluxes are integrated into a surface and groundwater coupled model MODCOU which calculates the daily water balance in the hydrological system, the flow in the rivers and the piezometric variations in the aquifers, using standard climatic data (rainfall, PET). The transport of nitrate and the evolution of nitrate contamination in groundwater and to rivers is computed by the model NEWSAM. This modelling chain is a valuable tool to predict the evolution of crop productivity and nitrate contamination according to various scenarios modifying farming practices and/or climatic changes. Data for the period 1970-2000 are used to simulate the past evolution of nitrogen contamination. The method has been validated using available data bases of nitrate concentrations in the three main aquifers of the Paris basin (Oligocene, Eocene and chalk). The approach has then been used to predict the future evolution of nitrogen contamination up to 2015. A statistical approach allowed estimating the probability of transgression of different concentration thresholds in various areas in the basin. The model is also used to evaluate the cost of the damage resulting of the treatment of drinking water at the scale of a groundwater management

  4. Agriculture and groundwater nitrate contamination in the Seine basin. The STICS-MODCOU modelling chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, E. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: emmanuel.ledoux@ensmp.fr; Gomez, E. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Monget, J.M. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Viavattene, C. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Viennot, P. [Centre de Geosciences, ENSMP, UMR Sisyphe, Fontainebleau (France); Ducharne, A. [Laboratoire Sisyphe, CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Benoit, M. [INRA, Station de Recherche SAD, 662 avenue Louis Buffet, 88500 Mirecourt (France); Mignolet, C. [INRA, Station de Recherche SAD, 662 avenue Louis Buffet, 88500 Mirecourt (France); Schott, C. [INRA, Station de Recherche SAD, 662 avenue Louis Buffet, 88500 Mirecourt (France); Mary, B. [INRA, Unite d' Agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons, Laon (France)

    2007-04-01

    A software package is presented here to predict the fate of nitrogen fertilizers and the transport of nitrate from the rooting zone of agricultural areas to surface water and groundwater in the Seine basin, taking into account the long residence times of water and nitrate in the unsaturated and aquifer systems. Information on pedological characteristics, land use and farming practices is used to determine the spatial units to be considered. These data are converted into input data for the crop model STICS which simulates the water and nitrogen balances in the soil-plant system with a daily time-step. A spatial application of STICS has been derived at the catchment scale which computes the water and nitrate fluxes at the bottom of the rooting zone. These fluxes are integrated into a surface and groundwater coupled model MODCOU which calculates the daily water balance in the hydrological system, the flow in the rivers and the piezometric variations in the aquifers, using standard climatic data (rainfall, PET). The transport of nitrate and the evolution of nitrate contamination in groundwater and to rivers is computed by the model NEWSAM. This modelling chain is a valuable tool to predict the evolution of crop productivity and nitrate contamination according to various scenarios modifying farming practices and/or climatic changes. Data for the period 1970-2000 are used to simulate the past evolution of nitrogen contamination. The method has been validated using available data bases of nitrate concentrations in the three main aquifers of the Paris basin (Oligocene, Eocene and chalk). The approach has then been used to predict the future evolution of nitrogen contamination up to 2015. A statistical approach allowed estimating the probability of transgression of different concentration thresholds in various areas in the basin. The model is also used to evaluate the cost of the damage resulting of the treatment of drinking water at the scale of a groundwater management

  5. 18O isotopic characterisation of non-point source contributed heavy metals (Zn and Cu) contamination of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Tyagi, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many urbanised areas, fast depletion and severe degradation of the of groundwater resource with contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, and heavy metals is a common phenomenon, resulting in zonal disparity in fresh water availability. Therefore, for protection of groundwater from pollution and depletion, it is a matter of concern for the planners and decision makers to clearly characterise the sources of contamination and to search for an alternative approach for groundwater development and management. In this context, a new approach is presented here, based on monitoring of 18 O stable isotopic and heavy metals composition of groundwater, to clearly characterise non-point source contributed heavy metals pollution of groundwater in northern parts of Delhi area. In the investigated area, the Cu content in the groundwater ranges from 3-41 μg/l and Zn content ranges from 5-182 μg/l, showing considerable variation from location to location as well as within the small parts of a location. Wide variation in the 18 O stable isotope content of groundwater (δ value of -5.7 per mille to -8.5 per mille) is due to significant variation in the δ 18 O-contents of rainfall with space and time, as well as intensity and distribution of rainfall. Enrichment in 18 O composition with increasing Cu and Zn levels in groundwater suggest that infiltration of rain water, irrigation water and surface run-off water from the surrounding farm lands, along with agrochemicals and other salts present in the soil, to be the main processes causing groundwater contamination. The concentration of Cu and Zn in groundwater vary spatially, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge, amounts of fertiliser applied and wastes disposed, adsorption/dispersion of species in the soils and lateral mixing of groundwater. Two opposite mechanisms adsorption and redistribution of infiltrating water along with Zn and Cu species in the soil zone are likely to affect the movement of the Zn and Cu species

  6. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  7. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  8. Discussion on 'Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Joseph B.

    1997-03-15

    In a discussion of the 1997 paper by J. C. Crittenden et al. on the solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts, the writer indicates a number of problems with the interpretation of the data and invites the authors to speculate on the reaction mechanism in the photocatalytic destruction of BTEX compounds in groundwater. In reply, Crittenden points out that it is not easy to speculate on the reaction mechanism because there are many compounds other than BTEX compounds contained in the water matrix, as well as many unknown compounds and by-products.

  9. Evaluation of Sierra Army Depot Groundwater Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1997-01-01

    ...), September 28, 1996. The Congressional conferees were concerned about allegations from a group of investors that the Army precipitously and abruptly changed its position on permits and applications to develop water...

  10. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using nanocatalyst and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ser Ku; Seo, Hyunhee; Sun, Eunyoung; Kim, Inseon; Roh, Yul

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the remediation of trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater using both a nanocatalyst (bio-Zn-magnetite) and bacterium (similar to Clostridium quinii) in anoxic environments. Of the 7 nanocatalysts tested, bio-Zn-magnetite showed the highest TCE dechlorination efficiency, with an average of ca. 90% within 8 days in a batch experiment. The column tests confirmed that the application of bio-Zn-magnetite in combination with the bacterium achieved high degradation efficiency (ca. 90%) of TCE within 5 days compared to the nanocatalyst only, which degraded only 30% of the TCE. These results suggest that the application of a nanocatalyst and the bacterium have potential for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater in subsurface environments.

  11. Groundwater protection from cadmium contamination by permeable reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Natale, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, Universita di Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: fdinatal@unina.it; Di Natale, M.; Greco, R. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Ingegneria Ambientale (CIRIAM), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Roma 29-81031 Aversa (Caserta) (Italy); Lancia, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, Universita di Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy); Laudante, C.; Musmarra, D. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Ingegneria Ambientale (CIRIAM), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Roma 29-81031 Aversa (Caserta) (Italy)

    2008-12-30

    This work studies the reliability of an activated carbon permeable reactive barrier in removing cadmium from a contaminated shallow aquifer. Laboratory tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium and kinetic adsorption properties of the activated carbon in cadmium-containing aqueous solutions. A 2D numerical model has been used to describe pollutant transport within a groundwater and the pollutant adsorption on the permeable adsorbing barrier (PRB). In particular, it has been considered the case of a permeable adsorbing barrier (PAB) used to protect a river from a Cd(II) contaminated groundwater. Numerical results show that the PAB can achieve a long-term efficiency by preventing river pollution for several months.

  12. Initial site characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume discharging to a surface water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, S.J.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water, Wembley, WA; Davis, G.B.; Rayner, J.L.; Fisher, S.J.; Clement, T.P.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary characterisation of a dissolved hydrocarbon groundwater plume flowing towards a tidally- and seasonally-forced estuarine system has been completed at a site in Perth, Western Australia. Installation and sampling of multiport boreholes enabled fine scale (0.5-m) vertical definition of hydrocarbon concentrations. Vertical electrical conductivity profiles from multiport and spear probe sampling into the river sediments indicated that two groundwater/river water interfaces or dispersion zones are present: (a) an upper dispersion zone between brackish river water and groundwater, and (b) a lower interface between groundwater and deeper saline water. On-line water level loggers show that near-shore groundwater levels are also strongly influence by tidal oscillation. Results from the initial site characterisation will be used to plan further investigations of contaminated groundwater/surface water interactions and the biodegradation processes occurring at the site

  13. Soil treatment and groundwater control for No. 6 fuel oil and PCB contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girioni, M.J.; St. Hilaire, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of a Short-Term Measure ordered by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), soil contaminated by No. 6 fuel oil and low-level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated, treated and recycled on-site as an asphalt base course for a parking lot at an industrial complex in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Approximately 300 cubic yards of contaminated soil were treated with an asphalt emulsion and utilized as a aggregate component for asphalt processed at ambient temperatures during the month of December 1990. In order to determine if the contaminated soils to be recycled would be classified as a hazardous waste (as defined by the Massachusetts Hazardous Waste Regulations, 310 CMR 30.000), or if the soil to be recycled would pose a significant risk to health, safety or the environment, analytical testing of the contaminated soil was conducted prior, during and after treatment. Analytical testing included Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses of the untreated and treated soil. An alternative solution to the standard groundwater pump-and-treat method was designed and constructed to control and recover the highly viscous floating petroleum product. A series of precast leaching galleys (oil collection chambers) and a precast leach pit (groundwater discharge structure) were constructed to alter the local groundwater table to induce groundwater flow by gravity into the leaching chambers. Passive (i.e., nonpumping) groundwater flow to the leaching chambers was induced by placing of the groundwater discharge structure hydraulically downgradient of the leaching chambers. Collected oil, separated by gravity, will be periodically vacuumed, as necessary, for proper off-site disposal. Excess water discharges to the downgradient leach pit

  14. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  15. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  16. Intrinsic bioremediation of diesel-contaminated cold groundwater in bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, K.M.; Biggar, K.W.; Guigard, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Natural attenuation refers to the natural process by which contaminants in groundwater or soil are reduced through a combination of physico-chemical processes and biodegradation by indigenous organisms. The physico chemical processes include advection, dilution, dispersion, sorption, volatilization and abiotic transformation. This study evaluated the historical contaminant and geochemical evidence of natural attenuation at a well site where groundwater had been contaminated by a diesel fuel leak in 1982. In particular, evidence of intrinsic bioremediation was evaluated. Evidence of microbial activity was determined by most probably number (MPN) and commercial biological activity reaction tests. Groundwater samples from the site were incubated in a laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with electron acceptor and nutrient amendment to assess microbial activity. Mineralization of carbon 14-dodecane was measured to determine aerobic biodegradation rates. Anaerobic biodegradation rates were calculated from the depletion of total extractable hydrocarbon over 717 days. Nutrient addition increased the anaerobic first-order biodegradation rate from 0.0005 to 0.0016 per day. It was suggested controlled nutrient addition can improve the current slow rates of intrinsic bioremediation. 33 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Data Assimilation for Management of Industrial Groundwater Contamination at a Regional Scale

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the main sources for drinking water and agricultural activities. Various activities of both humans and nature may lead to groundwater pollution. Very often, pollution, or contamination, of groundwater goes undetected for long periods of time until it begins to a ect human health and/or the environment. Cleanup technologies used to remediate pollution can be costly and remediation processes are often protracted. A more practical and feasible way to manage groundwater contamination is to monitor and predict contamination and act as soon as there is risk to the population and the environment. Predicting groundwater contamination requires advanced numerical models of groundwater ow and solute transport. Such numerical modeling is increasingly becoming a reference criterion for water resources assessment and environmental protection. Subsurface numerical models are, however, subject to many sources of uncertainties from unknown parameters and approximate dynamics. This dissertation considers the sequential data assimilation approach and tackles the groundwater contamination problem at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Industrial concentration data are used to monitor and predict the fate of organic contaminants using a threedimensional coupled ow and reactive transport model. We propose a number of 5 novel assimilation techniques that address di erent challenges, including prohibitive computational burden, the nonlinearity and coupling of the subsurface dynamics, and the structural and parametric uncertainties. We also investigate the problem of optimal observational designs to optimize the location and the number of wells. The proposed new methods are based on the ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides an e cient numerical solution to the Bayesian ltering problem. The dissertation rst investigates in depth the popular joint and dual ltering formulations of the state-parameters estimation problem. New methodologies, algorithmically

  18. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk using hazard quantification, a modified DRASTIC model and groundwater value, Beijing Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; He, Jiangtao; Chen, Honghan

    2012-08-15

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment is an effective tool for groundwater management. Most existing risk assessment methods only consider the basic contamination process based upon evaluations of hazards and aquifer vulnerability. In view of groundwater exploitation potentiality, including the value of contamination-threatened groundwater could provide relatively objective and targeted results to aid in decision making. This study describes a groundwater contamination risk assessment method that integrates hazards, intrinsic vulnerability and groundwater value. The hazard harmfulness was evaluated by quantifying contaminant properties and infiltrating contaminant load, the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability was evaluated using a modified DRASTIC model and the groundwater value was evaluated based on groundwater quality and aquifer storage. Two groundwater contamination risk maps were produced by combining the above factors: a basic risk map and a value-weighted risk map. The basic risk map was produced by overlaying the hazard map and the intrinsic vulnerability map. The value-weighted risk map was produced by overlaying the basic risk map and the groundwater value map. Relevant validation was completed by contaminant distributions and site investigation. Using Beijing Plain, China, as an example, thematic maps of the three factors and the two risks were generated. The thematic maps suggested that landfills, gas stations and oil depots, and industrial areas were the most harmful potential contamination sources. The western and northern parts of the plain were the most vulnerable areas and had the highest groundwater value. Additionally, both the basic and value-weighted risk classes in the western and northern parts of the plain were the highest, indicating that these regions should deserve the priority of concern. Thematic maps should be updated regularly because of the dynamic characteristics of hazards. Subjectivity and validation means in assessing the

  19. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita m [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago; Heraty, Linnea J [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  20. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Gunnison Baseline Risk Assessment for Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site was performed to determine if long-term use of groundwater from domestic wells near the site has a potential for adverse health effects. The risk assessment was based on the results of sampling domestic wells during 1989--1990. A risk assessment evaluates health risks by comparing the amount of a contaminant taken in by a person with the amount of the contaminant that may be toxic. The Gunnison Risk Assessment used high intake values to estimate the maximum levels a person might be exposed to. The results of the risk assessment are divided into cancer (carcinogenic) risks and non-carcinogenic risks. Five key contaminants were evaluated for adverse health risks: uranium, manganese, lead antimony, and cadmium. Due to the potential health risks and the unavoidable uncertainties associated with limited groundwater and toxicity data, it is prudent public health policy to provide a permanent alternate water supply. Additionally, providing a permanent alternate water supply is cost-effective compared to long-term routine monitoring

  1. The field application of an immunoassay-based test for petroleum fuels contamination in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The recent development of low-cost, rapid field analytical tests for petroleum fuels based on immunoassay technology has provided an on-site tool for the cost-effective, accurate assessment of groundwater contamination. The method allows for rapid, direct measurement of contaminant concentration. The method has been used for a variety of applications including surface water runoff testing and groundwater monitoring well siting. The PETRO RISc Water Test can be used to substantially reduce the cost of monitoring well installation. Current, monitoring wells are placed based on knowledge of the location of the source of contamination, the size of the release, the time elapsed since the release began, and the hydrogeology of the site. While the location of the source is generally known with some precision, the hydrogeology of the site and the timing of the release rarely are. This results in the need for an ''educated guess'' regarding the drilling location for monitoring wells that are installed to provide long term feedback on groundwater contamination. The tests have the greatest sensitivity to aliphatic compounds in the range of six to ten carbons and aromatic compounds such as toluene, xylene, and naphthalene

  2. Identifying sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in a large alluvial groundwater basin with highly diversified intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, K. M.; King, A. M.; Harter, T.

    2013-08-01

    Groundwater quality is a concern in alluvial aquifers underlying agricultural areas worldwide. Nitrate from land applied fertilizers or from animal waste can leach to groundwater and contaminate drinking water resources. The San Joaquin Valley, California, is an example of an agricultural landscape with a large diversity of field, vegetable, tree, nut, and citrus crops, but also confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs, here mostly dairies) that generate, store, and land apply large amounts of liquid manure. As in other such regions around the world, the rural population in the San Joaquin Valley relies almost exclusively on shallow domestic wells (≤ 150 m deep), of which many have been affected by nitrate. Variability in crops, soil type, and depth to groundwater contribute to large variability in nitrate occurrence across the underlying aquifer system. The role of these factors in controlling groundwater nitrate contamination levels is examined. Two hundred domestic wells were sampled in two sub-regions of the San Joaquin Valley, Stanislaus and Merced (Stan/Mer) and Tulare and Kings (Tul/Kings) Counties. Forty six percent of well water samples in Tul/Kings and 42% of well water samples in Stan/Mer exceeded the MCL for nitrate (10 mg/L NO3-N). For statistical analysis of nitrate contamination, 78 crop and landuse types were considered by grouping them into ten categories (CAFO, citrus, deciduous fruits and nuts, field crops, forage, native, pasture, truck crops, urban, and vineyards). Vadose zone thickness, soil type, well construction information, well proximity to dairies, and dominant landuse near the well were considered. In the Stan/Mer area, elevated nitrate levels in domestic wells most strongly correlate with the combination of very shallow (≤ 21 m) water table and the presence of either CAFO derived animal waste applications or deciduous fruit and nut crops (synthetic fertilizer applications). In Tulare County, statistical data indicate that elevated

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  4. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  5. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and oxyhydroxides minerals were saturated

  6. Limitations of sorption isotherms on modeling groundwater contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Figueira da

    2007-01-01

    Design and safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, as well as remediation of radionuclide contaminated groundwater require the development of models capable of accurately predicting trace element fate and transport. Adsorption of trace radionuclides onto soils and groundwater is an important mechanism controlling near- and far- field transport. Although surface complexation models (SCMs) can better describe the adsorption mechanisms of most radionuclides onto mineral surfaces by directly accounting for variability of system properties and mineral surface properties, isotherms are still used to model contaminant transport in groundwater, despite the much higher system dependence. The present work investigates differences between transport model results based on these two approaches for adsorption modeling. A finite element transport model is used for the isotherm model, whereas the computer program PHREEQC is used for the SCM approach. Both models are calibrated for a batch experiment, and one-dimensional transport is simulated using the calibrated parameters. At the lower injected concentrations there are large discrepancies between SCM and isotherm transport predictions, with the SCM presenting much longer tails on the breakthrough curves. Isotherms may also provide non-conservative results for time to breakthrough and for maximum concentration in a contamination plume. Isotherm models are shown not to be robust enough to predict transport behavior of some trace elements, thus discouraging their use. The results also illustrate the promise of the SCM modeling approach in safety assessment and environmental remediation applications, also suggesting that independent batch sorption measurements can be used, within the framework of the SCM, to produce a more versatile and realistic groundwater transport model for radionuclides which is capable of accounting more accurately for temporal and spatial variations in geochemical conditions. (author)

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) monitors the distribution of radionuclides and other hazardous materials in ground water at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This work is performed through the Ground-Water Surveillance Project and is designed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 that apply to environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring (DOE 1988). This annual report discusses results of ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site during 1991. In addition to the general discussion, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and the 200-West areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100, 200, and 600 areas; (4) trichloroethylene in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill, 100-F Area, and 300 Area; (5) nitrate across the Site; (6) tritium across the Site; and (7) other radionuclide contamination throughout the Site, including gross alpha, gross beta, cobalt-60, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, cesium-137, uranium, and plutonium

  8. Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by solar-driven membrane distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Ajay K.; Sen, Mou; Martin, Andrew R.; Pal, Parimal

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by employing a new flat-sheet cross flow membrane module fitted with a hydrophobic polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane. The new design of the solar-driven membrane module in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configuration successfully produced almost 100 per cent arsenic-free water from contaminated groundwater in a largely fouling-free operation while permitting high fluxes under reduced temperature polarization. For a feed flow rate of 0.120 m 3 /h, the 0.13 μm PVDF membrane yielded a high flux of 74 kg/(m 2 h) at a feed water temperature of 40 deg. C and, 95 kg/m 2 h at a feed water temperature of 60 deg. C. The encouraging results show that the design could be effectively exploited in the vast arsenic-affected rural areas of South-East Asian countries blessed with abundant sunlight particularly during the critical dry season. - Solar-driven membrane distillation has the potential of removing arsenic from contaminated groundwater.

  9. An approach to delineate the contaminated groundwater in landfill based on Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Dalila Desa; Lakam Mejus; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa; Mod Omar Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The occurrence of contaminated groundwater can often be recognized by a decrease in formation of resistivity values, since the latter is primarily dependent on the resistivity of the pore water. Landfills can be considered as one of major source of contamination that contributes to air, land and water pollution. Landfills are supposed to have a protective bottom layer (barrier layer) to prevent contaminants from getting into the groundwater that exist almost everywhere underground. However, if there is no layer or if it is cracked, water percolating through landfills produces leachate can make their way down into the groundwater system. In geophysical studies, the various properties of materials on earth are known as the anomaly of the Earth's sub surface. It is important to understand which physical properties are associated with, and effective for, a particular target and geophysical method. This paper reviews the needs of geophysical field for mapping subsurface geology and features occurance. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) technique has been chosen for it has become one of the promising methods in order to obtain preliminary information of subsurface variance materials based on their physical properties. (author)

  10. Treatment of groundwater contaminated with low levels of military munitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricka, R.M.; Sharp, W.

    1993-01-01

    The site of interest is a military base that was established in the late 1800s. In its early history this facility was used as a powder depot to fill projectiles with miximite (a propellant). Since World War I, this facility was used to produce artillery ammunition, bombs, high explosives, pyrotechnics and other ordinances. Weapons production at this facility has ceased, but as a result of the past activities at this facility, contaminants are migrating into the groundwater. One source of drinking water for this installation is a screened well in a stratified-drift aquifer system at a depth of 75-85 feet below land surface. In the 1980s sampling of this well revealed low level contamination of trichloroethylene (TCE), RDX and HMX. TCE levels exceeded drinking water standards and an air stripping column was installed to remove the TCE. RDX and HMX, concentrations were below drinking water standards. Health Advisory (HA) levels for RDX and HMX were published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in November 1988. The lifetime HA levels are 2 ppb and 400 ppb for RDX and HMX, respectively (McLellan et al. 1988a, and McLellan et al. 1988b). It is expected that continuous withdrawals from this well will increase RDX and HMX concentrations. In addition, it is believed that future USEPA regulations will adapt the HA as a drinking water standard. This study was initiated in an effort to have an appropriate cost effective technology ready to meet any such standard. RDX and HMX RDX and HMX are military explosives. RDX (Hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine) is a code name for Research Department Explosive. This explosive is described as a white crystalline solid with about 1.3 times the explosive power of trinitrotoluene (TNT). RDX is classified as a EPA Group C compound: Possible Human Carcinogen (McLellan et. al. 1988a). HMX (Octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7- tetranitro-l, 3, 5, 7-tetrazocine) is a code name for High Melting Explosive. This explosive is described as a

  11. Dug Well Recharge Method for Insitu Mitigation of Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, G.; Lakshmanan, E.; Gunalan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater with fluoride concentration exceeding 1.5 mg/l is not suitable for drinking water supply as it may cause health issues such as dental and skeletal fluorosis to humans. Several million people around the world has been affected by fluorosis. The objective of the study is to mitigate the problem of fluoride contamination in groundwater by increasing groundwater recharge through a dug well recharge system. The study was carried out in a part of Vaniyar river basin, northwest Tamil Nadu, India where fluorosis is prevalent. A cylindrical pit of 1m diameter and 1.5 m height was constructed during May 2014 at a distance of about 4 m from a dug well existing in this area. This cylindrical pit was divided into 3 compartments and one of them was filled with gravel and one with sand. The third compartment was kept empty for inspection and maintenance. The rainfall collected in a funnel shaped depression was allowed to pass through these compartments to discharge in the nearby dug well through a pipe. The concentration of the fluoride in groundwater from this well was had been monitoring on bi-monthly basis from the year 2012 to 2014. After construction of dug well recharge system, the groundwater level has raised by about 5 m and the fluoride concentration has decreased from 3.1 mg/l to 1.44 mg/l due to recharge. The concentration of fluoride and groundwater level is being monitored on daily basis from June 2014. It is evident that the recharge system constructed is working well and the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is within the permissible limit. The advantage of this dug well recharge system is its low cost and the ease of implementation. Thus this pilot study on dug well recharge system demonstrated it's potential in reducing the concentration of fluoride in groundwater which is more beneficial to the society as they cannot afford the well proven water treatment methods.

  12. Development of HUMASORB trademark, a lignite derived humic acid for removal of metals and organic contaminants from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay, H.G.; Srivastave, K.C.; Walia, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contamination of surface and groundwater systems is a major environmental concern. The contamination is primarily due to improperly disposed industrial wastes. The presence of toxic heavy metal ions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in water is of great concern and could affect the safety of drinking water. Decontamination of surface and groundwater can be achieved using a broad spectrum of treatment options such as precipitation, ion-exchange, microbial digestion, membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, etc. The state of the art technologies for treatment of contaminated water however, can in one pass remediate only one class of contaminants, i.e., either VOCs (activated carbon) or heavy metals (ion exchange). This would require the use of at a minimum, two different stepwise processes to remediate a site. The groundwater contamination at different Department of Energy (DOE) sites (e.g., Hanford) is due to the presence of both VOCs and heavy metals. The two-step approach increases the cost of remediation. To overcome the sequential treatment of contaminated streams to remove both organics and metals, a novel material having properties to remove both classes of contaminants in one step is being developed as part of this project.The objective of this project is to develop a lignite-derived adsorbent, Humasorb TM to remove heavy metals and organics from ground water and surface water streams

  13. National water summary 1986; Hydrologic events and ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David W.; Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most important natural resources of the United States and degradation of its quality could have a major effect on the welfare of the Nation. Currently (1985), ground water is the source of drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's population and for more than 97 percent of its rural population. It is the source of about 40 percent of the Nation's public water supply, 33 percent of water for irrigation, and 17 percent of freshwater for selfsupplied industries.Ground water also is the source of about 40 percent of the average annual streamflow in the United States, although during long periods of little or no precipitation, ground-water discharges provide nearly all of the base streamflow. This hydraulic connection between aquifers and streams implies that if a persistent pollutant gets into an aquifer, it eventually could discharge into a stream.Information presented in the 1986 National Water Summary clearly shows that the United States has very large amounts of potable ground water available for use. Although naturally occurring constituents, such as nitrate, and human-induced substances, such as synthetic organic chemicals, frequently are detected in ground water, their concentrations usually do not exceed existing Federal or State standards or guidelines for maximum concentrations in drinking water.Troublesome contamination of ground water falls into two basic categories related to the source or sources of the contamination. Locally, high concentrations of a variety of toxic metals, organic chemicals, and petroleum products have been detected in ground water associated with point sources such as wastedisposal sites, storage-tank leaks, and hazardous chemical spills. These types of local problems commonly occur in densely populated urban areas and industrialized areas. Larger, multicounty areas also have been identified where contamination frequently is found in shallow wells. These areas generally are associated with broad

  14. Analysis of the potential contamination risk of groundwater resources circulating in areas with anthropogenic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spizzico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The area investigated is located in the province of Brindisi (Italy. It is a generally flat area separated from the nearby carbonatic plateau of the Murgia by quite indistinct and high fault scarps. As regards the geological features, carbonatic basement rocks and post-cretaceous terrains made up of calabrian calcarenites and middle-upper Pleistocenic marine terraced deposits can be distinguished. In the examined area there are two different hydrogeological environments. The first is represented by deep groundwater, the main groundwater resource in Apulia. The second hydrogeological environment, now of lesser importance than the deep aquifer in terms of size and use, is made up of some small shallow groundwater systems situated in post-calabrian sands and located in the eastern area. During some sampling cycles carried out in the studied area, water was withdrawn from both the deep aquifer and from the shallow groundwater. For every sample, the necessary parameters were determined for the physical and chemical characterisation of two different hydrogeological environments. Moreover, some chemical parameters indicating anthropogenic activities were determined. Analysis of the aerial distribution of the measured parameters has shown some main areas subject to different conditions of contamination risk, in accordance with the hydrogeological and geological features of the investigated area. In the south-eastern part of the investigated area, the important action performed by the surface aquifer for protecting the deep groundwater from contamination of anthropogenic origin is clear. On the other hand, in the shallow groundwater, areas of nitrate and nitrite contamination have been identified, which result from the extensive use of fertilizers.

  15. Chemical and Microbial Quality of Groundwater in Siloam Village, Implications to Human Health and Sources of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ogony Odiyo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to inaccessibility of potable water, rural communities drill boreholes within their homesteads despite vulnerability to groundwater contamination and associated health risks. This study assessed the quality of groundwater, identified potential sources of contamination and potential human health risks in Siloam Village, South Africa. Statistical difference between similar water quality parameters at different sites was determined at a significance level (α of 0.05. Water quality parameters with serious potential health effects on human beings were correlated with selected water quality parameters to understand the nature of correlation and possible sources of contamination. Fluorides and nitrates had excessively high concentrations associated with tooth damage and pronounced skeletal fluorosis, and methaemoglobinaemia in infants and mucous membrane irritation in adults, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between means of most water quality parameters. Contrasting correlation of fluoride with calcium and pH indicated the need to further identify local sources and fluoride control mechanisms. Correlation of nitrate with chloride mostly indicated that faecal contamination is the potential source of high nitrates in groundwater. This requires further verification. Presence of total coliforms and E. coli in most boreholes indicated potential presence of faecal contamination. The need to educate borehole owners’ on possible strategies to minimise groundwater pollution was identified.

  16. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  17. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic from natural geochemical sources is at present a most serious challenge in the planning of large-scale use of groundwater for drinking and other purposes. Recent improvements in detection limits of analytical instruments are allowing the correlation of health impacts such as cancer with large concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. However, there are at present no known large-scale technological solutions for the millions of people-mostly rural-who are potentially affected in developing countries. An overall framework of combating natural resource degradation is combined with case studies from Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh and elsewhere to arrive at a set of strategic recommendations for the global, national and local dimensions of the arsenic ``crisis''. The main recommendations include: the need for flexibility in the elaboration of any arsenic mitigation strategy, the improvement and large-scale use of low-cost and participatory groundwater quality testing techniques, the need to maintain consistent use of key lessons learned worldwide in water supply and sanitation and to integrate arsenic as just one other factor in providing a sustainable water supply, and the following of distinct but communicable tracks between arsenic-related developments and enhanced, long-term, sustainable water supplies. La contamination des eaux souterraines par l'arsenic provenant de sources naturelles est actuellement un sujet des plus graves dans l'organisation d'un recours à grande échelle des eaux souterraines pour la boisson et d'autres usages. De récentes améliorations dans les limites de détection des équipements analytiques permettent de corréler les effets sur la santé tels que le cancer à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Toutefois, il n'existe pas actuellement de solutions technologiques à grande échelle connues pour des millions de personnes, surtout en zones rurales, qui sont potentiellement

  18. Arsenic Groundwater Contamination in Bengal: a Coupled Geochemical and Geophysical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, L.; Ansari, A. A.; Dietrich, M.; Latscha, A.; LeBeux, A.; Chatterjee, D.; Mallik, S. B.

    2001-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a problem of great concern in Ganges delta region, and could be one of the largest natural calamity in the world. In the present study, a contamination plume located in the Lalpur area (Chakdaha Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India) was studied. A coupled geochemical and geophysical approach was employed to understand the mechanism of arsenic mobilisation from the sediments to groundwater, as a first step towards a global explanation of the phenomenon for other contaminated areas in the Ganges delta. The groundwater As concentration, in the 10 km x 10 km studied area, ranges from 10 to 500 ppb. In situ chemical speciation of arsenic was carried out and various geochemical parameters were measured in representative contaminated wells to interpret the mobilization mechanism in terms of redox kinetics. Through geophysical investigations, subsurface lithology, sediment depositional and geomorphological characteristics were determined and correlated with the arsenic contamination processes. From a geomorphological viewpoint, the contaminated area is located in an abandoned paleochannel of the Hooghly river, interpreted as the active site of deposition of fine sediments which were preserved as clay pockets at certain depths. These clay pockets are rich in organic matter, which may be the driving force for redox potential change and thus, may have driven the mobilisation of arsenic in groundwater. The clay pockets rich in organic matter presumably represent the major reservoir where arsenic is sitting and getting released due to redox mechanism. They are sampled at present. A piezometric depression cone characterized by a radial groundwater flow is located underneath the highly populated Lalpur area. The arsenic plume appears to migrate from the Hooghly river towards the cone of depression following the water flowpath, and this shall be verified in forthcoming field campaigns. As (III) constitutes 42 % of the total As

  19. Emerging contaminants in urban groundwater sources in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Nkhuwa, D C W; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bell, R A; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Chibesa, M; Pedley, S

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic contaminants within the aquatic environment in Africa is currently unknown. This study provides early insights by characterising a broad range of emerging organic contaminants (n > 1000) in groundwater sources in Kabwe, Zambia. Groundwater samples were obtained during both the dry and wet seasons from a selection of deep boreholes and shallow wells completed within the bedrock and overlying superficial aquifers, respectively. Groundwater sources were distributed across the city to encompass peri-urban, lower cost housing, higher cost housing, and industrial land uses. The insect repellent DEET was ubiquitous within groundwater at concentrations up to 1.8 μg/L. Other compounds (n = 26) were detected in less than 15% of the sources and included the bactericide triclosan (up to 0.03 μg/L), chlorination by-products - trihalomethanes (up to 50 μg/L), and the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (up to 0.6 μg/L). Emerging contaminants were most prevalent in shallow wells sited in low cost housing areas. This is attributed to localised vulnerability associated with inadequate well protection, sanitation, and household waste disposal. The five-fold increase in median DEET concentration following the onset of the seasonal rains highlights that more mobile compounds can rapidly migrate from the surface to the aquifer suggesting the aquifer is more vulnerable than previously considered. Furthermore it suggests DEET is potentially useful as a wastewater tracer in Africa. There was a general absence of personal care products, life-style compounds, and pharmaceuticals which are commonly detected in the aquatic environment in the developed world. This perhaps reflects some degree of attenuation within the subsurface, but could also be a result of the current limited use of products containing emerging contaminants by locals due to unaffordability and unavailability. As development and population increases in Africa, it is

  20. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainable mitigation of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Bihar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Borges Freitas, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    The “water surplus” state of Bihar is faced with the serious problem of arsenic contaminated aquifers whose water is used both for drinking and irrigation purposes. A large number of mitigation strategies are being adopted by the authorities, without obtaining the desired results of clean water

  2. Neural Networks Simulation of the Transport of Contaminants in Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Zio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance assessment of an engineered solution for the disposal of radioactive wastes is based on mathematical models of the disposal system response to predefined accidental scenarios, within a probabilistic approach to account for the involved uncertainties. As the most significant potential pathway for the return of radionuclides to the biosphere is groundwater flow, intensive computational efforts are devoted to simulating the behaviour of the groundwater system surrounding the waste deposit, for different values of its hydrogeological parameters and for different evolution scenarios. In this paper, multilayered neural networks are trained to simulate the transport of contaminants in monodimensional and bidimensional aquifers. The results obtained in two case studies indicate that the approximation errors are within the uncertainties which characterize the input data.

  3. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Estimating potential groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.; Neuder, S.M.; Pennifill, R.A.; Ginn, T.

    1986-11-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report describe the NRC's methodology for assessing the potential public health and environmental impacts associated with onsite disposal of very low activity radioactive materials. This volume (Vol. 3) describes a general methodology for predicting potential groundwater contamination from onsite disposal. The methodology includes formulating a conceptual model, representing the conceptual model mathematically, estimating conservative parameters, and predicting receptor concentrations. Processes which must generally be considered in the methodology include infiltration, leaching of radionuclides from the waste, transport to the saturated zone, transport within the saturated zone, and withdrawal at a receptor location. A case study of shallow burial of iodine-125 illustrates application of the MOCMOD84 version of the US Geological Survey's 2-D solute transport model and a corresponding analytical solution. The appendices include a description and listing of MOCMOD84, descriptions of several analytical solution techniques, and a procedure for estimating conservative groundwater velocity values

  4. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  5. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  6. SITE demonstration of the Dynaphore/Forager Sponge technology to remove dissolved metals from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, C.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States); Vaccaro, G. [Science Applications International Corp., Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration was conducted of the Dynaphore/Forager Sponge technology during the week of April 3, 1994 at the N.L. Industries Superfund Site in Pedricktown, New Jersey. The Forager Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. This technology is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The developer states that the technology can be used to remove heavy metals from a wide variety of aqueous media, such as groundwater, surface waters and process waters. The sponge matrix can be directly disposed, or regenerated with chemical solutions. For this demonstration the sponge was set up as a mobile pump-and-treat system which treated groundwater contaminated with heavy metals. The demonstration focused on the system`s ability to remove lead, cadmium, chromium and copper from the contaminated groundwater over a continuous 72-hour test. The removal of heavy metals proceeded in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of innocuous cations such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and aluminum.

  7. Assessing Contamination Potential of Nitrate-N in Groundwater of Lanyang Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Tu, Yu-Lin; Lin, Chien-Wen; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate-N pollution is often relevant to agricultural activities such as the fertilization of crops. Significant increases in the nitrate-N pollution of groundwater are found in natural recharging zones of Taiwan. The increasing nitrate-N contamination seriously threatens public drinking water supply and human health. Constructing a correct map of aquifer contamination potential is an effective and feasible way to protect groundwater for quality assessment and management. Therefore, in this study, we use DRASTIC model with the help of geographic information system (GIS) to assess and predict the contamination potential of nitrate-N in the aquifer of Lanyang Plain, Taiwan. Seven factors of hydrogeology and hydrology, which includes seven parameters - Depth to groundwater, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and hydraulic Conductivity, are considered to carry out this assessment. The validity of the presented model is established by comparing the results with the measured nitrate concentration in wells within the study area. Adjusting factor weightings via the discriminant analysis is performed to improve the assessment and prediction. The analyzed results can provide residents with suggestive strategies against nitrate-N pollution in agricultural regions and government administrators with explicit information of Nitrate-N pollution extents when plans of water resources are considered.

  8. Evaluation of the fate of arsenic-contaminated groundwater at different aquifers of Thar coalfield Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jamshed; Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Mariam S; Ullah, Naeem; Brahman, Kapil D; Arain, Sadaf S; Panhwar, Abdul H

    2015-12-01

    In present study, the ground water at different aquifers was evaluated for physicochemical parameters, iron, total arsenic, total inorganic arsenic and arsenic species (arsenite and arsenate). The samples of groundwater were collected at different depths, first aquifer (AQ1) 50-60 m, second aquifer (AQ2) 100-120 m, and third aquifer (AQ3) 200-250 m of Thar coalfield, Pakistan. Total inorganic arsenic was determined by solid phase extraction using titanium dioxide as an adsorbent. The arsenite was determined by cloud point extraction using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate as a chelating reagent, and resulted complex was extracted by Triton X-114. The resulted data of groundwater were reported in terms of basic statistical parameters, principal component, and cluster analysis. The resulted data indicated that physicochemical parameters of groundwater of different aquifers were exceeded the World Health Organization provisional guideline for drinking water except pH and SO4(2-). The positive correlation was observed between arsenic species and physicochemical parameters of groundwater except F(-) and K(+), which might be caused by geochemical minerals. Results of cluster analysis indicated that groundwater samples of AQ1 was highly contaminated with arsenic species as compared to AQ2 and AQ3 (p > 0.05).

  9. Permeable Asphalt: A New Tool to Reduce Road Salt Contamination of Groundwater in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Michael E; Angel, Derek R; Robbins, Gary A; McNaboe, Lukas A

    2017-03-01

    Chloride contamination of groundwater in urban areas due to deicing is a well-documented phenomenon in northern climates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of permeable pavement on degraded urban groundwater. Although low impact development practices have been shown to improve stormwater quality, no infiltration practice has been found to prevent road salt chlorides from entering groundwater. The few studies that have investigated chlorides in permeable asphalt have involved sampling directly beneath the asphalt; no research has looked more broadly at surrounding groundwater conditions. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient of an 860 m 2 permeable asphalt parking lot at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut). Water level and specific conductance were measured continuously, and biweekly samples were analyzed for chloride. Samples were also analyzed for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). Analysis of variance analysis indicated a significantly (p monitoring revealed lower Cl concentrations downgradient than upgradient for the majority of the year. These results suggest that the use of permeable asphalt in impacted urban environments with high ambient chloride concentrations can be beneficial to shallow groundwater quality, although these results may not be generalizable to areas with low ambient chloride concentrations. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Groundwater Discharge of Legacy Nitrogen to River Networks: Linking Regional Groundwater Models to Streambed Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange and Nitrogen Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Briggs, M. A.; Starn, J. J.; Hunt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite years of management, excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many aquatic ecosystems. More than half of surface water in the United States is derived from groundwater, and widespread N contamination in aquifers from decades of watershed N inputs suggest legacy N discharging from groundwater may contribute to contemporary N pollution problems in surface waters. Legacy N loads to streams and rivers are controlled by both regional scale flow paths and fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients that occur at stream bed interfaces. Adequately incorporating these disparate scales is a challenge, but it is essential to understanding legacy N transport and making informed management decisions. We developed a regional groundwater flow model for the Farmington River, a HUC-8 basin that drains to the Long Island Sound, a coastal estuary that suffers from elevated N loads despite decades of management, to understand broad patterns of regional transport. To evaluate and refine the regional model, we used thermal infrared imagery paired with vertical temperature profiling to estimate groundwater discharge at the streambed interface. We also analyzed discharging groundwater for multiple N species to quantify fine scale patterns of N loading and transformation via denitrification at the streambed interface. Integrating regional and local estimates of groundwater discharge of legacy N to river networks should improve our ability to predict spatiotemporal patterns of legacy N loading to and transformation within surface waters.

  11. Sources of nitrate and ammonium contamination in groundwater under developing Asian megacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Yu; Hosono, Takahiro; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Siringan, Fernando; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Tayasu, Ichiro; Nagata, Toshi; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The status of nitrate (NO 3 - ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and ammonium (NH 4 + ) contamination in the water systems, and the mechanisms controlling their sources, pathways, and distributions were investigated for the Southeast Asian cities of Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta. GIS-based monitoring and dual isotope approach (nitrate δ 15 N and δ 18 O) suggested that human waste via severe sewer leakage was the major source of nutrient contaminants in Metro Manila and Jakarta urban areas. Furthermore, the characteristics of the nutrient contamination differed depending on the agricultural land use pattern in the suburban areas: high nitrate contamination was observed in Jakarta (dry fields), and relatively lower nutrients consisting mainly of ammonium were detected in Bangkok (paddy fields). The exponential increase in NO 3 - -δ 15 N along with the NO 3 - reduction and clear δ 18 O/δ 15 N slopes of NO 3 - (∼ 0.5) indicated the occurrence of denitrification. An anoxic subsurface system associated with the natural geological setting (e.g., the old tidal plain at Bangkok) and artificial pavement coverage served to buffer NO 3 - contamination via active denitrification and reduced nitrification. Our results showed that NO 3 - and NH 4 + contamination of the aquifers in Metro Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta was not excessive, suggesting low risk of drinking groundwater to human health, at present. However, the increased nitrogen load and increased per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in these developing cities may increase this contamination in the very near future. Continuous monitoring and management of the groundwater system is needed to minimize groundwater pollution in these areas, and this information should be shared among adjacent countries with similar geographic and cultural settings

  12. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon

  13. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  14. Groundwater contamination with 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and perspectives for its microbial removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Horemans, Benjamin; Raes, Bart

    2017-01-01

    (DWTP); therefore, if concentrations exceed the legal threshold limit, it represents a sizeable problem for the stability and quality of drinking water production, especially in places that depend on groundwater for drinking water. Bioremediation is suggested as a valuable strategy for removing BAM from...... groundwater by deploying dedicated BAM-degrading bacteria in DWTP sand filters. Only a few bacterial strains with the capability to degrade BAM have been isolated, and of these, only three isolates belonging to the Aminobacter genus are able to mineralise BAM. Considerable effort has been made to elucidate...... status and knowledge with regard to the application of microorganisms for purification of BAM-contaminated water resources. This paper discusses the prospects and challenges for bioaugmentation of DWTP sand filters with specific BAM-degrading bacteria and identifies relevant perspectives for future...

  15. The discharge of nitrate-contaminated groundwater from developed shoreline to marsh-fringed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, J.W.; Nowicki, B.L.; Roman, C.T.; Urish, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    As residential development, on-site wastewater disposal, and groundwater contamination increase in the coastal zone, assessment of nutrient removal by soil and sedimentary processes becomes increasingly important. Nitrogen removal efficiency depends largely on the specific flow paths taken by groundwater as it discharges into nitrogen-limited estuarine waters. Shoreline salinity surveys, hydraulic studies, and thermal infrared imagery indicated that groundwater discharge into the Nauset Marsh estuary (Eastham, Massachusetts) occurred in high-velocity seeps immediately seaward of the upland-fringing salt marsh. Discharge was highly variable spatially and occurred through permeable, sandy sediments during low tide. Seepage chamber monitoring showed that dissolved inorganic nitrogen (principally nitrate) traversed nearly conservatively from the aquifer through shallow estuarine sediments to coastal waters at flux rates of 1–3 mmol m−2 h−1. A significant relationship between pore water NO3-N concentrations and NO3-N flux rates may provide a rapid method of estimating nitrogen loading from groundwater to the water column.

  16. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Sevigny, J.H. [Komex Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H{sub 2}S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol{sup R} sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  18. Modeling the migration of radioactive contaminants in groundwater of in situ leaching uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Tai Kaixuan

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of groundwater from in situ leaching (ISL) of uranium mining is a widespread environmental problem. This paper analyzed the monitor results of groundwater contaminations for a in situ leaching uranium mine. A dynamic model of contaminants transport in groundwater in ISL well field was established. The processes and mechanisms of contaminant transport in groundwater were simulated numerically for a ISL well field. A small quantity of U and SO 4 2- migrate to outside of well field during ISL production stage. But the migration velocity and distance of contaminations is small, and the concentration is low. Contaminants migrate as anomalistic tooth-shape. The migration trend of U and SO 4 2- is consistent. Numerical modeling can provide an effective approach to analyse the transport mechanism, and forecast and control the migration of contaminants in groundwater in ISL well field. (authors)

  19. Risk mapping of NO/sub 3/-N contamination on groundwater under intensive rice-based cropping systems in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, C.M.; Baga, M.C.S.; Valencia, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater resources in a 265 ha watershed of highly diversified and intensive rice-based environment was endangered to NO/sub 3/-N contamination with spatial degree of influence and temporal vulnerability risks as affected by intensive cropping systems with application of high N-fertilizer and judicious use of groundwater for irrigation. Such nitrate contamination levels are above the World Health Organization's maximum contamination level of 10 ppm for drinking water. Tree-joining, complete cluster analysis of monthly groundwater depths on observation wells revealed three distinct groups of wells differentiated by groundwater depths. Planting of nitrate catch crops such as legumes to reduce groundwater contamination and vigorous information dissemination on ill-effects of high NO/sub 3/-N, as well as groundwater recharging were considered to reduce contamination. However, the groundwater extraction for irrigation is still sustainable due to natural recharging of rainfall and hydraulic connections from surface water along rivers and creeks. The combined-use of GIS and GPS proved useful for spatial and temporal risk mapping assessment on groundwater NO/sub 3/-N vulnerability among other geo-referenced attributes of groundwater and other environmental considerations at the study site. Such systems analysis tools can be used by planners, researchers, extension workers, students and farmers for other sustainable development and environmental risk mapping, assessment, extrapolation analysis and strategic planning of sustainable development of the environment. (author)

  20. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  1. Dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for groundwater contaminant plume delineation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.; Morti, E.E.; Zutman, J.L.; Pickering, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Dual wall reverse circulation (DWRC) drilling was used to drill 48 borings during a groundwater contaminant investigation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. This method was selected as an alternative to conventional hollow stem auger drilling for a number of reasons, including the expectation of minimizing waste, increasing the drilling rate, and reducing the potential for cross contamination of aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from several water-bearing zones during drilling of each borehole. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds using a field gas chromatograph. This approach allowed the investigation to be directed using near-real-time data. Use of downhole geophysical logging, in conjunction with lithologic descriptions of borehole cuttings, resulted in excellent correlation of the geology in the vicinity of the contaminant plume. The total volume of cuttings generated using the DWRC drilling method was less than half of what would have been produced by hollow stem augering; however, the cuttings were recovered in slurry form and had to be dewatered prior to disposal. The drilling rate was very rapid, often approaching 10 ft/min; however, frequent breaks to perform groundwater sampling resulted in an average drilling rate of < 1 ft/min. The time required for groundwater sampling could be shortened by changing the sampling methodology. Analytical results indicated that the drilling method successfully isolated the various water bearing zones and no cross contamination resulted from the investigation

  2. Development of HUMASORB trademark, a lignite derived humic acid for removal of metals and organic contaminants from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay, H.G.; Srivastava, K.C.; Walia, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contamination of surface and groundwater systems is a major environmental concern. The contamination is primarily due to improperly disposed industrial wastes. The presence of toxic heavy metal ions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides in water is of great concern and could affect the safety of drinking water. Decontamination of surface and groundwater can be achieved using a broad spectrum of treatment options such as precipitation, ion-exchange, microbial digestion, membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, etc. The state of the art technologies for treatment of contaminated water however, can in one pass remediate only one class of contaminants, i.e., either VOCs (activated carbon) or heavy metals (ion exchange). This would require the use of at a minimum, two different stepwise processes to remediate a site. The groundwater contamination at different Department of Energy (DOE) sites (e.g., Hanford) is due to the presence of both VOCs and heavy metals. The two-step approach increases the cost of remediation. To overcome the sequential treatment of contaminated streams to remove both organics and metals, a novel material having properties to remove both classes of contaminants in one step is being developed as part of this project

  3. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  4. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  5. Enhanced biotransformation of TCE using plant terpenoids in contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J R-M; Thompson, I P; Paton, G I; Singer, A C

    2009-12-01

    To examine plant terpenoids as inducers of TCE (trichloroethylene) biotransformation by an indigenous microbial community originating from a plume of TCE-contaminated groundwater. One-litre microcosms of groundwater were spiked with 100 micromol 1(-1) of TCE and amended weekly for 16 weeks with 20 microl 1(-1) of the following plant monoterpenes: linalool, pulegone, R-(+) carvone, S-(-) carvone, farnesol, cumene. Yeast extract-amended and unamended control treatments were also prepared. The addition of R-carvone and S-carvone, linalool and cumene resulted in the biotransformation of upwards of 88% of the TCE, significantly more than the unamendment control (61%). The aforementioned group of terpenes also significantly (P TCE to be degraded than the remaining two terpenes (farnesol and pulegone), and the yeast extract treatment which biotransformed 74-75% of the TCE. The microbial community profile was monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and demonstrated much greater similarities between the microbial communities in terpene-amended treatments than in the yeast extract or unamended controls. TCE biotransformation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of selected plant terpenoids. Plant terpenoid and nutrient supplementation to groundwater might provide an environmentally benign means of enhancing the rate of in situ TCE bioremediation.

  6. Characterization and simulation of fate and transport of selected volatile organic compounds in the vicinities of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area and landfill: Chapter A Supplement 6 in Analyses and historical reconstruction of groundwater flow, contaminant fate and transport, and distribution of drinking water within the service areas of the Hadnot Point and Holcomb Boulevard Water Treatment Plants and vicinities, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.; Anderson, Barbara A.; Maslia, Morris L.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 6) describes the reconstruction (i.e. simulation) of historical concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and benzene3 in production wells supplying water to the Hadnot Base (USMCB) Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (Figure S6.1). A fate and transport model (i.e., MT3DMS [Zheng and Wang 1999]) was used to simulate contaminant migration from source locations through the groundwater system and to estimate mean contaminant concentrations in water withdrawn from water-supply wells in the vicinity of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area (HPIA) and the Hadnot Point landfill (HPLF) area.4 The reconstructed contaminant concentrations were subsequently input into a flow-weighted, materials mass balance (mixing) model (Masters 1998) to estimate monthly mean concentrations of the contaminant in finished water 5 at the HPWTP (Maslia et al. 2013). The calibrated fate and transport models described herein were based on and used groundwater velocities derived from groundwater-flow models that are described in Suárez-Soto et al. (2013). Information data pertinent to historical operations of water-supply wells are described in Sautner et al. (2013) and Telci et al. (2013).

  7. Environmental Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Water Mines (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Afonso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary approach was developed to estimate urban groundwater vulnerability to contamination combining hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, subterranean hydrogeotechnics, groundwater ecotoxicology and isotope tracers. Paranhos and Salgueiros spring waters in Porto City were used as a case study. Historical and current vulnerability scenarios were compared using hydrogeological GIS-based modelling. Potential contamination sources were mapped around the spring galleries. Most of these were point sources and their potential contamination load was moderate. The ecotoxicological assessment indicated a low acute toxicity potential. Groundwater radionuclides appeared to be mainly controlled by geological factors and biomineralisation. Vulnerability maps suggest that most of the area has a moderate to low vulnerability to contamination. However, some surface sources such as sewage systems cause contamination and contribute to increased vulnerability. This integrated approach was demonstrated to be adequate for a better knowledge of urban hydrogeological processes and their dynamics, and highlighted the importance of a vulnerability assessment in urban areas.

  8. A Geochemical Reaction Model for Titration of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Parker, J. C.; Gu, B.; Luo, W.; Brooks, S. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Jardine, P. M.; Watson, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates geochemical reactions during titration of contaminated soil and groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. The soils and groundwater exhibits low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, various trace metals such as nickel and cobalt, and radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. The mobility of many of the contaminant species diminishes with increasing pH. However, base additions to increase pH are strongly buffered by various precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior and associated geochemical effects is thus critical to evaluate remediation performance of pH manipulation strategies. This study was undertaken to develop a practical but generally applicable geochemical model to predict aqueous and solid-phase speciation during soil and groundwater titration. To model titration in the presence of aquifer solids, an approach proposed by Spalding and Spalding (2001) was utilized, which treats aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. Previous studies have shown that Fe and Al-oxyhydroxides strongly sorb dissolved Ni, U and Tc species. In this study, since the total Fe concentration is much smaller than that of Al, only ion exchange reactions associated with Al hydroxides are considered. An equilibrium reaction model that includes aqueous complexation, precipitation, ion exchange, and soil buffering reactions was developed and implemented in the code HydroGeoChem 5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration curves for contaminated groundwater alone and for soil- water systems indicated close agreement. This study is expected to facilitate field-scale modeling of geochemical processes under conditions with highly variable pH to develop practical methods to control contaminant mobility at geochemically complex sites.

  9. Groundwater redox conditions and conductivity in a contaminant plume from geoelectrical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naudet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mapping of the electrical conductivity and of the redox potential of the groundwater is important in delineating the shape of a contaminant plume. A map of redox potential in an aquifer is indicative of biodegradation of organic matter and of concentrations of redox-active components; a map of electrical conductivity provides information on the mineralisation of the groundwater. Both maps can be used to optimise the position of pumping wells for remediation. The self-potential method (SP and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT have been applied to the contaminant plume associated with the Entressen landfill in south-east France. The self-potential depends on groundwater flow (electrokinetic contribution and redox conditions ('electro-redox' contribution. Using the variation of the piezometric head in the aquifer, the electrokinetic contribution is removed from the SP signals. A good linear correlation (R2=0.85 is obtained between the residual SP data and the redox potential values measured in monitoring wells. This relationship is used to draw a redox potential map of the overall contaminated site. The electrical conductivity of the subsoil is obtained from 3D-ERT analysis. A good linear correlation (R2=0.91 is observed between the electrical conductivity of the aquifer determined from the 3D-ERT image and the conductivity of the groundwater measured in boreholes. This indicates that the formation factor is nearly homogeneous in the shallow aquifer at the scale of the ERT. From this correlation, a map of the pore water conductivity of the aquifer is obtained. Keywords: self-potential, redox potential, electrical resistivity tomography, fluid conductivity, contaminant plume

  10. Use of Short Chained Alkylphenols (SCAP in Analysis of Transport Behaviour of Oil Contaminated Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sauter

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortchained alkylphenols (SCAP represent a main constituent of crude oil and coal liquefaction products. Due to their specific oil/water partitioning behaviour and high aqueous solubility they can be detected in oil exploitation waters and groundwaters affected by various spills near oil pipelines, oil exploitation sites and coal liquefaction plants. New efficient and powerful analytical techniques have been developed that allow the identification of all 34 individual compounds (C0-C3 without derivatisation and in complex matrices. Due to the different physico-chemical properties of the SCAP, differential transport behaviour in groundwater can be observed, changing the relative concentrations of SCAP downgradient in space and time. These characteristic ratios can be employed to derive information on migration direction and the ageing of the source of contamination. A case study is presented to illustrate the use of this new tool.

  11. In situ disinfection of sewage contaminated shallow groundwater: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Morgan M; Cooper, William J; Grant, Stanley B

    2011-11-01

    Sewage-contaminated shallow groundwater is a potential cause of beach closures and water quality impairment in marine coastal communities. In this study we set out to evaluate the feasibility of several strategies for disinfecting sewage-contaminated shallow groundwater before it reaches the coastline. The disinfection rates of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci bacteria (ENT) were measured in mixtures of raw sewage and brackish shallow groundwater collected from a coastal community in southern California. Different disinfection strategies were explored, ranging from benign (aeration alone, and aeration with addition of brine) to aggressive (chemical disinfectants peracetic acid (PAA) or peroxymonosulfate (Oxone)). Aeration alone and aeration with brine did not significantly reduce the concentration of EC and ENT after 6 h of exposure, while 4-5 mg L(-1) of PAA or Oxone achieved >3 log reduction after 15 min of exposure. Oxone disinfection was more rapid at higher salinities, most likely due to the formation of secondary oxidants (e.g., bromine and chlorine) that make this disinfectant inappropriate for marine applications. Using a Lagrangian modeling framework, we identify several factors that could influence the performance of in-situ disinfection with PAA, including the potential for bacterial regrowth, and the non-linear dependence of disinfection rate upon the residence time of water in the shallow groundwater. The data and analysis presented in this paper provide a framework for evaluating the feasibility of in-situ disinfection of shallow groundwater, and elucidate several topics that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential of aerobic bacteria use for remediation of groundwater of Pavlodar outskirt contaminated with soluble mercury compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan there are some regions contaminated with mercury as a result of technogenic releases from industrial enterprises. The mercury ingress into the environment has resulted in significant pollution of groundwater and surface water with soluble mercury com...

  13. Groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic contamination in farming villages of Bangladesh - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi; Egashira, Kazuhiko; Tani, Masakazu; Jahiruddin, M.; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md.; Rahman, Zulfikar Md.

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the groundwater-soil-crop relationship with respect to arsenic (As) contamination, As concentration was measured in tubewell (TW) water, surface soil from farmyards and paddy fields, and fresh taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves from farmyards in the farming villages of Bangladesh. The As concentration in TW water from farmyards was at least four times higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard, and the concentration in fresh taro leaves was equal to or higher than those reported previously for leafy vegetables in Bangladesh. As concentration of surface soils in both farmyards and paddy fields was positively correlated with that of the TW water. Further, the concentration in surface soil was positively correlated with levels in fresh taro leaves in the farmyard. This study, therefore, clarified the groundwater-soil-crop relationship in farmyards and the relationship between groundwater-soil in paddy fields to assess the extent of As contamination in Bangladeshi villages. - By extracting arsenic contaminated groundwater from a well, surface soil surrounding the well and crops planted in the surface soil became contaminated with arsenic

  14. Arsenic migration to deep groundwater in Bangladesh influenced by adsorption and water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, K. A.; Zheng, Y.; Michael, H. A.; Stute, M.; Bostick, B. C.; Mihajlov, I.; Bounds, M.; Huq, M. R.; Choudhury, I.; Rahman, M. W.; Schlosser, P.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2011-11-01

    The consumption of shallow groundwater with elevated concentrations of arsenic is causing widespread disease in many parts of South and Southeast Asia. In the Bengal Basin, a growing reliance on groundwater sourced below 150-m depth--where arsenic concentrations tend to be lower--has reduced exposure. Groundwater flow simulations have suggested that these deep waters are at risk of contamination due to replenishment with high-arsenic groundwater from above, even when deep water pumping is restricted to domestic use. However, these simulations have neglected the influence of sediment adsorption on arsenic migration. Here, we inject arsenic-bearing groundwater into a deep aquifer zone in Bangladesh, and monitor the reduction in arsenic levels over time following stepwise withdrawal of the water. Arsenic concentrations in the injected water declined by 70% after 24h in the deep aquifer zone, owing to adsorption on sediments; concentrations of a co-injected inert tracer remain unchanged. We incorporate the experimentally determined adsorption properties of sands in the deep aquifer zone into a groundwater flow and transport model covering the Bengal Basin. Simulations using present and future scenarios of water-use suggest that arsenic adsorption significantly retards transport, thereby extending the area over which deep groundwater can be used with low risk of arsenic contamination. Risks are considerably lower when deep water is pumped for domestic use alone. Some areas remain vulnerable to arsenic intrusion, however, and we suggest that these be prioritized for monitoring.

  15. In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, L. D.; Knobel, L. L.; Green, J. R.; Frape, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water

  16. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  17. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  18. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 microg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 microg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 microg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted

  19. Determination of protection zones for Dutch groundwater wells against virus contamination--uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, J F; Mülschlegel, J H C; Hassanizadeh, S M; Teunis, P F M; de Roda Husman, A M

    2006-09-01

    Protection zones of shallow unconfined aquifers in The Netherlands were calculated that allow protection against virus contamination to the level that the infection risk of 10(-4) per person per year is not exceeded with a 95% certainty. An uncertainty and a sensitivity analysis of the calculated protection zones were included. It was concluded that protection zones of 1 to 2 years travel time (206-418 m) are needed (6 to 12 times the currently applied travel time of 60 days). This will lead to enlargement of protection zones, encompassing 110 unconfined groundwater well systems that produce 3 x 10(8) m3 y(-1) of drinking water (38% of total Dutch production from groundwater). A smaller protection zone is possible if it can be shown that an aquifer has properties that lead to greater reduction of virus contamination, like more attachment. Deeper aquifers beneath aquitards of at least 2 years of vertical travel time are adequately protected because vertical flow in the aquitards is only 0.7 m per year. The most sensitive parameters are virus attachment and inactivation. The next most sensitive parameters are grain size of the sand, abstraction rate of groundwater, virus concentrations in raw sewage and consumption of unboiled drinking water. Research is recommended on additional protection by attachment and under unsaturated conditions.

  20. A compositional multiphase model for groundwater contamination by petroleum products: 2. Numerical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we develop a numerical solution to equations developed in part 1 (M. Y. Corapcioglu and A. L. Baehr, this issue) to predict the fate of an immiscible organic contaminant such as gasoline in the unsaturated zone subsequent to plume establishment. This solution, obtained by using a finite difference scheme and a method of forward projection to evaluate nonlinear coefficients, provides estimates of the flux of solubilized hydrocarbon constituents to groundwater from the portion of a spill which remains trapped in a soil after routine remedial efforts to recover the product have ceased. The procedure was used to solve the one-dimensional (vertical) form of the system of nonlinear partial differential equations defining the transport for each constituent of the product. Additionally, a homogeneous, isothermal soil with constant water content was assumed. An equilibrium assumption partitions the constituents between air, water, adsorbed, and immiscible phases. Free oxygen transport in the soil was also simulated to provide an upper bound estimate of aerobic biodgradation rates. Results are presented for a hypothetical gasoline consisting of eight groups of hydrocarbon constituents. Rates at which hydrocarbon mass is removed from the soil, entering either the atmosphere or groundwater, or is biodegraded are presented. A significant sensitivity to model parameters, particularly the parameters characterizing diffusive vapor transport, was discovered. We conclude that hydrocarbon solute composition in groundwater beneath a gasoline contaminated soil would be heavily weighted toward aromatic constituents like benzene, toluene, and xylene.

  1. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  2. An interdisciplinary approach for groundwater management in area contaminated by fluoride in East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pelo, Stefania; Melis, M. Teresa; Dessì, Francesco; Pistis, Marco; Funedda, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Carletti, Alberto; Soler Gil, Albert; Barbieri, Manuela; Pittalis, Daniele; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for most of the rural communities in Africa (approximately 75% of Africans has confidence in groundwater as their major source of drinking water). Many African countries has affected by high fluoride concentration in groundwater (up to 90 mg/L), generating the contamination of waters, soils and food, in particular in the eastern part of the continent. It seems that fluoride concentration is linked to geology of the Rift Valley: geogenic occurrence of fluoride is often connected to supergenic enrichment due to the weathering of alkaline volcanic rocks, fumaric gases and presence of thermal waters. The H2020 project FLOWERED (de-FLuoridation technologies for imprOving quality of WatEr and agRo-animal products along the East African Rift Valley in the context of aDaptation to climate change) wish to address environmental and health (human and animal) issues associated to the fluoride contamination in the African Rift Valley, in particular in three case study area located in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. FLOWERED aims to develop an integrated, sustainable and participative water and agriculture management at a cross-boundary catchment scale through a strong interdisciplinary research approach. It implies knowledge of geology, hydrogeology, mineralogy, geochemistry, agronomy, crop and animal sciences, engineering, technological sciences, data management and software design, economics and communication. The proposed approach is based on a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological setting, with the identification and mapping of the specific geological conditions of water contamination and its relation with the different land uses. The East African Rift System (EARS) groundwater circulation and storage, today already poorly understood, is characterized by a complex arrangement of aquifers. It depends on the type of porosity and permeability created during and after the rock formation, and is strongly conditioned by the

  3. Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on adolescent intelligence and social competence in Bangladesh with special reference to daily drinking/cooking water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho; Watanabe, Chiho; Shimizu, Hana; Tasmin, Saira; Tasnim, Sayra; Sultana, Nayar

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) or social competence (SC) of Bangladeshi adolescents (aged 14 or 15 years) in Sonargaon thana. Information about socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. To evaluate the relative contribution of As sources to total As intake, the As concentrations in urine and drinking/cooking water, and the amount of water added in cooking, were assessed on site using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The results confirmed that As exposure was essential to lower adolescent IQ or SC because they were negatively associated with As exposure after controlling for SES (particularly household income). Except for cooking water, the amount of drinking water varied with season and appeared to be the major As source because the As concentration in water was generally correlated with the As concentration in urine, and they were related to lower IQ or SC (even after controlling for SES). The FFQ survey revealed that rice was consumed the most frequently (more than once daily), followed by daal (bean) soup and nonleafy vegetables, but fish, meat, and eggs were consumed approximately once a week. Water intake per meal from cooked rice was estimated to be 616 mL/person, followed by bean soup (258 mL/person) and cooked vegetables (82 mL/person). Our results suggest that water used for cooking might be an important source of As, and the cooking process can affect the amount of As in cooked food.

  4. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk in an agricultural area in north Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Bartzas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a specific approach is followed, considering the Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility index (SI methods and a GIS framework, to assess groundwater vulnerability in the agricultural area of Albenga, in north Italy. The results indicate “high” to “very high” vulnerability to groundwater contamination along the coastline and the middle part of the Albenga plain, for almost 49% and 56% of the total study area for Pesticide DRASTIC and SI methods, respectively. These sensitive regions depict characteristics such as shallow depth to groundwater, extensive deposits of alluvial silty clays, flat topography and intensive agricultural activities. The distribution of nitrates concentration in groundwater in the study area is slightly better correlated with the SI (0.728 compared to Pesticide DRASTIC (0.693, thus indicating that both methods are characterized by quite good accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to acknowledge statistical uncertainty in the estimation of each parameter used, assess its impact and thus identify the most critical parameters that require further investigation in the future. Depth to water is the parameter that exhibited the largest impact on the Pesticide DRASTIC vulnerability index followed by the impact of the vadose zone and topography. On the other hand, the SI method is more sensitive to the removal of the topography parameter followed by the aquifer media and the depth to water parameters.

  5. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canete, Socrates Jose P.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Enriquez, Eliza B.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially 226 Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of 226 Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of 226 Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the 226 Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of 226 Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of 226 Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of 226 Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no 226 Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area. (Authors)

  6. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  7. Correlation of BTEX levels and toxicity of condensate contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley, J.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.; Hardisty, P.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of BTEX was determined for 60 groundwater samples collected from 6 gas plants in Western Canada, using conventional purge-and-trap GC/MS procedures. The gas plants were selected to cover different types of operations with different amine process chemicals employed for the sweetening of the raw sour-gas condensates. Aliquots of the ground water samples were subjected to toxicity screening tests, specifically, (a) bacterial luminescence (microtox); (b) daphnia mortality and (c) fathead minnow mortality. For the toxicity tests, sample handling procedures were developed to minimize the loss of volatile organics during the experiments. To account for possible losses, the levels of BTEX were monitored at the start and upon completion of these tests. The results indicated that the toxicity of the groundwater was in general, well correlated to the concentration of BTEX (primarily xylene). Approximately 5% of the samples, however, were observed to be toxic although the concentration of BTEX were below the method detection limit (1 microg/1). Thiophenic volatile organics were implicated for the latter. Based on the laboratory results, the remediation of BTEX is expected to correlate with the removal of the toxicity of the groundwater. These findings are of direct relevance to present technologies employed for remediation of ground water at the Sourgas plants

  8. Treatment of water contaminated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, K; Lakanowski, C; Somers, A; Whittaker, H; Hamid, H B [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Anantaraman, A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A series of remediation technologies for contaminated soil and water at former nuclear missile sites in the countries of Eastern Europe have been developed. As part of this project the applicability of electrolytic reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater, using relatively cheap materials, was evaluated. It was found that reduction of NDMA in water could be achieved using inexpensive carbon electrodes and a simple two-electrode cell, making the process potentially applicable for the treatment of contaminated surface and groundwater in field conditions. Best results were achieved at pH 1 and a potential difference of 3 to 3.5 V. It is worth noting that the residual concentration of NDMA was still too high to discharge the water into the environment without additional treatment.

  9. Groundwater and surface water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.S.; Hamidi, A. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    This book contains almost all the technical know-how that is required to clean up the water supply. It provides a survey of up-to-date technologies for remediation, as well as a step-by-step guide to pollution assessment for both ground and surface waters. In addition to focusing on causes, effects, and remedies, the book stresses reuse, recycling, and recovery of resources. The authors suggest that through total recycling wastes can become resources.

  10. They all like it hot: faster cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Clean up a greasy kitchen spill with cold water and the going is slow. Us hot water instead and progress improves markedly. So it makes sense that cleanup of greasy underground contaminants such as gasoline might go faster if hot water or steam were somehow added to the process. The Environmental Protection Agency named hundreds of sites to the Superfund list - sites that have been contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum products or solvents. Elsewhere across the country, thousands of properties not identified on federal cleanup lists are contaminated as well. Given that under current regulations, underground accumulations of solvent and hydrocarbon contaminants (the most serious cause of groundwater pollution) must be cleaned up, finding a rapid and effective method of removing them is imperative. In the early 1990`s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore developed dynamic underground stripping. This method for treating underground contaminants with heat is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods.

  11. Large scale treatment of total petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater using bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Gregory; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Mok, Puah Chum; Ball, Andrew S

    2018-05-15

    Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L -1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L -1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment. Metagenomic analysis indicated that there was a shift in the microbial community when compared to the beginning of the treatment. The microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from day 0 to day 32, although differences at the genus level were observed. The predominant genera at the beginning of the treatment (day 0 just after inoculation) were Cloacibacterium, Sediminibacterium and Brevundimonas while at the end of the treatment members of Flavobacterium dominated, reaching almost half the population (41%), followed by Pseudomonas (6%) and Limnobacter (5.8%). To the author's knowledge, this is among the first studies to report the successful large scale biodegradation of TPH-contaminated groundwater (18,000 L per treatment session) at an offshore petrochemical facility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  13. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater : a review of sources, fate and occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram...

  14. Impact of storm water on groundwater quality below retention/detention basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Arif; Hussain, Asif; Farooq, Mohammed A; Abbasi, Haq Nawaz

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater from 33 monitoring of peripheral wells of Karachi, Pakistan were evaluated in terms of pre- and post-monsoon seasons to find out the impact of storm water infiltration, as storm water infiltration by retention basin receives urban runoff water from the nearby areas. This may increase the risk of groundwater contamination for heavy metals, where the soil is sandy and water table is shallow. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is significantly low in groundwater beneath detention basin during pre-monsoon season, which effected the concentration of zinc and iron. The models of trace metals shown in basin groundwater reflect the land use served by the basins, while it differed from background concentration as storm water releases high concentration of certain trace metals such as copper and cadmium. Recharge by storm water infiltration decreases the concentration and detection frequency of iron, lead, and zinc in background groundwater; however, the study does not point a considerable risk for groundwater contamination due to storm water infiltration.

  15. Arsenicosis, possibly from contaminated groundwater, associated with noncirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ashish; Christudoss, Pamela; George, Renu; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Amirtharaj, G Jayakumar; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Ramachandran, Anup; Balasubramanian, K A; Mackie, Ian; Fleming, Jude J; Elias, Elwyn; Eapen, Chundamannil E

    2016-05-01

    Idiopathic noncirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH), a chronic microangiopathy of the liver caused by arsenicosis from use of contaminated groundwater, was reported from Asia. This study aimed to see, if in the twenty-first century, arsenicosis was present in NCIPH patients at our hospital and, if present, to look for groundwater contamination by arsenic in their residential locality. Twenty-seven liver biopsy proven NCIPH patients, 25 portal hypertensive controls with hepatitis B or C related cirrhosis and 25 healthy controls, matched for residential locality, were studied. Eighty-four percent to 96 % of study subjects belonged to middle or lower socioeconomic category. Arsenicosis was looked for by estimation of arsenic levels in finger/toe nails and by skin examination. Arsenic levels in nails and in ground water (in NCIPH patients with arsenicosis) was estimated by mass spectrometry. Nail arsenic levels were raised in five (10 %) portal hypertensive study subjects [two NCIPH patients (both had skin arsenicosis) and three portal hypertensive controls]. All of these five patients were residents of West Bengal or Bangladesh. Skin arsenicosis was noted in three NCIPH patients (11 %) compared to none of disease/healthy controls. Ground water from residential locality of one NCIPH patient with arsenicosis (from Bangladesh) showed extremely high level of arsenic (79.5 μg/L). Arsenicosis and microangiopathy of liver, possibly caused by environmental contamination continues in parts of Asia. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of such 'poverty-linked thrombophilia'.

  16. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual

  17. Anthropogenic contamination of a phreatic drinking water winning: 3-dimensional reactive transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091129265; van der Grift, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373433484; Maas, D.; van den Brink, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/187443416; Zaadnoordijk, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater is contaminated at the regional scale by agricultural activities and atmospheric deposition. A 3-D transport model was set-up for a phreatic drinking water winning, where the groundwater composition was monitored accurately. The winning is situated at an area with unconsolidated

  18. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  19. Mathematical modeling of groundwater contamination with varying velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pintu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analytical models for predicting groundwater contamination in isotropic and homogeneous porous formations are derived. The impact of dispersion and diffusion coefficients is included in the solution of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE, subjected to transient (time-dependent boundary conditions at the origin. A retardation factor and zero-order production terms are included in the ADE. Analytical solutions are obtained using the Laplace Integral Transform Technique (LITT and the concept of linear isotherm. For illustration, analytical solutions for linearly space- and time-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients along with molecular diffusion coefficients are presented. Analytical solutions are explored for the Peclet number. Numerical solutions are obtained by explicit finite difference methods and are compared with analytical solutions. Numerical results are analysed for different types of geological porous formations i.e., aquifer and aquitard. The accuracy of results is evaluated by the root mean square error (RMSE.

  20. Predicting geogenic arsenic contamination in shallow groundwater of south Louisiana, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningfang; Winkel, Lenny H E; Johannesson, Karen H

    2014-05-20

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) threatens the health of more than 140 million people worldwide. Previous studies indicate that geology and sedimentary depositional environments are important factors controlling groundwater As contamination. The Mississippi River delta has broadly similar geology and sedimentary depositional environments to the large deltas in South and Southeast Asia, which are severely affected by geogenic As contamination and therefore may also be vulnerable to groundwater As contamination. In this study, logistic regression is used to develop a probability model based on surface hydrology, soil properties, geology, and sedimentary depositional environments. The model is calibrated using 3286 aggregated and binary-coded groundwater As concentration measurements from Bangladesh and verified using 78 As measurements from south Louisiana. The model's predictions are in good agreement with the known spatial distribution of groundwater As contamination of Bangladesh, and the predictions also indicate high risk of As contamination in shallow groundwater from Holocene sediments of south Louisiana. Furthermore, the model correctly predicted 79% of the existing shallow groundwater As measurements in the study region, indicating good performance of the model in predicting groundwater As contamination in shallow aquifers of south Louisiana.

  1. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  2. Trace element hydrochemistry indicating water contamination in and around the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Thirty-eight water samples were collected at Yangbajing to investigate the water contamination resulting from natural geothermal water discharge and anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage. The results indicate that snow or snow melting waters, Yangbajing River waters and cold groundwaters are free from geothermal water-related contamination, whereas Zangbo river waters are contaminated by geothermal wastewaters. Moreover, there may exist geothermal springs under the riverbed of a tributary stream of Zangbo River as shown by its Cd, Li, Mo and Pb concentrations. The efforts made in this study show trace element hydrochemistry can well indicate water quality degradation related to geothermal water exploitation.

  3. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  4. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Luo Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Philip M.; Gu Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  5. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan, E-mail: zhangfan@itpcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing, 100085 (China); Luo Wensui [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Parker, Jack C. [Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Brooks, Scott C.; Watson, David B. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jardine, Philip M. [Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Gu Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  6. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  7. Development and applications of two finite element groundwater flow and contaminant transport models: FEWA and FEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.; Wong, K.V.; Craig, P.M.; Davis, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the construction, verification, and application of two groundwater flow and contaminant transport models: A Finite Element Model of Water Flow through Aquifers (FEWA) and A Finite Element Model of Material Transport through Aquifers (FEMA). The construction is based on the finite element approximation of partial differential equations of groundwater flow (FEWA) and of solute movement (FEMA). The particular features of FEWA and FEMA are their versatility and flexibility for dealing with nearly all vertically integrated two-dimensional problems. The models were verified against both analytical solutions and widely used US Geological Survey finite difference approximations. They were then applied for calibration and validation, using data obtained in experiments at the Engineering Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results indicated that the models are valid for this specific site. To demonstrate the versatility anf flexibility of the models, they were applied to two hypothetical, but realistic, complex problems and three field sites across the United States. In these applications the models yielded good agreement with the field data for all three sites. Finally, the predictive capabilities of the models were demonstrated using data obtained at the Hialeah Preston site in Florida. This case illustrates the capability of FEWA and FEMA as predictive tools and their usefulness in the management of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. 25 refs

  8. Distinguishing natural hydrocarbons from anthropogenic contamination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differentiation between natural and anthropogenic sources of ground-water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is necessary in areas where natural hydrocarbons may be present in the subsurface. Because of the similarity in composition between natural and refined petroleum, the use of statistical techniques to discern trends is required. In this study, both multivariate plotting techniques and principal component analysis were used to investigate the origin of hydrocarbons from a variety of study sites. Ground-water and gas samples were collected from the Niagara Falls area and from three gasoline stations where leaking underground storage tanks had been found. Although soil gas surveys are used to indicate the presence of hydrocarbons, they were not useful in differentiating between natural and anthropogenic sources of contamination in ground water. Propane and pentene were found to be the most useful chemical parameters in discriminating between the natural and anthropogenic sources. These chemicals are not usually measured in investigations of ground-water contamination, yet analysis can be conducted by most environmental laboratories using conventional methods

  9. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  10. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  12. Widespread microbiological groundwater contamination in the South-eastern Salento (Puglia-Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugoli, F; Leopizzi, M I; Bagordo, F; Grassi, T; Guido, M; De Donno, A

    2011-01-01

    In the Salento peninsula (Puglia Region, South-East Italy), underground waters are a fundamental resource for the population because they constitute the principal reservoir for drinking water and irrigation. They are, however, affected by overexploitation. The risk factors in the Salento arise mainly from anthropic activities, especially tourism and agriculture (leaking wells, sewage and inadequate waste disposal procedures). The Southern Salento is recognized to be at high risk of pathologies characterised by oral-faecal transmission. From 2001 to 2009 the incidence of typhoid fever in the Salento was 12.11/100,000 inhabitants as against 2.91 in Italy. Enteritis caused by rotaviruses is an important cause of hospitalization of paediatric-aged children in the Salento, with high social costs. An effective monitoring system for the conservation and management of water bodies and the protection of public health is therefore fundamental. The present study sought to determine the microbiological and chemical-physical quality of groundwater in the Salento and to analyse the factors associated with contamination. The results indicated widespread pollution from salt and microbial contamination. Contamination from faecal microorganisms posed a significant risk of human infection in 100% of samples. Furthermore, the water was unsuitable even for irrigation in a high percentage of cases (31.8%), which is of considerable significance given that agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in the area under study. The high salt concentration was probably due to excessive extraction of water for intensive irrigation, especially in summer. Under these circumstances, some of mitigation activity is necessary. Furthermore, it would be advisable to decrease the pollution load from anthropic activities in the territory and to reduce water consumption in order to conserve groundwater resources especially.

  13. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  14. Laboratory study on sequenced permeable reactive barrier remediation for landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhao Yongsheng; Zhang Weihong; Hong Mei

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was a promising technology for groundwater remediation. Landfill leachate-polluted groundwater riches in various hazardous contaminants. Two lab-scale reactors (reactors A and B) were designed for studying the feasibility of PRB to remedy the landfill leachate-polluted groundwater. Zero valent iron (ZVI) and the mixture of ZVI and zeolites constitute the first section of the reactors A and B, respectively; the second section of two reactors consists of oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs). Experimental results indicated that BOD 5 /COD increased from initial 0.32 up to average 0.61 and 0.6 through reactors A and B, respectively. Removal efficiency of mixed media for pollutants was higher than that of single media (ZVI only). Zeolites exhibited selective removal of Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd, Sr, and NH 4 + , and removal efficiency was 97.2%, 99.6%, 95.9%, 90.5% and 97.4%, respectively. The maximum DO concentration of reactors A and B were 7.64 and 6.78 mg/L, respectively, while the water flowed through the ORC. Therefore, sequenced PRB system was effective and was proposed as an alternative method to remedy polluted groundwater by landfill leachate

  15. SIMPL: A Simplified Model-Based Program for the Analysis and Visualization of Groundwater Rebound in Abandoned Mines to Prevent Contamination of Water and Soils by Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cessation of dewatering following underground mine closure typically results in groundwater rebound, because mine voids and surrounding strata undergo flooding up to the levels of the decant points, such as shafts and drifts. SIMPL (Simplified groundwater program In Mine workings using the Pipe equation and Lumped parameter model, a simplified lumped parameter model-based program for predicting groundwater levels in abandoned mines, is presented herein. The program comprises a simulation engine module, 3D visualization module, and graphical user interface, which aids data processing, analysis, and visualization of results. The 3D viewer facilitates effective visualization of the predicted groundwater level rebound phenomenon together with a topographic map, mine drift, goaf, and geological properties from borehole data. SIMPL is applied to data from the Dongwon coal mine and Dalsung copper mine in Korea, with strong similarities in simulated and observed results. By considering mine workings and interpond connections, SIMPL can thus be used to effectively analyze and visualize groundwater rebound. In addition, the predictions by SIMPL can be utilized to prevent the surrounding environment (water and soil from being polluted by acid mine drainage.

  16. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  17. Impact of irrigation-practices on nitrate-leaching to contaminate groundwater and its risk to rural community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate contamination of shallow groundwater by nitrogen fertilizers. Results of the study show that the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen varies from 0.03 to 3.25 mg/l in the water samples collected from the tile-drainage areas, which is much below the maximum permissible limit of 10 mg/l. The nitrate-nitrogen concentration exceeded the permissible limit in about 15% of the samples collected from outside the tile-drainage areas. In general, it is found that there is no danger of shallow groundwater pollution by nitrate if the agricultural drainage system (tile drains) is functioning well. In contrast to this, there are chances of groundwater pollution where there is no such drainage-system. Further, the analysis of the water-samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells indicates that nitrates accumulate in the top surface of groundwater, after their leaching with downward percolating water. For this reason, the concentration of nitrate was found a maximum in the shallower groundwater. It decreases rather sharply with increase in groundwater depth. Thus, it is safer to tap deeper groundwater to lesson the danger of pollution by nitrates for human health. Soil-samples were also collected from selected points, along with water samples. These results indicate that soil-texture has a significant impact on production of nitrates, as well as their leaching and subsequent pollution of groundwater. There is more risk of groundwater-pollution in areas occupied by coarse-textured material, containing more than 50 percent sand particles. (author)

  18. Revelations of an overt water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kaushik, S K; Mukherji, S

    2017-07-01

    Contaminated water sources are major cause of water borne diseases of public health importance. Usually, contamination is suspected after an increase in patient load. Two health teams investigated the episode. First team conducted sanitary survey, and second team undertook water safety and morbidity survey. On-site testing was carried out from source till consumer end. Investigation was also undertaken to identify factors which masked the situation. Prevention and control measures included super chlorination, provision of alternate drinking water sources, awareness campaign, layout of new water pipeline bypassing place of contamination, repair of sewers, flushing and cleaning of water pipelines, and repeated water sampling and testing. Multiple sources of drinking water supply were detected. Water samples from consumer end showed 18 coliforms per 100 ml. Sewer cross connection with active leakage in water pipeline was found and this was confirmed by earth excavation. Water safety and morbidity survey found majority of households receiving contaminated water supply. This survey found no significant difference among households receiving contaminated water supply and those receiving clean water. Average proportion of household members with episode of loose motions, pain abdomen, vomiting, fever, and eye conditions was significantly more among households receiving contaminated water. The present study documents detailed methodology of investigation and control measures to be instituted on receipt of contaminated water samples. Effective surveillance mechanisms for drinking water supplies such as routine testing of water samples can identify water contamination at an early stage and prevent an impending outbreak.

  19. Geogenic fluoride and arsenic contamination in the groundwater environments in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Lesafi, Fina; Filemon, Regina; Ligate, Fanuel; Ijumulana, Julian; Mtalo, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Adequate, safe and accessible drinking water is an important aspect to human health worldwide. Understanding this importance, the Tanzanian Government has initiated a number of programmes to ensure access to high quality water by the citizens. However, elevated concentration of geochemical pollutants in many drinking water sources pose a serious challenge to water suppliers and users in the country. Fluoride is a widespread drinking water contaminant of geogenic origin occuring in both surface- and groundwater around volcanic mountains and many parts within the East African Rift Valley in regions including Arusha (10 mg/L), Shinyanga (2.9 mg/L) and Singida (1.8 mg/L). An estimated 90% of the population living along the Rift Valley region are affected by dental or skeletal fluorosis and bone crippling because of long term exposure to very high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. In the mining areas within Lake Victoria basin, groundwater wit elevated concentrations of arsenic has been discovered over an extended area. Most of these geochemical and naturally occurring drinking water pollutants are patchy with uncertainities in their spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The adverse health effects of skin disorder and cancer due to an elevated As concentration are reported from the North Mara gold and Geita mining areas in the Lake Victoria basin. About 30% of the water sources used for drinking in Tanzania exceed the WHO guideline values of fluoride (1.5 mg/L) and arsenic (10 μg/L). There is a scarcity of baseline information on the water quality data especially on geogenic contaminants in the groundwater and surface water as potable sources. This information is crucial in exploring sources of safe drinking water aquifers, associated human health risks of fluoride and arsenic pollution. using Laboratory based studies during the past two decades have shown promising results on the removal of fluoride and arsenic using locally available adsorbent

  20. Risk assessment of groundwater environmental contamination: a case study of a karst site for the construction of a fossil power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuming; Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Huang, Junyi; Tang, Yukun; Qin, Jianbo; Zhou, Wan-Huan

    2017-12-20

    This paper presents a demonstration of an integrated risk assessment and site investigation for groundwater contamination through a case study, in which the geologic and hydrogeological feature of the site and the blueprint of the fossil power plant (FPP) were closely analyzed. Predictions for groundwater contamination in case of accidents were performed by groundwater modeling system (GMS) and modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model (MT3DMS). Results indicate that the studied site area presents a semi-isolated hydrogeological unit with multiplicity in stratum lithology, the main aquifers at the site are consisted of the filled karst development layer with a thickness between 6.0 and 40.0 m. The poor permeability of the vadose zone at the FPP significantly restricted the infiltration of contaminants through the vadose zone to the subsurface. The limited influence of rarely isotropic porous karstified carbonate rocks on the groundwater flow system premised the simulate scenarios of plume migration. Analysis of the present groundwater chemistry manifested that that the groundwater at the site and the local area are of the HCO 3 -Ca, HCO 3 , and SO 4 -Ca types. A few of the water samples were contaminated by coliform bacteria and ammonia nitrogen as a result of the local cultivation. Prediction results indicate that the impact of normal construction and operation processes on the groundwater environment is negligible. However, groundwater may be partly contaminated within a certain period in the area of leakage from the diesel tanks, the industrial wastewater pool, and the cooling tower water tank in case of accidents. On a positive note, none of the plumes would reach the local sensitive areas for groundwater using. Finally, an anti-seepage scheme and a monitoring program are proposed to safeguard the groundwater protection. The integrated method of the site investigation and risk assessment used in this case study can facilitate the protection of

  1. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of areas with persistent ground- water contamination near Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Groveland-Collins area near Blackfoot, Idaho, has a history of either periodic or persistent localized groundwater contamination. Water users in the area report offensive smell, metallic taste, rust deposits, and bacteria in water supplies. During 1984 and 1985, data were collected to define regional and local geologic, hydrologic, and groundwater quality conditions, and to identify factors that may have affected local groundwater quality. Infiltration or leakage of irrigation water is the major source of groundwater recharge, and water levels may fluctuate 15 ft or more during the irrigation season. Groundwater movement is generally northwestward. Groundwater contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions and characteristically has more than 200 mg/L hardness. Groundwater near the Groveland-Collins area may be contaminated from one or more sources, including infiltration of sewage effluent, gasoline or liquid fertilizer spillage, or land application of food processing wastewater. Subsurface basalt ridges impede lateral movement of water in localized areas. Groundwater pools temporarily behind these ridges and anomalously high water levels result. Maximum concentrations or values of constituents that indicate contamination were 1,450 microsiemens/cm specific conductance, 630 mg/L bicarbonate (as HCO3), 11 mg/L nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen), 7.3 mg/L ammonia (as nitrogen), 5.9 mg/L organic nitrogen, 4.4 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, 7,000 micrograms/L dissolved iron, 5 ,100 microgram/L dissolved manganese, and 320 microgram/L dissolved zinc. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.9 mg/L in uncontaminated areas to 0 mg/L in areas where food processing wastewater is applied to the land surface. Stable-isotope may be useful in differentiating between contamination from potato-processing wastewater and whey in areas where both are applied to the land surface. Development of a ground-water model to evaluate effects of land applications

  3. Contamination of groundwater by the fumigants ethylene dibromide (EDB) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) near McBee, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2010-01-01

    McBee is a small town of about 700 people located in Chesterfield County, South Carolina, in the Sandhills region of the upper Coastal Plain. The halogenated organic compounds ethylene dibromide (EDB) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) have been detected in several public and domestic supply and irrigation wells since 2002 at concentrations above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Limits of 0.05 and 0.2 microgram per liter (µg/L), respectively. The source(s) and release histories of EDB and DBCP to local groundwater are unknown, but believed to be related to their historical use between the 1940s and their ban in the late 1970s as fumigants to control nematode damage in peach orchards. However, gasoline and jet-fuel supplies also contained EDB and are an alternative source of contamination to groundwater. The detection of EDB and DBCP in water wells has raised health concerns because groundwater is the sole source of water supply in the McBee area. In April 2010, forensic, geochemical-based investigation was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alligator Rural Water & Sewer Company to provide additional data regarding EDB and DBCP in local groundwater. The investigation includes an assessment of the use, release, and disposal history of EDB and DBCP in the area, the distribution of EDB and DBCP concentrations in the unsaturated zone, and transport and fate in groundwater.

  4. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  5. Application of groundwater residence time tracers and broad screening for micro-organic contaminants in the Indo-Gangetic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Dan; Das, Prerona; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Petersen, Jade; Gooddy, Daren; Krishan, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater abstracted from aquifers underlying urban centres across India provide a vital source of domestic water. Abstraction from municipal and private supplies is considerable and growing rapidly with ever increasing demand for water from expanding urban populations. This trend is set to continue. The vulnerability of deeper aquifers (typically >100 m below ground) used for domestic water to contamination migration from often heavily contaminated shallow aquifer systems has not been studies in detail in India. This paper focusses on the occurrence of micro-organic contaminants within sedimentary aquifers beneath urban centres which are intensively pumped for drinking water and domestic use. New preliminary results from a detailed case study undertaken across Varanasi, a city with an estimated population of ca. 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh. Micro -organic groundwater quality status and evolution with depth is investigated through selection of paired shallow and deep sites across the city. These results are considered within the context of paired groundwater residence time tracers within the top 150m within the sedimentary aquifer system. Groundwater emerging contaminant results are compared with surface water quality from the Ganges which is also used for drinking water supply. Broad screening for >800 micro-organic compounds was undertaken. Age dating tools were employed to constrain and inform a conceptual model of groundwater recharge and contaminant evolution within the sedimentary aquifer system.

  6. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.; Siegel, Frederic R.

    1992-03-01

    The wood of tuliptrees ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination.

  7. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, the vulnerability of the water cycle to radionuclide contamination has been an issue of great concern. The impact of the event throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water supplies, soilwater and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, on the methods of monitoring, and on concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight the possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book is a unique source of information about present radiological standards and monitoring requirements. It also includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. There are 19 papers all indexed separately. These are divided into sections -introduction, present radiological standards relating to drinking water, radiological monitoring requirements, the consequences of a nuclear event on water resources and water resource management strategy. The discussion at the end of each section is recorded. (author)

  9. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used to evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  10. Ground-water monitoring and modeling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State is continually evolving in response to changing operations at the site, changes in the ground-water flow system, movement of the constituents in the aquifers, and regulatory requirements. Sampling and analysis of ground water, along with ground-water flow and solute transport modeling are used ito evaluate the movement and resulting distributions of radionuclides and hazardous chemical constituents in the unconfined aquifer. Evaluation of monitoring results, modeling, and information on waste management practices are being combined to continually improve the network of ground-water monitoring wells at the site

  11. Residence time distributions of artificially infiltrated groundwater used for drinking water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A. L.; Marçais, J.; Moeck, C.; Brennwald, M. S.; Kipfer, R.

    2017-12-01

    Public drinking water supply in urban areas is often challenging due to exposure to potential contamination and high water demands. At our study site, a drinking water supply field in Switzerland, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) was implemented to overcome an increasing water demand and decreasing water quality. Water from the river Rhine is put on a system of channels and ponds to artificially infiltrate and hence, increase the natural groundwater availability. The groundwater system consists of two overlying aquifers, with hydraulic connections related to fractures and faults. The deeper aquifer contains contaminants, which possibly originate from nearby landfills and industrial areas. The operating water works aims to pump recently infiltrated water only. However, we suspect that the pumped water contains a fraction of old water due to the fractured zones which serve as hydraulic connection between the two aquifers. With this study, we aim to better understand the mixing patterns between recently infiltrated water and old groundwater to evaluate the risk for contamination of the system. To reach our objective, we used a set of gas tracers (222Rn, 3H/3He, 4He) from fifteen wells distributed throughout the area to estimate the residence time distribution (RTD) of each well. We calibrated the RTD with a Binary Mixing Model, where the fraction of young groundwater is assumed to follow a Piston Flow Model. The older groundwater fraction is calibrated with a Dispersion Model. Our results reflect the heterogeneity of the system with some abstraction wells containing young water only and others showing an admixture of old water which can only be explained by a connection to the deeper aquifer. We also show that our results on calibrated RTDs are in accordance with other geochemical data such as electrical conductivity, major ions and pH. Our results will contribute to a sound conceptual flow and transport understanding and will help to optimize the water supply system.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Fluoride Concentrations in Groundwaters in Northern and Southern Ghana: Implications for the Contaminant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkari, Emmanuel Daanoba; Zango, Musah Saeed; Korboe, Harriet Mateko

    2018-04-01

    Bongo and Sekyere South districts, both in the northern and southern parts of Ghana, respectively, have high populations living in rural areas and most of them use groundwater for drinking purposes. The groundwater in these areas is prone to contamination from natural and/or artificial sources. Therefore this study aims; (1) to present a comparative analysis of the fluoride concentration in groundwater samples from Bongo and Sekyere South districts and the associated groundwater-rock interaction that may be the cause for the varied fluoride concentrations, (2) to determine the leaching potential of fluoride from the host rocks as the possible mechanism for groundwater contamination. Sixty (60) groundwater samples from active pumping wells and twelve (12) rock samples from outcrops were collected from various communities in the two districts for fluoride concentration and mineralogical analysis. Based on the variations in fluoride concentration, fluoride spatial distribution maps were prepared using empirical Bayesian kriging interpolation method and analysed by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The fluoride concentration in Bongo district varies between 1.71 and 4.0 mg/L, whereas that in Sekyere South district changes from 0.3 to 0.8 mg/L. From the mineralogical studies, biotite has the highest percentage in the Bongo district and has positive correlation with fluoride concentration in the analysed water samples than in the Sekyere South district. The elevated fluoride concentration in the Bongo district relative to the Sekyere South district is due to the dissolution of biotite in the groundwater and the sufficient groundwater-rock interaction since the water samples are mainly sourced from deeper boreholes. This high fluoride concentration has resulted in a plethora of reported cases of dental fluorosis and other health-related issues in Bongo.

  13. Preliminary Engineering Report contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    When the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/ENE Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was being completed, groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of seeps. The seeps are located approximately 600 ft south of the ANL fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of this water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14-25 μg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56-340 μg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3-6 μg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The water issuing from these two contaminated seeps flows into a narrow ravine, where it is visible as a trickle of water flowing through sand and gravel deposits on the floor of the ravine. Approximately 100-ft downstream of the seep area, the contaminated water is no longer visible, having drained back into the soil in the bed of the ravine. Figure 1 shows the location of the 317/319/ENE Area in relation to the ANL-E site and the Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve

  14. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  15. Improved water resource management for a highly complex environment using three-dimensional groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Affolter, Annette; Radny, Dirk; Dressmann, Horst; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Huggenberger, Peter; Schirmer, Mario

    2018-02-01

    A three-dimensional groundwater model was used to improve water resource management for a study area in north-west Switzerland, where drinking-water production is close to former landfills and industrial areas. To avoid drinking-water contamination, artificial groundwater recharge with surface water is used to create a hydraulic barrier between the contaminated sites and drinking-water extraction wells. The model was used for simulating existing and proposed water management strategies as a tool to ensure the utmost security for drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the flow direction between existing observation points using a developed three-point estimation method for a large number of scenarios was carried out. It is demonstrated that systematically applying the developed methodology helps to identify vulnerable locations which are sensitive to changing boundary conditions such as those arising from changes to artificial groundwater recharge rates. At these locations, additional investigations and protection are required. The presented integrated approach, using the groundwater flow direction between observation points, can be easily transferred to a variety of hydrological settings to systematically evaluate groundwater modelling scenarios.

  16. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    as a source of safe and sustainable water supply. In such a situation, a number of scientists consider that the population's water supply must be achieved through a more comprehensive use of fresh and even subsaline groundwater resources from the coastal aquifers. The 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean caused a disaster affecting thousands of kilometers of coastal zone in SE Asia. Many coastal wetlands were affected in the short term by the large inflow of salt seawater and littoral sediment deposited during the tsunami, and in the longer-term by changes in their hydrogeology caused by changes to coastlines and damage to sea-defenses. Many water quality and associated problems were generated by the tsunami. The tsunami has created an accelerating process of salt-water intrusion and fresh-water contaminations in affected regions that now require drastic remediation measures. We report here some efforts and results in studying the processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones.

  17. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  18. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  19. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  20. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: identification, origin and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Raat, Klaasjan J; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; De Voogt, Pim

    2013-08-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main source for PFAA in surface waters and corresponding drinking water. However, even though groundwater is an important source for drinking water production, PFAA sources remain largely uncertain. In this paper, we identified different direct and indirect sources of PFAA to groundwater within the catchment area of a public supply well field (PSWF) in The Netherlands. Direct sources were landfill leachate and water draining from a nearby military base/urban area. Indirect sources were infiltrated rainwater. Maximum concentrations encountered in groundwater within the landfill leachate plume were 1.8 μg/L of non branched perfluorooctanoic acid (L-PFOA) and 1.2 μg/L of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). Sum concentrations amounted to 4.4 μg/L total PFAA. The maximum concentration of ΣPFAA in the groundwater originating from the military camp was around 17 ng/L. Maximum concentrations measured in the groundwater halfway the landfill and the PWSF (15 years travel distance) were 29 and 160 ng/L for L-PFOA and PFBA, respectively. Concentrations in the groundwater pumping wells (travel distance >25 years) were much lower: 0.96 and 3.5 ng/L for L-PFOA and PFBA, respectively. The chemical signature of these pumping wells corresponded to the signature encountered in other wells sampled which were fed by water that had not been in contact with potential contaminant sources, suggesting a widespread diffuse contamination from atmospheric deposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of long-term groundwater dispersal of contaminants from proposed Jabiluka Mine tailing repositories. Supervising Scientist report 143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalf, F.; Dudgeon, C.

    1999-01-01

    of advection, dispersion and retardation on contaminant movement away from the tailings storages. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine concentration profiles over a range of relevant variables. The hybrid model was run for the equivalent of 1000 years in the case of radium and uranium and 200 years for other contaminants. Extreme curves of very low probability show that east of the mine no significant concentration of any contaminant is likely beyond a few hundred metres for radioactive contaminants and one kilometre for non-reactive contaminants. The results indicate that west of the mine it is possible, although improbable, that significant concentrations of uranium and radium could occur in groundwater about one kilometre from the mine. For non-reactive contaminants such as magnesium sulphate, the distance could be several kilometres. However, in this case the contaminated groundwater would be entering an area of known poor water quality and could not be considered to have a significant adverse effect on the water quality. Weak upward components of groundwater flow are indicated both east and west of the mine. It is considered that any such flow which reaches the shallow alluvial or weathered rock zone will be diluted and flushed away by the annual surficial Wet season flows. The overall conclusion is that underground storage of tailings will not have any significant adverse effect on Kakadu National Park as a result of leaching by groundwater of contaminants from the tailings provided a permeability of 10 -4 m/day of the set tailings paste is achieved. A target of 10 -5 m/day would be preferable

  2. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the leachate from the landfill has a minimal impact on the groundwater resource and this can be attributed to the existing soil stratigraphy at the site consisting of clay which is deduced to have a significant influence on the natural attenuation of leachate into groundwater. Keywords: Groundwater ...

  3. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  4. Detection of Waterborne Protozoa, Viruses, and Bacteria in Groundwater and Other Water Samples in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the prevalence of various waterborne pathogens in water samples collected in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and the applicability of Escherichia coli as an indicator of pathogen contamination in groundwater were assessed. Fifty-three water samples, including shallow groundwater and river water, were analyzed to examine the presence of protozoan (oo)cysts via fluorescence microscopy and that of viral and bacterial genomes via quantitative PCR. At least one of the seven types of pathogens tested (i.e., Cryptosporidium, Giardia, human adenoviruses, noroviruses of genogroups I and II, group A rotaviruses, and Vibrio cholerae) was detected in 68% (15/22) of the shallow dug well water samples; groundwater in the shallow dug wells was more contaminated compared with that in shallow tube wells (8/15, 53%). River water and sewage samples were contaminated with extremely high concentrations of multiple pathogens, whereas a tap water sample supplied by a water tanker tested positive for human adenoviruses and V. cholerae. The detection of host-specific Bacteroidales genetic markers revealed the effects of human and animal feces on groundwater contamination. The tested pathogens were sometimes detected even in E. coli-negative groundwater samples, indicative of the limitations of using E. coli as an indicator for waterborne pathogens in groundwater.

  5. The interaction between surface water and groundwater and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface water; groundwater; stable isotopes; water quality; Second Songhua River basin. .... The total dissolved solid (TDS) was calculated by the con- centrations of major ions in ...... evaluating water quality management effectiveness; J.

  6. Identification of contaminants of concern in Hanford ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    More than 1,500 waste-disposal sites have been identified at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, these sites were aggregated into four administrative areas for listing on the National Priority List. Within the four aggregate areas, 646 inactive sites were selected for further evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Evaluation of inactive waste sites by HRS provided valuable insight to design a focused radiological- and hazardous-substance monitoring network. Hanford Site-wide ground-water monitoring was expanded to address not only radioactive constituents but also hazardous chemicals. The HRS scoring process considers the likelihood of ground-water contamination from past disposal practices at inactive waste sites. The network designed to monitor ground water at those facilities identified 129 I, 99 Tc, 90 Sr, uranium, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, and cyanide

  7. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  8. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  9. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  10. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field research has shown that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) containing a variety of materials can treat arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater. Sites where these PRBs are located include a mine tailings facility, fertilizer and chemical manufacturing sites, a...

  11. Multi-Objective Optimization of an In situ Bioremediation Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation shows how a multi-objective optimization method is integrated into a transport simulator (MT3D) for estimating parameters and cost of in-situ bioremediation technology to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater.

  12. Ground-water pollution determined by boron isotope systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengosh, A.; Kolodny, Y.; Spivack, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Boron isotopic systematics as related to ground-water pollution is reviewed. We report isotopic results of contaminated ground water from the coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean in Israel, Cornia River in north-western Italy, and Salinas Valley, California. In addition, the B isotopic composition of synthetic B compounds used for detergents and fertilizers was investigated. Isotopic analyses were carried out by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The investigated ground water revealed different contamination sources; underlying saline water of a marine origin in saline plumes in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel (δ 11 B=31.7 per mille to 49.9 per mille, B/Cl ratio ∼1.5x10 -3 ), mixing of fresh and sea water (25 per mille to 38 per mille, B/Cl∼7x10 -3 ) in saline water associated with salt-water intrusion to Salinas Valley, California, and a hydrothermal contribution (high B/Cl of ∼0.03, δ 11 B=2.4 per mille to 9.3 per mille) in ground water from Cornia River, Italy. The δ 11 B values of synthetic Na-borate products (-0.4 per mille to 7.5 per mille) overlap with those of natural Na-borate minerals (-0.9 per mille to 10.2 per mille). In contrast, the δ 11 B values of synthetic Ca-borate and Na/Ca borate products are significantly lower (-15 per mille to -12.1 per mille) and overlap with those of the natural Ca-borate minerals. We suggest that the original isotopic signature of the natural borate minerals is not modified during the manufacturing process of the synthetic products, and it is controlled by the crystal chemistry of borate minerals. The B concentrations in pristine ground-waters are generally low ( 11 B=39 per mille), salt-water intrusion and marine-derived brines (40 per mille to 60 per mille) are sharply different from hydrothermal fluids (δ 11 B=10 per mille to 10 per mille) and anthropogenic sources (sewage effluent: δ 11 B=0 per mille to 10 per mille; boron-fertilizer: δ 11 B=-15 per mille to 7 per mille). some

  13. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L. [ARCADIS, U.S., 2000 Powell St., 7th Floor, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed

  14. Alternative Endpoints and Approaches for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater at Complex Sites - 13426

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elisabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE)'s environmental remediation programs is to restore groundwater to beneficial use, similar to many other Federal and state environmental cleanup programs. Based on past experience, groundwater remediation to pre-contamination conditions (i.e., drinking water standards or non-detectable concentrations) can be successfully achieved at many sites. At a subset of the most complex sites, however, complete restoration is not likely achievable within the next 50 to 100 years using today's technology. This presentation describes several approaches used at complex sites in the face of these technical challenges. Many complex sites adopted a long-term management approach, whereby contamination was contained within a specified area using active or passive remediation techniques. Consistent with the requirements of their respective environmental cleanup programs, several complex sites selected land use restrictions and used risk management approaches to accordingly adopt alternative cleanup goals (alternative endpoints). Several sites used long-term management designations and approaches in conjunction with the alternative endpoints. Examples include various state designations for groundwater management zones, technical impracticability (TI) waivers or greater risk waivers at Superfund sites, and the use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or other passive long-term management approaches over long time frames. This presentation will focus on findings, statistics, and case studies from a recently-completed report for the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) (Project ER-0832) on alternative endpoints and approaches for groundwater remediation at complex sites under a variety of Federal and state cleanup programs. The primary objective of the project was to provide environmental managers and regulators with tools, metrics, and information needed to evaluate

  15. 2H, 3H and 18O Tracers used for a preliminary study of groundwaters vulnerability to contaminants in the South-West of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Randrianasolo, A.; Randrianarisoa, H.; Mamifarananahary, E.; Ranaivoarisoa, A.

    2004-01-01

    Fresh water access is one of the main issues in the South-West of Madagascar. Most people in this area draw water from surface water which is usually of bad quality and source of stomach diseases. The only reliable water resource is groundwater. However, the latter is more or less vulnerable to geogenic and anthropogenic contaminants. Use of 2 H, 3 H and 18 O environmental tracers has contributed to localize and estimate the active and potential focuses of contamination in shallower and deeper aquifers, within the frame of a preliminary study of ground waters vulnerability to contaminants.

  16. Tool for assessment of process importance at the groundwater/surface water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, Ravi C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Clarke, James H

    2009-10-01

    The groundwater/surface water interface (GWSWI) represents an important transition zone between groundwater and surface water environments that potentially changes the nature and flux of contaminants exchanged between the two systems. Identifying dominant and rate-limiting contaminant transformation processes is critically important for estimating contaminant fluxes and compositional changes across the GWSWI. A new, user-friendly, spreadsheet- and Visual Basic-based analytical screening tool that assists in evaluating the dominance of controlling kinetic processes across the GWSWI is presented. Based on contaminant properties, first-order processes that may play a significant role in solute transport/transformation are evaluated in terms of a ratio of process importance (P(i)) that relates the process rate to the rate of fluid transfer. Besides possessing several useful compilations of contaminant and process data, the screening tool also includes 1-D analytical models that assist users in evaluating contaminant transport across the GWSWI. The tool currently applies to 29 organics and 10 inorganics of interest within the context of the GWSWI. Application of the new screening tool is demonstrated through an evaluation of natural attenuation at a site with trichloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane contaminated groundwater discharging into wetlands.

  17. Virus contamination from operation and maintenance practices in small drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultra-violet disinfection was install...

  18. Characterization of bacterial diversity in contaminated groundwater using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Misty S; Santos, Inês C; Carlton, Doug D; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking water in the United States, and therefore, its quality and quantity is of extreme importance. One major concern that has emerged is the possible contamination of groundwater due to the unconventional oil and gas extraction activities. As such, the impacts of exogenous contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored to understand what are the chemical and physical conditions that allow the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and to find alternatives for water treatment by identifying organic-degrading bacteria. In this work, we assess the interplay between groundwater quality and the microbiome in contaminated groundwaters rich in hydrocarbon gases, volatile organic and inorganic compounds, and various metals. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, were identified, increasing the risk for consumption of and exposure to these contaminated groundwaters. Additionally, antimicrobial tests revealed that many of the identified bacteria were resistant to different antibiotics. The MALDI-TOF MS results were successfully confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, proving the accuracy of this high-throughput method. Collectively, these data provide a seminal understanding of the microbial populations in contaminated groundwater overlying anthropogenic activities like unconventional oil and gas development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioremediation Of Groundwater Contaminated Wtih Gasoline Hydrocarbons And Oxygenates Using A Membrane-Based Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to operate a novel, field-scale, aerobic bioreactor and assess its performance in the ex situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank in Pascoag, RI. The groundwater contained elevated concentrat...

  20. Preliminary Study Contamination of Organochlorine Pesticide (Heptachlor) and Heavy Metal (Arsenic) in Shallow Groundwater Aquifer of Semarang Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochaddi, Baskoro; Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Atmodjo, Warsito; Satriadi, Alfi

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the level of pesticide and heavy metal contamination in shallow aquifer of Semarang coastal areas. Results indicated that Heptachlor and Arsenic were detected in the water samples in the range 0.023-0.055 μg L-1 and 0,03-1,63 μg L-1, respectively. Compared to the standard limits of the organochlorine contents in the water sample by World Health Organization (WHO) limits and Indonesian Drinking and Domestic Water Quality Standard for Ground Water (IWQS), groundwater of Semarang Coastal Areas was contaminated with pesticide and heavy metal. This study has proven the presence of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination of some shallow aquifer supplies in the coastal areas of Semarang.

  1. Evaluations of groundwater contamination by leachates around Olusosun open dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboyeji, Olatunji Sunday; Eigbokhan, Stephen Femi

    2016-12-01

    A major cause of groundwater pollution in urban areas is contamination by leachates emanating from municipal solid waste dumpsites. The study evaluated the quality of water of selected boreholes and wells around Olusosun open solid waste dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, using water quality index (WQI) rating and geospatial techniques. Water samples were randomly collected from fifteen boreholes and five wells downslopes of the dumpsite. The samples were analysed for the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Factor Analysis was employed to analyse the information content of the water quality indicators to determine their appropriateness for indexing. The spatial distribution of the WQIs determined using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation procedure. Results showed that the waters were generally acidic with 85% of pH values below the range suggested by WHO for drinking water. All samples contained concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in quantities higher than the recommended limit of 2.0 mg/l (average = 4.97 mg/l), while 40% of the samples contained concentration of K above the recommended limit. The concentration of heavy metals was generally low. The major cations (Mg, Na, and K) were highly positively correlated, and were positively correlated with pH, TA, TAL, TH and Cl. Negative correlations were observed between TDS, NO3(-) and PO4(3-); NO3(-) and Ag; and DO with the heavy metals. Eighteen parameters consisting of pH, EC, TDS, TA, TAL, TH, Cl, NO3(-), PO4(3-), Mg, Na, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, Ag and Pb were found to be the main indicators of groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate percolation. Evaluation of the WQIs indicated that 35% of the water samples were unsuitable for consumption, while 15%, 15% and 35% were in the good, very good and excellent categorises, respectively. The degree of suitability of the borehole and well waters was closely related to proximity to the dumpsite. It is imperative that appropriate remediation

  2. Bioremediation of Uranium-Contaminated Groundwater using Engineered Injection and Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. A.; Neupauer, R.; Ye, M.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Mays, D. C.; Curtis, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    During in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, a treatment chemical is injected into the contaminated groundwater to react with and degrade the contaminant, with reactions occurring where the treatment chemical contacts the contaminant. Traditional in-situ groundwater remediation relies on background groundwater flow for spreading of treatment chemicals into contaminant plumes. Engineered Injection and Extraction (EIE), in which time-varying induced flow fields are used to actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant plume, has been developed to increase contact between the contaminant and treatment chemical, thereby enhancing contaminant degradation. EIE has been investigated for contaminants that degrade through irreversible bimolecular reaction with a treatment chemical, but has not been investigated for a contaminant governed by reversible reactions. Uranium primarily occurs in its aqueous, mobile form, U(VI), in the environment but can be bioreduced to its sparingly soluble, immobile form, U(IV), by iron reducing bacteria stimulated by an acetate amendment. In this study, we investigate the ability of EIE to facilitate and sustain favorable conditions to immobilize uranium during remediation, and to prevent re-mobilization of uranium into the aqueous phase after active remediation has ended. Simulations in this investigation are conducted using a semi-synthetic model based on physical and chemical conditions at the Naturita Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in southwestern Colorado and the Old Rifle UMTRA site in western Colorado. The EIE design is optimized for the synthetic model using the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm.

  3. Ground-water models: Validate or invalidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    1993-01-01

    The word validation has a clear meaning to both the scientific community and the general public. Within the scientific community the validation of scientific theory has been the subject of philosophical debate. The philosopher of science, Karl Popper, argued that scientific theory cannot be validated, only invalidated. Popper’s view is not the only opinion in this debate; however, many scientists today agree with Popper (including the authors). To the general public, proclaiming that a ground-water model is validated carries with it an aura of correctness that we do not believe many of us who model would claim. We can place all the caveats we wish, but the public has its own understanding of what the word implies. Using the word valid with respect to models misleads the public; verification carries with it similar connotations as far as the public is concerned. Our point is this: using the terms validation and verification are misleading, at best. These terms should be abandoned by the ground-water community.

  4. Capacitive deionization of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in a single-pass mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen-Shiuan; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan; Hou, Chia-Hung

    2017-10-01

    A single-pass-mode capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor was used to remove arsenic from groundwater in the presence of multiple ions. The CDI reactor involved an applied voltage of 1.2 V and six cell pairs of activated carbon electrodes, each of which was 20 × 30 cm 2 . The results indicate that this method achieved an effluent arsenic concentration of 0.03 mg L -1 , which is lower than the arsenic concentration standard for drinking water and irrigation sources in Taiwan, during the charging stage. Additionally, the ability of the CDI to remove other coexisting ions was studied. The presence of other ions has a significant influence on the removal of arsenic from groundwater. From the analysis of the electrosorption selectivity, the preference for anion removal could be ordered as follows: NO 3 -  > SO 4 2-  > F -  > Cl - >As. The electrosorption selectivity for cations could be ordered as follows: Ca 2+  > Mg 2+  > Na +  ∼ K + . Moreover, monovalent cations can be replaced by divalent cations at the electrode surface in the later period of the electrosorption stage. Consequently, activated carbon-based capacitive deionization is demonstrated to be a high-potential technology for remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyto- and genotoxic profile of groundwater used as drinking water supply before and after disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, C; Cassoni, F; Bocchi, C; Martino, A; Pinto, G; Fontana, F; Furlini, M; Buschini, A

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of the toxicological properties of raw groundwater may be useful to predict the type and quality of tap water. Contaminants in groundwater are known to be able to affect the disinfection process, resulting in the formation of substances that are cytotoxic and/or genotoxic. Though the European directive (98/83/EC, which establishes maximum levels for contaminants in raw water (RW)) provides threshold levels for acute exposure to toxic compounds, the law does not take into account chronic exposure at low doses of pollutants present in complex mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cyto- and genotoxic load in the groundwater of two water treatment plants in Northern Italy. Water samples induced cytotoxic effects, mainly observed when human cells were treated with RW. Moreover, results indicated that the disinfection process reduced cell toxicity, independent of the biocidal used. The induction of genotoxic effects was found, in particular, when the micronucleus assay was carried out on raw groundwater. These results suggest that it is important to include bio-toxicological assays as additional parameters in water quality monitoring programs, as their use would allow the evaluation of the potential risk of groundwater for humans.

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  7. Effect of Fluoride on Arsenic Uptake from Arsenic-Contaminated Groundwater using Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junying; Guo, Huaming; Ma, Jie; Shen, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    High-arsenic groundwater in inland basins usually contains high concentrations of fluoride. In the present study, the effects of fluoride on arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata and on arsenic transformation in growth media were investigated under greenhouse conditions. After P. vittata was hydroponically exposed to 66.8 μM As (V) in the presence of 1.05 mM F- in the form of NaF, KF, or NaF+KF for 10 d, no visible toxicity symptoms were observed, and there were not significant differences in the dry biomass among the four treatments. The results showed that P. vittata tolerated F- concentrations as high as 1.05 mM but did not accumulate fluoride in their own tissues. Arsenic uptake was inhibited in the presence of 1.05 mM F-. However, in hydroponic batches with 60 μM As (III) or 65 μM As (V), it was found that 210.6 and 316.0 μM F(-) promoted arsenic uptake. As(III) was oxidized to As(V) in the growth media in the presence and absence of plants, and F- had no effect on the rate of As(III) transformation. These experiments demonstrated that P. vittata was a good candidate to remediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater in the presence of fluoride. Our results can be used to develop strategies to remediate As-F-contaminated water using P. vittata.

  8. Evidence for Legacy Contamination of Nitrate in Groundwater of North Carolina Using Monitoring and Private Well Data Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, K. P.; Kane, E.; Bolich, R.; Serre, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a widespread contaminant of groundwater and surface water across the United States that has deleterious effects to human and ecological health. Legacy contamination, or past releases of NO3-, is thought to be impacting current groundwater and surface water of North Carolina. This study develops a model for predicting point-level groundwater NO3- at a state scale for monitoring wells and private wells of North Carolina. A land use regression (LUR) model selection procedure known as constrained forward nonlinear regression and hyperparameter optimization (CFN-RHO) is developed for determining nonlinear model explanatory variables when they are known to be correlated. Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) is then used to integrate the LUR model to create a LUR-BME model of spatial/temporal varying groundwater NO3- concentrations. LUR-BME results in a leave-one-out cross-validation r2 of 0.74 and 0.33 for monitoring and private wells, effectively predicting within spatial covariance ranges. The major finding regarding legacy sources NO3- in this study is that the LUR-BME models show the geographical extent of low-level contamination of deeper drinking-water aquifers is beyond that of the shallower monitoring well. Groundwater NO3- in monitoring wells is highly variable with many areas predicted above the current Environmental Protection Agency standard of 10 mg/L. Contrarily, the private well results depict widespread, low-level NO3-concentrations. This evidence supports that in addition to downward transport, there is also a significant outward transport of groundwater NO3- in the drinking water aquifer to areas outside the range of sources. Results indicate that the deeper aquifers are potentially acting as a reservoir that is not only deeper, but also covers a larger geographical area, than the reservoir formed by the shallow aquifers. Results are of interest to agencies that regulate surface water and drinking water sources impacted by the effects of

  9. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, Fernando; Santos, Robson Rodger; Silva, L. Ferreira da; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2008-01-01

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi 8 O 8 ), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO 3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  10. Prediction of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination using Geographic Information System and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moqbul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water arsenic contamination is a well known health and environmental problem in Bangladesh. Sources of this heavy metal are known to be geogenic, however, the processes of its release into groundwater are poorly understood phenomena. In quest of mitigation of the problem it is necessary to predict probable contamination before it causes any damage to human health. Hence our research has been carried out to find the factor relations of arsenic contamination and develop an arsenic contamination prediction model. Researchers have generally agreed that the elevated concentration of arsenic is affected by several factors such as soil reaction (pH, organic matter content, geology, iron content, etc. However, the variability of concentration within short lateral and vertical intervals, and the inter-relationships of variables among themselves, make the statistical analyses highly non-linear and difficult to converge with a meaningful relationship. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN comes in handy for such a black box type problem. This research uses Back propagation Neural Networks (BPNN to train and validate the data derived from Geographic Information System (GIS spatial distribution grids. The neural network architecture with (6-20-1 pattern was able to predict the arsenic concentration with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Hexavalent Chromium: Analysis of the Mechanism of Groundwater Contamination in a Former Industrial Site in the Province of Vicenza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Accoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted in the analysis of the mobilization mechanisms of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI into groundwater from a decommissioned contaminated factory. The site is located in the Province of Vicenza and formerly was a chrome-plating plant. The subsoil consists predominantly of gravelly deposits with a thickness of at least one hundred meters. An unconfined aquifer is present with water table at about 23 m depth bgl. During the seven years of monitoring (2008-2014, the fluctuation of groundwater level was more than 6 m; hydraulic conductivity is about 1.0E-03 m/s and groundwater seepage velocity about 12 m/day. At the area of the source of contamination, the unsaturated soil is contaminated by hexavalent chromium throughout the thickness: concentrations range from 200 to 500 mg/kg. At the bottom of zone of groundwater level fluctuation, the hexavalent chromium concentration decreases to below the detection limit. The available data (e.g. hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater, groundwater level, local rainfall give the opportunity to assess the effects, on the magnitude of groundwater contamination, of the effective infiltration versus the fluctuation of groundwater level. The main analysis was performed on a statistical basis, in order to find out which of the two factors was most likely related to the periodic peaks of hexavalent chromium concentration in groundwater. Statistical analysis results were verified by a mass balance. Data show that at the site both the effective infiltration through the unsaturated zone and the leaching of soil contaminated by groundwater, when it exceeds a certain piezometric level, lead to peak concentrations of hexavalent chromium, even if with characteristics and effects different.

  12. Emerging Water Contaminants: Technical, Legal and Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, R. A.; Kresic, N.; Laugier, M. C.; Kavanaugh, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 120 new chemicals are created each year due to ever-improving industry and technology markets. Releases of new contaminants into the environment can occur during production, use and disposal of these chemicals thereby leading to potential contamination of water supply sources. Very few emerging contaminants are regulated. In addition, knowledge gaps regarding emerging contaminants include lack health effects, occurrence (either because these compounds are not measured or because concentrations are below detection limits of readily available analytical techniques) and fate and transport in the environment especially with regards to mobility and persistence. The sources of these compounds are numerous. One source is treated wastewater, which is re-injected into groundwater aquifers for indirect potable reuse purposes. Emerging compounds of concern can be classified in various classes. This presentation will focus on contaminants, which have emerged in the last 10 years including pharmaceuticals (antibiotics/drugs), personal care products (polycyclic musks), pesticides/herbicides, industrial solvents (1,4-dioxane), gasoline additives (MTBE), disinfection byproducts such as NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine), and inorganic compounds such as perchlorate and arsenic. This presentation will present technical, legal and legislative challenges posed by the presence of these contaminants in water. Background information including chemical's history of use, sources in the environments, nationwide occurrence, physical and chemical properties, behavior in the environment and technologies for removal from soil and water will be presented. In addition, case studies on MTBE, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 1,4-dioxane, arsenic and NDMA will be discussed.

  13. Presence and importance of organochlorine solvents and other compounds in Germany's groundwater and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, H H; Kerndorff, H

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds are widely used in Germany although the inland production of chlorinated solvents has greatly decreased since 1985. Data on groundwater contamination are incomplete, but there are some regional data sets from the States (Länder). Approximately 25% of the groundwater samples contain more than 1 microgram/l of a single solvent, the most prominent ones being tri- and tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and dichloromethane, but also chloroform. The most important causes for contaminations of the groundwater are unprotected storage and leaking sewage systems. Abandoned waste sites are, besides chlorinated compounds, also a source of many other contaminants. A ranking procedure according to their exposure potential (concentration, incidence, toxicology) is proposed. The compound of greatest concern is vinyl chloride, which is formed from tri- and tetrachloroethene under reducing conditions in the subsoil. The most important contaminant in drinking water is tetrachloroethene followed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethane. Chlorobenzene may also be present on occasion, while only about 20% of the finished drinking waters contain more chloroform after treatment than before. Only about 10% of all analyses of drinking water derived from groundwater shows the presence of organochlorine solvents and most of these show total concentrations less than 2 micrograms/l. The degradation product, vinyl chloride, was found up to now only in different groundwaters. To stabilize and to improve the situation, which still is much more favorable for drinking than for groundwater, precautions are going to be taken which should assure that these and other problematic substances which endanger water are used only in closed systems and rigid safety measures be imposed on their disposal and transport.

  14. A mass balance study of the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew James, C.; Xin Gang; Doty, Sharon L.; Muiznieks, Indulis; Newman, Lee; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance study was performed under controlled field conditions to investigate the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by hybrid poplar trees. Water containing 7-14 mg L -1 PCE was added to the test bed. Perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent at an average of 0.12 mg L -1 , 3.9 mg L -1 , and 1.9 mg L -1 , respectively. The total mass of chlorinated ethenes in the water was reduced by 99%. Over 95% of the recovered chlorine was as free chloride in the soil, indicating near-complete dehalogenation of the PCE. Transpiration, volatilization, and accumulation in the trees were all found to be minor loss mechanisms. In contrast, 98% of PCE applied to an unplanted soil chamber was recovered as PCE in the effluent water or volatilized into the air. These results suggest that phytoremediation can be an effective method for treating PCE-contaminated groundwater in field applications. - A chlorine balance performed on a planted test bed with PCE-contaminated water demonstrated VOC mass reduction of 99% and complete dechlorination.

  15. A mass balance study of the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew James, C. [University of Washington, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seattle, WA (United States); Xin Gang [Hydranautics, 401 Jones Rd., Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Doty, Sharon L.; Muiznieks, Indulis [University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle, WA (United States); Newman, Lee [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Biology Department, Upton, NY (United States); Strand, Stuart E., E-mail: sstrand@u.washington.ed [University of Washington, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A mass balance study was performed under controlled field conditions to investigate the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by hybrid poplar trees. Water containing 7-14 mg L{sup -1} PCE was added to the test bed. Perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent at an average of 0.12 mg L{sup -1}, 3.9 mg L{sup -1}, and 1.9 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. The total mass of chlorinated ethenes in the water was reduced by 99%. Over 95% of the recovered chlorine was as free chloride in the soil, indicating near-complete dehalogenation of the PCE. Transpiration, volatilization, and accumulation in the trees were all found to be minor loss mechanisms. In contrast, 98% of PCE applied to an unplanted soil chamber was recovered as PCE in the effluent water or volatilized into the air. These results suggest that phytoremediation can be an effective method for treating PCE-contaminated groundwater in field applications. - A chlorine balance performed on a planted test bed with PCE-contaminated water demonstrated VOC mass reduction of 99% and complete dechlorination.

  16. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  17. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the scope for promoting much increased groundwater use for irrigated agriculture, and how might the investment risks be reduced and sustainable outcomes ensured? • How can the demand to expand urban groundwater use, for both further supplementing municipal water-supply systems and for direct in situ water ...

  18. Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bodrud-Doza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the groundwater quality in the Faridpur district of central Bangladesh based on preselected 60 sample points. Water evaluation indices and a number of statistical approaches such as multivariate statistics and geostatistics are applied to characterize water quality, which is a major factor for controlling the groundwater quality in term of drinking purposes. The study reveal that EC, TDS, Ca2+, total As and Fe values of groundwater samples exceeded Bangladesh and international standards. Ground water quality index (GWQI exhibited that about 47% of the samples were belonging to good quality water for drinking purposes. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI, degree of contamination (Cd, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI reveal that most of the samples belong to low level of pollution. However, Cd provide better alternative than other indices. Principle component analysis (PCA suggests that groundwater quality is mainly related to geogenic (rock–water interaction and anthropogenic source (agrogenic and domestic sewage in the study area. Subsequently, the findings of cluster analysis (CA and correlation matrix (CM are also consistent with the PCA results. The spatial distributions of groundwater quality parameters are determined by geostatistical modeling. The exponential semivariagram model is validated as the best fitted models for most of the indices values. It is expected that outcomes of the study will provide insights for decision makers taking proper measures for groundwater quality management in central Bangladesh.

  19. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  20. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  1. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  2. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic

  3. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacquart, Thomas [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Frisbie, Seth [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Mitchell, Erika [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Grigg, Laurie [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Cole, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Small, Colleen [Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, Burlington, VT (United States); Sarkar, Bibudhendra, E-mail: bsarkar@sickkids.ca [Department of Molecular Structure and Function, The Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  4. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-01-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  5. Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils and Groundwater in Northern Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Charles

    1998-01-01

    ...-landfarming, recirculating leachbeds, and infiltration galleries. Landfarming involves adding water and nutrients to contaminated soil to stimulate microbial activity and contaminant degradation...

  6. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  7. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    More and more groundwater has 23 been polluted recently, and technologies for groundwater contamination remediation are of vital importance; however, it is usually difficult for the users to select the most suitable technology among multiple alternatives. In order to address this, this study aims...... at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... for sustainability assessment of technologies for groundwater contamination remediation, and a novel MCDM method by combining the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and the improved ELECTRE method has been developed for prioritizing the alternatives. In order...

  8. Remediating Contaminant Plumes in Groundwater with Shallow Excavations Containing Coarse Reactive Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F

    2018-02-01

    A groundwater flow and mass transport model tested the capability of shallow excavations filled with coarse, reactive media to remediate a hypothetical unconfined aquifer with a maximum saturated thickness of 5 m. Modeled as contaminant sinks, the rectangular excavations were 10 m downgradient of an initial contaminant plume originating from a source at the top of the aquifer. The initial plume was approximately 259 m long, 23 m wide, and 5 m thick, with a downgradient tip located approximately 100 m upgradient of the site boundary. The smallest trench capable of preventing offsite migration was 11 m long (measured perpendicular to groundwater flow), 4 m wide (measured parallel to groundwater flow), and 3 m deep. Results of this study suggest that shallow trenches filled with coarse filter media that partially penetrate unconfined aquifers may be a viable alternative for remediating contaminated groundwater at some sites.

  9. Determinants of the use of alternatives to arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater: an exploratory study in rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; Das, Abhijit; Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Roy, Joyashree; Ray, Isha

    2017-10-01

    Shallow groundwater containing toxic concentrations of arsenic is the primary source of drinking water for millions of households in rural West Bengal, India. Often, this water also contains unpleasant levels of iron and non-negligible fecal contamination. Alternatives to shallow groundwater are increasingly available, including government-built deep tubewells, water purchased from independent providers, municipal piped water, and household filters. We conducted a survey of 501 households in Murshidabad district in 2014 to explore what influenced the use of available alternatives. Socioeconomic status and the perceived likelihood of gastrointestinal (GI) illness (which was associated with dissatisfaction with iron in groundwater) were the primary determinants of the use of alternatives. Arsenic knowledge was limited. The choice amongst alternatives was influenced by economic, social, and aesthetic factors, but not by health risk perceptions. The use of purchased water was rarely exclusive and was strongly associated with socioeconomic status, suggesting that this form of market-based water provision does not ensure universal access. Demand for purchased water appeared to decrease significantly shortly after free piped water became available at public taps. Our results suggest that arsenic mitigation interventions that also address co-occurring water problems (iron, GI illness) could be more effective than a focus on arsenic alone.

  10. Evaluation of in-situ methanotrophic bioremediation for contaminated groundwater, St. Joseph, Michigan. Final report, January 1989-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, P.L.; Semprini, L.; Dolan, M.E.; Harmon, T.C.; Just, S.

    1990-09-01

    A feasibility study of utilizing indigenous bacteria that use methane as a source of cell carbon and energy (methanotrophs) for in-situ bioremediation of groundwater contaminants at the St. Joseph site is summarized. The contaminants, compounds, can be biotransformed by methanotrophic bacteria, which are found in some locations of the site in adequate populations. The process involves stimulating the growth of native populations of methanotrophs by injecting water containing dissolved methane and oxygen into the aquifer. The stimulated population of methanotrophs in turn has the capability to degrade trichloroethylene, 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene, 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride

  11. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet